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Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far

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... surprinzător (oarecum), toate încercările profesioniste de fundamentare, dezbaterile publice şi relativ inconsecventele demersuri politice privitoare la instituţiile educative destinate vârstelor precoce au ignorat (cvasi)complet -până relativ recent -aproape orice referire la datele neurobiologice specifice acestei etape extrem de dinamice şi de complexe. s-au invocat ca explicaţii ale acestei "prăpăstii" argumente mai mult sau mai puţin întemeiate, de la ideea că orice asemenea interes ar fi prematur, dat fiind faptul că suntem încă departe de a înţelege pe deplin raportul creier-psihic (Christoff, 2008), la aceea că în general datele biomedicale nu pot fi convertite în indicaţii didactice concrete (Breuer, 1997;davis, 2004). ...
... totuşi, există astăzi o sumă de eforturi de apropiere între neuroştiinţe şi ştiinţele educaţiei, de construire a unor punţi de legătură între aceste domenii aparent "prea îndepărtate" (Breuer, 1997). aşa este, de pildă, cazul jurnalului Mind, Brain, and Education lansat în 2007 (Fischer et al., 2007), al programelor interdisciplinare în neuroeducaţie de la universităţi de renume, al unor iniţiative guvernamentale (americane şi britanice 1 ) şi supraguvernamentale (ale organizaţiei mondiale a sănătăţii şi ale altor organisme afiliate organizaţiei naţiunilor unite) sau al variatelor grupuri şi societăţi ştiinţifice ce îşi propun să faciliteze descoperirea reciprocă a neuroştiinţelor şi ştiinţelor educaţiei (stern, 2005; samuels, 2009). ...
... 3.14. Pledoarie finală depăşind, pe de o parte, reticenţele partizane cauzate de diferenţele epistemologice, de abordarea conceptuală şi metodologică (Breuer, 1997), de barierele de limbaj inerente (pickering şi Howard-Jones, 2007) sau de tradiţiile istorice relativ incompatibile (samuels, 2009) şi, pe de altă parte, aşteptările nerealiste ale unui impact imediat al neuroştiinţelor asupra educaţiei (ansari, de smedt şi Grabner, 2011), concretizat în numeroase "neuromituri" 38 (de exemplu, tardif, doudin şi meylan, 2015), o coaliţie neuroeducaţională va fertiliza treptat domeniile astfel aliate, oferind deopotrivă date fundamentale pentru înţelegerea dezvoltării neuropsihice infantile extrem de complicate (dar şi a celei adulte ori senescente) şi informaţii practice pentru demersul instructiv de diverse facturi, la vârste diferite. neuroeducaţia are de altfel "neuro-"corespondenţi contemporani de succes, precum neuroştiinţele economice (neuropublicitatea, neuromarketingul) (de exemplu, Glimcher et al., 2008), neuroestetica (de exemplu, skov şi vartanian, 2009) sau neuroteologia (de exemplu, newberg, 2010). ...
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În contextul actualei extinderi a limitelor (inclusiv) temporale ale educaţiei – deopotrivă spre vârste tot mai mici şi tot mai mari devine necesară reevaluarea întemeierii acestora în acord cu modificările neurobiologice care o fac posibilă la astfel de vârste. Surprinzător (oarecum), toate încercările profesioniste de fundamentare, dezbaterile publice şi relativ inconsecventele demersuri politice privitoare la instituţiile educative destinate vârstelor precoce au ignorat (cvasi)complet – până relativ recent – aproape orice referire la datele neurobiologice specifice acestei etape extrem de dinamice şi de complexe. s‑au invocat ca explicaţii ale acestei „prăpăstii” argumente mai mult sau mai puţin întemeiate, de la ideea că orice asemenea interes ar fi prematur, dat fiind faptul că suntem încă departe de a înţelege pe deplin raportul creier‑psihic (Christoff, 2008), la aceea că în general datele biomedicale nu pot fi convertite în indicaţii didactice concrete (Breuer, 1997; davis, 2004). Totuşi, există astăzi o sumă de eforturi de apropiere între neuroştiinţe şi ştiinţele educaţiei, de construire a unor punţi de legătură între aceste domenii aparent „prea îndepărtate” (Breuer, 1997). aşa este, de pildă, cazul jurnalului Mind, Brain, and Education lansat în 2007 (Fischer et al., 2007), al programelor interdisciplinare în neuroeducaţie de la universităţi de renume, al unor iniţiative guvernamentale (americane şi britanice) şi supraguvernamentale (ale organizaţiei mondiale a sănătăţii şi ale altor organisme afiliate organizaţiei naţiunilor unite) sau al variatelor grupuri şi societăţi ştiinţifice ce îşi propun să faciliteze descoperirea reciprocă a neuroştiinţelor şi ştiinţelor educaţiei (Stern, 2005; Samuels, 2009). Dincolo de susţinerile instituţionale şi tendinţele internaţionale, în opinia mea, orice încercare convingătoare a educaţiei de a depăşi condiţia unui demers doctrinar, mai degrabă de tip normativ decât explorator, de a depăşi o anumită autosuficienţă pragmatică şi de a se întemeia cu adevărat ştiinţific nu poate ocoli aportul neuroştiinţelor. aceasta este cu atât mai evident în cazul educaţiei timpurii.
... Several educational researchers have held that merging the knowledge base of developmental cognitive neuroscience with education is a "bridge too far" [16,17], and others have argued against such a view [18][19][20][21]. Nevertheless, a bridging discipline, such as educational or cognitive psychology [22,23], can provide a neuroscientific basis for educational practice. ...
... Numerous researchers have taken opposite or middle positions on whether developmental cognitive neurosciences can be linked with education. Bruer [16] had created a significant response when noting that the integration of brain sciences and education is not possible and that some translational field is necessary to support the development of a common language. Goswami [33] indicated that developmental cognitive neuroscience has already effected change, with examples that she provides, which have included "neural markers" that could be employed to assess achievement of developmental educational indicators. ...
Article
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There have been numerous detractors and supporters relating to attempts to merge the neurosciences and the knowledge base of related contributing disciplines with the field of education. Some have argued that this is a “bridge too far”. The predominant view is that the relationship between neuroscience and the classroom has been neither significantly examined, nor applied. What is needed is a specially trained class of professionals whose role it would be to guide the introduction of cognitive neuroscience into educational practice in a sensible and ethical manner. Neuroeducators would play a pivotal role in assessing the quality of evidence purporting to be relevant to education, assessing who is best placed to employ newly developed knowledge, as well as with what safeguards, in addition to investigating how to deal with unexpected consequences of implemented research findings. This special issue of the “The Brain Goes to School” aims to provide support for the development of training programs that truly integrate curriculum design and classroom instruction with the developmental cognitive neurosciences.
... The transfer of neuroscience research results to education and learning has not been, and is still not, direct (Bruer, 1997;Blakemore and Frith, 2005). Misconceptions about neuroscientific claims are widespread not only among teachers but also among experts in education (Goswami, 2006). ...
... However, they cannot yet inform education practice directly (Goswami, 2004(Goswami, , 2006Blakemore and Frith, 2005;Lindell and Kidd, 201;Thomas, 2013). While some researchers keep a cautious but optimistic vision about the future of educational neuroscience (Ansari nad Coch, 2006;Goswami, 2006;Varma et al., 2008;Thomas, 2013), others are more skeptical about the pontential of neuroscience to improve teaching in the future (Bruer, 1997;Bowers, 2016). We believe that we should do our best for our students to be successful in learning. ...
Conference Paper
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The study is the output of a research project aimed at creating a model of andragogical counselling in the context of professionalization in teacher education. The partial goal is to identify areas in which teachers need professional development and counselling. In this article, we present the results of a survey in which we focused on the identification of neuromyths and other factors in terms of education and counselling of teachers in this area (N 246). We found out that more than 50% of respondents considered 12 neuromyths to be correct and 5 of them were believed by 90% of respondents. In addition to these findings, the results suggest a tendency that with the increasing number of errors, respondents showed a greater interest in education and counselling in the field of neuromyths. Abstrakt: Štúdia je výstupom výskumného projektu, ktorý je zameraný na vytvorenie modelu andragogického poradenstva v kontexte profesionalizácie učiteľstva. Čiastkovým cieľom je zistiť oblasti, v ktorých by učitelia potrebovali profesijný rozvoj a poradenstvo. V príspevku uvádzame výsledky dotazníkového skúmania, v ktorom sme sa zamerali na identifikáciu neuromýtov a ďalších faktorov orientovaných na vzdelávanie a poradenstvo učiteľov v tejto oblasti (N 246). Zistili sme, že v 12 neuromýtoch odpovedalo nesprávne viac ako 50 % respondentov a pri 5 z nich bolo nesprávnych až 90 % odpovedí. Okrem týchto zistení, výsledky naznačujú tendenciu, že so zvyšovaním počtu chýb, respondenti prejavovali väčší záujem o vzdelávanie a poradenstvo v oblasti neuromýtov.
... Modern requirements of primary education in the context of the concept of the New Ukrainian school requires innovative approaches not only to the implementation of the educational process in the elementary school, but also the formation of professional competence of elementary school teachers by means of neuro-pedagogy, Pekhota (2003). Over the past 15 years, there have been several appeals to use the findings of neuropedagogy to guide educational research and practice (Bruer, 1997;Bransford et al., 2000;Blakemore & Frith, 2005;Davis, 2004;Geake & Cooper, 2003). ...
Article
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It was found that the concept of modernization of Ukrainian education, especially primary education in the reform "New Ukrainian School", puts forward new social requirements for school education, requires the introduction of innovative learning technologies in the educational process, the basis of which is ultramodern teaching methodology, progressive didactic tools, psychological and neuro-pedagogical theories. Justified the use of innovative technologies as a means of forming professional competence, which is associated with a rejection of stereotypes in education, goes beyond existing standards of education and personal development of the student; creates new standards for personal, creative, individual focus of the teacher, allows the application of new neuro-pedagogical technologies. The most effective innovative methods of teaching and professional development of teachers of junior classes of the New Ukrainian school, created taking into account the achievements of neuro-pedagogy are highlighted, namely: game, problem-oriented, team-oriented, project-based methods, the portfolio method, information and communication technologies. Activation of cognitive activity of students, taking into account their individual neuro-didactic characteristics affecting the degree of their involvement in the educational process was investigated.
... Today, neurothecnology is the main part of this process that attempts to help educational systems to have a better efficiency in the classrooms. So, experts use a wide array of terms including "neuroscience and education" (Bruer, 1997), "neurolearning" (Bruer, 2003), "educational neuroscience" (Varma, McCandliss, & Schwartz, 2008), "cognitive neuroscience" (Goswami, 2008) and "brain-based education" (Jensen, 2008). All these concepts illuminate the collaboration of neuroscience and the related technology to the brain activities. ...
Preprint
The education and pedagogy have been adopted with the growth of technology in order to achieve efficient consequences by the usage of innovational and up-to-date technologies. The new methods in neuroscience and neurotechnology have influenced education and classrooms. A considerable number of researches have been projected in this field that all try to demonstrate the advantages of neurotechnology in education and classrooms. In fact, most researchers have connived its harms and disadvantages on students and learning system and the sphere of the classrooms. This paper tries to survey on the fourteen recent researches in the framework of critical theory to discuss the adverse effects of neurotechnology as well as their neglected aspects in education and the classrooms.
... Several papers have included results and perspectives related to both disciplines based on the concept of the bridge. Excluding anecdotal reports, the first scientist to introduce the concept was Bruer [11]. In this influential paper, he described the presence of two bridges between cognitive sciences and education: the one between education and cognitive psychology, which was a "well-established bridge, now nearly 50 years old" (p. ...
Article
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The research fields of cognitive neuroscience and education are often criticized because of the gap that separates them. In the past 20 years, many actions have been taken to bridge this gap; advantages and criticisms of these efforts have been observed. Only some changes could be documented, and they were not sufficiently commensurate with the efforts. To overcome these limitations, a different metaphor is outlined, consisting of a common field that should be cultivated by scholars operating from both perspectives. The new metaphor moves the perspective from “what is missing” (the bridge) to an existing field that requires concrete actions to be taken. The proposal details which topics from the two disciplines should be considered relevant when cultivating the common field. Then, based on the metaphor of the common field, real-life suggestions about how to develop these competencies are proposed, and recommendations for further actions are provided based on sustainability principles. The utilization of school psychologists (namely, their transition to educational scientists) and the introduction of optional stages and in-tandems involving cooperation between existing university courses in education and neuroscience are seen as feasible interventions. This change in vision is expected to drive further actions toward more effective cooperation between cognitive neuroscience and education.
... Previous studies also pointed out that architectural characteristics like spatial openness (Hedge, 1982;Sundstrom et al., 1982) or enclosed and open spaces can affect mental satisfaction. Theorists in architecture mention complexity and order to be decisive in evaluating architectural quality (Weber, 1995), and balance in architectural elements can elevate cognitive function (Bruer, 1997). Therefore, the appearance of any spaceaffective stimulus to change architectural qualities can potentially lead to emotional behavior and cognitive function in physical or mediated spaces (Soleymani et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Objectives: Human perception of the built environment affects emotional and physiological states. This research focused on the association between evaluating a space's visual qualities and physiological responses by mediating film contents to indicate the association between physiological indicators and assessing the quality of space in the presence of environmental stimuli. Method: Data collection was conducted using a psychological questionnaire and physiological indicators of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), skin resistance level (SRL), and body temperature (BT) during the film screening. The ANOVA was conducted to compare different variables in the three films alongside linear regression to analyze the impact of variables on space quality. Spearman correlation coefficient analyses were performed to find the association between variables. Results: The descriptive statistics showed significant changes in psychological and physiological variables in films. Associations between the NAQ factor and physiological changes in HR, SBP, and DBP factors were significant. The results derived from the simple and multiple linear regressions depicted the significant impact of physiological factors on HR and BP on perceiving the quality of space. Conclusion: It was concluded that physiological changes caused by emotional arousal could be strongly associated with psychological assessments. Stimuli-affected video contents illustrating architectural spaces could efficiently extract the impact of physiological states and human cognitive responses to the space quality. Physiological characteristics related to the space appraisal could help realize the human-environment interaction in a multi-layered approach to the built environment and spatial cognition.
... Brain-based learning has arisen during the past three decades, with teachers extrapolating neuroscience results for classroom application (Zadina, 2015). Bruer (1997) referred to this action as "Bridge too far" (bridge too far) since the professionals lacked scientific understanding and took baseless action. Scientists joined the push to educate professionals on the process, but they lacked classroom teaching skills. ...
Article
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In recent years, considerable advancements have been made in the field of educational neuroscience research. Researchers commend its existence and influence on educational procedures. This effort was intended to illustrate the educational applications of Neuroscience. In particular, research articles, quantitative and qualitative analyses, meta-analyses, and articles of critical inquiry on Neuroscience in Education were examined. In addition, a review of recent literature was attempted. From these studies, conclusions can be derived that can prove useful in the fields of research and teaching. Thus, best practices, methodologies, perspectives, attitudes, and perceptions that support the significance and value of Neuroscience in the field of education are offered.
... Neurodiversity takes into account that learners have different brains, resulting in variations in cognition, learning, behaviour and socialisation.19 SeeBruer (1997) for an early critique of what he termed the "neuroscience and education argument" (ibid., p. 4), which has sparked a number of both negative and positive responses over the past 25 years. ...
Article
In addition to the longstanding threat posed by narrow economism, faith in the possibility of peace and progress through democratic politics – central to the humanistic vision of the 1972 Faure report – today faces additional challenges. These challenges include the ascendancy of neurocentrism in the global policyscape. Whereas the effects of neoliberalism on education have been extensively critiqued, the implications of a newer, related ideological framework known as neuroliberalism remain under-theorised. Neuroliberalism combines neoliberal ideas concerning the role of markets in addressing social problems with beliefs about human nature ostensibly grounded in the behavioural, psychological and neurological sciences. This article critically examines a recent initiative of one of UNESCO’s Category 1 Institutes – the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development (MGIEP) – that seeks to mainstream neuroscience and digital technology within global educational policy. Comparing the visions of the 1972 Faure, the 1996 Delors and the 2021 Futures of Education reports with MGIEP’s International Science and Evidence Based Education Assessment (ISEEA), the authors analyse continuity and change in UNESCO’s attempts to articulate a vision of “scientific humanism” which advocates the use of science for the betterment of humanity. They argue that ISEEA’s overall recommendations – as represented in its Summary for Decision Makers (SDM) – reinforce a reductive, depoliticised vision of education which threatens to exacerbate educational inequality while enhancing the profits and power of Big Tech. These recommendations exemplify a neuroliberal turn in global education policy discourse, marking a stark departure from the central focus on ethics and democratic politics characteristic of UNESCO’s landmark education reports. Reanimating, in cruder form, visions of a scientifically-organised utopia of the kind that attracted UNESCO’s inaugural Director-General, Julian Huxley, ISEEA’s recommendations actually point towards the sort of dystopian “brave new world” of which his brother, Aldous Huxley, warned.
... La relevancia de los hallazgos de la neurociencia para potenciar el desarrollo infantil ha sido reconocida por formuladores de políticas, docentes y padres a nivel internacional. (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6) La neurociencia se ha encaminado a estudiar los mecanismos subyacentes a las formas en que el cerebro selecciona, retiene, almacena, recupera y relaciona información; igualmente se ha encargado de crear representaciones sobre el entorno y las utiliza para regular las emociones y el comportamiento y resolver problemas de gran variedad y complejidad. Además, ha permitido describir las trayectorias de desarrollo de las redes cerebrales y los procesos cognitivos y emocionales que ha contribuido a la adecuada integración del niño a la sociedad y a su calidad de vida e identificar a niños en riesgo de presentar TND. ...
Article
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Introducción. La relevancia de las evidencias provenientes de las neurociencias para potenciar el desarrollo infantil y el rendimiento académico ha sido reconocida por formuladores de políticas, maestros y padres de todo el mundo. Sin embargo, ha sido indispensable que este conocimiento altamente especializado sea interpretado y traducido en estrategias e instrumentos concretos a aplicar en la escuela, el hogar y los escenarios de atención especializada de los niños que presentan trastornos del neurodesarrollo (TND). Métodos. Se presenta una selección de los principales resultados de la línea de neurodesarrollo publicados por el Centro de Neurociencias de Cuba (CNEURO) en revistas arbitradas por pares. Resultados y Discusión. Los estudios conductuales y de neuroimágen de las bases neuro-cognitivas de los procesos de aprendizaje y el rendimiento académico permitieron identificar indicadores de riesgo de TND y fundamentar el diseño de instrumentos para la detección temprana, caracterización del perfil cognitivo y la atención individualizada de los niños. Se concluyó que los resultados demostraron el proceso de traducción y aplicación de las evidencias científicas en instrumentos y estrategias para la protección del capital mental de la nación y su integración a los programas nacionales de salud y educación, dedicados a la atención temprana del desarrollo infantil.
... For example, presenting nature scenes (e.g., Hawaiian beach) through virtual reality in an open office helped office workers to foster a flow state [30], which is a positive experiential and mental state highly related to cognitive performance occurring when people are completely immersed in their activities [32]. Although exposure to nature has shown significant impacts on improving psychological and cognitive performances, which may influence learning performance, it remains unknown whether exposure to nature may affect learning performance [33][34][35]. ...
Article
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Previous studies have revealed the restorative effects of exposure to natural environments on psychological well-being and cognitive performance. Recent studies have reported the effects of exposure to nature sounds (e.g., the sounds of birds, rainfall, and waves) through a mobile application on reducing students’ mental fatigue and improving their cognitive performance. However, it remains unknown whether exposure to nature sounds through a mobile application may influence students’ learning performance. To address the gap, we conducted a study with 71 university students. During the four-week intervention, 36 students in the experimental group were exposed to nature sounds through a free mobile application for at least 30 consecutive minutes per day when working on academic-related tasks; 35 students in the control group did not have such exposure when working on similar tasks. The results show that students in the experimental group outperformed those in the control group in their engagement in deep learning, frequency of academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy. The findings reveal the promising effects of exposure to nature sounds through a mobile application on improving students’ learning performance. The implications of the findings are discussed.
... En primer lugar, neuroeducación sugiere un encuentro en tre las ciencias de la educación y las neurociencias, por eso se usan también expresiones como "neurociencias educativas" (educational neurosciences) y otras semejantes con el mismo propósito de integrar las ciencias del cerebro, de la mente y de la educación. Bruer (1997Bruer ( , 2002 advierte sobre el largo camino que falta por recorrer antes de poder establecer puentes sólidos entre las disciplinas. ...
Book
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El proceso de creación estabiliza lo evanescente, lo inscribe en un material. Los medios para explorar este paisaje interior se configuran como los recursos para experimentar el alcance y la variedad en la receptividad y sensibilidad. Usamos mapas como analogía estructural, pero una manera de ver es también no ver. Las artes también nos hablan de emociones. Nos presentan sensaciones para contemplar, haciéndolas visibles, audibles, perceptibles mediante un símbolo que no es inferible desde un síntoma. La forma de arte es congruente con las dinámicas de nuestra vida directa sensorial, mental y emocional, son proyecciones de la vida sentida en estructuras espaciales, temporales y poéticas. De la revisión articulada entre investigación y docencia, encontramos una serie de funciones cognitivas de las artes: la elaboración estética de la experiencia, aprender a observar el mundo, aplicar la imaginación como un medio para explorar nuevas posibilidades liberados de lo literal y directo; predisposición a tolerar la ambigüedad, explorar lo incierto, aplicar juicios libres de procedimientos y reglas preceptivas, junto a disfrutar el arte como raíz y desarrollo de la autonomía individual. Arte_
... Despite this obvious connection, the application of findings from neuroscience to education is controversial. While some argue that neuroscience findings are of little use to educators [26,27], others are more optimistic [28][29][30][31]. The exclusion of neuroscience content in teacher training should not be taken as evidence that training of this kind is thought to have negative effects. ...
Article
Recent educational trends point to an interest in educational neurotechnology. While these tools have the potential to change education, little is known about whether their use improves educational outcomes. Additionally, their adoption may be negatively impacted by teachers’ lack of knowledge about the brain. In this paper we outline the potential of educational neurotechnology including what we know, what we do not yet know, and additional considerations for the ethical, successful adoption of these tools in classrooms around the world. Special consideration is given to the training needs of pre- and in-service educators whose support will be essential to the successful adoption of educational neurotechnology.
... A pesar de la potencial utilidad de esta base empírica, el gran problema detectado por numerosas investigaciones es el cómo aplicar de forma práctica estas evidencias a la acción educativa cotidiana. Ya en los mediados de los años 90 del siglo pasado, Bruer definió este hecho como una brecha epistemológica entre la neurociencia y la acción educativa, apostando por la necesidad de construir puentes epistemológicos entre las diversas disciplinas implicadas (Bruer, 1997). Desde entonces, diversos autores han desarrollado, de forma teórica, cómo se han de construir estos puentes epistemológicos; unas centradas en la elaboración de constructos comunes y formación de profesionales (Benarós et al., 2016), otras inciden en la necesidad de una base práctica, filosófica y en la conjunción de metodologías (Nouri, 2016), y otras más en procesos E-A (Barios-Tao, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
El uso de TIC educativas en los museos de arte han estado ampliamente estudiadas desde la museología y la pedagogía. Dede estos campos se han detectado problemas, carencias y propuestas con el fin de desarrollar todo el potencial de éstas. Proponemos añadir un tercer campo de estudio que se encuentra actualmente en pleno desarrollo: la neuroeducación. Para ello, presentamos, a partir de la construcción de un puente epistemológico en el que confluyan los tres campos, una base teórica y un constructo común en forma de características con el fin de ser usado como herramienta para el desarrollo, análisis y diseño de TIC educativas en los museos de arte.
... Architectural theorists further suggest that complexity (implicating diversity, entropy, richness) and order are also vital structures of architectural qualities (Weber, 1995). A previous study also showed that a balanced environment escalated creativity and cognitive function (Bruer, 1997). ...
Article
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Objectives: The research paper establishes the impact of spatial stimulus on human cognition and emotion by studying environmental events as cues to understand how people perceive spatial qualities. The medium of film to implement visually disruptive events was used in the research to find the relationship between the subjective evaluation of space and emotional responses. Method: Ninety participants participated in watching three films showcasing unexpected spatial stimuli, thus impacting their psychological state. Standard questionnaires involving Aesthetic chills and The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) model were used to capture emotional responses, and Normalized Accumulated Quality (NAQ) model was used to receive space quality assessments. The Pearson correlation coefficient was subsequently used to find the association of chills and The SAM with NAQ. Univariate and multivariate regression models were also conducted to find the impact of emotional responses on NAQ. Results: A significant association of NAQ with chills (p-value: 0.001), pleasure (p-value <0.001), arousal (p-value: 0.016), and dominance (p-value: 0.015) was witnessed in film 1. In film 2, NAQ was significantly associated with pleasure (p-value <0.001), while in film 3, NAQ was highly associated with arousal (p-value: 0.043). According to the adjusted impact of variables on NAQ in film 1, significant impacts of chills (p-value: 0.028), arousal (p-value: 0.117), pleasure (p-value <0.001), and dominance (p-value: 0.113) on NAQ were observed. In film 2, pleasure (p-value <0.001) and dominance (p-value: 0.113) impacted NAQ using the univariate model, while only pleasure had an impact on NAQ in the multivariate model. In film 3, arousal was the only variable to impact NAQ (p-value: 0.043) in a univariate model. In regression analyses, higher slopes were witnessed for models in film 1. Conclusion: The experiment highlighted that using affect-based video clips can help us capture the relationship between emotional responses and perceived quality of space. The appearance of spatial stimuli can engage learning, expectation, and attention, leading to a superior improvement of cognitive ability and mental health in space. This level of understanding can help design a more sustainable place.
... The value of neuroscience research in improving education is promising (Stern, 2005).Neuroscience and education have been seen as an ideal partnership to guide 21 stcentury learning (Carew & Magsamen, 2010). Teachers are fascinated by the notions of brain-based curricula and learning (Bruer, 1997), so they could offer the best instruction possible for their students. There are many ways in which neuroscience can inform education. ...
Article
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Neuromyths are prevalent in all spheres of life and can be found in all professions. The teaching profession is especially susceptible to neuromyths as teachers want to provide the most effective, science based instruction to their students. Sometimes these instructions are not based on scientific studies but on a misinterpretation of scientific findings or neuromyths. The goal of the present paper was to examine the prevalence of seven popular neuromyths in teachers in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH). The research study comprised 300 teachers from all parts of BIH. The research material comprised 300 teachers (232 females and 62 males) from all parts of BIH. Participants were either personally invited to the study or recruited through an online survey sent to schools throughout BIH and teacher organizations. As a me thod we used the Questionnaire consisting of basic demographic information on the participants (gender, working experience, type of teacher) and 7 neuromyths statements on which participants were asked to answer whether they think the statement is true, not true, or they do not know, The results of this study indicate a wide prevalence of neuromyths in BIH teachers. The prevalence ranged from 17% to 82%. The most prevalent myth is about learning styles, while the least prevalent was that drinking less than 8 glasses of water causes a brain to shrink. There were statistically significant differences in the prevalence of neuromyths in relation to the teachers' gender for every statement. However, the trend is not uniform. Although, overall the neuromyths were more prevalent in female teachers (for 5 items), for two neuromyth statements, male teachers had a higher prevalence. Additionally, the prevalence of neuromyths was more frequent in early-grade teachers. It should be noted that there are also differences in the results obtained for the different types of neuromyths. Neuroscience is important for education and for the teachers. Thus, more attention should be given to the process of translating neuro-scientific findings into useful facts for teachers. One way to improve this process is through the continual professional development of teachers in the field of neuroscience.
... No han faltado las críticas a la imposibilidad de tal proyecto, como las de J. Bruer (1997), quien señaló tres puentes lejanos en el terreno neuroeducativo. En primero se refería al poco conocimiento de la estructura funcional del cerebro para poder unirlo a la práctica educativa. ...
Article
El progreso de la neuroeducación en los últimos años ha tenido incidencia en la comprensión actual de la educación. Como ciencia interdisciplinar, la neuroeducación ha aportado grandes ventajas sobre la descripción de los correlatos neurales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, así como en la detección de los neuromitos. Sin embargo, sus aportaciones no están carentes de una revisión crítica desde la perspectiva filosófica que vaya más allá del cuestionamiento puramente neurocientífico sobre la validez de las evidencias. El objetivo de este artículo es señalar la necesaria aceptación crítica de los resultados de la neuroeducación para evitar un colonialismo neurocientífico como un reto al que la teoría de la educación debe enfrentarse. Para ello, en primer lugar se justificará la introducción de la neuroeducación en el panorama educativo actual. En segundo lugar, se conceptualizará brevemente la neuroeducación y los neuromitos para poder después, a través de una metodología argumentativa y crítica, incidir en los factores de la aceptación de sus descubrimientos. En tercer lugar, para ejemplificar la aceptación crítica de estos, se analizarán las Inteligencias Múltiples de H. Gardner y su posible consideración como neuromito. Este análisis permitirá observar como no siempre las evidencias neurocientíficas, o falta de estas, son suficientes para considerar una teoría educativa peyorativamente como un neuromito. La discusión radica en la consideración de una falta de evidencia científica desde el diálogo interdisciplinar de la neuroeducación. A pesar del abierto debate sobre su consideración neurocientífica y sobre su utilidad a nivel pedagógico, las Inteligencias Múltiples están en sintonía con las consideraciones de las leyes educativas en los últimos años, las cuales han incidido de manera significativa en las competencias de aprendizaje, y en las metodologías y evaluaciones que comprendan al ser humano desde un punto de vista holístico, abriendo así la puerta al diálogo con otras ciencias.
... La relevancia de los hallazgos de la neurociencia para potenciar el desarrollo infantil ha sido reconocida por formuladores de políticas, docentes y padres a nivel internacional. (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6) La neurociencia se ha encaminado a estudiar los mecanismos subyacentes a las formas en que el cerebro selecciona, retiene, almacena, recupera y relaciona información; igualmente se ha encargado de crear representaciones sobre el entorno y las utiliza para regular las emociones y el comportamiento y resolver problemas de gran variedad y complejidad. Además, ha permitido describir las trayectorias de desarrollo de las redes cerebrales y los procesos cognitivos y emocionales que ha contribuido a la adecuada integración del niño a la sociedad y a su calidad de vida e identificar a niños en riesgo de presentar TND. ...
Article
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Introduction. The relevance of neurosciences research for promoting child development is recognized worldwide by policy makers, teachers and parents. However, it is essential that this highly specialized knowledge be interpreted and translated into concrete strategies and instruments to be applied at school, at home, and in specialized care settings for children with neurodevelopmental disorders (TND). Methods. A selection of the main results of neurodevelopment research is presented, published by the Cuban Neurosciences Center (CNEURO) in peer-reviewed journals. Results and Discussion. Behavioral and neuroimaging studies of the neurocognitive foundations of learning processes and academic achievement allowed for identifying risk indicators for TND and supporting the design of instruments for early detection, cognitive profiling and individualized attention of children. It is concluded that the results demonstrate the process of translation and application of scientific evidence into instruments and strategies for the protection of the nation’s mental capital and its integration into national health and education programs dedicated to early child care and education.
... La relevancia de los hallazgos de la neurociencia para potenciar el desarrollo infantil ha sido reconocida por formuladores de políticas, docentes y padres a nivel internacional. (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6) La neurociencia se ha encaminado a estudiar los mecanismos subyacentes a las formas en que el cerebro selecciona, retiene, almacena, recupera y relaciona información; igualmente se ha encargado de crear representaciones sobre el entorno y las utiliza para regular las emociones y el comportamiento y resolver problemas de gran variedad y complejidad. Además, ha permitido describir las trayectorias de desarrollo de las redes cerebrales y los procesos cognitivos y emocionales que ha contribuido a la adecuada integración del niño a la sociedad y a su calidad de vida e identificar a niños en riesgo de presentar TND. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. The relevance of neurosciences research for promoting child development is recognized worldwide by policy makers, teachers and parents. However, it is essential that this highly specialized knowledge be interpreted and translated into concrete strategies and instruments to be applied at school, at home, and in specialized care settings for children with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND). Methods. A selection of the main results of neurodevelopment research is presented, published by the Cuban Neurosciences Center (CNEURO) in peer-reviewed journals. Results and Discussion. Behavioral and neuroimaging studies of the neurocognitive foundations of learning processes and academic achievement allowed for identifying risk indicators for ND and supporting the design of instruments for early detection, cognitive profiling and individualized attention of children. It is concluded that the results demonstrate the process of translation and application of scientific evidence into instruments and strategies for the protection of the nation’s mental capital and its integration into national health and education programs dedicated to early child care and education.
... It has been rightfully pointed out that no classroom-ready knowledge from neuroscience is ever likely to exist (Howard-Jones, 2010; Thomas et al., 2018). Nevertheless, the relevance of neuroscience for education is accepted by policymakers and teachers worldwide (see Bishop, 2014;Bowers, 2016;Bruer, 1997Bruer, , 2016Howard-Jones et al., 2016;Thomas et al., 2018 for alternative views within the academic community). ...
Chapter
There is current debate regarding the neurocognitive underpinnings of numerical cognition and its relevance for educational practice. A series of collaborative studies were conducted in Cuba and Chile, during the past 10 years, addressing (1) neural foundations of numerical processing and (2) the specific contributions of domain-specific and domain-general cognitive processes to math proficiency. Here, the rationale and main findings of the brain imaging studies carried out in Cuba, in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) and children with neurofibromatosis type 1, a genetic disorder presented with high risk of low academic achievement in reading and math, are presented. The implications of behavioral studies conducted in Cuban and Chilean samples regarding the main neurocognitive theories of DD are discussed, and finally, (3) specific recommendations for the early assessment, teaching, and learning of math in the classroom are discussed, in the light of the principles of Precision Education.KeywordsNumber processingLow mathematical achievementAttentionIntraparietal sulcusNF1
... This increase eventually led to questions regarding the application of this knowledge to improve education in an integrated field known as Educational Neuroscience (Howard-Jones et al., 2016). Besides that, a wide variety of such attempts to integrate neuroscience into education resulted in neuromyths and misconceptions (Bruer, 1997;Ekuni & Pompéia, 2015;Hermida et al., 2016). Today, there is a corpus of knowledge about our central nervous system and its functioning that (adequately understood) has promising contributions to the education field (e.g., Sigman et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
Cognitive sciences and neurosciences have advanced enormously during the last decades not only in the understanding of how mind and brain work but also in how that knowledge can be considered to improve educational practice. However, most of the evidence in this issue came from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic (WEIRD) societies. Thus, there is not much information about how the integration of cognitive sciences and neuroscience could impact education in non-WEIRD populations, which are by far the biggest. This chapter introduces a book addressing how non-WEIRD societies’ research developments in cognitive science and neuroscience can impact education; in other words, this chapter introduces the central concepts to understand the interaction between cognitive science and education in cultural and social contexts that are quite unknown, mainly in Latin America. Also, this chapter provides an outline of the book that serves as a guide for reading it.KeywordsCognitive ScienceNeuroscienceEducationLatin AméricaNon-WEIRD societies
... John Bruer (1997), in his famous A Bridge too Far caution to education, warned of the dangers of drawing lessons for educational practice directly from neuroscience. He rather thought that cognitive science was generally the inferentially sounder intermediate bridge between fields. ...
... Las investigaciones que han explorado el desarrollo neurocognitivo infantil, presentan avances en el conocimiento de las funciones que se despliegan cuando se realizan tareas de lectura y escritura, las cuales son contenidos centrales de los programas escolares (Battro, 2011;Bruer, 1997;Colombo & Lipina, 2005;De Brigard, 2011;Posner, Rothbart& Rueda, 2011;Sheese & Lipina, 2011). ...
Article
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Resumen Se presenta un estudio descriptivo-correlacional orientado a buscar relaciones de la memoria operativa y de la memoria a largo plazo, con la capacidad de componer textos narrativos en niños de edad escolar. Los participantes fueron 83 niños y niñas de 9 a 11 años de edad, que asistían a cuarto y quinto grado de dos escuelas primarias de gestión pública. Se utilizaron pruebas de evaluación neuropsicológica y una pauta evaluativa de escritura basada en las dimensiones estructurales del texto. El procedimiento se llevó a cabo en las aulas con la presencia del maestro. Los resultados mostraron las relaciones que existen entre los sistemas de memoria y la eficacia en la composición de narraciones escritas, con especial atención a las dimensiones textuales, su coherencia y cohesión. Se concluye en la importancia de los procesos operativos de la memoria y la recuperación de la información almacenada para la eficacia de producción escrita. Los resultados muestran evidencia que permitiría alentar el valor predictivo de las variables neuropsicológicas en la apropiación de las habilidades de escritura. Palabras clave: escritura, textos narrativos, niños escolares, memoria de trabajo, memoria a largo plazo. Abstract This descriptive-correlational research aims to evaluate working memory and long-term memory realted to written composition. Participants were 83 boys/girls aged between 9 to 11 of 4th and 5th grade from two public primary schools. Memory sistems were evaluated by Neuropsychological tests. Dimensions and structure of text guidelines were used to evaluate written composition. Results showed that working memory an long term memory performance were strongly related to children's good quality compositions, specially when they are coherent and cohesive. The study provide findings that may contibute to show the predictive value of neurpsychological processes in writing skills acquisition.
... Despite the growing applications of BBL, there are substantial gaps between brain science and education (Bruer, 1997). Nouri (2016) recommended an interdisciplinary approach to bridge the gap between neuroscience and education, establish a common language and conceptual vocabulary, and identify philosophical and theoretical models. ...
Conference Paper
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Recent empirical studies examining how human brain functioning influences learning, cognition, and memory have attracted considerable attention from researchers, practitioners, and policymakers (Byrnes, 2001). Many educators claim that these neuroscientific findings support educational theories or improve teaching and learning practices based on advances in brain imaging technologies allowing researchers to observe what is occurring in the brain when learners engage in learning or perform tasks (Caine & Caine, 1995; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). Thus, brain-based learning (BBL) has aroused considerable scholarly interest along with a perception that the integration of neuroscience and education will help construct new ways of teaching and instructional strategies (Jensen, 2008; Lavis et al., 2016). The research perspective from neuroscience has provided a wealth of new information and has potential implications for theory development and practice of both adult continuing education (ACE) and human resource development (HRD). For example, business professionals have strategically adopted neuroscientific approaches pursuing organizational effectiveness to saliently maintain and develop learners in the workforce (Lim et al., 2019). The neurological perspective has helped expand knowledge about individual-level employee behavior through scientific investigations on neural processes of the human brain. At the organizational level, neuroscientific findings allow human resource practitioners to cultivate a desirable organizational culture and establish effective policies that influence employees’ motivation and work satisfaction in their work (Zhe & Yazdanifard, 2015). Despite the growing applications of BBL, there are substantial gaps between brain science and education (Bruer, 1997). Nouri (2016) recommended an interdisciplinary approach to bridge the gap between neuroscience and education, establish a common language and conceptual vocabulary, and identify philosophical and theoretical models. Hence, incorporating an increased body of BBL research will help researchers investigate diverse strategies to forge the conceptual framework for adult learners (Ross-Gordon et al., 2017) and the human resource management (HRM) of employees (Williams, 2001). The purpose of this study is to reveal how BBL research addressing adult learners’ education and training has contributed to the overall knowledge base linking neuroscience and educational practices. A comprehensive review of previous BBL studies may extend our understanding of educational phenomenon in adult education and organizational settings, through the lens of neuroscience. We extracted key research themes and methodological choices from BBL studies using content analysis. In addition, we explored the relationships and proximity among key concepts of BBL research by utilizing keyword network analysis. The overarching research questions are: (1) What are the key research themes and methodological choices of BBL studies across disciplines? and (2) What are the core keywords and their relationships in BBL studies across and over diverse disciplines? In this study, content analysis and keywords network analysis were employed to explore research themes and trends of BBL in the fields of ACE and HRD. Using content analysis, we extracted key research themes and methodological choices from the body of BBL studies. In addition, we explored the relationships and proximity among key concepts of BBL research using keywords network analysis. For data analysis, we reviewed the current literature on BBL addressing both ACE and HRD topics from 1985 to 2019. For content analysis, we analyzed 165 peer-reviewed journal articles. For keywords network analysis, the final 87 nodes were identified from 316 keywords extracted from the articles and were analyzed using Netminer 4.0. The process for data analyses is illustrated in Appendix 1. As a result of the thematic analysis (see Appendix 2), four following themes were identified: (a) basic research on learning, cognition, and the brain, (b) research on understanding learner/learning processes, (c) research on neuroscientific interpretation and educational implications, and (d) research on brain-based instructional methods. An important topic that revealed is how to address misconceptions about the neuroscience of learning. Recent studies dealing with neuromyths have stressed the importance of an accurate understanding of learning-related changes in the brain structure, as it can promote effective BBL practices. As shown in Appendix 3, the frequency of the research methodology uses of selected BBL literature shows that most studies utilized a literature review method (67.3%). This implies that experimental or quantitative research has yet to be fully utilized in the ACE and HRD fields. It could also be interpreted that integrative literature review research has overarching benefits in offering new insights and in extending knowledge for educators, practitioners, and policymakers. Interestingly, some studies have attempted to use descriptive analysis on BBL and integrate evidence from neurocognitive research with philosophical and theoretical strands of adult learning. Based on the network attributes of influential keywords (see Appendix 4 and 5), four clusters were identified as follows: (a) bridging neuroscience and education, (b) emerging interest in BBL at the organizational level, (c) theory building for brain-based educational practices, and (d) individual-level adult, learning-focused BBL studies. The core network map displays that scholarly approaches addressing individual-level adult learning (cluster 4) play a central role in expanding the scope of BBL research, including studies on bridging two fields with a broad viewpoint (cluster 1), identifying emerging interests in BBL at the organizational level (cluster 2), and building brain-based theories for educational practice (cluster 3). We expect that our findings will serve as new avenues to help researchers delve deeper into BBL approaches to improving ACE and HRD practices. BBL research has evolved with an extensive range of research topics. Given that there have been increasing attempts to apply BBL to adult learning or organizational contexts, future research should identify what conceptual underpinnings specifically connect neuroscience, ACE, and HRD. Our study also observed that current neuroscience studies lack empirical approaches to identify the context-bound findings of BBL. In this sense, a more practical line of research would help reveal how neuroscience findings can explain learning performance of adulthood and organizational concerns. Keywords: brain-based learning, adult continuing education, human resource development
... It is worth remembering that psychology studies human behavior, and neurosciences studies the work of brain mechanisms that regulate human behavior. Therefore, Bruer J. (1997) wrote about the close connection that should exist between neurosciences, psychology and education. Thomas et al. (2018) identifies energy supply, nutrition, stress resistance and environmental pollution as factors that can affect the functioning of the child's body and, at the same time, the learning of students.Therefore, the goal of neurosciences is to improve learning results to help them develop abilities, focus and promote motivation. ...
Article
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In the article, questions about the features of training future teachers of natural sciences in modern higher education in the context of modern neurosciences are highlighted.It was found that highly qualified and competent teachers are the key to successful higher education. The concept of "neuroscience" is investigated. Publications and books of domestic and foreign scientists on the training of future teachers of natural disciplines in the view of neurosciences are highlighted. The application of methodological approaches in teaching future teachers of natural disciplines is noted. The branch of neuro-andragogy, which is important for adult learning is considered. It is noted that university teachers should enrich the educational process with modern strategies in order to meet the needs of future student teachers. It is noted that future teachers are interested in mastering knowledge of neurosciences, because they understand that this will help them in their professional activities. It has been proven that many scientists argue that education cannot exist today without neurosciences. The facts that have a special impact on the work of the child's body and on learning have been clarified: energy supply, nutrition, stress resistance and environmental pollution. A study of approbation of foreign programs "Scheme of education and neuroscience" and "Science of the brain in motion" was carried out. It was found that students are interested in knowledge about the work of their own brain and try to work on themselves to help the body improve its performance.It is noted that scientists argue that for the activity of the brain to be productive, it is necessary for the neurons, synapse and myelin to work in a balanced way.It was proven that COVID - 19 pandemic to negatively impacted education. It was found that physical activity and the activity of cognitive functions are an integral link. Emphasis is placed on the pedagogy of partnership, which will promote close cooperation of teachers, children and parents and help parents to preserve the health of the child.
... In the last two decades, the bridge between neuroscience and education has narrowed, thanks to the dialogue between these two disciplines, which aims to improve pedagogical practices with the use of mind and brain knowledge [1]. The dialogue between neuroscience and education has involved raising awareness of neuromyths found across different countries [2], identifying scientific knowledge that can inform education, and including cognitive psychology as a discipline that can help bridge the gap between neuroscience and education [3,4]. There is currently a lot of evidence that neuroscience knowledge can influence teachers in a positive way, for instance, increasing inquiry-based pedagogy, which leads to higher-order thinking, deep knowledge, and connections to real world problems [5,6]. ...
Article
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Misconceptions about the brain (neuromyths) among educators have been found across different countries, but little has been done to dispel them. The present study assessed the effect of a one-year Science of Learning (SoL) course on neuroscience literacy and beliefs in neuromyths in a sample of Chilean pre-service teachers. An experimental group of pre-service teachers, who took the SoL course as part of their university training, and a control group were needed for the study. Participants in both groups completed an online survey three times during the year (beginning, middle and end of year). The results showed that participants in both groups responded correctly to most assertions but held major misconceptions about the brain (Time 1), in line with previous studies. Regarding neuroscience literacy, participants in the experimental and control groups did not differ significantly at Time 1, but the experimental group showed significantly better performance than the control group at Time 2 and Time 3. Unlike neuroscience literacy, the results in neuromyth beliefs did not differ significantly by group at Time 1 and Time 2; however, at Time 3, the experimental group showed a significant decline in neuromyth beliefs. Overall, these results suggest that the SoL course significantly improved overall neuroscience literacy and reduced neu-romyth belief among pre-service teachers, but the effect of the intervention was small.
... In this respect, Bruer (1997) believed that early childhood is a great opportunity for educators to provide children with a great knowledge rate, including a wide range of subjects from music to science, language, history, mathematics…In his work, he showed that if educators miss opportunities to teach children at an early age, this will affect their cognitive development and thus their intellectual abilities in the future life. 32 Consequently, when the schooling process is affected by an inability to master the linguistic tool through which the whole data collection is achieved, it leads to problems of understanding and thus to a school 32 https://www.google.com/search?q=school+failure+quotes+einst ...
Book
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‘The Tango of the Mind and the Heart through Language’ is the story of a perfect harmony of the cognitive, the emotional and the linguistic development. The balance between these three components shapes the personality of a human being. It is obvious that the genetic heritage is at the basis of all our human abilities, yet the psychological and the mental development is determined by the social background one is involved in. Indeed, all the sociocultural, cognitive and emotional and parameters acquired through the mother tongue.
... Örneğin, eğitsel sinirbilim alanı için onemli bir yeri olan ve Dr. John Bruer tarafından 1997 yılında yayımlanan "Eğitim ve Beyin: Çok Uzakta Bir Köprü (Education and the Brain: A Bridge too far)" isimli makalede, sinirbilim bulgularının eğitimde pratiğe dönüştürülmesi ele alınmıştır. John Bruer bu makalede; sinirbilimin beyin ve biliş arasındaki ilişkiyi, eğitimin ise biliş ve davranış arasındaki ilişkiyi anlamada daha uygun olduğu ifade etmiştir (Bruer, 1997). Diğer bir ifadeyle, sinirbilimden elde edilen sonuçların eğitimde pratiğe dönüştürülmesinde uyumsuzluklar olduğunu ancak bilişsel psikolojinin arabulucu rolü üstlenmesiyle bu uyumsuzluğun giderilebileceğini belirtmiştir (Breur, 1997). ...
Chapter
This book analyses higher education's digital transformation and potential disruption from a holistic point of view, providing a balanced and critical account from a variety of interdisciplinary viewpoints. It looks at case studies on educational and emerging technology, their impact, the potential risk of digitalization disrupting higher education, and also offers a glimpse into what the future of digitalization will likely bring. Researchers and practitioners from countries including New Zealand, Russia, Eswatini, India, and the USA, bring together their knowledge and understanding of this rapidly evolving field. The contributors analyse academia's digitalization along the broad topics of the sector's general digital (r)evolution. The book looks at changes in instructional formats from the Massive Open Online Courses to Small Private Online Courses and artificial intelligence. This work also provides analysis on how skills, competences and social networks demanded by future jobs and job markets can be further integrated into higher education.
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Biological basis of learning and memory
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Introducción: La educación basada en el cerebro es una disciplina que busca maximizar la capacidad de aprender –memoria, atención, entendimiento- a partir de los hallazgos neurocientíficos. Desarrollo: En el siguiente artículo buscamos exponer algunos de los conocimientos de neurociencias y aprendizaje y como estos tienen aplicabilidad en el aula de clase o en general en el proceso de aprendizaje que se va deteriorando con la edad. Conclusión: El dividir la clase en bloques, realizar animaciones para estimulación visual, despertar emociones o exponer primero los conceptos generales antes que los específicos han sido formas eficaces de mejorar el rendimiento de los estudiantes en el aula de clase. La adecuada alimentación, el ejercicio constante, el reforzamiento en la lectura o ejercicios de memoria son clave para estimular el cerebro y prevenir el deterioro cognitivo normal de el envejecimiento.
Article
The philosophy of education from its initial formulations (which date back to Greek antiquity) that seeks to critically reflect on what education and pedagogy are (generally taken as a set of theories and methods aimed at education and teaching). Didactics, as the central axis of pedagogy, seeks to determine, according to techniques, methods and teaching processes, what can be learned. From the first theoretical models (especially from the beginning of the 17th century with Comenius in his Didáctica Magna and later with Herbart and his General Pedagogy), through expressive education to game-based learning, didactics has sought to reconcile different paradigms of rationality and human intelligence with the dynamization of knowledge and apprehension (attention capture) of the real. However, the neurosciences that have been gaining and expanding their application horizon, have suggested and proposed working hypotheses that help to build neuroeducation, which in turn leads to neurodidactics. Based on some of these premises, an attempt will be made to examine the meaning and scope of this new experimental and exploratory area.
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During the Covid 19 pandemic, distance education also called distance learning or DAD (in Italy) has become part of school and university daily life. From March 2020 until today, teachers have experimented with new ways of teaching, mixing traditional teaching strategies with new paradigms, often innovative or in some cases "never tried" by teachers. In this time of didactic experimentation imposed by the pandemic, the studies of neurodidactic (Rivolt-ella, 2012) broaden the knowledge on learning processes, focusing attention on the learner and on the implications for teaching. Especially the studies on Spaced Learning (SL), a didactic methodology that is functional to quickly store information in long-term memory through repetition, have proved useful for improving the structuring of the synchronous and asynchronous hours of lessons during DAD. Based on the neuroscientific study by Douglas Fields concerning the mnemonic potential of the brain, published in 2005, Paul Kelley (2008) proposed and tested Spaced Learning (in Italian Interval Learning) which experimented in the Liceo Musicale of Caserta, in the school year 2020/2021. Durante la pandemia Covid 19, la didattica a distanza chiamata anche DAD (in Italia) è entrata a far parte della vita quotidiana della scuola e dell'università. Da marzo 2020 ad oggi, i docenti hanno sperimentato nuove modalità di insegnamento, mescolando strategie didattiche tradizionali con nuovi paradigmi, spesso innovativi o in alcuni casi "mai provati" dai docenti. In questo periodo di sperimentazione didattica imposta dalla pandemia, gli studi di neu-rodidattica (Rivoltella, 2012) ampliano le conoscenze sui processi di apprendimento, focalizzando l'attenzione sul discente e sulle implicazioni per la didattica. Soprattutto gli studi sullo Spaced Learning (SL), metodologia didattica funzionale all'archiviazione rapida di informazioni nella memoria a lungo termine attraverso la ripetizione, si sono rivelati utili per migliorare la strutturazione delle ore di lezione sincrone e asincrone durante la DaD. Basandosi sullo studio neuroscientifico di Douglas Fields riguardante il potenziale mnemonico del cervello, pubblicato nel 2005, Paul Kelley (2008) ha proposto e testato lo Spaced Learning (in italiano Apprendimento Intervallato) che è stato sperimentato nel Liceo Musicale di Caserta, nell'anno scolastico 2020/2021.
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The Internet is a global repository that provides access to billions of different information resources, regardless of their geographical and national location. The amount of information in the world and the demand for it is growing exponentially. This threatens to lead to "analytical paralysis" unless ways of processing such volumes of information are created. The solution is seen in the development of artificial intelligence and its use in tandem with blockchain. But a breakthrough is not just a technical task. The time has come for interdisciplinary research, which now defines scientific and technological progress.
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One of the key topics for establishing meaningful links between brain sciences and education is the development of reading. How does biology constrain learning to read? How does experience shape the development of reading skills? How does research on biology and behaviour connect to the ways that schools, teachers and parents help children learn to read, particularly in the face of disabilities that interfere with learning? This book addresses these questions and illuminates why reading disorders have been hard to identify, how recent research has established a firm base of knowledge about the cognitive neuroscience of reading problems and the learning tools for overcoming them, and finally, what the future holds for relating mind, brain and education to understanding reading difficulties. Connecting knowledge from neuroscience, genetics, cognitive science, child development, neuropsychology and education, this book will be of interest to both academic researchers and graduate students.
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Advances in the development of artificial intelligence systems are one of the driving forces behind the fourth industrial revolution, which is characterized by the transition from the era of computing to the era of machines that solve cognitive problems. Both the opportunities and dangers associated with the use of neuroscience in pedagogy are considered.
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En los últimos años se ha visto un creciente interés por el conocimiento relacionado con el cerebro y las neurociencias. Esto ha llevado a que se genere una importante cantidad de investigaciones y que el contexto propicie el surgimiento de creencias erróneas. Estudios realizados en varios países convergen en el hallazgo de que el conocimiento sobre neurociencias en todos los campos de conocimiento es pobre y en algunos estudios en Europa y América del Sur, incluso se observó que un mayor interés en neurociencia predice (paradójicamente) una mayor creencia en neuromitos, combinada con una incapacidad para juzgar información como real o pseudocientífica. La brecha entre la neurociencia cognitiva y el aprendizaje sigue siendo muy amplia . Y una de las consecuencias de esta distancia es la propagación de mitos que en muchos casos cuentan con algún sustento científico pero que son resultado de una malinterpretación o descontextualización de los resultados de investigaciones. Especialmente en el ámbito de la educación, la necesidad de incorporar recursos que permitan renovar la visión del aprendizaje ha favorecido el desarrollo de estas creencias erróneas, que se convierten en dogma y generan confusión sobre los aquellos aspectos que tienen una base científica y aquellos que deben ser refutados.
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The overall goal of the ISEE Assessment is to pool multi-disciplinary expertise on educational systems and reforms from a range of stakeholders in an open and inclusive manner, and to undertake a scientifically robust and evidence based assessment that can inform education policy-making at all levels and on all scales. Its aim is not to be policy prescriptive but to provide policy relevant information and recommendations to improve education systems and the way we organize learning in formal and non-formal settings. It is also meant to identify information gaps and priorities for future research in the field of education.
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The study addresses to the modern praxeological approach of professional training of future primary school teachers on the research results application of modern neuroscience. The essence of praxeology as a science and praxeological approach in pedagogical activity is considered. The expediency of praxeological orientation during the professional training of future primary school teachers is substantiated. Theoretical bases of neurosciences studies in the system of pedagogical education and neuropedagogy formation are also considered. Based on the neuromyths spread, the problem of obtaining neuroscientific knowledge by future teachers in the context of praxeological orientation is actualized, which will significantly help to orient the latter to effective and efficient professional activity. The key structural components of the author’s model of primary school teacher’s training using a praxeological approach in the context of modern neuroscience are proposed and described in the study. The key theoretical provisions of the motivational and target component, organizational and procedural, semantic, operational and technological, diagnostic and effective components of the specified model are generalized. The theoretical provisions of modern neuroscience are detailed, which are the basis of the semantic component of the model. The purpose and tasks of the author’s course “Modern neuroscience in the education system” are determined, which is the basis of the content component of the model of training future primary school teachers. Perspective directions of future scientific studies are outlined - research of biological and neural feedback in educational activity.
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The use of neuroimaging has provided a basis for suggesting the brain areas active during reading of words and sentences. When combined with high density electrical recording from the scalp, it is possible to obtain information on the time course of activation of these brain areas and compare them with the temporal structure of reading from studies of eye movements. The paper summarizes results in these areas and suggests how acquisition and practice of the skill might alter the circuitry involved.
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Measuring reaction times (RTs) using the additive-factors method provides information about the sequence of processing stages in a cognitive task. Here, I describe how the simultaneous recording of event-related potentials (ERPs) in the same task can provide complementary information that cannot be obtained using RTs alone. Most notably, ERP data can reveal the absolute activation time and the coarse brain localization of processing stages. RTs and ERPs can also be used to cross-validate a serial-stage model. These notions were applied to a study of the temporal unfolding of brain activations in a number comparison task. ERPs were recorded from 64 scalp electrodes while normal subjects classified numbers as larger or smaller than 5. Specific scalp signatures and timing data were obtained for stages of word and digit identification, magnitude comparison, response programming, and error capture and correction. The observed localizations were compatible with previous neuropsychological and brain imaging data and provided new insights into the cerebral lateralization and timing of number processing.
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The U.S. educational system was designed a century ago to prepare children to hold jobs and raise families in a world that relied primarily on physical labor. Because of the large role of agriculture and an abundance of natural resources, the nation could prosper even if many young people did not develop their full intellectual capabilities. During the 20th century, the United States depleted major natural resources while incurring a huge trade deficit. Now it faces a future in which it must increasingly turn to high-technology products as a source of economic security. In this area, it will be competing with countries whose young citizens are demonstrating greater academic competence than ours. Two examples are Taiwan and South Korea. Unlike the United States, these nations have emphasized raising the educational standard of their whole populations rather than that of an elite fraction. As a result, their children achieve better average test sco res in science and mathematics than do our children, many of whom fail at school. In an increasingly knowledge-based global economy, unsuccessful students tend to be only marginally employable, and the wages of the unskilled have been steadily falling. Un less changes are made, the social and budgetary costs of educational failures in the United States are likely to increase. The need to improve the U.S. educational system has been recognized by a number of educators and foundations. The Carnegie Corporation of New York has made long-term determined efforts to enhance the nation's understanding of child and adolescent developm ent and to foster better outcomes for our young people. A recent Carnegie publication, Years of Promise,* provides information about changes needed to achieve better results in the education of children aged 3 to 10. “Durin g these seven years, children make great leaps in cognition, language acquisition, and reasoning, corresponding with dramatic neurological changes” notes the report, and it provides references to substantial bodies of research confirming that the educatio nal attainments of nearly all U.S. children could be greatly increased. Many factors influence children's intellectual development, among which are the skill, warmth, and enthusiasm of teachers. However, as the report states, “Schools may have the primary responsibility for children's formal education, but their educational success is influenced by far more than what happens to them in school. Families, preschools, religious and other community institutions and, beyond these immediate influences, the broa der array of institutions that bear on children's lives—the media, employers in all sectors, higher education, and government—have shared responsibility to contribute to children's learning and healthy development.” Parental involvement in the education of children is especially important. From age 3 to 5 in particular, children should be read to frequently. In these years, when brain activity is high, parents have a unique opportunity to foster a love of learning. A s children grow older, parents should maintain involvement in their education, including interaction with teachers. Research has shown that these activities have beneficial effects. When children are in primary school, parental influence decreases and is in part replaced by that of peers and TV. Today, most single parents work, as do about 75% of married mothers of children in school. A frequent result is latchkey youngsters who come home to an empty house and a TV set. A few TV programs are suitably educ ational; others are trash. The Carnegie report states that there are about 20 to 25 violent acts per hour in children's programs. By the time they reach the age of 18, Americans have typically watched 15,000 hours of TV, which is more time than they have spent in classrooms. Studies have shown that children who are heavy TV watchers tend to put little effort into schoolwork, get lower grades, and have weak reading skills. The report strongly recommends improved TV programming. It also points out the value of community after—school activities, but warns that quality standards for such programs need to be established and enforced. Unless our educational system is substantially improved, the U.S. economy and national security will deteriorate. The education of all children from their early years through adolescence should have a long-term high priority.
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studies of behavior and event-related brain potentials from normal adults, congenitally deaf adults, and normally developing children during visual attentional and language processing are summarized / the results suggest that different subsystems within vision and within language display different degrees of experience-dependent modification / within vision, the absence of competition from auditory input has most marked effects on the organization of systems important in processing peripheral information / within language, delayed exposure to a language has pronounced effects on development of systems important in grammatical processing and many fewer effects on lexical development / various accounts for these differential effects of early experience are discussed (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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From over 100 children studied with 2-deoxy-2{18F}fluoro-D-glucose and positron emission tomography we selected 29 children (aged 5 days to 15.1 years) who had suffered transient neurological events not significantly affecting normal neurodevelopment. These 29 children were reasonably representative of normal children and provided an otherwise unobtainable population in which to study developmental changes in local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (lCMRGlc). In infants less than 5 weeks old lCMRGlc was highest in sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, brainstem, and cerebellar vermis. By 3 months, lCMRGlc had increased in parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices; basal ganglia; and cerebellar cortex. Frontal and dorsolateral occipital cortical regions displayed a maturational rise in lCMRGlc by approximately 6 to 8 months. Absolute values of lCMRGlc for various grey matter regions were low at birth (13 to 25 μmol/min/100 gm), and rapidly rose to reach adult values (19 to 33 μmol/min/100 gm) by 2 years. lCMRGlc continued to rise until, by 3 to 4 years, it reached values of 49 to 65 μmol/min/100 gm in most regions. These high rates were maintained until approximately 9 years, when they began to Decemberline, and reached adult rates again by the latter part of the second Decemberade. The highest increases of lCMRGlc over adult values occurred in cerebral cortical structures; lesser increases were seen in subcortical structures and in the cerebellum. This time course of lCMRGlc changes matches that describing the process of initial overproduction and subsequent elimination of excessive neurons, synapses, and dendritic spines known to occur in the developing brain. The determination of changing metabolic patterns accompanying normal brain development is a necessary prelude to the study of abnormal brain development with positron emission tomography.
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Synapses have been counted by electron microscopy and neurones by light microscopy through the depth of the visual cortex in a series of cats from 37 days gestation to adulthood. A few definite synapses are present as early as three weeks before birth, but there is then a latent period of four weeks before synapses increase rapidly in number 8–37 days after birth. The synapses occur just above and just below the cell plate at first, but in the adult cat they become evenly distributed in the depth of the cortex. The gradual separation of neurones by neuropil during development precedes a parallel increase in the density of synapses by about one week. The average number of synapses associated with one neurone rises to a peak of about 13,000 at seven weeks after birth. The densities of synapses and of neurones subsequently fall to slightly lower values in adult cats as the glial cells continue to develop. The timing of synaptic development in the visual cortex has been compared quantitatively with that in the L. G. N. and qualitatively with synaptogenesis in the retina. Synapses develop in the L. G. N. and cortex in a parallel fashion, and the L. G. N. precedes the cortex by a short interval of about two days. In the cell plate of the retina a few receptor synapses are present nine days before birth. Inner plexiform synapses are also present at this time, but ribbon-containing synapses do not appear until birth. Very few receptors possess outer segments with discs at birth, but five days later disc-bearing outer segments have developed. Thus synaptic development starts before afferent impulses can enter the visual system, but the main increase in synapses in the L. G. N. and cortex takes place four weeks after the start of synapse formation while the visual system is being used.
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Morphometric studies of immature cerebral cortex in humans show developmental changes extending up to the time of adolescence. Growth of dendrites and of synaptic connections occurs during infancy and early childhood. Excess synaptic connections are eliminated during later childhood years. The exuberant connections that occur during infancy may form the anatomical substrate for neural plasticity and for certain types of early learning.
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Synaptic density in human striate cortex was determined at various ages, utilizing a computer assisted method. Simultaneous measurement of total volume of striate cortex made it possible to estimate total number of synapses. Synaptogenesis in human striate cortex was found to be most rapid between ages 2-4 months, a time which also is critical for the development of function in visual cortex of the infant. Synapse elimination occurred subsequently with loss of about 40% of synapses between ages 8 months and 11 years. Synapse numbers were stable in adults, except for a slightly lower value in a single brain at age 71 years. Analysis by individual cortical layers showed similar age related changes in all strata of striate cortex, except for somewhat later synaptogenesis in cortical layers V and VI. Total volume of striate cortex reached adult size remarkably early, at about age 4 months. The findings support the hypothesis that exuberant synaptic connections are an anatomical substrate for plasticity in developing cerebral cortex.
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Infants learn language with remarkable speed. By the end of their second year they speak in sentences with an 'accent' typical of a native speaker. How does an individual acquire a specific language? While acknowledging the biological preparation for language, this review focuses on the effects of early language experience on infants' perceptual and perceptual-motor systems. The data show that by the time infants begin to master the higher levels of language--sound-meaning correspondences, contrastive phonology, and grammatical rules--their perceptual and perceptual-motor systems are already tuned to a specific language. The consequences of this are described in a developmental theory at the phonetic level that holds promise for higher levels of language.
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