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Effect of Royal Jelly Diet on the Testicular Function of Hamsters

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Abstract

To investigate the long-term effect of feeding royal jelly (RJ) on the testicular function, 32-week old male golden hamsters were fed diet containing RJ at doses of 0 mu g/g diet (control), 50 mu g/g diet or 500 mu g/g diet for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the hamsters were assessed for testicular function in terms of the amounts of intra-testicular free testosterone (TS) and histopathological changes. RJ diet groups showed higher TS levels and more intensive spermatogenesis than the control group in a dose-dependent manner. The intensity of spermatogenesis and TS levels in the 500 mu g of RJ/g diet group showed significant differences of p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively, when compared with those in the control group. These results indicate that the long-term feeding of RJ inhibits the age-associated decline in the testicular function of male hamsters.

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... Results of this study show that the impaired reproductive status of bucks observed under heat stress, can be enhanced by royal jelly administration. Although, RJ effects have never been studied under heat stress before, its effect on testosterone comes in agreement with the findings of Kohguchi et al. (2004) who demonstrated that feeding golden hamsters with diet containing RJ showed higher testosterone than the control group in a dose-dependent manner and indicated that long-term feeding of RJ inhibits the age-associated decline in the testicular function of male hamsters. The increase observed in this study in both ejaculate volume and seminal plasma fructose is in accordance with the effect of testosterone reported by Nishiyama (1955) and Fujihara et al. (1983). ...
... The enhancement observed in sperm motility is consistent with the findings of Karacal and Aral (2008) who reported higher sperm motility when male mice were treated with RJ. The significant increase in sperm concentration and therefore sperm total output can be explained by the findings of (Kohguchi et al., 2004) who demonstrated that golden hamsters treated with RJ showed more intensive spermatogenesis than the con- trol group. Similar observations were recorded by Karacal and Aral (2008) who reported higher sperm concentration when male mice were treated with RJ. ...
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Exposure of male rabbits to heat stress during summer adversely affects their fertility leading to major production losses. A total number of 24 male rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups exposed to temperatures ranging from a high of 32 degrees C to a low of 23 degrees C. Animals of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th group were individually orally given 200, 400, or 800 mg royal jelly (RJ)/kg body weight once a week to evaluate the ability of RJ feeding to counteract "summer infertility" in bucks and enhance their physiological status. Royal jelly treatments significantly boosted testosterone level to 133, 143 and 124% of basal, increased ejaculated volume by 36, 31 and 18%, increased seminal plasma fructose to 122, 124, and 111%, improved sperm motility by 15, 18 and 5%, increase sperm total output by 65, 63 and 35%, reduced abnormal sperm by 24, 24 and 15% and dead sperm by 27, 25 and 17% compared to the heat stressed control animals. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin increased while serum total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides decreased with RJ treatments. Creatinine was reduced by 5, 13 and 8% and uric acid by 4, 7 and 4%, respectively for the three doses of RJ compared to control. Alkaline phosphatase has significantly increased to reach 114, 118, and 108% of heat stressed level with the three doses of RJ, indicating the occurrence of active bone deposition. Glucose level increased significantly to reach 105, 112, and 116% of heat stressed control and both calcium and phosphorus increased significantly with RJ treatments. It was concluded that royal jelly administration to heat stressed male rabbits can counteract their "summer infertility" and improve their physiological status.
... [27] Study found out that during storage of sperm in cold temperature it's motility and plasma membrane integrity has improved by addition of low level concentration of fresh RJ (as an antioxidant source). [28] RJ forms gonads in the queen bee. An RJ diet induced higher levels of testosterone (T) and more active spermatogenesis in hamster testing [29] and increased levels of serum testosterone in heat stressed male rabbits. ...
... In addition research should focused on specifically ovarian activities using RJ along with eCG administration to ewes. In another findings, Kohguchi et al. [28] again shown the effect of RJ as diet on the testicular functions on hamsters. To know the long-term administration of feeding RJ to investigate the testicular function on 32 week old golden male hamsters were studied at the dose of 50 ug/g diet or 500 ug/g diet for the 12 week duration. ...
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Royal Jelly (RJ) is most wanted healthy food supplement that makes lots of health benefits. One of the benefits include that it can act as potent supplement for healthy egg to help women with infertility. This review is focused on the recent developments in use of RJ in the treatment of infertility and boon for them to give a dream child. The healthy egg is very phenomenal key factor for the in vitro fertilization to be successful in sexing with sperm. RJ is traditionally used as health supplement for infertility treatment from the ancient time in Indian traditional system. The recent literature revealed that, scientific and traditional findings are proven it RJ is one of the therapeutic molecule and act as a food supplements that can be used it in to improve egg cell physiology. Although, there is no clinical research studies have been reported yet on RJ. Hence, in this review explored the comprehensive report on health benefits of RJ and its impact on reproductive aspects in particular in egg development of women during ovulation. This article will be the key step to the researchers and scientists who are involved in searching alternative, cost effective and without side effect for treating infertility in global scenario.
... Sperm concentration was increased in RJ groups to reach 9.9, 18.7 and 19.9% over the control group. Kohguchi et al., (2004) demonstrated that golden hamsters treated with RJ showed more intensive spermatogenesis than the control group. This could explain the significant increase in sperm concentration and therefore total sperm output. ...
... Treated heat-stressed male rabbits with 50, 100 and 150 mg RJ/kg BW boosted blood testosterone concentration to reach 10, 20 and 28%, respectively above the untreated group values. The effect of RJ on testosterone is in agreement with the findings of Kohguchi et al. (2004), who demonstrated that feeding golden hamsters on diet containing RJ increased testosterone level in a dose dependent manner. In addition, Elnagar (2010) showed a significant increase in testosterone level when heat stressed male rabbits were orally administered 200, 400 and 800 mg RJ/kg BW. ...
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To alleviate the deleterious effect of heat stress during summer conditions on male rabbits' reproduction, 40 V Line adult rabbit bucks (on av. 8 mo old) were divided into 4 experimental groups and exposed to temperatures ranging from 23 to 36° C. Bucks in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4thgroup were supplemented with 0, 50, 100 or 150 mg of Chinese royal jelly (RJ)/kg twice per week, respectively, over a 20-wk period. Semen quality and blood biochemical constituents were evaluated. RJ at any dose exhibited a significant increase (P<0.05) in rabbits' sperm concentration, total sperm output, sperm motility, live sperm and normal sperm compared to the untreated controls. Plasma total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and high density lipids (HDL) concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) boosted in the RJ groups compared to the controls. In contrast, RJ treatment resulted in a significant (P<0.05) reduction in plasma total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and low density lipids (LDL) concentrations. Treatment with RJ significantly boosted (P<0.05) testosterone concentration in the RJ groups to reach 110, 120 and 128%, respectively, of the control group. Improved kidney and liver functions were observed in the RJ bucks groups where plasma creatinine, urea concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme activities were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by RJ treatments. Treating bucks subjected to heat stress by different RJ doses increased (P<0.05) total antioxidant capacity to 106, 111 and 115% of basal, but significantly reduced (P<0.05) malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to the untreated. It was concluded that Chinese royal jelly supplementation for heat-stressed male rabbits can counteract summer infertility and improve their physiological status.
... Protective effect Protect it from photo-aging by improving collagen production via up-regulation of TGF-β1 expression [105] RJ (Animals and humans) Effect on fertility Increase sperm motility, luteinizing hormones, and testosterone levels [81,[106][107][108] ERJ (Humans) Anti-allergic Significantly reducing IgE-binding capacity of blood [109] Note: RJ (royal jelly); RJPs (purified royal jelly peptides); RJPH (royal jelly protein hydrolysate); MRJP-4 (ajor royal jelly protein 4); 10-HDA (10-hydroxydecanoic acid); 10H∆2DA (10-hydroxy-Delta-2-decenoic acid); 3,10-DDA (3,10-dihydroxy-decanoic acid); MDA (malondialdehyde); GPx (Glutathione peroxidase); SOD (superoxide dismutase); IFN-Υ (interferon-gamma); IL-4 (interleukin-4); TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor); BCL2: (B-cell lymphoma 2); BAX (BCL2 associated X protein); NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2); 2-AF (2-aminofluorene); BACE1 (β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzymes), and IgE (Immunoglobulin E). ...
... RJ administration significantly increases sperm active motility, luteinizing hormones, and testosterone levels in infertile men [106]. Long-term feeding of RJ increases the testosterone levels and spermatogenesis by stopping the age-associated decline in testicular function of male hamsters [108]. Co-administration of honey and RJ could be effective in the treatment of infertility due to asthenozoospermia [184]. ...
Article
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Royal jelly (RJ) is a yellowish-white and acidic secretion of hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse bees used to feed young worker larvae during the first three days and the entire life of queen bees. RJ is one of the most appreciated and valued natural product which has been mainly used in traditional medicines, health foods, and cosmetics for a long time in different parts of the world. It is also the most studied bee product, aimed at unravelling its bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-aging, immunomodulatory, and general tonic action against laboratory animals, microbial organisms, farm animals, and clinical trials. It is commonly used to supplement various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we highlight the recent research advances on the main bioactive compounds of RJ, such as proteins, peptides, fatty acids, and phenolics, for a comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry, biological, and pharmaceutical responses to human health promotion and life benefits. This is potentially important to gain novel insight into the biological and pharmaceutical properties of RJ.
... Зависимость от концентрации маточного молоч ка в рационе животных и уровня свободного тесто стерона была показана экспериментально в условиях длительного кормления (12 недель). Результаты рабо ты показали, что введение в рацион ПММ ингибиру ет возрастные изменения функций семенников [39]. ...
... The dependence on the concentration of royal jelly in the diet of animals and the level of free testosterone was shown experimentally under the conditions of prolonged feeding (12 weeks). The results showed that the introduction of RJ into the diet inhibited age-related changes in the functions of the testes [39]. ...
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Both bee products themselves and their combinations are widely represented in the domestic pharmaceutical market, however, modern experimental studies of the biological activity of these compounds are few, and in many of the existing publications the authors describe an extremely wide and controversial range of therapeutic effects. The aim of the study is to analyze the experimental works on the study of biological activity of bee products. Materials and methods. The study was conducted using search and information (eLibrary, PubMed, CyberLeninka, ResearchGate) and library databases (Russian State Library, Central Scientific Agricultural Library). In the designated databases, publications were searched by such terms as “biological activity”, “royal jelly”, etc. The depth of the search was not limited. Results and discussion. The analysis of the published works shows that such substances as bee venom and royal jelly have experimentally confirmed their biological activity. In both cases, the active substances have been described and a review of their detected biological activity has been carried out. Conclusion . The authors suggest that when developing the method of laboratory synthesis of decene acids, it can be possible to carry out their large-scale preclinical research, which may become the basis for the creation of a drug with a selective effect.
... Arı sütünün sisplatinle birlikte verildiği gruplarda oksidatif stres parametrelerinin iyileştiğini, diğer biyokimyasal parametrelerin de tedavi öncesi etkilerinin arı sütüyle daha etkili olduğunu bildirmişler ve arı sütünün fareler üzerinde sisplatinin neden olduğu problemler üzerinde antioksidan etkiye sahip olduğunu açıklamışlardır. Kohguchi ve ark.(34) erkek tavşanlar üzerine yaptıkları bir çalışmada ise arı sütünün testosteron seviyesi, sperm sayısı ve hareketliliğinde artışın olduğunu gözlemlemişlerdir. Arı sütünün tansiyon düşürücü, damar genişletici ve kolesterol düşürücü etkileri bulunmaktadır(13). ...
... RJ develops the queen bee gonads. An RJ diet induced higher testosterone (T) content and more intensive spermatogenesis in hamster testis [12] and increased serum testosterone levels in heat stressed male rabbits [13]. It may also modulate sex hormones in humans. ...
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Background Royal jelly is a widely ingested supplement for health, but its effects on humans are not well known. The objective was to evaluate the effects of long-term royal jelly ingestion on humans. Methods We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 61 healthy volunteers aged 42-83 years were enrolled and were randomly divided into a royal jelly group (n = 31) and a control group (n = 30). Three thousand mg of royal jelly (RJ) or a placebo in 100 ml liquid/day were ingested for 6 months. The primary outcomes were changes in anthropometric measurements and biochemical indexes from baseline to 6 months after intervention. Results Thirty subjects in the RJ group and 26 in the control group were included in the analysis of endpoints. In an adjusted mean change of the variables from the baseline, significant differences between the two groups could be found in red blood cell counts (+0.16x106 /μL for the RJ group vs. -0.01x106 /μL for the control group, P = 0.0134), hematocrit (+0.9% vs. -0.8%, P = 0.0251), log (fasting plasma glucose) (+0.01 ± 0.01 log mg/dL vs. +0.05 ± 0.01 log mg/dL, P = 0.0297), log (insulinogenic index) (+0.25 vs. -0.13, P = 0.0319), log dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (+0.08 log μg/dL vs. +0.20 log μg/dL, P = 0.0483), log testosterone (T) (+0.12 ± 0.04 log ng/mL vs. -0.02 ± 0.05 log ng/mL, P = 0.0416), log T/DHEA-S ratio (+0.05 ± 0.05 vs. -0.23 ± 0.59, P = 0.0015), and in one of the SF-36 subscale scores, mental health (MH) (+4 vs. -7, P = 0.0276). Conclusions Six-month ingestion of RJ in humans improved erythropoiesis, glucose tolerance and mental health. Acceleration of conversion from DHEA-S to T by RJ may have been observed among these favorable effects.
... Elnagar (2010) suggested that RJ significantly (400 mg/kg) increases the serum testosterone levels, ejaculate volume, seminal fructose, sperm motility, and total sperm output in bucks. Other studies confirmed that RJ treatment increases the ejaculate volume and seminal plasma fructose (18,19), in addition to sperm motility (20) and total sperm counts (21). In the present study, observed severe tubular damage was strongly correlated with the decreased level of serum testosterone. ...
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TO examine the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on testicular damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen adult Wistar albino rats were used, 6 in each of the 3 treatment groups: Group A: control, Group B: STZ-induced diabetes (untreated), Group C: STZ-induced diabetes plus RJ (400 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). Four weeks after the onset of diabetes, testicular apoptotic cell death was examined using immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and Ki67 staining for localization of proliferative cells. Compared with the control, the body and testicular weights of the RJ-treated and untreated diabetic rats were decreased (P < 0.05). The histopathological examination showed a significant increase in degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and in spermatogenesis of the STZ-treated rats. In contrast, the RJ treatment group showed near-normal morphology, in addition to an increased intensity of immunohistochemical staining for Ki67-positive cells. Diabetes induced a significant increase in testicular apoptotic cell death (caspase-3-positive cells). Caspase-3-positive cells were significantly decreased in the STZ plus RJ-treated group compared with the untreated STZ-induced diabetic group (P < 0.05).
... Previous studies have shown that RJ has many chemical and physical properties such as anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory functions in animals (10). Estrogenic activity similar to other exogenous steroid hormones (11), higher testosterone content and intensive spermatogenesis in hamster testes (12), and increased serum testosterone levels in heat-stressed male rabbits are reported for RJ (13). Further, research has shown that alkaline and water extracts of RJ have high scavenging ability and antioxidative activity against active oxygen species (14). ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus has a variety of structural and functional effects on the male reproductive system. Diabetes results in reduced sperm parameters and libido. The present study aims to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on reproductive parameters of testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in diabetic rats. This experimental study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n=8 per group): control, RJ, diabetic and diabetic treated with RJ. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg body weight (BW) of streptozotocin (STZ). RJ, at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW was given by gavage. The duration of treatment was six weeks. After the treatment period the rats were sacrificed. The testes were weighed and changes in sperm count, motility, viability, deformity, DNA integrity and chromatin quality were analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations of testicular tissue were determined. Data were analyzed by oneway ANOVA with p<0.05 as the significant level. STZ-induced diabetes decreased numerous reproductive parameters in rats. Testicular weight, sperm count, motility, viability and serum testosterone levels increased in the diabetic group treated with RJ. There was a significant decrease observed in sperm deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, and tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats treated with RJ compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05). RJ improved reproductive parameters such as testicular weight, sperm count, viability, motility, deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, serum testosterone and testicular tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats.
... The profound effects of RJ on development and physiology of honey bees has stimulated many studies assessing whether its beneficial effects can transcend species barriers. RJ has been reported to increase lifespan in mice [13] and C. elegans [14]; decrease fatigue [15] in mice; increase collagen production [16], reduce hypertension [17] and modulate oxidative stress and tissue injury repair [18] in rats; slow testicular decline in hamsters [19]; inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by activated mouse macrophages [20] and inhibit bisphenol Ainduced proliferation of human breast cancer cells [21]. RJ is a popular nutritional supplement in humans [22] and has been reported to have beneficial effects on glucose tolerance, mental health, and lipoprotein metabolism [23,24]. ...
Article
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Royal Jelly (RJ) is a product made by honey bee workers and is required for queen differentiation and accompanying changes in queen body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output relative to workers. Previous studies have reported similar changes in Drosophila melanogaster in response to RJ. Here, we quantified viability, development time, body size, productivity, lifespan and genome wide transcript abundance of D. melanogaster reared on standard culture medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of RJ. We found that lower concentrations of RJ do induce significant differences in body size in both sexes; higher concentrations reduce size, increase mortality, shorten lifespan and reduce productivity. Increased concentrations of RJ also consistently lengthened development time in both sexes. RJ is associated with changes in expression of 1,581 probe sets assessed using Affymetrix Drosophila 2.0 microarrays, which were enriched for genes associated with metabolism and amino acid degradation. The transcriptional changes are consistent with alterations in cellular processes to cope with excess nutrients provided by RJ, including biosynthesis and detoxification, which might contribute to accelerated senescence and reduced lifespan.
... Anti-oxidative and radiation-protective and hepatoprotective (liver-protecting • Hyperglycaemic, preventing insulin resistance • Stimulating bone formation and promoting bone healing in rabbits, preventing osteoporosis in rats • promoting building of collagen in cell cultures • suppressing the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in rats Bio stimulatory effects, anti-aging Estrogenic and gonadotropic effects in cells and in rats 88,167,234 Increases growth and weight of chickens, turkeys, ducks, rabbits, guinea-fowls, pigs, calves, guinea pigs, mice and rats 20-29, 36, 40 Anti-fatigue, increases activity improves its resistance to stress 88,111,131 Increases reproduction capacity of rats and sheep 94,95,[127][128][129] Increases oxygen consumption in tissues in vitro, antihypoxia 68,131,199 Against infertility of male rabbits, improves sexual efficiency in rats and hamsters 49,79,122 Life-prolonging in mice 98 RJ fed mice have higher sperm motility, higher sperm concentration and lesser sperm abnormality, improves the quality of buffalo sperm in vitro 114,218 Prevents the progression of Sarcopenia in aged mice 181 Testis protective effects in rats 41 Immuno-modulating effects: anti-cancer, anti-allergy and anti-inflammatary Immuno-stimulating activity in animals or in cell cultures, increase of leucocytes count 5, 50, 65, 131, 133, 158, 183-185, 224, 235, 261, 263, 271, 272 Anti-tumor effects in cell culture and animal experiments (ingestion or injection) 17,42,45,178,188,189,238,248,251 Inhibits autoimmunity in mice 157 Anti-inflammatory in cell culture and animal tests 8,123 Cardiovascular effects Anti-hypertenisive, hypotensive, vasodilatative effects in animals 7,134,161,221,245,246 Reduces serum cholesterol and TG levels, increases HDL levels, lowers plasma fibrinogen levels and thrombosis 131, 135 39, 207, 219 Cardio-protective in animal experiments, prevents myocarditis 131 Increases blood levels of thyroxine, cortison albumin/globulin ratio and decreases serum proteins after oral administration in rats 36,38 Increases number of blood cells 131 . ...
... In preclinical studies, RJ was found to prevent osteoporosis as a physiologic function (Narita et al., 2006;Hikada et al., 2006). It was also demonstrated in animal model experiment that as a bioactive substance, RJ potentially has an effect on sexual enhancement (Kohguchi et al., 2004). In the aged population, such an effect is beneficial to the quality of life associated with antiaging. ...
Chapter
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Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule with a short half-life that's known to exert its biological functions through cyclic guanosine monophosphate. In our system, nitric oxide is produced by nitric oxide synthase enzymes, which use substrates l-arginine, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and oxygen by producing citrulline, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP⁺), and NO. Nitric oxide can react with superoxide to produce peroxynitrite (ONOO?), which can cause irreversible modification and inhibition of different biological molecules, including mitochondrial membrane complexes and antioxidant defense enzymes through oxidizing reactions. This chapter focuses on the direct and indirect role of NO in terms of energy metabolism. Nitric oxide in this context governs and regulates metabolism, heat production, and body composition, which overall change the tissue distribution of oxygen, adenosine triphosphate production, blood flow, glucose utilization, and supply of other nutrients by resulting in altered tissue functions and physical activities.
... However, it has been shown that RJ remarkably improved their physiological status 325 and increased the seminal fructose, ejaculate volume, number of sperm output, sperm motility, and serum testosterone concentration in bucks (Elnagar 2010; Table 1). Kohguchi et al. (2007) reported that hamsters treated with RJ showed a significant elevation in total sperm counts relative to the control group. Eshtiyaghi et al. (2016) declared that treatment of ovine oocytes with RJ (10 mg/mL) during in vitro maturation (IVM) increased 330 oocyte and nuclear maturation rate, fertilization rate, and blastocyst formation, which might be due to increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in both oocyte and cumulus cells (Table 1). ...
Article
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Royal jelly (RJ) is a natural bee product with great potential for use in medicine. The chemical composition of RJ indicates the presence of various bioactive substances including 10-hydroxydecanoic acid and 24-methylenecholesterol. In addition, a number of biological and pharmacological activities of RJ have been documented. The aim of this study was to review the biological and medical effects of RJ. The search was conducted in articles from electronic and scientific literature databases such as Pub Med, Science Direct, Scopus, Medline, and ISI Web of Science published from 1990 to 2017 using keywords of pharmacological, biological, and clinical effects and royal jelly. Data were chosen after the primary survey of all abstracts and selected full articles. Comparison among related data was done by the authors. Literature has shown that RJ possesses many beneficial effects on biological systems. For example, the therapeutic uses of RJ have been reported in several diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension, and cancers. It was also found to possess neurotrophic, hypotensive, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. Owing to the broad spectrum of biological effects and valuable clinical trials, evaluating the beneficial pharmaceutical effects of RJ in animal and human models seems to be important.
... El-Sherbiny (2015) reported that royal jelly, honey and P significantly increased the percentage of sperm progressive motility in New Zealand White male rabbits, while the percentages of dead and abnormal sperm increased. Research results reported that royal jelly applied as a sperm protectant caused a significant increase in sperm motility of male mice (Karacal and Aral 2008), hamster sperm cell concentration (Kohguchi et al. 2004), and in sperm count and viable sperm ratios of adult male rats (Hassan 2009). Olayemi et al. (2011) showed that honey added to the egg yolk extender increases the motility of buck semen after cold storage. ...
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In this study, the cryoprotective effect of different doses of propolis (P) on bull semen, which has solid pharmacological properties thanks to its rich phenolic components, was investigated biochemically and physiologically. Semen samples were collected from Simmental breed bulls via the artificial vagina and pooled. After dividing into five groups, control (C: no additive) and four different P (200, 100, 50, and 25 μg/mL) groups, the final concentration was diluted to 16×106 per straw. Semen samples were equilibrated at 4°C for approximately 4 hours, then placed in French straws and frozen. After thawing, sperm motility and kinetic parameters, DNA integrity by single-cell gel electrophoresis, sperm abnormalities by liquid fixation, and lipid peroxidation levels by the colorimetric method was analyzed by Computer-Assisted Semen Analyzer. P added to the diluent showed no effect on motility and kinetic parameters at P25 and P50 (p>0.05), while P100 and P200 had a negative effect (p<0.001). The addition of P (25 and 50) showed a treatment effect on tail abnormality compared to C (p<0.05). Especially P50 had a positive effect on tail length, tail DNA, and tail movement, while P100 and P200 caused DNA damage (p<0.001). MDA levels increased in all P dose groups compared to C (p<0.001). This study has clearly demonstrated that P25 and P50 supplements could be used therapeutically to treat sperm tail abnormalities and prevent DNA damage in post-thawed bull sperm.
... El-Sherbiny (2015) reported that royal jelly, honey, and P signi cantly increased the percentage of sperm progressive motility in New Zealand White male rabbits, while the percentages of dead and abnormal sperm increased. Research results reported that royal jelly applied as a sperm protectant caused a signi cant increase in sperm motility of male mice (Karacal and Aral 2008), hamster sperm cell concentration (Kohguchi et al. 2004), and in sperm count and viable sperm ratios of adult male rats (Hassan 2009). Olayemi et al. (2011) showed that honey added to the egg yolk extender increases the motility of goat semen after cold storage. ...
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In this study, the cryoprotective effect of different doses of propolis (P) on bull semen, which has strong pharmacological properties thanks to its rich phenolic components, was investigated biochemically and physiologically. Semen samples were collected from Simmental breed bulls via the artificial vagina and pooled. After dividing into five groups, control (C: no additive), and four different dose P (200, 100, 50, and 25 μg/mL) groups, the final concentration was diluted to 16×106 per straw. Semen samples were equilibrated at 4°C for approximately 4 hours, then placed in French straws and frozen. After thawing, sperm motility and kinetic parameters, DNA integrity by single-cell gel electrophoresis, sperm abnormalities by liquid fixation, and lipid peroxidation levels by the colorimetric method was analyzed by Computer-Assisted Semen Analyzer. P added to the diluent showed no effect on motility and kinetic parameters at P25 and P50 (p >0.05), while P100 and P200 had a negative effect (p <0.001). The addition of P (25 and 50) had a treatment effect on tail abnormality compared to C (p <0.05). Especially P50 had a positive effect on tail length, tail DNA, and tail moment, while P100 and P200 caused DNA damage (p <0.001). MDA levels increased in all P dose groups compared to C (p <0.001). This study has clearly demonstrated that P25 and P50 supplements could be used therapeutically in the treatment of sperm abnormalities and prevention of DNA damage in post-thawed bull sperm.
... The observed improvement in sperm motility is consistent with the findings of (Elnagar, 2010), who reported higher sperm motility when male mice were treated with RJ. The significant increase in sperm-cell concentration can be explained by the findings of (Kohguchi et al., 2007), who demonstrated that golden hamster treated with RJ showed more intensive spermatogenesis than untreated group. Similar observations were recorded by (Karacal and Aral, 2008), who reported higher sperm concentration when male mice were treated with RJ. (ElKelawy, 1995), reported that ejaculate volume, sperm motility and sperm concentration were significantly increased when male rabbits treated with testosterone. ...
... It has been determined that the use of the royal jelly increases spermatozoa motility with the intensity of it reduces the rate of abnormal spermatozoa and positively affects sperm quality (Temamoğulları et al., 2006). In another study, the loss of age-related testosterone function in old hamsters is reported to be inhibited by the use of royal jelly (Kohguchi et al., 2007). Other study has noted that with the use of royal jelly, the negative effect on stress on male rabbit fertility in hot summer conditions was reduced to a minimum, total sperm output, sperm motility, live sperm, and normal sperm showed a significant increase compared to untreated controls. ...
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ABSTRACT: Bee products are used as supplements to provide nutrients in prevent or treatment of some health problems. Royal jelly has a rich nutrient contents in bee hive which protects and strengthens the health; compared to other bee products, it has a significant potential and effect. Because of its functional properties, royal jelly is very effective in accelerating the healing process in many diseases. The use of fresh royal jelly in our diets nowadays will help us to be healthy. This review explains the effects of royal jelly on health, animal trials, and clinical studies for human health. Healthy doses are recommended by apitherapist medical doctors based on clinical observation and personal experience on the doses of use of royal jelly on human health. The review also mentions the positive effects of royal jelly consumption in our daily diet. ÖZ: Arı ürünleri içerdiği besin maddeleri ile sağlık koruyucu ve destekleyici olarak kullanılmaktadır. Arı sütü; kovanın zengin besin içeriğine sahip, sağlık koruyucu ve güçlendirici ürünüdür ve diğer arı ürünleriyle karşılaştırıldığında önemli bir potansiyele ve etkinliğe sahiptir. Arı sütü fonksiyonel özellikleri nedeniyle, pek çok hastalıkta başarıyla iyileştirici özelliktedir. Günümüzde beslenmemizde taze arı sütünün kullanımı, vücudumuzun sağlıklı kalmasına yardımcı olmaktadır. Bu derlemede, arı sütünün hayvan deneylerinde ve insan sağlığında klinik çalışmalarda sağlık üzerine etkileri anlatılmıştır. İnsan sağlığında arı sütünün kullanımı ile ilgili doz önerileri özellikle apiterapist tıp hekimleri tarafından klinik gözlemlere ve kişisel deneyimlere dayalı olarak yapılmıştır. Günlük beslenmemizde arı sütü tüketiminin olumlu etkilerine de değinilmiştir.
... The results of table one show the that the some semen quality parameters give significant results ,but the volume of ejaculation slightly increased by RJ feed and not give significant results, the explanation of the slightly increased may be due to increase in testosterone concentration due to RJ feed. RJ increase the spermatogenesis and that lead to increase sperm concentration and this agreed with Kohguchi et al., (2004) Kamel et al. (2009, .The sperm motility and sperm live also give a significant result according RJ concentration feed that associated with hydrogen ion in seminal plasma . In the table 2 the testosterone give statically significant difference among groups and this result agreed with Kohguchi et al. shown RJ diet excited higher testosterone content and better spermatogenesis in hamster testis (Kohguchi et al,2004 ).In another study performed on rabbits in Egypt by Elnagar, spermogram parameters were significantly improved and serum testosterone levels increased in heat stressed male rabbits after consumption of Royal Jelly ( Elnagar SA,2012).the ...
... In the literature, the biological and pharmacological effects of royal jelly on humans, animals and culture cells have been studied. Studies that used rats and mice as test subjects to examine the antibacterial, fungal, antiviral and antiparasitic effects of royal jelly have demonstrated estrogenic and gonadotropic effects (10)(11)(12), effect on growth and development (13)(14)(15), impact on increased life expectancy (16), role in preventing hypoxia and increasing oxygen carrying capacity (17)(18)(19), role in increasing fertility in male rabbits, rats and mice (20)(21)(22)(23), role in increasing reproductive capacity in sheep and rats (24)(25)(26)(27), association with high sperm quality, increased sperm concentration and motility (28), testicular protective effect (29), role in protecting the autoimmune system (30), preventing inflammation (31,32), protecting against cancer (33), protecting the cardiovascular system (34,35), minimizing neural damage, supporting memory (36), as well as antioxidative properties and role in mitigating osteoporosis, protecting the liver and preventing liver damage (18,(37)(38)(39). In a similar vein, studies that examined the effects of royal jelly on humans have demonstrated that it reduces fatigue, improves performance (10,40), has a positive impact on blood parameters with regards to cancer, allergies and wound healing (41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46), causes a decrease in lipid metabolism, prevents cardiovascular occlusion, dilates the veins, regulates the blood pressure (47)(48)(49)(50), has an antioxidant effect and protects against radiation (51)(52)(53)(54), has positive effects on fertility in both men and women (55). ...
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This study with a placebo-controlled experimental design intends to investigate the effect of short-term Royal Jelly (RJ) on the testosterone levels in sedentary men at a dose of 1000 mg/day. For this purpose, a total of 20 adult sedentary men aged 21 to 23 were included in this study. The subjects visited the laboratory every day for 15 days between 08:00 and 10:00 to get their portion of royal jelly. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, namely the experimental group (n = 10 individuals, 1000 mg/day of Royal Jelly) and the placebo group (n = 10 individuals, corn starch mixed with 1000 mg/day of water) and they took royal jelly in glass vials at the same time. Blood samples were taken from both groups of subjects one day before and one day after the study and analyzed to determine their testosterone levels. 2x2 mixed factor ANOVA and LSD tests were used to analyze data obtained from the experimental and the placebo group. A sharp increase in the testosterone levels of the experimental group that took RJ for a short time was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). The pre-and post-test values of the placebo group were not found to be statistically significant (p>0.05). The study shows that a short-term 1000 mg/day dose of RJ supplements was effective in increasing testosterone levels in sedentary, healthy men.
... In the BP group, progressive motile sperm significantly increased while there were no negative changes in the other semen characteristics at the end of the experiment compared to the pretreatment period, suggesting that age-related declines in semen production could be alleviated with dietary BP supplementation. Congruent with these results, it was reported that RJ administration caused an increase in sperm production, sperm motility, and higher testosterone levels in lab animals (37,38,39). (40) suggested that the androgenic effect of apilarnil on chickens was higher than its anabolic effect. ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and dietary bee products (apilarnil plus royal jelly) supplementation on reproductive and oxidative responses and to determine the possibilities that these treatments may be used in retarding the reproductive ageing of broiler breeder males. At 52 weeks of age, broiler breeder males were assigned to four treatment groups. The control group was fed on restricted feed as recommended by the breeder company throughout the study; the ad libitum group was fed ad libitum for a four-week period; the bee products group was fed similar to the control group except that their diet was supplemented with apilarnil and royal jelly for a four-week period and in the last group calorie restriction (45 % of standard diet) was applied for a four-week period. After a four-week adaptation period, the experiment was continued for 18 weeks. The results obtained in the present study have demonstrated that the percentage of dead sperm was the most affected semen characteristic by reproductive ageing. Long-term moderate feed restriction could not prevent age-related declines in sperm production. Dietary bee products supplementation or calorie restriction for a fourweek period positively affected the semen characteristics, and these beneficial effects could be maintained to some extend up until 72 weeks of age. Calorie restriction enhanced antioxidant defence for the first four-week period; however, this beneficial effect could not be sustained until the end of the experiment.
... On the other hand, Iranian royal jelly of 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg bw increases sperm and causes a significant upregulation of transcription factor E2f1 mRNA in taxol-induced toxicity [111]. Japanese royal jelly of 50 µg/g diet or 500 µg/g diet for 12 weeks increases the intensity of spermatogenesis and testosterone levels in hamsters via its antioxidant activity [112]. Japanese royal jelly (300 mg) administered for 6 months accelerates the conversion of DHEA-S to testosterone [113], while Turkish royal jelly of 400 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks caused caspase-3-positive cells to be significantly decreased in testicular apoptosis via its anti-apoptotic activity [114]. ...
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Bee products are sources of functional food that have been used in complementary medicine to treat a variety of acute and chronic illnesses in many parts of the world. The products vary from location to location as well as country to country. Therefore, the aim of this review was to identify various bee products with potential preventive and therapeutic values used in the treatment of male reproductive impairment. We undertook a vigorous search for bee products with preventive and therapeutic values for the male reproductive system. These products included honey, royal jelly, bee pollen, bee brood, apilarnil, bee bread, bee wax, and bee venom. We also explained the mechanisms involved in testicular steroidogenesis, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, which may cumulatively lead to male reproductive impairment. The effects of bee pollen, bee venom, honey, propolis, royal jelly, and bee bread on male reproductive parameters were examined. Conclusively, these bee products showed positive effects on the steroidogenic, spermatogenic, oxidative stress, inflammatory, and apoptotic parameters, thereby making them a promising possible preventive and therapeutic treatment of male sub/infertility.
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Food Yellow 4 (FY4) is a lemon-yellow-colored synthetic organic azo dye, which is used widely for imparting pleasant and attractive appearance to foods and cosmetics. The present study aimed at evaluating the possible mechanism underlying the FY4-induced reprotoxicity in rats, and the potential supportive role of royal jelly (RJ) or cod liver oil (CLO), which is a natural remedy with several pharmacological benefits, against induced toxicity. Forty-eight male rats were divided into different groups-the control group, the CLO group (0.4 mL/kg), the RJ group (300 mg/kg), the FY4 group (500 mg/kg b.w.), and the co-treated groups (FY4 + CLO or FY4 + RJ). Semen analysis, serum hormones, and enzyme activities were estimated. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti-PCNA, anti-Sox 9, anti-STRA8, anti-DMC1, and anti-ssDNA antibody. The FY4 group exhibited a significant decrease in sperm concentration and motility percentage (%) and a substantial reduction in the TES and LH levels. Testicular LDH, ACP, and SDH were observed to be inhibited. Furthermore, co-localization of DMC1 and ssDNA, which reflected apoptotic induction in the leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes, respectively, was observed to have markedly elevated in the FY4 treated rats, with fewer PCNA-positive and SOX9-positive cells and higher ssDNA-positive cells in the seminiferous epithelium in comparison to the control groups. Interestingly, co-treatment with CLO or RJ exhibited healthy sperms and restored their features, activated the enzyme production, and raised the levels of sexual hormones. In addition, both RJ and CLO restored the features of the testicular tissue as observed under a light microscope, and limited the apoptosis as observed through antibody staining. Collectively, the results of the present study revealed that the co-administration of RJ or CLO with FY4 improved the biochemical, hormonal, and structural aspects of the testicular tissue in rats. Therefore, CLO and RJ may be considered promising agents that would be able to improve the testicular structure and function in the FY4-exposed individuals.
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Royal jelly (RJ) as an antioxidant has been shown to have attenuated oxidative stress damages in reproductive organs. The objective was carried out the effects of RJ on sperm characteristics, sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) outcome in heat stress (HS) exposed male rats. Forty‐eight male rats were randomly divided into eight groups; group 1 received normal saline, group 2 received RJ (100 mg kg−1 day−1; PO), groups 3, 4 and 5 were heat‐stressed (43, 39 and 37°C for 20 min per day respectively) and groups 6, 7 and 8 were heat‐stressed along with RJ (43, 39 and 37°C for 20 min per day, respectively, plus RJ at a dose of 100 mg kg−1 day−1; PO). The HS was induced through immersion of experimental rat scrotums in a water bath. After 48 days, the HS induced remarkable diminish in sperm motility, viability and fertilising potential along with reduced blastulation rate and enhanced sperm chromatin abnormality, MDA levels and DNA damage. Nevertheless, RJ co‐administration improved sperm characteristics and early embryo development as well as sperm lipid peroxidation level. Our data suggest that RJ can effectively ameliorate the experimental HS‐induced infertility in rats through MDA concentration restoration and sperm characteristics and pre‐implantation embryo development improvement.
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This study was performed to investigate the protective effects of royal jelly (RJ) on a testicular torsion-induced ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in adult rats. A total of 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, including 10 rats in each group: Group 1 (sham), Group 2 (Control), group 3 (I/R rats treated with 100 mg/kg RJ for 50 days after torsion) and group 4( I/R rats treated with 20 mg/kg vitamin C for 50 days after torsion). Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testes 720° a clockwise direction for 90 min. The levels of testosterone were measured by ELISA. Pathological evaluation, mean maturity and quality of the seminiferous tubules were used. Results showed that the testicular histopathology standards and testosterone levels changes were statistically significant in groups 3 and 4. The results obtained in this study may suggest that RJ like vitamin C had protective effects on a testicular ischaemia/reperfusion-induced injury in rats.
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Plasma and tissue testosterone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay in 12 eight-month-old sexually mature New Zealand White rabbits and evaluated for possible associations with spermatogenic efficiency as well as with volume density and number of Leydig cells. Testicular tissue was processed histologically and histometry was performed in order to quantify germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. Spermatogenic efficiency, reported as the ratios among germ cells (spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and round spermatids) and by the ratio of germ cells to Sertoli cells, was not associated with testosterone levels. However, Leydig cell parameters such as number of Leydig cells per gram of testis, total number of Leydig cells per testis and percent cell volume of Leydig cell nuclei were correlated significantly with testosterone levels. The statistically significant correlation (r = 0.82, P<0.05) observed between testosterone levels and the number of Leydig cells per gram of testis suggests that, in the rabbit, the latter parameter can serve as a criterion for monitoring testosterone levels in this species under normal conditions.
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In this report we show that royal jelly (RJ) increases collagen production by normal hamster fibroblasts in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) or ascorbic acid 2-O-alpha-glucoside (AA-2G). The effects of a combination of RJ with AA-2G on collagen synthesis were much greater than those of the combination of RJ with AA. RJ showed significant TGFq-β inducing activity on fibroblasts in the presence of AA-2G. These results suggest a possible mechanism for TGF-β production induced by RJ and AA-2G, occurring in conjunction with collagen synthesis in normal hamster fibroblasts.
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We have previously shown using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems that Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PFE) exhibits anti-allergic functions through inhibiting IgE production by way of down-regulating the production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10, but not that of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. Th2 cytokines play important roles in allergic responses. In this study, we have examined whether royal jelly (RJ) exhibits anti-allergic functions similar to those of PFE using an immediate hypersensitivity model, in which BALB/c mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA)-Alum. In a manner similar to that observed with PFE, intraperitoneal administration of RJ significantly inhibited both OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE production, and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 production by spleen cells stimulated with OVA. In contrast to PFE, however, administration of RJ also inhibited IFN-γ production by OVA-stimulated spleen cells, and tended to down-regulate OVA-specific IgG2a production. IL-2 production by OVA-stimulated spleen cells was unaffected by the administration of RJ and there were no significant changes in cytokine production by spleen cells in response to concanavalin A (Con A) among the experimental groups. Similar findings were observed when lymph node cells from OVA-Alum-immunized mice were stimulated with OVA in the presence of RJ. Furthermore, oral administration of RJ also resulted in a significant inhibition of both OVA-specific IgE and total IgE production. These results suggest that RJ exhibits anti-allergic functions through a different mechanism from that of PFE.
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A compound with immunoreactivity, and TLC and GLC mobility of testosterone was isolated from royal jelly of honeybee (Apis mellifera). This is the first demonstration of vertebrate steroid hormone in this species.
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There was no significant difference between 6 and 28 week old mice, in the concentration of some elements, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mg in whole brain and myelin. Ca was found at a high level in myelin, compared to the whole brain. The binding activity of two neurotoxic metals, Cd and Mn to the myelin was not changed by ageing. However, the binding of some metals was different. In particular, Zn and Pb showed high values. Lipid peroxide (LPO) used as an index of age-associated changes did not increase in the brain of the 28-week-old group. However, testicular and cardiac LPO increased significantly in the 28-week-old mice than in the 6-week-old mice. At least, judging from the LPO concentration, it seems that the age-associated changes of the brain were not yet found in the 28-week-old mice.
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The amount of testosterone required for quantitative maintenance of spermatogenesis has been re-evaluated using techniques aimed at minimizing the synthesis of testosterone after removal of the testis. Adult male rats were treated with ethane dimethane-sulphonate (EDS) to destroy the Leydig cells, and were supplemented with 25, 5 or 1 mg testosterone esters by injection every 3 days for 21 days. Serum hormone levels, testicular morphology and spermatogenesis were assessed and the intratesticular levels of testosterone compared in testes either removed under ether anaesthesia and placed in liquid nitrogen (right testis) or removed after collection of blood and placed in ice (left testis). Data for testosterone-supplemented rats were compared with those for control rats and rats treated with EDS alone. All doses of testosterone suppressed LH and FSH levels in serum to within the hypophysectomized range, and Leydig cell regeneration in EDS-treated rats was prevented completely. Treatment of EDS-injected rats with 25 or 5 mg testosterone maintained testicular weight, the number of germ cells and the diameter of seminiferous tubules at stage VII within or above the control range, although there was a significant increase in the number of degenerating pachytene spermatocytes at stage VII with 5 but not 25 mg testosterone; none of these parameters was maintained at control levels by a dose of 1 mg testosterone. Levels of testosterone in testosterone-supplemented rats differed little between testes collected in ice and liquid nitrogen, but in controls and rats treated with EDS alone, testosterone levels were overestimated by 75 and 27% respectively when comparing testes collected in ice with those collected in liquid nitrogen. This suggests that synthesis of testosterone does occur after removal and cooling of the testes. Using the data for testes collected in liquid nitrogen, the present results suggest that intratesticular levels of testosterone need to be maintained at 24–46% of control values (i.e. higher than previously shown) for quantitative maintenance of spermatogenesis, although it is argued that even these values probably still represent underestimates. J. Endocr. (1988) 117, 19–26
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The role of free radicals and lipid peroxidation is reviewed with regard to the aging process. Free radicals are produced during mitochondrial respiration, during the autooxidation of a variety of biological molecules and chemicals, during irradiation damage, and are found as environmental pollutants. Free radicals induce lipid peroxidation which results in membrane damage, increased disulfide/sulfhydryl ratios, and accumulation of aging pigments. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium are of importance with respect to free radical and lipid peroxide quenching. During aging, the levels of vitamin C appear to decline in the human, guinea pig, and the mouse. Synthetic antioxidants, added to the diets of mice, have been noted to extend the lifespan and mean half-survivale times.
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Aging is the progressive accumulation of changes with time that are associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age. These time-related changes are attributed to the aging process. The nature of the aging process has been the subject of considerable speculation. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the sum of the deleterious free radical reactions going on continuously throughout the cells and tissues constitutes the aging process or is a major contributor to it. In mammalian systems the free radical reactions are largely those involving oxygen. Dietary manipulations expected to lower the rate of production of free radical reaction damage have been shown (i) to increase the life span of mice, rats, fruit flies, nematodes, and rotifers, as well as the "life span" of neurospora; (ii) to inhibit development of some forms of cancer; (iii) to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immune responses; and (iv) to slow development of amyloidosis and the autoimmune disorders of NZB and NZB/NZW mice. In addition, studies strongly suggest that free radical reactions play a significant role in the deterioration of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems with age. The free radical theory of aging provides reasonable explanations for age-associated phenomena, including (i) the relationship of the average life spans of mammalian species to their basal metabolic rates, (ii) the clustering of degenerative diseases in the terminal part of the life span, (iii) the beneficial effect of food restriction on life span, (iv) the greater longevity of females, and (v) the increase in autoimmune manifestations with age. It is not unreasonable to expect on the basis of present data that the healthy life span can be increased by 5-10 or more years by keeping body weight down, at a level compatible with a sense of well-being, while ingesting diets adequate in essential nutrients but designed to minimize random free radical reactions in the body.
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Age-related changes in α-tocopherol dynamics in plasma and erythrocyte membranes of 10- to 120-week-old rats were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with redox detection mode. Furthermore, changes in lipid hydroperoxide content and fluidity of erythrocyte membrane with age were assessed using chemiluminescence-HPLC and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, respectively. A slight increase in the α-tocopherolquinone/α-tocopherol ratio in erythrocyte membrane and a decrease in the α-tocopherol in erythrocyte membrane/α-tocopherol in plasma ratio were observed. A significant increase in lipid hydroperoxide content and a marked decrease in the fluidity of erythrocyte membrane were seen with age. These findings suggest that α-tocopherol uptake in erythrocyte membrane declines, and utilization rate of α-tocopherol in erythrocyte membrane increases age-dependently. These changes, which enhanced lipid peroxidation and consequently reduced membrane fluidity, may be caused by the impairment of this transfer mechanism.
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We have shown previously that in addition to IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by spleen cells from ovalbumin (OVA)/Alum-immunized mice is inhibited by the administration of royal jelly (RJ). Since it has been shown that both Th1 and Th2 cytokines play pathogenic roles in the generation of atopic dermatitis (AD), we have examined whether RJ suppresses the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by repeated application of picryl chloride (PiCl) under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions. Oral administration of RJ to the PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions in these mice as exemplified by the significant decrease in the total skin severity scores and the decrease in hypertrophy, hyperkeratosis, and infiltration of the epidermis and corium by inflammatory cells. IFN-gamma production by spleen cells from PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice in response to TNP-KLH was partially but significantly inhibited by the oral administration of RJ, while IFN-gamma production by Con A-stimulated spleen cells was not affected. Since inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)-derived NO has been suggested as an important immunoregulatory mediator in inflammatory autoimmune diseases, we have also examined the expression of iNOS in the dorsal skin lesions of PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice. Interestingly, the expression of iNOS was significantly increased in the skin lesions of RJ-administered mice compared with those of control PBS-administered mice. Thus, our results suggest that RJ suppresses the development of AD-like skin lesions in PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice, possibly by a combination of down-regulating TNP-specific IFN-gamma production and up-regulating iNOS expression.
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In this study, we have examined the anti-inflammatory actions of royal jelly (RJ) at a cytokine level. When supernatants of RJ suspensions were added to a culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and IFN-gamma, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1, was efficiently inhibited in a dose-dependent manner without having cytotoxic effects on macrophages. This suggests that RJ contains factor(s) responsible for the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. We named the factor for honeybees RJ-derived anti-inflammatory factor (HBRJ-AIF), and further investigated the molecular aspects of it. Size fractionation study showed that HBRJ-AIF is composed of substances of low (< 5 kDa) and high (> 30 kDa) molecular weights, with the former being a major component. Chromatographic analysis showed that MRJP3 is one candidate for the HBRJ-AIF with high molecular weights. Thus, our results suggest that RJ has anti-inflammatory actions through inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages.
Article
In this study, we investigate the effect of dietary Royal Jelly (RJ) on tissue DNA oxidative damage and on the life span of C3H/HeJ mice. In C3H/HeJ mice that were fed a dietary supplement of RJ for 16 weeks, the levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, were significantly reduced in kidney DNA and serum. Secondly, we determined the effect of dietary RJ on the life span in C3H/HeJ mice. The 50% mice survivals of intermediate- (about 6 mg/kg weight) and high-dose groups (about 60 mg/kg weight) were reached at significantly longer times than that of the control group according to the generalized Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). The average survival times were 88 weeks for the control group vs. 79 weeks for the low-dose group (about 0.6 mg/kg weight), 112 weeks for the intermediate-dose group and 110 weeks for the high-dose group, respectively, showing that RJ extended the average survival time by about 25% compared to the control group. However, RJ did not extend the total life span. These results indicated that dietary RJ increased the average life span of C3H/HeJ mice, possibly through the mechanism of reduced oxidative damage.