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Effects of Popular Music in Advertising on Attention and IVIemory

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This study examines the effects of popular music in advertising to determine both the theoretical (the effect of popular music on the processing of advertising messages) and practical (the design of more effective advertisements using popular music) Implications. An experiment is reported that tested the effects of three integrations of popular music in advertising: original lyrics, altered lyrics, and instrumentals (plus a control treatment with no music) on attention and memory. The results indicated that song vocals, either original or altered, are more effective stimuli of advertising effects than instrumentals or no popular music.
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... Je nicméně jisté, že hudba jako katalyzátor určitého chování byla využívána již v hluboké minulosti. Pokud na chvíli opustíme oblast nákupního chování, mohli bychom zcela jistě zmínit gregoriánský chorál a samozřejmě i všechny následující druhy církevní hudby, které byly využívány jak v komunikaci vnitřní (společné aktivity obyvatel klášterů), tak i v komunikaci vnější (společný zpěv účastníků bohoslužeb), v podstatě ve funkci analogické současným firemním písním 2 Možnost cílené práce s hudbou při nákupním chování v podstatě problematizují Franěk (2005) nebo North a Hargreaves (2008), kteří srovnávají výsledky různých výzkumů na téma využití hudby v supermarketech a konstatují, že se nedají jednoznačně prokázat souvislosti mezi vlastnostmi hudby (rychlá, pomalá, hlasitá, tichá) a chováním zákazníků, poněvadž vždy spíše záleží na tom, jak spolupůsobí prostředí obchodu, nabídka zboží a zvolená hudba, která navíc na různé nakupující může působit různým způsobem. Ani v praxi nelze jednoznačně pozorovat, že by se supermarkety zaměřovaly na jeden typ hudby (v literatuře se například hovoří o tom, že pomalá hudba způsobuje pomalejší chůzi supermarketem a přispívá tak k tomu, že má zákazník více času "všimnout si" a impulzivně nakoupit i zboží, které původně nehledal), naopak se zde zpravidla střídá hudba různých charakteristik. ...
... Celkově byla hudba hodnocena jako spíše jemná (průměr 3,44). Jako nejtvrdší byla hodnocena hudba v kategorii Pivo (3,92, což je ale stále hodnocení na "jemnější" straně spektra), jako nejjemnější v kategorii Zubní péče (2,89). Rozdíl nejvyšší nejnižší hodnoty je 1,03 stupně, což je v kontextu ostatních hodnocení nižší střední hodnota. ...
... Celkově byla hudba hodnocena průměrným stupněm 3,85 a je tedyve srovnání s ostatními parametry -spíše nezajímavá. Nejlepší hodnocení lze vidět u kategorie Alkohol (4,97), nejhorší u kategorie Zubní péče (2,91). Rozdíl obou krajních hodnocení je 2,06, což je velmi vysoká hodnota. ...
... In the music domain, studies have consistently shown that music familiarity is a critical factor to determine the variation of musical enjoyment, liking, emotional engagement, interest, and arousal (see Chmiel and Schubert 2017;North and Hargreaves 2008;Peretz, Gaudreau, and Bonnel 1998, for reviews). In marketing and advertising, professionals are also aware of the power of familiar music to involve, engage, and ultimately persuade consumers to buy their products or services (Allan 2006;Burns 1996;Dunbar 1990;Kellaris et al. 1993). Thus, popular (or highly familiar) music is pervasive in marketing and advertising, traditionally considered as the "perfect marriage of commerce and art" (Paoletta 2003). ...
... It is only in the latter where familiar music is particularly effective in influencing consumer responses through priming or mood induction, which in turn it increases consumers' involvement and affective states through a peripheral attitude shift (Park et al. 2014;Shevy and Hung 2013). Previous research supports this view, showing that the success of popular music in advertising is due to its potential to increase involvement (Allan 2006;Dunbar 1990), and "attention-gaining value" for brand names associated with it (Kellaris et al. 1993). Others have shown that highly familiar music can serve as an effective retrieval cue, enhancing message processing and memory for brands and products, although in some cases it can also be distracting and reduce recall (see Allan 2007; Raja, Anand, and Kumar 2020, for reviews). ...
... Others have investigated how consumers responded cognitively to the advertising music (e.g., Allan 2006;Hahn and Hwang 1999;Maher, Hu, and Kolbe 2006;Roehm 2001). ...
... The retrieval cue effect of music is the main focus in this study while the effect of ad exposure has been the focus of earlier studies (e.g. Allan 2006;Kellaris, Cox, and Cox 1993;Maher, Hu, and Kolbe 2006). ...
... Research established that the music used in an advertisement improves the likability thereof (Knowles and Linn, 2004). It is furthermore believed that the use of popular music in advertisements improves the chances that consumers will remember the advertisement (Allan, 2006), with brand recognition and recall increasing with repeated mention of the brand as part of the song (Delattre and Colovic, 2009). However, using music in advertisements may lead to negative brand associations due to consumers disliking certain artists or entire genres (Craton et al., 2017) or if the music is perceived as inappropriate or too loud (Lantos and Craton, 2012), thereby contributing to brand avoidance. ...
... We used Cochran's Q test to determine if the differences across conditions are significant, and found that they are (p\0:05). This suggests that a successful automatic modification helps recalling the news, just as similarly found in studies on advertising with songs altered by creative humans Allan (2006). ...
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