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Determinants of agricultural best management practice adoption: Evidence from the literature

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Abstract

This article reviews 25 years of literature focused oil the adoption Of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) in the United States to examine general trends in the categories of capacity, awareness, attitudes and farm characteristics.The study Uses a vote count methodology and counts every, instance of positive, negative mid insignificant relationships in 55 studies. Education levels, Capital. income, farm size, access to information, positive environmental attitudes, environmental awareness, and utilization of social networks emerge as sonic of the variables that arc more often positively, rather than negatively, associated with adoption rates. The type of statistical analysis used in the studies has a negligible effect oil groupings, the aggregated the results. When different types of BMP's are examined in similar findings generally hold true. The study concludes that farmer adoption rates call be improved by focusing oil the generally consistent determinants Of agricultural BMP adoption. This paper also highlights future areas of research that are needed including a focus on the determinants of adoption of water and livestock management BMPs and more Study of the role of tenure and farm proximity to a river or stream.

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... Li et al. (26) noted that factors which influence pro-environmental behavior of individuals include environmental knowledge, demographic factors, institutional factors, economic factors, social and cultural factors, motivation, and so on. Farmers' knowledge about a technology is often influenced by their access to information (27)(28)(29)(30) which could come from extension, media and the farmers' social network (28,31,32). This knowledge influences farmers' evaluative capacity (30) which in turn influences farmers' views about the practices (perceptions) (33). ...
... Farmers' knowledge about a technology is often influenced by their access to information (27)(28)(29)(30) which could come from extension, media and the farmers' social network (28,31,32). This knowledge influences farmers' evaluative capacity (30) which in turn influences farmers' views about the practices (perceptions) (33). Brokensha et al. (34) noted that farmers' perception, knowledge and practice influence how farming decisions are made. ...
... On the other hand, the socio-economic characteristics of a farmer determines whether or not he/she will adopt those practices. Carpenter et al. (35) and Prokopy et al. (30) identified farm and farmer characteristics as important factors enhancing a farmer's ability to adopt an innovation and considered it as a resilience capacity. Prokopy et al. (30), Baumgart-Getz et al. (27), and Li et al. (26) noted that important socio-economic variables influencing farmers' adoption decisions (including proenvironmental decisions) are: age, education (formal education and farmer training (extension), marital status, income, farming experience, tenure, social network, labor, place of residence, capital, information and so on. ...
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A sustainable ruminant production system ensures economically viable livestock systems that meet the current and future demands of animal products as well as the environmental safety of current and future generations. The study analyzed the determinants of ruminant farmers' use of sustainable production practices for climate change adaptation and mitigation in Enugu State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select ninety six (96) ruminant farmers that constituted the sample for the study. Semi-structured interview schedule with open ended questions was used in data collection. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and Pearson Moment Correlation statistics. Access to veterinary services ( t = 2.056, p = 0.044), monthly household income ( t = 3.582, p = 0.001) and annual income from ruminant production ( t = −2.635, p = 0.011) were socio-economic factors that significantly influenced use of sustainable practices. The adjusted R- square implies that the three factors were able to explain 24% of variance in use of sustainable practices. There is a significant positive correlation ( r = 0.426, p = 0.000) between knowledge level of farmers and their use of sustainable production practices. Schemes for financial inclusion such as payment for ecosystem services can spur farmers to adopt mitigation strategies. Improved climate change knowledge can enhance ruminant farmer's resilience to the increasing impacts of climate change.
... Toutefois, si ce thème suscite un intérêt majeur, il reste théoriquement et empiriquement difficile à valider du fait d'une double difficulté liée, d'une part, au problème de définition de la performance environnementale et, d'autre part, à la grande diversité des formes d'organisation de l'exploitation agricole. Dans ce cadre, la littérature en économie s'est principalement orientée vers l'analyse des déterminants du comportement d'adoption de pratiques spécifiques (" best management practices ˮ) comme en témoignent de nombreux surveys (Knowler et Bradshaw, 2007 ;Prokopy et al., 2008 ;Baumgertz et al., 2012). Si ces travaux convergent pour signaler que les pratiques productives sont un déterminant majeur de la performance environnementale des exploitations, peu de travaux analysent la performance de l'exploitation via un ensemble plus Dans ce cadre, notre objectif est d'examiner l'influence respective des facteurs liés aux formes d'organisation internes, structurelles et décisionnelles, de l'exploitation et à ses différentes formes d'interaction avec son environnement externe sur ses choix d'adoption de pratiques. ...
... D'autres mettent en évidence, au contraire, que le faible usage de technologies et les pratiques intensives portées par les petites exploitations favorisent des modes de production plus agro-écologiques (Vanslembrouck et al., 2002 ;Mann, 2005). Cette grande hétérogénéité des résultats est confirmée par les différents survey de la littérature sur ces sujets (Knowler et Bradshaw 2007 ;Prokopy et al., 2008 ;Baumgart-Getz et al., 2012). ...
... Quant au rôle de l'état, notamment à travers les subventions ou les réglementations, il est très souvent traité dans la littérature empirique sur les exploitations agricoles (cf. surveys Prokopy et al., 2008 ;Baumgart-Getz et al., 2012). Nos résultats confirment l'influence de la réglementation dans l'adoption des pratiques environnementales dans les ...
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Cette communication a comme objectif de contribuer à l’analyse des déterminants de la performance environnementale des exploitations agricoles et plus spécifiquement les liens entre formes d’organisation et profil environnemental des exploitations. A travers une approche originale, il propose d’analyser la performance via la notion de “ profil environnemental ˮ, comme un construit ie un ensemble de choix de pratiques productrices d’externalités environnementales. Dans ce cadre, notre objectif est d’examiner l’influence respective des facteurs liés aux formes d’organisation internes, structurelles et décisionnelles, de l’exploitation et à ses différentes formes d’interaction avec son environnement externe sur ses choix d’adoption de pratiques. Du point de vue théorique, l’idée est de mobiliser les approches de l’économie de l’innovation, notamment des innovations environnementales afin de proposer un cadre analytique des déterminants de la performance environnementale des exploitations agricoles.
... The increasing demand for evidence-based policymaking in this realm has led to burgeoning review and synthesis papers [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. Earlier efforts largely employ "vote-counting" approaches to tally the significance or non-significance of findings describing a determinant's influence on binary adoption decisions (S1 Table). ...
... Each observation is a coefficient from a multi-variate analysis of the adoption of one of the practices included in the metadata; therefore, reported results control for a set of livelihood characteristics of households. Vote counts are a commonly used and easily interpretable method [25,26]. We present the full vote count results for 43 subcategories of determinants (S6-S8 Tables). ...
... We select these technologies because the use of modern inputs like seeds and fertilizers remains low in SSA (despite subsidy programmes in many countries), and alternative land management practices have been promoted with mixed results. We emphasize wealth-signalling determinants because they are positively correlated with adoption in many studies [18,26], and they can act as proxies of other behavioural characteristics like risk aversion that can help with targeting [17,33]. ...
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Both global poverty and hunger have increased in recent years, endangering progress towards accomplishing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1 and 2. The regression has been most pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Meeting the SDG targets requires achieving resilient farm productivity. Although many farm management technologies exist to improve yields, farmers in SSA largely have not adopted these approaches. A long-standing literature about technology adoption identifies multiple hypotheses as to why farmers may or may not adopt new agricultural technologies, culminating in numerous micro-econometric studies. We analyse a metadata set capturing the findings of 164 published studies specifically focusing on SSA and show that 20 out of 38, or 53%, of the determinants commonly believed to influence technology adoption lack empirical support. Eighteen determinants—primarily related to information access, wealth, group membership and social capital, and land tenure—consistently influence adoption across studies. Wealth remains a significant determinant of fertilizer adoption, despite long-running subsidies in most countries, although it is decoupled from the adoption of improved seeds and alternative crop and nutrient management technologies. We highlight the foundational determinants of adoption and offer guidance to design effective interventions that can decrease poverty and hunger towards 2030.
... In this context, the economic literature has primarily focused on analyzing the determinants of adoption of specific practices, as evidenced by the many surveys conducted on the question (Knowler and Bradshaw, 2007;Prokopy et al., 2008;Baumgart-Getz et al., 2012;Yoder et al., 2019). However, as the literature shows, the complex interrelationships at play -not only at farm level, but also at that of the territory where several productions and practices coexist -generate systemic interdependencies between agricultural and environmental resources (Baumgärtner et al., 2001). ...
... Other authors argue, on the contrary, that small farms, who practice less intensive agriculture, are more likely to adopt more agro-ecological production methods (Vanslembrouck et al., 2002;Mann, 2005) and to not base their decisions on economic incentives (Greiner and Gregg, 2011). The heterogeneity of results across studies is confirmed by several surveys (Knowler and Bradshaw, 2007;Prokopy et al., 2008;Baumgart-Getz et al., 2012;Liu et al., 2018). ...
... These different organizational designs are embedded in specifics sectorial and institutional mechanisms, and in a restrictive or incentive regulatory environment (Chiffolleau and Touzard, 2014). The role of regulation has been discussed at length in the environmental economics literature (Porter and Van der Linde, 1995) as well as in studies in the field of agricultural economics (see surveys by Baumgart-Getz et al., 2012;Prokopy et al., 2008). Traditionally, this literature was dealing with the optimum level of regulation (taxation) to reduce the farm's environmental externalities. ...
Conference Paper
La transition sociétale vers une production alimentaire plus écologique passe par l'adoption des pratiques agroécologiques. Ce papier a pour objectif d'explorer les déterminants de l'adoption des 10 différentes pratiques agroécologiques des exploitations agricoles. En s'appuyant sur le cadre analytique de l'économie de l'innovation, nous explorons premièrement les déterminants internes : les caractéristiques du manager, la structure et la gouvernance de l'exploitation agricole. Deuxièmement, les déterminants externes liés aux caractéristiques marchandes, réglementaires et spatiales. Nous avons mobilisé des données de 47212 exploitations laitières provenant du recensement agricole 2010 et des modèles du type probit et des régressions. Concernant les facteurs internes les résultats montrent, tout d'abord, que la majorité des variables concernant les caractéristiques du chef d'exploitation et les attitudes face à l'incertitude sont corrélées à l'adoption. Néanmoins, en termes de la gouvernance, nous n'observons pas des corrélations significatives et positives entre l'absence de dissociation de la propriété et de l'usage et l'adoption. Puis, entre les variables caractérisant les ressources internes permettant la construction des capacités d'absorption uniquement la diversification et l'utilisation des TICs sont positivement corrélées à l'adoption. Concernant les facteurs externes nos résultats soulignent impact significatif et positif des circuits courts, d'être bénéficiaire de paiements pour des services environnementaux et le comportement d'adoption des pratiques du voisinage mettant en évidence l'importance effets spatiaux (mimétiques et de réseaux) en agriculture. Enfin, renforcer des politiques publiques promouvant la formation des agriculteurs, la diversification, la commercialisation en circuits courts ainsi que l'échange d'expériences peuvent accélérer la transition écologique de la production laitière.
... According to literature reviews by Prokopy et al. [39], Tey and Brindal [40], Knowler and Bradshaw [41], Pannell et al. [42], and Baumgart-Getz et al. [43], the common factors influencing the adoption of SIPs can be categorized into six areas: socioeconomic (managerial capacity of decision makers), agroecological, institutional, informational and intentional, as well as technology perceived attributes. These six categories are similar to the TOE framework. ...
... Based on the DOI and TOE frameworks, we propose a conceptual model for the adoption of sustainable intensive apple culture systems (SIACS, Figure 1). Maximum variable selection integrates and synthesizes previous studies that adopt the same techniques [39][40][41]. The model has seven constructs, each of which is explained by a set of determinants. ...
... Organizational context refers to the influence of organizational characteristics on technology adoption decisions for the SIACS. The agricultural technology adoption literature has identified variables such as human capital factors (e.g., age, experience, education, and labor endowment of decision makers), organizational size, information availability, access to credit, and land tenure as important factors in adoption decisions in developing countries [24,39,53]. In this study, the proposed framework limits the organizational factors to organizational size, organizational management capacity, and an organization's ability to cope with risk. ...
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The unsustainability of China’s agricultural production requires an urgent shift from traditional to more sustainable practices; however, the acceleration thereof remains challenging. New agricultural business entities (NABEs) lead agricultural modernization and strongly guide the application of innovative agricultural technologies and models. Thus, an understanding of the factors that influence NABEs’ adoption of sustainable intensification practices will promote their widespread adoption. We developed a model based on innovation diffusion theory and the technology–organization–environment framework, which can both distinguish the influencing factors at different adoption stages and identify the influencing factors of technology adoption from a multidimensional perspective. The results indicate that differences in regional agroecological endowments emerge as the most important influencing factor. Relative advantage, perceived barriers, and agricultural extension services have a significant effect on adoption intention and decision, but a smaller effect on intention. Management and risk response capacities have a significant positive effect on adoption decisions, but no effect on intention. Meanwhile, organizational size has no effect on adoption intention or decision. Adoption intention significantly positively influences, but only partially explains, adoption decisions. Our findings provide a basis for technology promoters to categorize potential adopters by technology adoption stage and provide targeted strategies to stimulate technology demand.
... Following Prokopy's framework for adoption drivers (Prokopy et al., 2008) Baumgart-Getz et al. (2012 conducted a meta-analysis of 46 adoption studies of best management practices to identify the many factors contributing to taking decisions. Table 1 summarises some of the key barriers to the adoption of agricultural practices, which we expect to be influential in the formation of decision-making perspectives for GWA. ...
... First, the physical context, encompassing a mostly flat terrain and deep soils with no stones, favoured mechanisation. Second, the country's water engineering tradition led to a very mendable TA B L E 1 Operationalisation and definition of barriers and drivers for adoption of green waste application (GWA) and circular agriculture, based on earlier literature reviews (Baumgart-Getz et al., 2012;Prokopy et al., 2008;Rust et al., 2020) of the statements per category Barrier ...
... In this research, a 9-step scale, ranging from −4 (strongly disagree) to +4 (strongly agree), and a set of 41 statements were utilised. First, an initial list was generated through a comprehensive literature review of studies on the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (Baumgart-Getz, 2012;Edwards Jones, 2006;Knowler & Bradshaw, 2007;Prokopy et al., 2008) and organic matter adoption (Daxini et al., 2019;Hijbeek et al., 2018;Rust et al., 2020), as there is a lack of comprehensive studies, particularly on GWA or circular agricultural practices. This review also enabled the identification of categories of statements as summarised in Table 1. ...
Article
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The adoption of sustainable soil management practices such as the use of green waste from road side management and nature reserves is thwarted in practice by hesitance on the side of farmers. To foster the use of these practices, it is crucial to understand farmers’ decision‐perspectives and attitudes toward them. Using Q‐methodology, perspectives of 12 dairy and arable farmers in the Netherlands were analysed. It was studied which barriers farmers perceive for green waste application, and whether perceptions of barriers are related to particular rationalities on the position of farmers within society. In Q‐sorts and semi‐structured interviews, farmers ranked their degree of agreement on 41 statements about green waste application, nutrient policy information, general beliefs on soil ‐and farm management, and circular agriculture, inspired by a Cultural Theory framework. Six decision perspectives were identified, globally agreeing on the benefits of green waste application, but challenged by rapidly changing regulations regarding nutrient management. Plurality in decision perspectives captured the need for trusted information, alongside differing views on responsibility, and views on sustainable agriculture. Combining Q‐methodology with Cultural Theory confirmed the need of including various notions of trust, power and responsibility in understanding complex decision‐making perspectives within more sustainable soil management practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Since OXERA (2003) and Garforth et al. (2003) stated that further investigation is required to determine how farmers make decisions, identify the constraints to change, and examine the factors driving land managers decisions, a plethora of research has been conducted. Extensive literature reviews can be found in Dwyer et al. (2007), Prokopy et al. (2008), and Mills et al. (2013), and a qualitative meta-analysis in Lastra-Bravo et al. (2015). ...
... Farm As mentioned earlier in Section 2.1, factors can also be divided into either motivations that positively influence behaviours or those which act as barriers constraining behaviours. The literature which has specifically focussed on farmer pro-environmental behaviours has frequently studied barriers and attitudes in order to understand what needs to be overcome to increase activities such as general environmental practices (Del Corso et al., 2015;Prokopy et al., 2008;Widdison et al., 2004), and AES participation (Calatrava et al., 2008;Lastra-Bravo et al., 2015;Morris and Potter, 1995;Hart, 2001, 2000;Wynne-Jones, 2013). Such work has highlighted a multitude of barriers e.g. a lack of compatibility with existing management, practicality of measures, other influencing policies, financial reasons, education, lack of clear and consistence guidance, and perceived complexity. ...
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A range of interventions are available to influence the uptake of farm practices which mitigate water pollution. Deciding which are the most appropriate for particular mitigation measures poses a challenge to policy makers. Whilst many measures remain voluntary, implementation will only be effective with the co-operation of stakeholders and evidence regarding the factors influencing measure uptake is crucial to aid policy design. The research conducted for this PhD explored the factors influencing farmer adoption of water pollution mitigation measures through three related surveys. Over two hundred farmers and farm advisors participated in interviews from three contrasting regions of England: the grassland dominated North West; the arable dominated East Anglia and the mixed and dairy farming of the South West. Results from the two farmer surveys provided a baseline of current agricultural practices, insights regarding farmer attitudes to the adoption of other mitigation measures in the future and understanding of the motivations and barriers to the adoption of specific measures. Results from the farm advisor interviews revealed the types of mitigation measures recommended by various advisors, which mechanisms (regulatory advice, financial incentives, signposting or voluntary approach) were being used to influence the uptake of measures, and whether differences occurred between sources of advice. The results illustrate the great diversity amongst the farming community, the range of factors influencing mitigation measure uptake and the differing complexities of farmers’ decisions to change their behaviour. Different combinations of interventions are required not only for each mitigation measures but also within the different regions surveyed. The importance of advice is illustrated but knowing which advisors are most suitable to deliver information and how is highlighted as being essential for policy design. Policy recommendations are provided as to what needs to change to influence adoption of specific mitigation measures to improve catchment management and advice provision.
... Results vary widely across contexts, specific management practices and analytical techniques. While there is some agreement that social network connections and farm size are important in most contexts, many other variables are not consistently positive or negative predictors for BMP adoption across different practices or farming contexts (Prokopy et al. 2008). ...
... 'Education' and 'Years in Farming' are less consistent predictors of adoption, and rank behind the structural farm characteristics variables.Income not only indicates access to financial capital to overcome the upfront cost of adoption, but also strongly correlates with farm size. The finding about 'Education' and 'Years in Farming' is consistent with the broad literature reviews of farmer adoption literature in the USA, where these variables don't always have consistent impact on predicting adoption(Baumgart-Getz et al. 2012;Prokopy et al. 2008;Prokopy et al. 2019). ...
Article
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Increasing farmers’ adoption of sustainable nitrogen management practices is crucial for improving water quality. Yet, research to date provides ambiguous results about the most important farmer-level drivers of adoption, leaving high levels of uncertainty as to how to design policy interventions that are effective in motivating adoption. Among others, farmers’ engagement in outreach or educational events is considered a promising leverage point for policy measures. This paper applies a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach to explore the importance of drivers thought to influence adoption, run policy experiments to test the efficacy of different engagement-related interventions on increasing adoption rates, and evaluate heterogeneity of the effect of the interventions across different practices and different types of farms. The underlying data comes from a survey carried out in 2018 among farmers in the Central Valley in California. The analyses identify farm characteristics and income consistently as the most important drivers of adoption across management practices. The effect of policy measures strongly differs according to the nitrogen management practice. Innovative farmers respond better to engagement-related policy measures than more traditional farmers. Farmers with small farms show more potential for increasing engagement through policy measures than farmers with larger farms. Bayesian belief networks, in contrast to linear analysis methods, always account for the complex structure of the farm system with interdependencies among the drivers and allow for explicit predictions in new situations and various kinds of heterogeneity analyses. A methodological development is made by introducing a new validation measure for BBNs used for prediction.
... While farmers may rely on one another to communicate information, research shows that farmers tend to turn to technical, scientific, and field experts for decision-making (Baird et al., 2016;Prokopy et al., 2008). While peer-to-peer learning may be the preferred mode of knowledge development and dissemination in some scenarios, research has shown virtually all participating Canadian dairy farmers place equal importance on informal farmer-led research and 'formal' research affiliated with universities (Ritter et al., 2020). ...
... Similarly, (Nebel et al., 2017) found that access to technical assistance and information was a significant motivating factor for landowners to participate in wetland enhancement projects, specifically to learn how such projects could affect them personally. It is identified that technical assistance and advice actors influence farmer decision-making (Baird et al., 2016;Prokopy et al., 2008). For example, the Farmland Health Check-Up "provides farmers in the LEADS [Lake Erie Agriculture Demonstrating Sustainability] Eligible Area with a unique opportunity to work with a CCA or P.Ag free of charge" (OSCIA, 2021c) and that the program "allows for maximum discussion with your Certified Crop Advisor" to "develop a list of [BMPs] that are targeted for your farm operation" (Canadian Agricultural Partnership, 2020). ...
Thesis
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As an economically significant industry in Ontario, dairy farming is increasingly challenged for ecologically-damaging production practices adversely impacting biodiversity and ecosystem services. Emerging campaigns in Ontario encourage farmers to not only mitigate such adverse effects but work to have production benefit biodiversity resources and vice versa. In this context, however, agricultural biodiversity conservation is dependent on farmers' voluntary actions and available supports. This case study research characterizes agri-environmental practices and program delivery in southwestern Ontario's dairy industry to support farmers' efforts effectively. Results reveal that farmers' motivations for biodiversity conservation are complex, having implications for program design and delivery. Results also show that conservation authorities are prominent in delivering programs to farmers. However, the capacity of conservation authorities to continue doing so may be limited by legislative changes to their mandates and partnering municipalities' capacity. This research concludes with recommendations to improve programs and outlines an inventory of analyzed programs.
... The wide distribution of implementation factors and obstacles also suggests that efforts to increase implementation rates should seek to address a variety of obstacles rather than one or a few dominant barriers in the implementation decision. This is consistent with the findings of recent meta-analyses that few, if any, variables consistently explain the adoption of sustainable agriculture (Burton, 2014;Knowler & Bradshaw, 2007;Prokopy et al., 2008;Prokopy et al., 2019). In light of this, a more balanced focus on removing financial barriers while also providing scientific and equipment assistance would likely do a better job of removing the wide mix of obstacles that farmers reported (Delaroche, 2020). ...
... The pattern in explanations given by survey respondents for assigning either a high or moderate importance to sustainable practices is reminiscent of the previous findings of other researchers. It is well established that a farmer self-identifying as being motivated by stewardship or other non-financial reasons is positively associated with adoption (Gao & Arbuckle, 2021;Liu et al., 2018;Prokopy et al., 2008;Prokopy et al., 2019). For example, recent research has shown that a grower's engagement with sustainable practices is positively shaped by their self-perceived identity as a 'good farmer' or as environmentally-minded (Delaroche, 2020;Dixon et al., 2021;Lavoie & Wardropper, 2021;van Dijk et al., 2016;Zemo & Termansen, 2021). ...
Article
Unsustainable agriculture practices are undermining the world's future ability to reliably produce food. Assistance programmes, such as those offered by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) of the United States, can increase the uptake of sustainable practices, yet implementation of these alternatives in the US remains discouragingly limited. In this context, we used an interdisciplinary approach involving quantitative and qualitative data to assess the current efficacy of NRCS assistance programmes and identify areas for improvement. To do so, we first analyzed national reports of NRCS expenditures and acres treated over the last 15 years and then distributed an explorative survey to farmers and ranchers throughout Utah state. Our NRCS programme analysis suggested that historical increases in expenditures have been ineffective at increasing the number of acres treated. The survey responses indicated that both financial and non-financial factors were influential in farmer decisions. Farmers that assigned a high importance to sustainable practices were motivated by public perception and environmental stewardship while those that assigned a moderate importance were motivated by the potential return on investment. Overall, participants in NRCS programs reported more positive outcomes than expected by non-participants. We hope the findings from this study can guide future research and inform efforts to improve NRCS assistance programmes in Utah and other regions in the US and elsewhere.
... It is important to highlight that the environmentalists trusted not only horizontal (farmer-to-farmer) but also vertical (organizations) information sources to learn about innovations and technologies related to trees. Horizontal and vertical relationships in social networks, rather than information, have been suggested as contributing to the decision to adopt innovations and management practices (Prokopy, Floress, Klotthor-Weinkauf, & Baumgart-Getz, 2008), which points to the importance of investing in programs that foster connections with others. ...
... In sum, the socio-economic characteristics of environmentalists and agriculturalists in terms of farm size and acres farmed, portfolio diversity, overall awareness of environmental problems, and their horizontal and/or vertical social networks suggest that policies fostering agroforestry adoption should target both groups, as these characteristics appear to be determinants of incorporating trees on the landscape among other conservation management practices (Prokopy et al., 2008). However, it is also necessary to recognize differences between different types of landowners in diffusion efforts, as has been suggested (Barbieri & Valdivia, 2010a). ...
... Age, education, and experience in farming activity are widely recognised as human resource variables that can affect decisions in the adoption process (PROKOPY et al., 2008). For example, an increase in age may negatively correlate with technological change; the older the farmers are, the less prone they are to an eventual risk, and the more they resist a new practice (KABII; HORWITZ, 2006). ...
... The availability of financing options also positively influences the adoption process because access to funds allows increased capacity to experiment with a new practice. Another important factor relates to production expenses since some methods demand less labour and input during production or are more water-efficient, reducing the total production cost (PROKOPY et al., 2008). ...
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The increased use of water in irrigated rice monocultures in the Jequetepeque Valley, on the northern coast of Peru, has exacerbated environmental, socioeconomic and health problems. The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) irrigation technique aims to increase water management efficiency in rice cultivation. The objective of the present article is to understand farmers’ perceptions about the benefits and risks of implementing AWD. Data from interviews with 319 farmers showed that they recognise nine interactions between AWD's economic, environmental and health aspects but prioritise economic factors when assessing its benefits. We also identified the main channels and spaces of communication and debate on issues related to agriculture and health that are likely to be effective in promoting the diffusion of AWD. The study demonstrated the relevance of integrated actions to encourage the adoption of agricultural innovations which consider the interactions between environmental sustainability, health issues, and producers' economic priorities.
... The effectiveness of regulatory programs depends on understanding the drivers of farmer practice adoption behavior, which has been extensively researched since the 1930s (Ryan and Gross, 1943;Rogers, 1961;Lynne et al., 1988;Padel, 2001). The literature has demonstrated some consistent predictors of behavior such as farm size (Daberkow and McBride, 2003;Prokopy et al., 2008), information sources (Padel, 2001;Lubell and Fulton, 2007;Kassie et al., 2015;Houser et al., 2019), and positive attitudes toward conservation and farmer income and level of education (Prokopy et al., 2019). However, a major knowledge gap in the adoption literature is the extent to which drivers of adoption vary across agroecosystems and agronomic contexts, for example between different cropping systems (Knowler and Bradshaw, 2007;Prokopy et al., 2019). ...
... Multiple adoption studies over decades across regions and cropping systems have demonstrated higher adoption of conservation practices on larger farms (Prokopy et al., 2008;Prokopy et al., 2019). Larger farms have more financial capital and economics of scale, which reduces barriers to practice adoption associated with cost, time to return on investment, and risk (Kipling et al., 2019;Rudnick et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Agricultural nitrogen (N) use is a major contributor to environmental problems arising from nitrous oxide emissions and N loading to groundwater. Advances in the adoption of conservation practices requires a better understanding of the agronomic context for cropping systems. This paper tests hypotheses about how agronomic and knowledge barriers influence the adoption of conservation practices for N management in orchard agroecosystems. Agronomic barriers are characterized by farm size, irrigation systems and access to water resources, and knowledge barriers are influenced by the availability of information and use of information sources. Our study focuses on the California’s San Joaquin Valley where we collected 879 in-person surveys from fruit and nut growers focused on ten different conservation practices related to fertilizer use, irrigation and soil health. We used logistic regression models to identify parameters influencing adoption and differences in adoption between fruit and nut growers. Our results indicate that overall growers report higher adoption for practices for fertilizer use compared to irrigation and soil health. Growers with larger parcels, microirrigation and more water security had a higher probability of practice adoption. Nut crops are more agronomically intense than fruit crops requiring higher rates of N fertilizer and water use. Nut growers adopted significantly more practices than fruit growers, and also utilized significantly more information sources and experienced significantly fewer practice challenges. Our results collectively support our hypotheses that agronomic and knowledge barriers differ between fruit and nut growers, and help to explain the variance in adoption of conversation practices in orchard agroecosystems. Furthermore, the significance of our work offers a case study for other regions and agroecosystems to address the need for linking agronomic and knowledge barriers to adoption in an effort to promote global climate-smart and regenerative agriculture initiatives.
... Une information transmise de manière précoce aux agriculteurs, sur le risque en période de changement climatique, permet de limiter significativement les pertes de production (Reynaud, 2015) Le contexte informationnel à la fois formel (visites des conseillers agricoles, informations des services techniques…) et informel (réseaux de producteurs, forum…) affecte l'adoption (Marra et al., 2003 ;Barham et al., 2014). En effet, Prokopy et al. (2008) ...
... Six stratégies d'adaptation sont principalement adoptées par les producteurs céréaliers face au changement climatique. Elles concernent particulièrement : la diversification culturale pratiquée par 97,61% des producteurs, la rotation culturale (40%), le changement de la date de semis (57,63%), la gestion des ravageurs (26,78%), la diminution des surfaces cultivées Ces résultats sont conformes à la littérature (Marra et al., 2003;Prokopy et al., 2008;Barham et al., 2014). Cependant, il était attendu que l'adhésion à un groupe soit significative pour toutes les stratégies adoptées (Kuhfus et al., 2013) ce qui ne fut pas le cas pour le changement de la date de semi et l'utilisation de variété à cycle court. ...
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Ce travail présente le comportement des agriculteurs de céréales face au risque climatique. Ces comportements mettent en exergue l'utilisation d'informations climatiques et leur niveau d'aversion au risque.
... In addition, given that the average age of farmers in the United States is 57.5 and continues to increase every year (USDA-NASS 2019), it will also be important to make sure the necessary information is reaching older farmers as well if broader-scale adaptation is to be achieved. Previous literature has already shown that older farmers are often less likely to adopt conservation practices (Prokopy et al. 2008). Therefore, the findings of this study further illustrate the importance of reaching out to older farmers regarding adaptation. ...
... In addition, those few farmers who were well-connected to both other farmers and various information sources have great potential to help spread this type of information as well. This, again, echoes previous literature which shows that adoption of conservation practices is positively associated with utilization of social networks (Prokopy et al. 2008). For this reason, central and trusted organizations like OSU Extension should create more opportunities for both well-and less-connected farmers to network with one another, particularly across ecoregions, to help new, trusting relationships of information-exchange to develop while leveraging the existing network structure. ...
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Farmers’ willingness and ability to adapt to climate change are in part influenced by their social networks and sources of information. Drawing on assemblage theory and social network analysis in a novel way, this study explores the influence of Oregonian small farmers’ social and informational networks on their beliefs about and responses to climate change. The use of assemblage theory, which focuses on many disparate elements as they co-function in a space, allows for multiple entities within farmers’ networks and the ways they interact to be examined, while the use of social network analysis highlights broader patterns in the structure and composition of farmers’ networks. Theoretically, this study brings these two distinct yet similar bodies of theory and methodologies together for the first time to expand the utility of both fields and explore farmers’ networks in a novel way. Results indicate that small farmers’ connections to other farmers and media in their networks are influencing their beliefs about climate change, while their responses are influenced by their ties to various agricultural and climatological information sources, as well as other nearby farmers. Finally, while farmers’ ties to other farmers are largely limited to those nearby, certain central individuals and entities, particularly beginning farmers, can act as bridges linking distinct groups of farmers. An understanding of these networks can be used to better disseminate critical information, such as forecasts and adaptation strategies, to help farmers adapt.
... Moreover, many studies on determinants of WTA pro-environmental practices in the 2010 decade have shown few variations in terms of determinants. For example, two reviews on Best Management Practices, one in 2008 (Prokopy et al. , 2008), one in 2018 (Liu et al. , 2018) showed consistency among determinants of proenvironmental practices in ten years. One interesting perspective could be to do a diachronic analysis with the farmers of the study area, to study the evolution of thoughts and actions on pollinator supporting practices. ...
... Empirical works − such as Griliches (1957Griliches ( , 1960' ones on adoption of hybrid maize in US − have preceded theoretical ones. For 70 years the producer behavior related to agricultural technology adoption has been informed by contributions from multiple disciplines, including agricultural economics, rural sociology, psychology, marketing extension and anthropology (Feder et al. , 1985;Pannell et al. , 2006;Edwards-Jones, 2006;Prokopy et al. , 2008). Modeling farmers' behavior to better study and predict actions is still a major challenge (Palm-Forster et al. , 2019). ...
Thesis
Alors que l’un des objectifs majeurs mis en avant par l’IPBES (2019) est celui de nourrir la planète tout en améliorant la santé globale des écosystèmes, l’agriculture intensive reste l’une des causes principales du déclin de la biodiversité, dont celui des pollinisateurs à l’échelle planétaire est emblématique. Les cultures pollinisées représentent près de 80% des espèces cultivées en Europe et jouent un rôle écologique et économique crucial dans les agroécosystèmes (Klein et al., 2007). Par conséquent, le déclin des pollinisateurs questionne les pratiques agricoles actuelles. L’objectif de la thèse est d’identifier et d’évaluer des solutions efficaces et durables pour assurer la fourniture du service de pollinisation dans les agroécosystèmes intensifs. Jusqu’à présent, les recherches menées pour enrayer le déclin des pollinisateurs se sont focalisées sur plusieurs réponses techniques, mais en ignorant les préférences des agriculteurs ou des apiculteurs. Dans un premier temps, nous identifions les leviers techniques les plus efficaces pour augmenter la magnitude du service de pollinisation, puis nous analysons les préférences des agents à leur propos. Dans un deuxième temps, nous évaluons certains leviers bioéconomiques (i.e. en combinant l'adoption d'une pratique avec une motivation socio-économique) d'un point de vue économique mais aussi écologique. Pour cela, nous mobilisons des concepts et théories de plusieurs champs disciplinaires, principalement de l’économie et de la psychologie, ainsi que des approches de modélisation bioéconomique et d’économétrie. Nous nous focalisons sur le cas d'étude de la Zone Atelier "Plaine & Val de Sèvre" (Deux-Sèvres, France), un agroécosystème intensif Ouest-Européen typique, que nous utilisons pour la calibration des modèles. Pour l'identification des préférences nous utilisons deux jeux de données issues d'enquêtes auprès d'agriculteurs: un réalisé sur la Zone Atelier, et un réalisé en ligne à l'échelle de la France. Nos résultats montrent que les leviers présentent une grande acceptabilité parmi les agriculteurs, mais qu'ils sont peu adoptés. Les leviers les plus efficaces sont souvent les moins adoptés. Cette adoption est influencée par les coûts, mais aussi par les préférences face au risque ou d'autres facteurs comportementaux. Nous simulons dans un premier temps, grâce à un modèle bioéconomique, un levier prometteur: celui de stimuler la pollinisation domestique en incitant les agents par des systèmes de taxes-subventions. Cependant, nous montrons que, bien que privilégier les abeilles domestiques et l'apiculture soit économiquement performant, les performances environnementales sont faibles du fait que ce système soit compatible avec l'agriculture intensive. Connaissant les préférences des agents, nous simulons l'adoption de bandes fleuries (le levier agricole le plus efficace) qui permet à la fois d'augmenter la pollinisation, mais aussi de stabiliser les rendements par le phénomène d'"assurance naturelle". Cependant, nous montrons que leur adoption est chère par rapport au maintien de la pollinisation par les abeilles domestiques, et à la contractualisation d'une assurance agricole. Enfin, nous établissons une théorie des politiques optimales soutenant les services écosystémiques et prenant en compte la dimension comportementale. Nous montrons que celles-ci pourraient augmenter l'adoption de pratiques et ainsi être plus efficientes que des politiques de soutien financier "classiques". Cette thèse contribue, par une approche interdisciplinaire entre économie agricole, comportementale et écologie, au débat actuel sur les moyens d'augmenter la pollinisation dans les agroécosystèmes,et plus globalement sur la multifonctionnalité de l’agriculture.
... Heterogeneous characteristics of the farm and farmer (F) have been shown to impact farmer behavior regarding the adoption of best management practices (Pannell et al. 2006;Prokopy et al. 2008;Baumgart-Getz, Prokopy, and Floress 2012). Consequently, we condition a farmer's utility on an array of idiosyncratic traits that include farm resource capacities, previous contact with the conservation practice, farmer age, and education (Prokopy et al. 2019). ...
... The same is true about the role played by peers/colleagues (for example, other farmers/agricultural advisers and extension educators), whom non-participant advisers and farmers reported were the primary source of information about the U2U project ( Table 2). This result also further confirms the value of social networks [33][34][35][36] in disseminating new knowledge and information for potential users. ...
Article
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There is growing belief that the co-production of knowledge between academics and non-academics is critical to address sustainability problems. Yet, little is known about what happens after co-production and whether and how co-produced knowledge scales up. This article focuses on climate-driven decision support tools co-produced by researchers, farmers and agricultural advisers in the US Midwest. Through two surveys (N = 5,393) with farmers and agricultural advisers, it examines how engagement and marketing campaigns to disseminate the tools influenced their use. Here we find that beyond the highly iterative co-production process, other forms of user interaction such as outreach engagement and marketing campaigns are critical to scale up the impact of co-produced knowledge. Positively, we also show that most surveyed farmers and advisers who were not involved in the engagement phase reported having their needs met by the co-produced tools and were using, considering using or willing to recommend the climate-driven decision support tools. Hence, while co-production alone does not guarantee dissemination, it does increase knowledge fit and use. Dissemination for mass use, however, might require a committed effort from researchers and funders to promote and evaluate use post co-production to better understand societal impact and the role of co-produced knowledge in addressing sustainability problems. Sustainability calls often for knowledge to be co-produced between academics and non-academics, but little is known about whether and how such knowledge scales up. Focusing on co-produced climate-driven decision support tools for farmers, this study examines how efforts to disseminate the tools influenced their use.
... In response, there have been calls for additional research into the context surrounding farmer decision-making, such as broader social, economic and political factors (Knowler, 2014;. Recent meta-analyses of the adoption literature indicate inconsistent trends in predictors of adoption, perhaps revealing that the relevance of commonly measured predictors varies by contextual factors yet unstudied (e.g., Prokopy et al., 2008;Baumgart-Getz et al., 2012;Prokopy et al., 2019;Ranjan et al., 2019). ...
Article
Across the Midwest, substantial funding and personnel time have been allocated to encourage farmers to adopt a wide range of conservation practices but adoption rates for many of these practices remain low. Prior research focuses largely on the influence of individual-level factors (e.g., beliefs, attitudes) on conservation practice adoption rather than on contextual factors (e.g., seasons) that might also play a role. In the present study, we considered seasonal variation and its potential influence on farmer cover crop decision-making. We first established how farmer temporal and financial resources fluctuate across the year and then compared the annual agricultural decision and cover crop decision calendars. We also considered farmer cover crop perceptions and likely behaviors. To study this, we surveyed the same Midwestern farmers in the spring, summer and winter within a 12-month period. Results indicated that farmers were generally the least busy and the most financially comfortable in the winter months. Moreover, farmers perceived the benefits of cover crops differently throughout the year. These results indicate that seasonality can be a confounding factor which should be considered when designing and conducting research and farmer engagement. As researchers, it is our responsibility to understand the specific calendar experienced by our sample and how that may influence responses so we can examine theory-supported factors of interest rather than seasonality as a driver of farmer responses. As practitioners, it is important to use research findings to engage with farmers about conservation in a way that prioritizes communicating about the most salient aspects of the practice at the time of year when farmers will be most receptive.
... We chose practice-specific beliefs as the mechanisms because conservation practice adoption is more likely among farmers who strongly believe that the practice in question is feasible and effective (Gebrehiwot and Van Der Veen 2015;Wilson et al. 2018;Wang et al. 2019). The importance of these practice-specific beliefs is further supported by prior research identifying the importance of access to high quality information about agricultural conservation practices (Prokopy et al. 2008;Baumgart-Getz et al. 2012;Prokopy et al. 2019), understanding the perceived advantages of adopting a practice (Reimer et al. 2012), and belief in practice benefits (Arbuckle and Roesch-McNally 2015). Beliefs regarding feasibility and relative advantage or effectiveness are also critical to many theories of behavior change including Protection-Motivation-Theory (PMT, Rogers 1975;Maddux and Rogers 1983), the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM, Witte 1994), Diffusion of Innovations (DOI, Rogers 2010) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Ajzen 1991). ...
Article
Recent reviews of the agricultural conservation adoption literature find few definitive and consistent predictors of adoption across practices. We propose that these inconsistencies may be the result of statistical models failing to account for psychological mechanisms. Such mechanisms can link farm and farmer characteristics to adoption by highlighting not just what is important, but why these characteristics matter. We illustrate a simple, but underutilized strategy exploring mediated explanations of cover crop adoption. Results suggest that when farm or farmer characteristics (e.g., farmer identity) are included with beliefs about practices (e.g., perceived practice feasibility), a mediated arrangement provides a more nuanced and consistent picture of influential motivations and barriers than simple linear models. This focus on belief-based mechanisms provides important insights into why different types of farms or farmers adopt conservation practices with implications for both practical interventions and future research.
... Among factors relating to social capital and extension services, training, exposure visits and access to extension services had a positive relationship with up-take of field bund, which is in line with our prior anticipation, as social capital facilitates exchange of views and experiences, and also facilitates sharing of resources, which are essential for community-based SWC efforts / programs. Similar to our results, a positive role of social capital in adoption of agricultural technologies was reported (Grootaert et al., 2004;Nyangena, 2008;Prokopy et al., 2008;Teklewold and effect of future security of land ownership on adoption of soil conservation practices (Shiferaw and Holden, 2000;Nyangena, 2008;Teshome et al., 2013). As anticipated, both field slope as well as soil erosion level were associated with a high probability for adoption of field bund. ...
Article
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The study identifies factors affecting adoption of multiple soil and water conservation (SWC) technologies using multivariate probit (MVP) model for data collected from 1239 fields selected by multistage sampling method. The analysis revealed that farmers' share is only 20% in total investment for SWC technologies. The results also showed that field level features, farmer's perception of benefits of SWC technologies, and social capital and extension services are the key determinants of adoption of multiple soil and water technologies-field bund, water harvesting structure (WHS), micro-irrigation (MI), and farm yard manure (FYM) in the semi-arid drought prone areas of Karnataka. Therefore, the identified key determinants need to be targeted for achieving a higher level of adoption of SWC technologies for sustaining the natural resources and thereby livelihood of resource poor farmers of the drought prone areas of the state.
... Similarly, farmers' attitudes and faith towards their knowledge and skill, ecological conservation, restoration, climate change, and perceptions of future risks and economic issues impact CA's adoption, which can be facilitated by proper institutional training and capacity building. Prokopy et al. (2008) reported that, positive environmental attitude and environmental awareness are significantly associated with adopting CA practices, and frequent training increases the likelihood of CA adoption practices (Ntshangase et al., 2018). Also, the farmers already having a negative experience of climate change impact are more likely to adopt the CA practices (Kragt et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Global warming is considered as one of the greatest challenges for mankind. Increase in global surface temperature creates significant socioeconomic challenges. International organizations are taking steps to reduce global warming. Capping of emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) is a step that countries are following. This also creates option for trading carbon credits. Agriculture plays a critical role in global warming through producing GHGs; at the same time, it has potential to solve this problem to a significant extent by following good agronomic practices as well as sequestering more carbon in the soil. Conservation agriculture (CA) is considered as a method of agronomic management practice that has potential for sustainable intensification. The CA system helps in soil-health maintenance and regeneration. At the same time, CA helps in sequestering more carbon (C) in the soil and reducing GHGs emissions. In addition, CA brings a new opportunity, especially for smallholder farmers of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, to get paid for sequestering C through C trading programme that global industries are following. It also has to be noted that adoption of CA needs to be understood from farmers' socioeconomic aspects. The present review highlights the background, benefits, present status, and future opportunities of CA system and its plausible integration with carbon farming.
... The first category of variables related to winegrowers' socio-economic characteristics, such as gender, age, education (general or viticultural) and landownership, and vineyard attributes, including farm size, workforce hired, certification labels -High Environmental Value 3 (HVE) and organic agriculture (European label 'AB') -and irrigation use. Age is commonly used in studies investigating farmers' adoption of new practices, as older farmers are prone to being more conservative towards the adoption of alternative farm practices (Prokopy et al., 2008). Farm size is also considered to be an important factor in the adoption of new practices, since smaller farms cannot benefit from the same cost advantages as larger farms when implementing management practices (Knowler and Bradshaw, 2007;Tambo and Abdoulaye, 2012). ...
Article
The adoption of soil organic carbon sequestration (SCS) practices on agricultural land offers the double advantage of offsetting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improving soil quality. However, little is known about the drivers that might influence winegrowers to adopt these practices, whose uptake remains low on viticultural land. Better understanding these drivers will be crucial to evaluate the efficacy of current policies in the viticulture sector in promoting and incentivising soil organic carbon sequestration in vineyards. This paper identified the factors influencing the adoption of SCS practices by winegrowers in France. A survey of 400 winegrowers investigated current rates of adoption and winegrowers’ perceptions of the practices. A binary logistic model suggested that winegrower’s age, being an independent winegrower, farm size, the number of workers hired, vine’s age, being certified High Environmental Value (HVE), being certified organic, practising irrigation, receiving subsidies, and winegrower’s perceived resources, attitude towards SCS practices and confidence significantly influenced the decision to adopt the practices, though their influence differed depending on the practice. The findings provide insights for GHG mitigation planning targeting the viticulture sector
... Farmer age and total cultivated area are included because differences in these characteristics may also have an effect on the response variable (Prokopy et al., 2008(Prokopy et al., , 2019. Two additional survey items that asked if the farmer had birdwatched or hunted in the previous year were included in the model. ...
Article
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Farmer wildlife management practices are critical to conserve biodiversity and ecosystem functions across intensively used agricultural landscapes. Policies and initiatives aimed at encouraging these practices have generally focused on economic incentives, with limited effectiveness. Farmer identity theory addresses the emergence of norms, values and perceptions in farm management and can contribute to the development of policies and initiatives that engage more effectively with farmers and farming communities. Here we evaluate linkages between farmer identity and wildlife habitat management practices in the intensively farmed US state of Iowa. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using data from a survey of over 1,300 Iowa farmers that asked their opinions on what constitutes ‘a good farmer’. We use logistic regression to model relationships between farmer identity factor scores and contextual variables against participation in a set of habitat management practices. Four ‘good farmer’ identity types were identified and labelled as productivist, soil conservationist, wildlife conservationist and civic‐minded. Logistic regression results indicated that these farmer identity types have highly divergent responses to wildlife habitat management practices among Iowa farmers. Recreational factors may supplement identity and are also influential towards habitat production on farms. We conclude that farmer identity theory offers a critical link between social and ecological processes on Iowa farms. The research presented here quantitatively associates farmer identity theory with wildlife habitat management, increasing our understanding of how wildlife habitat practices and individual‐level farmer identities interact. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
... For example, in eastern Canada, water table management through controlled tile drainage and subsurface-irrigation have been developed as Beneficial Water Management Practices (BWMPs) to reduce adverse environmental impacts of irrigation and drainage and enhance water productivity (Mejia and Madramootoo 1998;Tan et al. 1999). However, farmers' voluntary adoption has manifested certain barriers, including high initial investments in devices, tight operating margins in farming, uncertainty about future commercial contracts and financial claims, and limited knowledge of the technology (Prokopy et al. 2008;Baumgart-Getz et al. 2011). ...
Article
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This paper seeks to calibrate the dynamic policy-induced adoption/diffusion of an agri-environmental beneficial technology. The paper develops an agent-based model to integrate the adoption problem into a complex farmer adoption decision-making system involving different components (e.g., GIS environment, agents, network, production and adoption, policy). Based on the model, a case on cost-effectiveness evaluation of a hypothetical agricultural extension (AE) program is exemplified in this study to explain how this model can support the agri-environmental policy design. As a result, farmers’ adoption decision-making under the influence of the AE program can be brought forward to an average ten-year ahead with a higher upper boundary of ultimate adoption rate than no policy scenario. Furthermore, this study presents simulated policy evaluation from different participation rates of the AE program to compare policy effects and thus assess their cost-effectiveness. The comparison results imply that a higher participation rate does not positively increase the performance of the AE program. Our ex-ante agent-based modeling (ABM) simulation method can be applied in agri-environmental policy design, evaluation, and long-term policy monitor. In addition, the model provides a flexible quantitative tool to predict farmers’ policy-induced adoption decision-making and outcomes in a future period. We also introduce potential improvements to extend the inherent farmers’ adoption behavior algorithm, computing capability, and model validation for future research.
... Institutional/organizational structures include the number and attributes of governmental and nongovernmental agencies and organizations working on conservation issues, including technical assistance providers and land-grant university extension programs (Bennett et al., 2018). Areas with more numerous, well-resourced, and better-coordinated institutions can reduce the learning, implementation, and management costs associated with adopting a new conservation practice (Prokopy et al., 2008;Pannell, 2008). ...
Article
Owners and managers of private lands make decisions that have implications well beyond the boundaries of their land, influencing species conservation, water quality, wildfire risk, and other environmental outcomes with important societal and ecological consequences. Understanding how these decisions are made is key for informing interventions to support better outcomes. However, explanations of the drivers of decision making are often siloed in social science disciplines that differ in focus, theory, methodology, and terminology, hindering holistic understanding. To address these challenges, we propose a conceptual model of private land conservation decision-making that integrates theoretical perspectives from three dominant disciplines: economics, sociology, and psychology. The model highlights how heterogeneity in behavior across decision-makers is driven by interactions between the decision context, attributes of potential conservation behaviors, and attributes of the decision-maker. These differences in both individual attributes and context shape decision-makers’ constraints and the potential and perceived consequences of a behavior. The model also captures how perceived consequences are evaluated and weighted through a decision-making process that may range from systematic to heuristic, ultimately resulting in selection of a behavior. Outcomes of private land behaviors across the landscape feed back to alter the socio-environmental conditions that shape future decisions. The conceptual model is designed to facilitate better communication, collaboration, and integration across disciplines and points to methodological innovations that can expand understanding of private land decision-making. The model also can be used to illuminate how behavior change interventions (e.g., policies, regulations, technical assistance) could be designed to target different drivers to encourage environmentally and socially beneficial behaviors on private lands.
... Although outside the context of carbon programs, multiple studies examine barriers to adoption of conservation practices and suggest that a diverse combination of economic and agronomic factors, social norms, perceptions of government programs, farm characteristics, land tenure factors, and knowledge-related factors pose barriers to conservation adoption (Nowatzke & Arbuckle, 2018;Prokopy et al., 2008Prokopy et al., , 2019Ranjan et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The credibility of agricultural carbon credits will play a critical role in the determination of payments received by farmers through voluntary carbon markets. This article analyzes the major challenges from both the demand and supply sides to voluntary agricultural carbon credit programs and serves as a resource to researchers, producers, policymakers, and other stakeholders who seek a comprehensive analysis of the challenges that still face this market despite recent positive developments in global agreements.
... This demonstrates a clear educational opportunity, with approximately one-third of the responding nonadopters expressing an interest in learning more about the potential benefits of trees along streams. Aside from the advantages associated with a personal contact of these individuals, research has illustrated that higher levels of education have been shown to increase conservation practice adoption (Prokopy et al. 2008;Ahnstrom et al. 2009;Arbuckle et al. 2009). While providing additional information does not qualify as a method of formal education, it is speculated that it could have a similar effect by increasing adoption. ...
... Indeed, the return of arable land systems to grassland is a basic and largely applicable agri-environment scheme to enhance soil water capacity with the effect of enlarging the carbon storage capacity of soils. The return of arable land systems to grassland appears amongst significant measures regarded as determining factors in the adoption of adequate management practices [39]. Over the years, many have doubted the effectiveness of agri-environment measures (AES) for maintaining or improving biodiversity [40,41]. ...
Article
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Building on the agri-environment framework in Central and Eastern Europe, the article emphasizes the role and the use of the agri-environment in provision of different ecosystem services. It shows that relevant conservation measures with regard to ameliorating soil degradation contribute to the existence of sustainable land systems. In our study, we (i) identified what the soil water aggregate means, (ii) reviewed how agri-environment schemes (AES) function to support soil water requirements, and (iii) how appropriate soils are identified with regard to the implementation of soil conservation under the agri-environment. Empirical data were surveyed to assess AES as the pivotal subsidy in four countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. Quantitative data were assessed to contribute to evidence on and the expenditure effect of the measures. This review found that AES schemes in arable land systems implement several approaches such as cover crops and the reversion of arable land systems to grassland. The costs of AE measures reflect the costs of the particular agri-environmental practice and its constraints on commercial performance by the farmer. The AES budget analysis showed that subsidization moderately increased over the 2000–2020 time frame. However, the magnitude of the AES budget is still largely overshadowed by generic subsidies at farm level.
... This type of grower social network can be very effective at stimulating learning, engendering cooperation, and influencing BMP adoption (Hillis et al., 2018;Babin et al., 2016;Prokopy et al., 2008). Regional certification systems linked with grower sustainability networks are present in each of the major winegrape growing areas of California and provide a proven base from which to design and deliver effective outreach programming (Hillis et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Groundwater depletion and water scarcity are significant global risks facing humanity. Improved irrigation efficiency is a key strategy for achieving sustainable management of groundwater resources. In 2021, we surveyed vineyard managers in the Paso Robles (California) American Viticultural Area, assessing the level of, and barriers to, adoption of six irrigation efficiency best management practices (BMPs). BMP adoption was relatively low overall, with the use of flow meters most widespread (55%) and plant tissue sampling to schedule irrigation least prevalent (32%). Financial expense to implement and manage was the most cited barrier and UC Cooperative Extension was the most trusted information source for water management concerns. There was a clear relationship between BMP adoption and the vineyard and vineyard manager characteristics included in the study. Participation in Sustainability in Practice (SIP) certification and its related grower-to-grower network activities emerged as the single most important determinant of BMP adoption. A vineyard typology of three types (small, medium and large-scale) was also constructed to understand the relationship between BMP adoption, vineyard type and other vineyard and vineyard manager characteristics. There were sharp differences between vineyard types in BMP adoption, barriers to adoption, and trusted information sources. The analysis concludes with targeted outreach recommendations to improve BMP adoption that include financial and technical assistance. Our approach of assessing adoption, characterizing barriers, identifying opportunities, and formulating an outreach strategy informed by farm typology is relevant to other irrigated agricultural regions facing water scarcity and groundwater depletion and could be extended to other irrigation BMPs as well as to other crops.
... Others investigate the effect of intermittent irrigation on rice yield [11]. Such approaches are criticised for providing a few practical insights, which might help extension agents understand how to encourage greater adoption [12,13]. Farmers' opinion and ideas are based on their experience over the years when practising farming. ...
Article
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This article argues that the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) future promotion should be based on the potential users’ good understanding of sustainable agriculture. A qualitative approach was used to examine the perceptions of SRI attributes among Indonesian rice farmers, which is built upon the developing theory of diffusion of innovation. Through focus group discussions in three Indonesian provinces, compatibility, complexity, and relative advantage were identified as essential factors for SRI adoption. SRI was seen as incompatible with current farming practices, labour capacity, budget, and time available for additional labour inputs. SRI was seen as relatively complicated in terms of compost processing and application as well as mechanised agricultural technologies. As a result of the economic surplus provided by SRI rice, organised farmers may be able to obtain a higher price for SRI rice than non-organised farmers. Environmental and agronomic benefits were thought to have a long-term payoff. Such results demonstrate the subjective evaluation of SRI by farmers, which is important to its implementation.
... Results showed that majority of the farmers applied green leaves as manure for improving soil fertility because of its great benefits such as improving crop, cheaper price, improves soil nutrient, its availability and accessibility. According to Marenya et al. (2007); Prokopy et al. (2008), farmers with large areas are more likely to adopt soil fertility management practices than those with small areas. Similar report was documented by Richards et al. (2014) that practices such as crop residue retention and reduced tillage have potential to buffer crop yields against weather extremes, especially in drought prone areas, as well as boost average yields in the long term. ...
Conference Paper
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Adaptation to global climate change through improved soil quality by adoption of improved management practices is key to maintaining sustainable agricultural production. Top soils (0-20 cm) were sampled from different land use types in Kwara State to determine, the effects of land use, crop residue retention and farmers’ practices on soil carbon accumulation for climate change mitigation and soil productivity improvement. Six villages were randomly selected and 126 farmers were interviewed on socio-economic characteristics, residue generations, soil management and farmer’s practices as it affects soil quality, farm operations and their willingness to participate in activities that curb global warming. Majority (74%) burn their residue every season and left 10% of the residue on the field after tillage. Many (59%) of the respondent used inorganic fertilizer at least once during the growing season. Bush burning, tractor ploughing, hoeing and application of herbicide is moderately desire, animal ploughing is least desired for any of their farm practices and soil quality. Carbon stocks were significantly affected by land use type in the following order: forests > plantations > maize and cassava intercrop. Using Multivariate Probit Model, age, sex, education, climate change information, land ownership, credit access, farm size and year of experience are variables that significantly influenced farm management practices. Therefore, effective land management practices should be adopted for enhanced carbon sequestration, climate change mitigation, sustained fertility status and increased agricultural production. Keywords: Crop residue, Carbon storage; Farmers’ practices; Global warming; Sustainable production
... Scholars have conducted extensive research on the factors affecting the adoption of conservation tillage technology by farmers. There are many factors affecting farmers' adoption of conservation tillage technology, mainly including personal and family characteristics, cultivated land characteristics, farming cognition and external factors [32]. The conditions of farmers themselves and their families are an important aspect affecting the adoption of conservation tillage technology. ...
Article
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The adoption of conservation tillage technology can improve the production efficiency of black soils (mollisols), and it has great significance to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture. This paper takes farmers in the black soil region of Jilin Province as the research object, uses 442 survey data of farmers in seven municipal areas in the black soil region of Jilin Province, constructs a logistic-ISM model, first determines the influencing factors of farmers’ adoption of conservation tillage technology, and then analyzes the hierarchical structure of each influencing factor. The results show that: (1) among the eight significant influencing factors of farmers’ adoption of conservation tillage technology, age, whether they know the government’s subsidies for conservation tillage and the number of labor force are the deep-rooted factors; (2) Education level, whether you know that the government is promoting conservation tillage, and the planting area are intermediate level factors; (3) whether they have received the technical services of conservation tillage and whether the cultivated land is scattered is the direct factors. Based on the significance analysis of the influencing factors of farmers’ adoption of conservation tillage technology and the research on the action mechanism of the influencing factors of farmers’ adoption of conservation tillage technology, this paper puts forward policy suggestions to improve the extension system of conservation tillage technology, improve the implementation of land transfer and subsidy policies, strengthen the ability of rural socialized services, and strengthen the publicity of black soils protection.
... According to the level of education, the majority of respondents have secondary school (71%), followed by respondents with a university degree and higher education (27%) and the lowest share of respondents whose level Chi-square coefficient = 9.807; p = 0.007). Prokopy et al. (2008) confirmed that younger farmers are more inclined to use new technologies and advertising. ...
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... Farmland ecological compensation has good effect evaluation experience [101][102][103]. Furthermore, there is also international experience in specialized payments for various ecosystem services, such as biodiversity conservation [104,105], water provision [106], carbon dioxide fixation [107]. Absorbing these advanced experiences will accelerate the improvement of grassland eco-compensation in China. ...
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In order to curb the phenomenon of grassland degradation caused by human activity, China has begun the exploration of grassland eco-compensation, setting an example for the ecological protection of grasslands and sustainable use of resources around the world. At this stage, China has invested more than 170 billion yuan in grassland eco-compensation, benefiting 12 million farmer and herder households. The related research involves various perspectives, scopes, and methods, but lacks systematic reviewing. This study reviews the relevant theoretical and practical research and explores the connotations and effects of grassland eco-compensation in China. In general, the current grassland eco-compensation in China is a large-scale ecological-economic institutional arrangement with the following five characteristics: (1) the goals are to maintain the grassland ecosystem services and increase the income of herder households; (2) the main bodies are governments and herder households; (3) the main method is financial transfer payments; (4) the compensation standards are based on the opportunity costs of the herder households’ responses as the lower limits and the grassland ecosystem service values as the upper limits; and (5) it is a comprehensive compensation system that requires legal, regulatory, technological support and long-term mechanisms. Since 2011, driven by the grassland eco-compensation policy, the income levels of herder households in each pilot area have generally increased, and the overall ecology of grasslands has slightly improved. However, there are still some areas where overload is common. Additionally, there are regional differences in the satisfaction degree of herder households, which is mainly affected by factors such as family income, compensation cognition and family holding grassland scale. Our analysis shows that the shortcomings of current theoretical research are mainly reflected in the low precision of scientific compensation standards, the lack of a basis for differentiated standards, and the single compensation method. The shortcoming of practical research is that most effect evaluations cannot reflect the role of eco-compensation in it. This study suggests that future work should focus on the response mechanism of herder households and the improvement of the compensation measures. At the same time, the scope of research should be expanded, and we should learn from advanced compensation experience in other fields.
... We include farm characteristics variables such as age, education, gross farm income, and percentage of off-farm income that might influence farmer decision (Prokopy et al., 2008;Baumgart-Getz, Prokopy, and Floress, 2012). Age has been associated with experience in some studies, and has been found to have an ambiguous effects on conservation adoption, depending on the type of practice studied (Wade and Claassen, 2017;Khanna, 2001). ...
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This paper uses farm survey data from the western margin of the Corn Belt to estimate the causal effects of adopting different conservation practices-conservation tillage (CT), cover crops (CC), and diversified crop rotation (DCR)-on the perceived change in yield, production cost and profit by farmers in South Dakota. We use propensity score kernel matching to correct the sample selection bias induced by non-random adoption of different conservation practices. We find that farmers who adopt CT and DCR are more likely to perceive an increase in profit and yield and a decrease in production cost for CC adopters.
... Several studies indicate that cognitive process affects behavior (Aizawa, 2017;Baumgart-Getz et al., 2012;Prokopy et al., 2008). The knowledge of pesticide residue, fertilizers, and "San Pin Yi Biao" about the agricultural products of the purely sales-oriented New Farmers was included in the regression equations based on the corresponding dependent variables. ...
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In the upper Midwestern United States, one of the central goals of agri-environmental policy is to reduce environmental and water quality degradation resulting from agriculture without sacrificing production. The primary tool available to policymakers is offering farmers incentives to voluntarily adopt more conservation practices, often known as Best Management Practices (BMPs). Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) frameworks, we surveyed 2000 agricultural landowners in the Minnesota River Basin to explore the socio-psychological drivers of the adoption decisions for specific BMPs such as wetlands, cover crops, and nutrient management. We found that attitude (both favorable and unfavorable), awareness of environmental problems, and appreciation of ecosystem services significantly affected landowners' adoption intentions for the three BMPs. We applied landowner segmentation analysis and compared both the socio-psychological and socio-demographic features among different landowner segments (i.e. environmentally-conscious landowners, engaging-absentee landowners, and adoption-averse landowners). Our study can inform the development of targeted conservation policies for various landowner types to motivate BMPs adoption.
Chapter
Coordinated efforts to protect soil and water resources in North America can be traced to the 1930s. While social science research conducted during the past eight decades has produced considerable insight into farm-level decision-making associated with adoption of conservation production systems, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the factors that are important for predicting adoption behaviors at the farm level. This chapter evaluates the utility of one of the historically dominant theoretical paradigms employed in farm-level adoption studies—the diffusion theoretical perspective. Focusing on North America, the authors provide a brief introduction to the traditional diffusion paradigm, followed by a discussion of empirical research findings relative to factors influencing farmers’ adoption of agricultural conservation production practices. The chapter concludes with the authors’ assessment of the future utility of the diffusion model for guiding research on adoption of soil and water conservation practices.
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Conservation practices are heavily promoted in agriculture, yet adoption rates remain low and relatively stagnant. We conducted a panel study of reported farmer subsurface placement and cover crop adoption in the Western Lake Erie Basin to assess (1) if reported adoption is changing over time, and (2) what is driving this change. Our results indicate that similar numbers of farmers are adding (~12%) and discontinuing use of (~14%) these practices. We find no evidence that prior intention increases the likelihood of future practice use, suggesting that intentions do not necessarily translate into behavior. We also examined self-efficacy (i.e., perceived control) and response efficacy (i.e., beliefs about practice effectiveness) but find limited evidence that these are changing over time and increasing adoption. The results suggest that increases in critical conservation practice adoption is not occurring, potentially because farmer efficacy, which might build stronger intentions and lead to change over time, is not increasing.
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A national sample of U.S. farms is used to estimate the long-term trends in adoption and diffusion of conservation tillage, IPM, and soil fertilizer testing, technologies designed to reduce environmental externalities from agriculture. Results from a duration model show that diffusion of these technologies has been relatively slow, with long lags in adoption due to differences in land quality, farm size, farmer education, and regional factors.
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Logit analyses are used in evaluating survey data concerning rice stink bug [Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius)] management by Texas rice producers. Effects of rice production attributes on the adoption of insect sweep nets in conjunction with treatment thresholds, and the spraying of insecticides for the management of the rice stink bug, are investigated. The proportion of neighboring land use in pasture, the proportion of rice acreage planted to semidwarf varieties, and producers’ attendance at specific field days significantly affect the probability of adopting sweep nets and treatment thresholds. Adoption of sweep nets and treatment thresholds increase the probability of spraying by 11.3%.
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The primary objective of this study is to examine the effect of various factors on the use of conservation tillage. In the model developed here we have explicitly incorporated the Ervin and Ervin (1982) structure of soil conservation adoption into an integrated model. The first stage of the process is the recognition by the farm operator that soil erosion is a major problem. From the empirical model of this stage we obtain the predicted probability of perceiving a soil conservation problem which is then used as an explanatory variable in the adoption component of our model. By using a Tobit estimator for this latter component, we obtain information with respect to the effect of selected variables on both the probability of adoption and the "conditional intensity' of conservation tillage use. -Authors
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It has been argued that the land-use restrictions prescribed by the Endangered Species Act have failed to protect endangered species on private land. Hence, there has been a call for using incentives to complement this regulatory approach. This paper ...
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In light of growing concerns over the implications of many conventional agricultural practices, and especially the deep tilling of soils, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), among others, has begun to promote a package of soil conserving practices under the banner of ‘conservation agriculture’. While the title might be novel, its associated practices have long been employed by farmers, and studied by social scientists seeking to understand the reasons for their adoption and non-adoption. This paper reviews and synthesizes this past research in order to identify those independent variables that regularly explain adoption, and thereby facilitate policy prescriptions to augment adoption around the world. While a disaggregated analysis of a subset of commonly used variables reveals some underlying patterns of influence, once various contextual factors (e.g. study locale or method) are controlled, the primary finding of the synthesis is that there are few if any universal variables that regularly explain the adoption of conservation agriculture across past analyses. Given the limited prospect of identifying such variables through further research, we conclude that efforts to promote conservation agriculture will have to be tailored to reflect the particular conditions of individual locales.
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A probit model identifies variables related to the probability that a farm operator used a conservation tillage practice. Data from a 1983 survey of 529 randomly selected Wisconsin farmers were used to determine maximum likelihood estimates. Voluntary no-plow adopters were significantly different from traditional moldboard tillers in these respects: they were more likely to be risk takers; more aware of the effect of erosion damage on property values and yields; operated larger farms in areas that had less precipitation and a warmer climate; and were more often owners than renters. Several other variables, cited elsewhere in the literature, did not appear to be significant but are also reported.
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Telephone interviews were conducted in four diverse midwestern survey sites to learn why eligible farmland owners had not participated in the Conservation Reserve Program through its fourth sign-up in February 1987. Among the findings were that sizable percentages of the nonparticipating owners wrongly perceived themselves to be ineligible; did not known the prevailing CRP per-acre rent, the program's basic incentive; and were unaware of a special bonus for the enrollment of corn-base land. While these findings point to the need for better outreach, the survey results indicate also that substantial increases in participation would have been likely if the US Department of Agriculture had adopted a package of relatively modest improvements in incentives: an extra $10 per acre in rents, payment in cash rather than commodity certificates, and the right to graze on hay enrolled land. -Authors
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Data were collected from land owner-operators who were managing farms within the Darby Creek watershed and within a selected area in the upper Scioto River watershed in central Ohio during the late winter of 1998 and the summer of 1999. Information was collected to assess the types of agricultural production systems used by farmers within each watershed during the previous growing season. Information about agricultural production systems being used in each watershed was compared to determine if farming practices differed between the two watersheds. Study findings revealed that agricultural production systems employed by farmers within the upper Scioto River watershed were not significantly different from those being used within the Darby Creek watershed. This finding was inconsistent with research expectations derived from the traditional diffusion model. Farmers within the Darby Creek watershed had been expected to report adoption of significantly more conservation production systems because they had been exposed to more extensive conservation programming designed to motivate them to adopt and to use conservation practices. Farmers within the upper Scioto River watershed had been exposed to relatively little conservation programming even though the two watersheds were located approximately 40 miles apart. Study findings strongly suggest that massive human and economic resources employed to motivate land owner-operators to adopt and use conservation production systems within the Darby Creek watershed were not successful in accomplishing that objective.
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A population of farmers in three central Iowa, USA, watersheds were surveyed on their adoption of conservation practices. Personal, social, and economic characteristics of the farmers were examined relative to time of adoption, and comparisons were made with the characteristics of traditional adopter types. Results show a similarity between adopters of conservation practices and innovative practices in general. Implications for soil conservation programs are discussed.-Authors Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology, Iowa State Univ., Ames, 50011, USA.
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Data were collected from 1,011 land owner-operators within watersheds in three Midwest states to assess factors affecting adoption of soil and water conservation production systems at the farm-level. A theoretical perspective was developed from selected components of Social Learning Theory and the farm structure model and was used to formulate study hypotheses. A composite index was computed from responses to frequency of use of 18 farm production practices and was used to assess conservation adoption behaviors of study respondents. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to examine the merits of the research expectations. Study findings revealed that the theoretical perspective had limited utility for predicting adoption behaviors in the three watersheds.
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Private provision of public environmental benefits is considered with a theory of prosocial behavior that elaborates the roles of nonhedonistic values held by agents as well as the functional interaction between private good and public good production processes. The theory also identifies the conditions under which public environmental goods will be privately supplied and motivates an empirical approach. Models of environmental effort in agriculture are estimated based on a survey of U.S. field crop farmers. Results confirm the role of hedonistic motivation of environmental effort and provide very weak evidence of a role of nonhedonistic values.
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The family farm is considered as the adoption unit in this analysis with an additional emphasis on its interaction with the social environment. 2 clusters of variables, family farm variables and integration into the environment variables, are used to explain adoption. Data used in this study were collected from a multistage cluster sample of 844 Iowa family farms. -Authors
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This paper employs diffusion and farm-structure variables to explain variations in Montana farmers' adoption of two kinds of sustainable agricultural practices: those involving intensive management and those which require fewer purchased inputs. While perceived profitability was found to be the most important factor affecting adoption of both, the independent variables had different effects on beliefs about net economic returns as well as on adoption of the two practices. Type of farm enterprise played a larger role in adoption of the low-input practices than the management intensive ones; access to information was more important for the latter. Implications for policy are discussed. -Authors
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A two-factor awareness-appraisal model suggests that individuals' reactions to threatening circumstances are shaped by their awareness of the threat and their appraisal of the degree of threat the circumstances pose to them. This approach, applied to watershed conservation, predicts that individuals will be willing to clean up the rivers and streams of their watershed if they are familiar with local water features (rivers, streams, ponds, lakes) and if they consider these features of the watershed to be degraded. We tested the model by measuring watershed knowledge, appraisal of watershed quality, value assigned to protecting the watershed, and behavioral intentions regarding watershed preservation in a survey of 1,128 residents of two urban watersheds. The results supported the awareness-appraisal model: Those residents who were aware of their watershed and considered it polluted expressed the strongest pro-preservation behavioral intentions. These relationships were held in both watersheds, but were stronger for those who resided in the more degraded watershed.
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Despite evidence of Georgia peanut producer and environmental benefits associated with integrated pest management (IPM), producer adoption remains low. The analysis reported in this paper examines attributes associated with producers' decisions to adopt IPM practices. The logit analysis includes attributes from four categories: producer characteristics, farm structure, management practices, and institutional factors. Variables from three of the four categories were significantly associated with adoption decisions. The institutional variable, receipt of Extension materials, had the greatest association with adoption decisions. The results suggest that shifts in extension IPM education programs to non-traditional audiences and the development of educational programs targeted to specific agricultural activities and producer characteristics may increase adoption.
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Universal Soil Loss Equation Management factors are tested as measures of farm erosion-control effort. A logit model applied to farm survey and soils data indicates that topography, soil type, household income, debtload, type of farm operation, and proximity to urban areas are significantly related to use of erosion control practices. The research suggests that land characteristics warrant increased attention in conservation research and that USLE management factors are promising measures of conservation behavior.
Article
A probit model identifies variables related to the probability that a farm operator used a conservation tillage practice. Data from a 1983 survey of 529 randomly selected Wisconsin farmers were used to determine maximum likelihood estimates. Voluntary no-plow adopters were significantly different from traditional moldboard tillers in these respects: they were more likely to be risk takers; more aware of the effect of erosion damage on property values and yields; operated larger farms in areas that had less precipitation and a warmer climate; and were more often owners than renters. Several other variables, cited elsewhere in the literature, did not appear to be significant but are also reported.
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Agriculture is among the principal contributors of nonpoint source pollution, a major cause of impaired water quality (Puckett). The amount of agricultural pollution depends in part on agricultural practices or technologies that farmers employ. In the United States, policies for changing farmers' practices related to soil conservation and water quality protection have usually relied on voluntary adoption of new practices. Policy tools to promote voluntary adoption include extension education, technical assistance, and cost sharing. In recent years, both state and federal water quality projects have been initiated targeting these different approaches to different areas. Increasingly, however, regulation is being used by the Federal Government and by states to mandate the adoption of practices by farmers (United States Environmental Protection Agency 1993; Ribaudo and Woo). To date, little research has been undertaken on the relative effectiveness of regulatory and incentive approaches. While the immediate goal of adoption may be more easily achieved by regulation, that regulation will not necessarily principal contributors of nonpoint source pollution, a major cause of impaired water quality (Puckett). The amount of agricultural pollution depends in part on agricultural practices or technologies that farmers employ. In the United States, policies for changing farmers' practices related to soil conservation and water quality protection have usually relied on voluntary adoption of new practices. Policy tools to promote voluntary adoption include extension education, technical assistance, and cost sharing. In recent years, both state and federal water quality projects have been initiated targeting these different approaches to different areas. Increasingly, however, regulation is being used by the Federal Government and by states to mandate the adoption of practices by farmers (United States Environmental Protection Agency 1993; Ribaudo and Woo). To date, little research has been undertaken on the relative effectiveness of regulatory and incentive approaches. While the immediate goal of adoption may be more easily achieved by regulation, that regulation will not necessarily lead to the proper or desired use of the practice. This article investigates the relative effectiveness of incentive projects and regulation to promote both adoption of nitrogen (N) testing and the use of information from the tests to adjust N fertilizer use.
Article
A community-based adaptive management framework is applied to the Calapooya Creek, Deer Creek, and Myrtle Creek watersheds within the Umpqua River Basin in Southwestern Oregon. The objectives are to: 1) identify agricultural landowner participation in watershed conservation projects, and 2) determine the characteristics of participating and non-participating landowners. Data are derived from a 1998 landowner mail survey with a 53% response rate. Landowners implement upland conservation practices such as off-stream livestock water developments and rotational grazing more often than riparian fencing, riparian tree planting, and installing fish screens on irrigation diversions. The key factors in adoption of conservation practices include the use of irrigation, shared management decisions with a spouse, a belief in scientific experimentation, and discussion of conservation with others. The key factors predicting adoption of best management practices depended on the kind of best management practice implemented.
Article
This article examines the current level and likely trends in adoption of a variety of technologies for site-specific crop management in four north-central states. It also explores the extent to which farmers are jointly adopting multiple components. Technology adoption theories are applied to rationalize the observed selectivity in adoption. Farmer responses reveal that uncertainty in returns due to adoption, high costs of adoption, and lack of demonstrated effects of the advanced site-specific technologies on yields and input-use are some of the major reasons for current low rates of adoption and for the piecemeal approach to site-specific crop management.
Article
This study utilized the theory of planned behavior, a model of attitudinal factors related to behavioral intention, to investigate the lack of participation in government-sponsored programs to conserve riparian areas. A telephone survey of 209 rural landowners whose property abutted a waterway revealed that financial motivations, past behaviors, exposure to government information, and self-efficacy predicted 29 percent of the variance in intent to participate in future conservation programs. The findings suggest that external constraints and social barriers (such as financial variables) are important moderators of perceived behavioral control and deserve closer scrutiny.
Article
The traditional argument that all conservation practices are unprofitable is challenged. This position has been taken in arguments that the diffusion perspective is largely irrelevant in explaining the adoption of conservation technologies. This study argues, however, that the economic and diffusion perspectives are complementary. The adoption of an index of conservation practices and the use of conservation tillage are examined.-from Author
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Conservation behavior is influenced by the attitudes of farmers and by context variables, like income and farm terrain. Important attitudes were selected by using the theory that fundamental value ranks or weights affect attitudes and that only certain values are important to the conservation decision. An extension of the tobit estimation approach, handling both censored observations of the dependent variable and measurement error for the nonlimit observations, was used. Conservation behavior models can be improved with a merger of concepts and approaches from social psychology and economics.
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Abstract The study sought to determine the perceptions of selected farmers on issues related to sustainable agriculture practices. The study found farmers were positive about sustainable agriculture practices but still had several concerns about some practices within the concept. Farmers were trying several different practices and were open to experiment with new ideas. Most farmers appeared to be at an information gathering stage. The process of education used at this point in decision-making about new practices could becritical for the level of adoption. The results of this study indicated that the process of needs assessment and analysis was required on a continuous basis if information about sustainable agricultural practices were to be completely understood and fully implemented. Farmer's adoption ,of modern ,agricultural
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This paper establishes environmental attitude as a powerful predictor of ecological behaviour. Past studies have failed in this enterprise because they did not consider three shortcomings that limit the predictive power of environmental attitude concepts: (1) the lack of a unified concept of attitude, (2) the lack of measurement correspondence between attitude and behaviour on a general level, and (3) the lack of consideration of behaviour constraints beyond people's control. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour, the present study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach to overcome these shortcomings. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss transportation associations are used. This study confirmed three measures as orthogonal dimensions by means of factor analysis: (1) environmental knowledge, (2) environmental values, and (3) ecological behaviour intention. One other measure, general ecological behaviour, is established as a Rasch-scale that assesses behaviour by considering the tendency to behave ecologically and the difficulties in carrying out the behaviours, which depend on influences beyond people's actual behaviour control. A structural equation model was used to confirm the proposed model: environmental knowledge and environmental values explained 40 per cent of the variance of ecological behaviour intension which, in turn, predicted 75 per cent of the variance of general ecological behaviour.
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Describes a revised short-form version of the authors' original scale (see record 1974-05007-001) for the assessment of ecological attitudes and knowledge. 4 subscales containing 45 items altogether measure what a person states he or she is willing to do regarding ecology and pollution issues (Verbal Commitment), what a person actually does do (Actual Commitment), how he or she feels about such issues (Affect), and what relevant knowledge he or she has (Knowledge). Data from Sierra Club, college, and non-college Ss suggest that the revised ecology scale, which takes less than 10 min to complete, clearly distinguishes persons of high concern and commitment to ecological issues. Data on validity (criterion groups) and reliability (split-half comparisons and homogeneity ratio) are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)