Article

Jugements ordinaires et jugement de droit

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Ordinary Judgements and Legal Judgements. In converging fashion sociologists and economists have been increasingly inte rested in the diversity of the modes of interaction and transaction. They have consequently paid more and more attention to the judgement cognitive or normative agents make concerning situation and the actions of others. In attributing an important role to interpretation and its limits these social-scientific fields draw close to the legal field and its juridical reflections on the rule and its use. A confrontation between these domains is therefore called for by considering the function of judgement in coordinating actions, the Author takes stock of the most legitimate ordinary judgements (those aiming at adjustments endowed with broad validity) in order to initiate confrontation with legal judgements.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Applying a complex pragmatic situationalism as a methodological position also leads to the inclusion of cognitive structures and reference points (in French repères) which have an influence on the coordination. Very early, it was Laurent Thévenot, who extended EC's research agenda to the analysis of lawrelated coordination of actors (Thévenot 1992). For Thévenot, legal judgments and "juridical statements" are justifications which can be related to investment in forms and to orders of justification. ...
... For Thévenot a "juridical statement" is not a speech act (Austin 1975) in the sphere of judiciary. Instead, it can be conceived as an action, which claims for a general scope, relying on the adequate forms for this claim which allow this scope (Thévenot 1992). ...
... Juridical forms and equivalences allow for unrestricted scope of juridical judgments so they overarch situation (in court) in time and space, which is an important difference to Austin's concept of speech acts. Law therefore can be understood as an investment in form with highest validity and stability (Thévenot 1992(Thévenot , 1286. But juridical statements -as everyday speech acts -have to be built up on qualification processes of persons, objects, events, actions. ...
Full-text available
Article
"Institutionalistische und methodologische Perspektiven auf Recht Beitrage der economics of convention. The article presents in its first parts main concepts of the French approach of economics of convention (EC) and its main contributions to the analysis of (economic) law. EC represents an endogenous perspective of law as an institution whose usage is embedded in situations wherein competent actors have to coordinate and develop a shared understanding of situations. EC conceives real situations as structured by coordinating actors and a plurality of logics of coordination, which are called conventions in this approach. EC has contributed in some of its historical research studies on economic institutions to the analysis of (economic) law. In the second part of this article, newer trends in EC are discussed which focus on discursive practices and apply strategies of discourse analysis in the analysis of economic institutions as labor law. It is claimed that EC can be regarded as a distinguished approach for the integration of discourse analytic perspectives into a complex pragmatic approach to political economy.
... Whereas Grice's presumptions, including the presumption that the other person will "be relevant" in their communicative behavior, are based on notions of cooperative rationality (Grice 1989, 26-27), Wilson and Sperber base their Post-Gricean theory on an analysis of relevance and action and argue on this basis that "[e]very act of ostensive communication communicates a presumption of its own optimal relevance" -a "presumption" which, they stress, can fail in many ways (Sperber/Wilson 1986/95, 158-160). organization (Thévenot 1992). 11 As Boltanski points out, qualifications produce and maintain a stable and ordered "reality" which is distinct from "the world": A specific "reality" is merely a selection and can never grasp "the world, in what would be its entirety" (Boltanski 2011, 58). ...
... However, one of the examples given by Thévenot to illustrate the power of the law to produce "states of affairs" (qualification) is precisely the one that -as mentioned in sec. 6 above -Leibniz uses to illustrate the structure of a presumption: "L'enfant conçu pendant le mariage a pour père le mari" (Thévenot 1992(Thévenot , 1296). ("A child conceived during marriage has the husband for a father".) ...
Chapter
The word “relevance” seems to have originated in legal practice. Against this background, an attempt is made to clarify A. Schutz’s theory of relevance by referring it to notions found in legal thinking. The main point is to contribute to an understanding of the role of relevance and irrelevance at the level of social order which is often modelled on a legal system. Schutz’s concept of relevance reflects a tension between general patterns and the dynamic of their application which has been discussed, in reference to laws, as the problem of “equity” (Aristotle). Schutz’s reference to types taken for granted “until further notice” expresses this tension in the form of a legal “presumption” (G. W. Leibniz). Through the concept of a legal “state of affairs”, the analysis is referred to the role of “critique” (L. Boltanski and L. Thevenot). Against the suspicion that a relevance theory may describe something like an “order of the visible” (J. Ranciere) which would suppress critics by making them “invisible”, it is argued that an analysis of relevance based on Schutz may help account both for the stability of social order and for the fact that social order can, in principle, be changed through criticism.
... This makes this framework particularly useful for studying political mobilizations and moral disputes (Pereira 2010;Boltanksi 2011). Arguments and justifications deployed in court follow specific rules and are at times more technical than general (Thévenot 1992), but some cases-especially constitutional challenges-are nonetheless filled with Fighting Human Smuggling or Criminalizing Refugees? 25 moral arguments about worth, and mobilize references to higher common principles that can also be found in the political public debates that usually accompany them. ...
... Distinctions exist between "ordinary" and "legal" forms in terms of the types of arguments deemed admissible and the criteria of validity they must fulfill (Thévenot 1992). And yet, all legal, political, and everyday claims about the reality of a problem (what is at stake), a disagreement over an injustice (who has been wronged), and ...
Article
Following the arrival of the MV Ocean Lady in 2009, four men were charged with human smuggling under s. 117 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act for having helped Sri Lankan asylum seekers reach Canada. Section 117 made it a criminal offence to aid and abet the unauthorized entry of asylum seekers, including when this was done for humanitarian reasons, to help family members, or as a matter of mutual aid. The case made its way to the Supreme Court and, in 2015, the court ruled in R v Appulonappa that s. 117 was too broad, potentially criminalizing humanitarian workers and family members who help transport asylum seekers, and should be interpreted in a strict manner. This article draws from pragmatic sociology to study the regimes of justification mobilized by various actors involved in, and around, R v Appulonappa between 2009 and 2015. It focuses on two sites of contestation that crystalized around divergent conceptions of fairness and safety, discussing how competing regimes of justification were used to advance stakeholder’s positions.
... Podobně jako Wellens (2011: 12) jsme chtěli uchopit úvodní činnosti textualizace a kontextualizace, kterým se admini věnovali hned poté, co převzali "případy" a přezkoumali "spisy", ale které předcházely definitivnímu rozhodnutí. Adminy jsme tak nechali komentovat jejich rozhodnutí smazat nebo schválit nahlášené diskusní příspěvky, čímž jsme inscenovali jejich všední režim jednání (Thévenot 1992) a činili jejich interpretační práci empiricky pozorovatelnou (Borzeix 1998 Ve skutečnosti ani "právnická" práce není zdaleka tak šablonovitá, jak se může zdát, a naopak zdůvodnění, která používáme ve všedním životě, občas překvapivě připomínají ta právnická. Příbuznost právnického a všedního usuzování platí zejména v situacích, které jsou organizované, mechanizované anebo zproceduralizované pro zdůvodnitelné rozhodování. ...
... Příbuznost právnického a všedního usuzování platí zejména v situacích, které jsou organizované, mechanizované anebo zproceduralizované pro zdůvodnitelné rozhodování. Jmenovitě platí v situacích, jejichž aktéři se shodují, že existují nějaká pravidla obecné platnosti, že "případy" mohou být uzavřeny znovupotvrzením daných pravidel, že "případ" se má nejprve řádně vyšetřovat a že rozsudek musí být odůvodněný (Thévenot 1992 Ve více než čtvrtině případů admin zdůvodnil své rozhodnutí s využitím obecných pravidel nebo pojetí pravidel, odkazujících např. na standardy, normy, pořádky, významy a hranice (např. ...
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Abstrakt Příspěvek, čerpající z rozhovorů s novináři a etnografického pozorování v redakci slovenského deníku SME, analyzuje dovednosti požadované od administrátorů internetové diskuse pod články. Ukazuje, že administrace diskuse je odborným úkolem, i když nespadá pod jednu konkrétní oblast profesních kompetencí. Analýza pracovních nabídek, provedená s cílem zjistit aktuální " oficiální " požadavky na novinářskou práci na slovenském pracovním trhu, naznačuje, že zatímco ortodoxní kánon redaktora zdůrazňuje dovednosti založené na zkušenostech, u práce editora převažují dovednosti založené na pravidlech. V praxi webeditoři, kteří administrovali diskuse pod články, odvolávali na šest odlišných typů zdůvodnění, ze kterých čtyři odkazují na logiku pravidel a dva na logiku zkušeností. Zdůvodnění založená na pravidlech evokují diskurs právnické profese (přirovnávají roli " admina " k rolím soudce, advokáta, soudního znalce a vyšetřovatele), zatímco zdůvodnění založená na zkušenostech mají dvojí smysl: jednak evokují každodenní způsob usuzování a jednak uplatňují právo admina – jakožto profesionálního novináře – odchýlit se od pravidel tam, kde je dle jeho profesionálního úsudku namístě. Nutnost zvládat složitý balík pracovních povinností z pozice na okraji pole žurnalismu staví administrátory před obtížný úkol jak získat autoritu před vnitřním i vnějším publikem. This paper, drawing on interviews with journalists and ethnographic observation in the newsroom of the Slovak national daily newspaper SME, attempts to define the skills required of online discussion administrators. It argues that online discussion administration is a skilled process, albeit one that is not clearly situated in a particular professional skillset. An analysis of recent job ads, conducted in order to ascertain the current 'official' requirements for journalistic work on the Slovak job market, indicates that while the orthodox script for redactional work stresses experience-based skills, that for editorial work stresses rule-based ones. In practice, when web editors administered comments they invoked six different registers of justification, four of
... These justifications relate to conventions that the EC understands as coordination logics on higher levels of generality (Diaz-Bone, 2011). While originally intended to go beyond a highly onesided rationalist approach towards value in neoclassical economics, the discussion within the framework of the EC has broadened into the fields of creativity (Karpik, 2010) and law (Bessy & Favereau, 2003;Diaz-Bone, 2015b;Thévenot, 1992). Conventions are understood as orders of worth (Boltanski & Thévenot, 1999) which relate them to a societal value that actors invoke when justifying. ...
Full-text available
Article
Uncertainty about intellectual property regulation (IPR) manifests in legal disputes over copyright, trademarks, patents and other forms of IP. In these critical moments where situated action is unclear, actors justify their positions in order to find feasible ways for further practice and cooperation. While academic literature discusses the opposing justifications of individual exploitation and social dissemination as arising typically in court struggles over IPR, the temporal unfolding of regulatory uncertainty in lengthy court cases has not yet been sufficiently investigated. This paper asks how regulatory uncertain creative practices are justified at court over time. Looking at the two-decade-long German court case "Metall auf Metall" concerned with music sampling, I find that actors refer to a set of conventions when justifying sampling as either in line or not in line with copyright. Instead of presenting justifications in the form of a clear opposition, my research suggests to depict them as developing and changing over time. Though the strengthening of individual exploitation has been historically dominant, court cases regarding hip-hop music in Germany recently sided instead with social dissemination, referring to the basic right of artistic freedom. I show the plurality of conventions and justifications brought to the fore by the involved actors during the temporal unfolding of the court suit and depict the justification of facing regulatory uncertainty as a "never-ending" balancing act.
... Where an entity can be considered from potentially unlimited angles, qualification specifies how that entity should be considered. 1 The notion of qualification stems from legal thinking: "from a fact which, in its 'natural' state, takes such form as a good changing hands from one individual to another, we first need to decide whether it should be called a 'sale', a 'donation' or 'theft' before applying the relevant regime that the law requires," (Cayla, 1993, p. 18, own translation). In a legal context, qualification is required for rules to be applied (Thévenot, 1992). But more generally, qualification is one of the main activity of institutions. ...
Full-text available
Article
This article analyzes how economics can frame political debates using economic policy devices. It examines the FIFI macroeconomic model’s introduction into the French planning processes of the mid-1960s and argues that economists perform two operations, selection and qualification, which play a key role in structuring political debates on the French economy’s future. Building on archives and in-depth interviews, I show how the FIFI model was a central component of the Sixth Plan (1971–1975): it was designed to produce simulations of state intervention in the French economy and organize planning commissions debates. Studying the struggles and controversies surrounding this model and the economic policies promoted by it, the article ultimately shows how certain political options are made publicly available while others are discarded.
... Pour un véritable travail en commun, il faut donc davantage que le collage pluridisciplinaire auquel incitent les appels d'offre. Fort d'une expérience comparable entre la sociologie et de l'économie, deux disciplines entre lesquelles une coopération approfondie a conduit au courant dit de l'"Economie des conventions" (Dupuy et alii 1989, Eymard-Duvernay 2006, Orléan 2006[1994, Salais & Thévenot 1986) -parfois nommé, symétriquement, "Sociologie des conventions" -j'ai recherché "une confrontation entre droit et sociologie qui soit assez exigeante pour revenir aux opérations et catégories fondamentales des deux disciplines" (Thévenot 1992(Thévenot , 2006 1 . Le programme de recherche ayant conduit au présent recueil a permis d'enrichir cette façon de faire, comme l'indique l'introduction proposée par ses trois instigateurs (Champeil-Desplats, Porta & Thévenot). ...
... Pour un véritable travail en commun, il faut donc davantage que le collage pluridisciplinaire auquel incitent les appels d'offre. Fort d'une expérience comparable entre la sociologie et de l'économie, deux disciplines entre lesquelles une coopération approfondie a conduit au courant dit de l'"Economie des conventions" (Dupuy et alii 1989, Eymard-Duvernay 2006, Orléan 2006[1994, Salais & Thévenot 1986) -parfois nommé, symétriquement, "Sociologie des conventions" -j'ai recherché "une confrontation entre droit et sociologie qui soit assez exigeante pour revenir aux opérations et catégories fondamentales des deux disciplines" (Thévenot 1992(Thévenot , 2006 1 . Le programme de recherche ayant conduit au présent recueil a permis d'enrichir cette façon de faire, comme l'indique l'introduction proposée par ses trois instigateurs (Champeil-Desplats, Porta & Thévenot). ...
... Laurent Thévenot (1992) has argued that the juridical dimension is a possibility for opening and settling disputes by mobilizing courts. Michael Storper and Robert Salais (1997) invented the notion of "state conventions," which are interpretive frames for actors in situations to conceive the different modes, according to which the state as legal actor will intervene into economic coordination. ...
... Laurent Thévenot (1992) has argued that the juridical dimension is a possibility for opening and settling disputes by mobilizing courts. Michael Storper and Robert Salais (1997) invented the notion of "state conventions," which are interpretive frames for actors in situations to conceive the different modes, according to which the state as legal actor will intervene into economic coordination. ...
Full-text available
Article
The article introduces the French approach of economics of convention (in short EC), presents some of its core concepts – as quality conventions – and introduces some of its perspectives on markets, organizations, and law. EC is characterized as a pragmatist institutionalism, which has conceptions of human agency, rationality, market, organization, state, and institution that make EC distinct from other established institutional approaches. EC continues structuralist perspectives and shows a growing interest in the social theory of Michel Foucault, who worked on power, dispositive, and discourse. This article sketches also some newer developments of EC’s research on markets, organizations, and law and offers an introductory frame for the other contributions of the HSR Special Issue. One focus of this special issue is to present contributions of members of the second and third generation of EC (as mostly formed at the University of Paris X – Nanterre) but also of an international group of scholars in the field, who apply EC to the analysis of markets, organizations and law.
... As with state, Foucault and EC both emphasize also the co-existence of different legal practices, rule-enforcing practices and dispositives and therefore a plurality of legal reasoning (Didry 2002;Favereau 2010;Bessy 2015). 18 Law is only one social realm, in which justifications are mobilized but also requested (Thévenot 1992), and law is only one resource for critique and justification (Boltanski and Thévenot 2006), but of course not specific for this (Foucault 2007b). 19 As EC has done (Didry 2002), Foucault (2007a) regarded the social conflicts and discourses about law -its adequacy, its nature, and its legitimacy -as an important object under study. ...
Full-text available
Article
The contribution examines concepts and the methodology of Michel Foucault from the standpoint of the French institutionalist approach of economics of convention (in short EC). EC is briefly introduced. Then, it is argued that Foucault should be regarded as an “ally” for EC, because his theory shares main positions with EC, but Foucault also provides concepts and methodological strategies, which could improve EC’s capabilities to analyze practices and strategies of convention-based processes as critique, justification and the social construction of qualities and worth. Some representatives of EC have already adopted Foucaultian concepts. Foucault also pioneered the analysis in domains, highly relevant for EC, as in the field of law and neoliberalism, but these works are not well recognized so far. Moreover, Foucault began the study of individual’s strategies of self-conduct and self-formation, which EC approached later on as well. The article claims that it is especially Foucault’s notions of episteme and power as well as Foucaultian discourse analysis, which offer innovative theoretical and methodological perspectives for EC.
... The juridical dimension is one of the multiple possibilities of opening a "dispute" through the mobilization of courts so that jurisdictions are a good place to see the confrontation of argumentations expressing the several principles in balance. It enables the formalization of judgments in order to operate more informally in the daily interactions (Thévenot 1992). A good example of this approach can be found in the research of Chateauraynaud (1991) on the malpractices handled by the French labor courts (Conseils de prud'hommes). ...
Full-text available
Article
This introduction and the contributions of this HSR Special Issue “Conventions and Law from a Historical Perspective” present the conception and analysis of law from the perspective of the French institutionalist approach of the economics of convention (EC). From the pragmatic viewpoint of EC, law is regarded as an institution through which actors “identify” the situation in which they interact regularly. Law can be seen as a “guide” in the coordinations in which actors are engaged and committed. So law is not conceived as simple external constraint for economic action because law has to be interpreted and mobilized by competent actors. Therefore, EC understands law as internal to situational coordinations. From its beginnings (three decades ago), EC has included the analysis of law into its institutional research. Also from its beginnings, EC has developed a transdisciplinary approach, refusing the traditional “division of law” between history, sociology, economics, and law science. The introduction presents some main concepts (as convention of State) and positions of EC in the analysis of law. This introduction also relates EC’s perspective to neoliberalism, economic neo-institutionalism, new historical institutionalism, and the Weberian sociology of law. The contributions of this HSR Special Issue are presented. They cover overviews about EC’s research on (mainly economic) law, empirical applications, and theoretical considerations about law from a conventionalist perspective.
... The juridical dimension is one of the multiple possibilities of opening a "dispute" through the mobilization of courts so that jurisdictions are a good place to see the confrontation of argumentations expressing the several principles in balance. It enables the formalization of judgments in order to operate more informally in the daily interactions (Thévenot 1992). A good example of this approach can be found in the research of Chateauraynaud (1991) on the malpractices handled by the French labor courts (Conseils de prud'hommes). ...
Full-text available
Article
"Konventionentheoretische Perspektiven auf die politische Okonomie des Rechts. Eine Einleitung". This introduction and the contributions of this HSR Special Issue "Conventions and Law from a Historical Perspective present the conception and analysis of law from the perspective of the French institutionalist approach of the economics of convention (EC). From the pragmatic viewpoint of EC, law is regarded as an institution through which actors "identify" the situation in which they interact regularly. Law can be seen as a "guide" in the coordinations in which actors are engaged and committed. So law is not conceived as simple external constraint for economic action because law has to be interpreted and mobilized by competent actors. Therefore, EC understands law as internal to situational coordinations. From its beginnings (three decades ago), EC has included the analysis of law into its institutional research. Also from its beginnings, EC has developed a transdisciplinary approach, refusing the traditional "division of law" between history, sociology, economics, and law science. The introduction presents some main concepts (as convention of State) and positions of EC in the analysis of law. This introduction also relates EC's perspective to neoliberalism, economic neo-institutionalism, new historical institutionalism, and the weberian sociology of law. The contributions of this HSR Special Issue are presented. They cover overviews about EC's research on (mainly economic) law, empirical applications, and theoretical considerations about law from a conventionalist perspective.
... La sociologie pragmatique du droit, comme la sociologie pragmatique de manière générale, met l'accent sur l'action « en train de se faire » (Boltanski 1990, Thévenot 1992. Plutôt que de porter attention aux écarts entre un ensemble de pratiques et les règles formelles qui seraient censées les réguler, elle adopte une posture descriptive et compréhensive à l'égard de ces pratiques et ambitionne de les considérer en elles-mêmes, pour elles-mêmes (Dupret 2004). ...
Full-text available
Article
La sociologie du droit en France, au meme titre que la sociologie juridique dans n’importe quel autre pays, est determinee par les conditions historiques dans lesquelles le champ juridique s’est construit, ainsi que par les relations qui se sont etablies entre le droit, le pouvoir politique et l’Etat. Cet article propose de presenter les enjeux auxquels fait face la sociologie du droit en portant une attention particuliere au contexte social et politique dans lequel elle s’est developpee au sein de l’Hexagone. Cet article pose l’hypothese d’une faible institutionnalisation de la sociologie du droit dans ce pays, que nous proposons d’expliquer par sa construction historique « a l’ombre du droit », ainsi que par l’eclatement des differents groupes, courants et tendances qui la composent a l’heure actuelle.
... En aval, l'argumentation conduit à un jugement, le jugement de droit, qu'il est intéressant de rapprocher du jugement légitime, "justifié", produit toujours aléatoire d'une séquence de critiques et de réponses. Pour Thévenot [1992b], l'économie du jugement de droit tient à la possibilité de clôture sur des règles (de droit). D'abord le litige doit être clos, ce qui est une première différence par rapport aux disputes non-juridicisées; ensuite, il doit s'appuyer (c'est sa "superficialité") sur un ensemble étroitement circonscrit de règles sur lesquelles les justiciables ne sont pas appelés à un effort personnel d'interprétation ou de créativité -c'est là une seconde différence avec les jugements légitimes, qui peuvent s'appuyer sur des justifications rendant commensurables des actions et des règles de nature très diverse. ...
Full-text available
Article
"Institutions", as a set of pre-existing and objective resources of justification, is the milieu where economic agents can fïnd materials to solve their coordination problems and/or their conflicts of reproduction. "Conventions" are collective representations of "justified common worlds" that activate institutions and legitimise arrangements within "organisations", whose joint production of goods and rules will lead to the renewal -or the degeneracy- of prior institutional milieu. This "three terms conventionalist model" endeavors to face the difficultes encountered by the other economic approaches of institutions. It assumes an economic agent suited to coordination/reproduction failures, and unthinkable without an institutional milieu minimally consisting in Language, Money and Law. The plurality of justification orders takes account of the empirical diversity of institutions. The institutional dynamics is studied through the operations which do/undo the possibility of building "common worlds" from "plurality". "Competition", as for the space of prices, should be combined with "Critic", as for the space of values (norms). The conventionalist analysis of Capitalism puts the Marx project on the right side, inferring the exploitation theory from a theory of justice, rather than the contrary. Classification JEL: B5, D23, D63, D7, K10, Pl, Z13
... Ставилась цель описать разнообразие этих «форм вероятного» [96], при этом внутри каждой формы выявлялись специфические типы доказательства и используемой при доказательстве информации. Суждение стало центральным объектом сравнительных исследований судебных решений и экспертных оценок [90,93]. ...
Article
Thévenot Laurent) — профессор Высшей школы соци-альных наук (Париж). Адрес: Groupe de Sociologie Polititique et Morale, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 105 bd Raspail, 75006 Paris.
Article
Hasta hace poco tiempo la historiografía política e institucional había dependido casi por completo del imaginario político estatalista elaborado por la teoría política liberal del siglo XVIII. De ahí derivó una reinterpretación del sistema político institucional del Antiguo Régimen. El análisis que se propone en este artículo adscrito al pensamiento historiográfico postestructuralista, consiste en una descripción de las instituciones políticas y jurídicas prerrevolucionarias a través de las categorías que sugiere una interpretación densa de los discursos y prácticas de la época. De esta manera se pretende evitar el anacronismo, liberar la narrativa historiográfica de los intereses que condicionan el conocimiento político actual y restaurar el pluralismo historiográfico de las distintas experiencias de organización política. En todo caso, aún permanece sin respuesta la siguiente cuestión: ¿qué tan accesibles son las categorías históricas para comprender lo político?
Chapter
Der Beitrag verfolgt das Ziel, die in der Forschung vernachlässigte Kategorie des Lehrlings einer historischen Rekonstruktion zu unterziehen und gleichzeitig das Theorieangebot der Soziologie der Konventionen zu erproben. Es wird der Anspruch erhoben, dass dieser Ansatz aufgrund seines pragmatistisch-situativen Charakters einerseits und seines Institutionenverständnisses anderseits für historische Analyse besonders geeignet ist. Im Vordergrund steht das Konzept der Qualitätskonventionen und deren Rolle in Prozessen der Klassifizierung und Kategorisierung. Gefragt wird nach der Genese des „Lehrlings“ in der Zeit zwischen 1870 bis 1930 sowie nach den Konflikten, die in diese eingegangen sind und bis heute immer wieder virulent werden.
Full-text available
Article
Akteure in der Low-Budget Musikindustrie haben heute durch die Digitalisierung der Musikbranche weitreichende Möglichkeiten, mit geringem finanziellen und organisationalen Aufwand professionelle Musikprodukte herzustellen und zu veröffentlichen. Fremdreferenziell arbeitende Musiker, etwa im Hip-Hop sind jedoch zusätzlich mit der komplexen und bisweilen unklaren Rechtslage konfrontiert. Die Majorlabels sind in der Lage, auf diese Herausforderungen einzelfallbezogen und präzise mit eigenen Rechtsabteilungen und großen finanziellen Mitteln zu reagieren, um die rechtlichen, künstlerischen und wirtschaftlichen Unsicherheiten abzufedern. Dieselben Anforderungen gelten jedoch auch für die Akteure in der Low-Budget Musikindustrie, die nicht über die Ressourcen verfügen, so präzise zu reagieren. Diese Arbeit stellt dar, wie unterschiedlich sich diese Unsicherheiten auf Produktionskonventionen auswirken. Das eine Artefakt wurde im Sinne einer rechtlich abgesi-cherten, einverständnisbezogenen Konvention produziert und verzichtet somit auf die Kulturpraxis des freien Samplings. Das andere Artefakt entstand unter einer, das Recht bewusst ignorierenden Produktionskonvention und nimmt bei großer künstlerischer Freiheit hohe rechtliche Risiken in Kauf.
Chapter
Der Beitrag führt in die Economie des conventions (auch Konventionentheorie, kurz EC) ein.Die EC kann als ein komplexer pragmatischer Institutionalismus aufgefasst werden, der zwischen Strukturalismus und Pragmatismus angesiedelt, wesentlicher Bestandteil der neuen französischen Sozialwissenschaften ist. Die theoretischen Grundlagen und Konzepte der EC werden auf das Konzept des Dispositiv von Michel Foucault. Hierbei wird an neuere Arbeiten der EC angeschlossen, die das Konzept des Dispositivs insbesondere auf das Konzept des Unternehmens, auf Märkte oder auf Praktiken der Valorisierung beziehen. Das Konzept des Dispositivs ermöglicht der EC, sowohl die Machtkonzeption als auch die Diskurstheorie von Foucault stärker mit diesem institutionentheoretischen Ansatz zu verknüpfen. Umgekehrt lassen sich Konzepte der EC wie Intermediäre, Quantifizierung, Klassifikation und Institution als Dispositive für die ökonomische Koordination auffassen.
Article
Drawing on a series of interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, this contribution studies the particular approach of the French Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté, an independent inspectorate created in 2007 to guarantee respect of fundamental rights for all detained persons. The official aim of this institution - to prevent any violation of rights - is indeed distinct from the work of an ombudsman or that of an administrative inspection unit. Better comprehension of this preventive task first requires the analysis of the shared conception by members of the Contrôleur's mission and methods, and their will to go beyond the mere prescriptions in positive law in their assessment of places of confinement. The observation of "control visits" in the field then shows how the actual "control job" combines the mobilization of legal provisions, and a reference to a shared common sense on what is "acceptable" or "unacceptable" behaviour in prison.
Chapter
Die Ökonomie der Konventionen (franz. Économie des conventions, EC) ist eine interdisziplinäre theoretische Bewegung, die in den 1980er Jahren im Pariser Raum entstanden ist. Ein wichtiges Gründungsmoment dieser transdisziplinären Wissenschaftsbewegung (Diaz-Bone 2015: 23) ist ein Lektüreseminar zum Werk Convention. A Philosophical Study von David Lewis (1969), an dem Jean-Pierre Dupuy, Laurent Thévenot, François Eymard-Duvernay, Olivier Favereau, Robert Salais u. a. zusammenkommen.
Chapter
As everyone knows, neoliberalism is not the same as laissez-faire. Those who have interpreted neoliberalism as an “intervening liberalism”1 have now produced a great deal ofwork that brings out this dimension; they talk in terms of “government at a distance,”2 of “entrepreneurial government” as the “new way,”3 of the “normative state,”4 or even, as I myself did several years ago, of the way the state is redeployed via its “privatization.”5 It is not only the proponents of a Foucauldian analysis who interpret neoliberalism in this way—witness, for example, work in the sociology of quantification. This work has shown that it was impossible to separate statistics, the conception of the state and the way in which society is thought of—for, at every period of history, statistics is the reflection of a knowledge produced by the state; even more, it is a reflection of the link between power and knowledge. This work has also highlighted, for the current period, how statistical reason has been extended to nonmeasurable areas, how belief in the objectivity of these rational and quantified techniques of government has risen, and how the role of statistical knowledge and techniques of commensurability has spread into public debates.6 Likewise, we may point to the studies that have sprung from the theory of conventions, regulation, and critical sociology—those, for example, of Laurent Thévenot, who speaks of “government by norms,” or of specialists of political economy and socioeconomic geography, who emphasize that neoliberalism is not the antithesis of regulation, but a “contradictory form of state regulation in denial.”7
Chapter
Der Gesetzgeber benutzt unaufhörlich Begriffe, die durch die Geographie geprägt wurden. Man könnte fast meinen, dass die beiden Disziplinen Rechtswissenschaften und Geographie auf eine lange, erfolgreiche Zusammenarbeit zurückblickten. Aber obwohl die gleichen Begriffe verwendet werden, ist deren Bedeutung nicht immer dieselbe. Ein Zustand der polysemen Homonymie. Dass der Gesetzgeber die Terminologie der Geographie nutzt, dient einzig und allein dem Zweck, sich über Realitäten hinwegsetzen zu können. Der Aufbau von Strukturen hat immer noch Vorrang – das, wofür diese Strukturen theoretisch bestimmt sind, bleibt auf der Strecke. Das Geographierecht muss erst noch erfunden werden.
Chapter
In dem Beitrag wird der Beitrag der Économie des conventions (EC) zur Analyse des Rechts in der Ökonomie dargestellt. Die EC integriert die institutionentheoretische Analyse des Rechts mit organisations- und wirtschaftssoziologischen Fragestellungen, was sie von den deutschsprachigen Ansätzen abhebt. Das Recht wird aus pragmatischer Perspektive in die Koordinationssituation als Institution „endogenisiert“ und gilt nicht als externer „constraint“. Weiter differenziert die EC die Koordinationslogiken (die Konventionen) von Institutionen, da aus ihrer Sicht Institutionen als unvollständig und interpretativ zu vervollständigen sind. Der Beitrag präsentiert auch neuere Arbeiten zur Rechtsproduktion, zum Staatskonzept der EC sowie zu den organisatorischen Formen des Rechtswesens.
Chapter
The Belgian Sentence Implementation Court is responsible for the decision of early release from prison. Different professional groups are involved in the making of such a decision: judges, prison governors, prison clerks, psychosocial teams and the prison central administration. Describing the legal framework as well as the practices and interactions through which the stakeholders enact the 2006 Act, this chapter underlines the role of documents and “sensemaking” (Weick et al. Organizing and the process of sensemaking. Organ Sci 16(4):409-421, 2005) in the collective decision-making process. Making sense of various documents (the judgement and description of the offence by the public prosecutor, reports, recommendations, requests, hearing convocations, etc.), the stakeholders are progressively framing the decision of the court.
Article
How does one construct legal rules for a new activity as malleable as advertising ? This was the difficulty faced by the controllers of television advertising in the "Régie Française de Publicité" , between October 1968 and April 1987. Analyzing the oversight of advertising to understand better the construction of legal rules, the article shows, on one hand, how actors jointly construct the rules of non-misleading advertising, and, on the other hand, that the public of television viewers/consumers does not simply constitute the "context" of the rule's elaboration, but that it is simultaneously the product of the control. © Editions juridiques associées. Tous droits réservés pour tous pays.
Article
Like a Deer in Headlights? An Ethnographer in Legal Archives Among sociological studies of law, the ethnographic tradition insists on the necessity of close observation of legal work. But is this viable when direct observation is impossible and the sociologist has access only to archival holdings? Based on the study of the archives of the agency controlling French television advertising since 1968, this article argues that it is possible to cast an ethnographic eye on legal work. Through the examination of letters, scripts, and notes witnessing the interaction between controllers, advertisers, and TV viewers, the au- thor shows how the rules regulating misleading commercials were pre- cisely created.
Article
This paper deals with the concrete activities of the drop-in-law clinic of a French antiracism association. Juridical classification does not correspond to the syllogistic model; instead it operates within the bind of needing to support the victim while adhering to the demands of juridical realism. Political activists use evaluative criteria which help them to make their decisions and to accept these choices. Social movements using legal mobili-zation developing a militant legality must combine activism and realism. © Ed. juridiques associées. Tous droits réservés pour tous pays.
Full-text available
Article
Un tournant juridique dans les sciences sociales ? Ce numéro de Tracés souhaite mettre l’accent sur la place actuellement grandissante du droit dans les différentes disciplines des sciences sociales. L’intérêt pour le droit comme objet à part entière n’est certes pas nouveau, que l’on songe aux sociologies d’Émile Durkheim ou de Max Weber, à l’histoire des institutions, à l’anthropologie juridique d’un Marcel Mauss ou d’un Clifford Geertz, ou encore au courant Law & Economics développé da...
Article
In this contribution, an endogenous conception of law is defended which can be deployed in regard of different scales of time and domains of the law. In this article, the focus is mainly on labor law. In the first part, a history of the French employment contract law is presented by proposing a grid of its foundations and evolution from the distinction of different principles of justice generating conventions. The change of conventions and its impact on law is precisely treated. In a second part, the recent evolution of this law will be exposed by showing the key role played by legal intermediaries in the contractualization of the working relationship, based on a database of employment contracts. It is shown how lawyers can generate an increasing strategic use of law, disconnected from territorialized conventions, if they do not play their role of mediator between different logics. In the conclusion, the emergence of a transnational law and the transformation of the lawyer profession are questioned.
Article
Many producers have worked to establish a geotraceability system aiming to anticipate directives from the European Commission - process in relation to standardization of common agricultural policy. The stake is, for them, to take part in the definition of the quality of the product. We use the conventionalist theoretical framework to analyse this institutional construction. Concerning wine market, the quality convention is a mixture of market convention (competition, price) and domestic convention (know-how, origin). The analysis of the French and European legal texts from 1960 till 2009 allows us to measure the evolution of these two components and to show the increasing part which takes there the geotraceability. The institutional construction of market is also characterized by the specificity of the French case - globally more developed and an inspiration for European regulations; the increasing of the designation of origin and quality; and the debate between the holders of brands and those who want a PDO. Using word processing software, we show these different aspects.
Article
Using an ethnographical approach, this article examines the power relationships that develop as a result of disciplinary control of foreigners held in administrative detention centres outside national territory. While these remote sites are par excellence dedicated to maintaining tight control over a population for surveillance purposes, they also include NGO workers whose mission is to inspect the work of the police forces. Through an analysis of concrete situations, the article takes a close look at how this associative « perspective » is integrated into the everyday operation of the centre, as well as its limits.
Full-text available
Article
The article discusses why and under which conditions legal history is a central, formative subject for future lawyers. The Author’s point is that the utility of history in legal education is fully distinct of that of dogmaticmatters. Actually, while dogmatic legal education aims to fabricate certainties about contemporary law, conferring upon it rational / technical evidence, legal history renders problematic the implicit assumptions of dogmatics, namely, the rational, necessarily ultimate nature of our law. Therefore, legal history accomplishes this mission stressing the fact that law is necessarily bound to a cultural (in the deepest sense of the word) environment and, furthermore, that legal knowledge is also a »local knowledge« whose categories are deeply rooted in historical epistemes.
Article
In 1941, John Dewey attended a conference at Northwestern University where he presented his “philosophy of law”. The commentary of this short text allows us to develop several lines of thought, in sociology as well as in philosophy of law, exploring new and promising areas for research on law and justice inspired by pragmatist philosophy. By opening up empirical research programs and by questioning internal and normative approaches to law, Dewey invites us to consider “law” fully as a social process, against legal scholars’ traditional views.
Article
Justice and Injustice with Regard to Tanfil : Legality and Conventional Norms in the Making of the Ordinary Sense of Justice. In this article, we propose a comparative approach of the ordinary sense of justice, from a socio-anthropological point of view, through the analysis of a paradigmatic case of sharing according to the mode of tanfîl. We begin with the examination of the two principal meanings of this institution, religious and customary, as well as its different modes of implementation. Then, from this detailed analysis of the forms of justifications and judgements displayed by the Tunisians and the French concerning this case of sharing, we show how either of these positions, wavers between two concepts of justice : under the first one, there is an accord between the legal and the just, whereas under the second, there is, on the contrary, a disparity between the two. In the first case, there is a systematic recourse to the law as a referent of justification to the detriment of the conventional norms, in the second case, the opposite occurs. Finally, we show how the demands of compromise in fact dictate that the sense of justice lies between the two.
Article
Customs, pacts and « privileges » : work status in social housing in Buenos Aires Starting from field research in a Buenos Aires public housing neighborhood, this essay explores the work of internal legitimacy around the need of occupants without title deads to gain access to a more protec housing status. Concentrating on the relations between the families and the Housing Institute is, in effect, to discover the construction of a consentual and negotiated order, which tends to regularization of rental. This is the reason why the implementation of rules is not just the result of a ruling coming from the upper spheres of the administration or the product of unilateral strategies of subordinate agents. It is also the action of the inhabitants that mobilize legal rules and the “passages” that they contain (Lascoumes, Le Bourhis, 1996). The neighborhood appears to the observer as the site of an assemblage of legality centered on practices of occupation in search of social legitimacy.
Article
Nicolas Dodier: Personal experience and medical-administrative assessments. A survey in the office health service. This article looks at the making of medical administrative assessments. The author's example, based upon an ethnographical survey, involves decisions made by the office health inspector as to employees' fitness in terms of work. The paper shows up two methods of evaluation; the first relies upon medical tests and technology and the doctor's objectives deduction of the employee's fitness, whether partial or complete. In the second, the doctor listens to the employee's complaints, especially as concerns any pain that may be felt, and delegates the option of judging what type of work he/she can carry out within the company. In this case, the doctor admits of a «personal experience» which, although it cannot be measured by medical means, carries weight in the final decision. The paper looks at the problems faced by doctors due to their accepting this personal experience in situations where they are required to make expert opinions as to the validity of employee's requests.
Article
Le propos de cet article est d'examiner la genealogie des enquetes de mobilite sociale en s'interessant principalement aux enquetes realisees en France par l'INSEE et l'INED (notamment, dans les annees 1950-1970). L'examen de ces enquetes et de leurs usages s'inscrit dans une recherche plus large sur la politique des statistiques dont l'A. indique ici les grandes lignes. Cette etude se trouve centree sur l'analyse des ordres inscrits dans les statistiques sociales et sur leurs transformations. Apres avoir repere ces ordres qui suivent le pouvoir d'achat, le niveau de formation et la qualification professionnelle, l'A. fait etat de l'intense travail de reelaboration de la statistique francaise qui dans les annees 50 et 60 contribua au passage du questionnement eugenique sur l'ordre social aux interrogations sur la « qualification » scolaire et le « handicap socioculturel ». Selon lui, l'etude des enquetes de mobilite sociale fait apparaitre les relations entre les instruments de mesure statistique et les constructions politiques d'un bien commun et revele que ces modes d'investigations sur la mobilite sociale explorent en fait egalement la justice, ou la justesse de la realisation d'un ordre social