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Pereira-Neto G. B., Brunetto M. A., Sousa M. G., Carciofi A. C. & Camacho A. A. 2010. Effects of weight loss on the cardiac parameters of obese dogs. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 30(2): 167-171. Setor de Clinica Medica Veterinaria, Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: glaucia.vet@gmail.com Obesity is one of the most frequent nutritional problems in companion animals and can lead to severe health problems in dogs and cats, such as cardiovascular diseases. This research aimed to evaluate the structural and functional cardiac changes after weight loss in obese dogs. Eighteen obese healthy dogs were assigned into three different groups, according with their initial body weight: Group I (dogs up to 15 kg), Group II (dogs weighing between 15.1 and 30 kg), and Group III (dogs weighing over 30 kg). The animals were submitted to a caloric restriction weight-loss program until they lose 15% of the body weight. The M-mode echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure evaluations were performed before the diet has started and after the dogs have reached the target weight. Data showed a decrease in left ventricular free wall thickness during diastole and systole in Group III, decrease in the systolic blood pressure in Group III, and also in the mean blood pressure in Group II. It was possible to conclude that the weight loss program can reverse structural cardiac changes such as left ventricle eccentric hypertrophy in dogs weighing more than 30 kg, and decrease the arterial blood pressure in obese dogs.
167
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 30(2):167-171, fevereiro 2010
RESUMO.- [Efeitos da perda de peso sobre os parâ-
metros cardíacos em cães obesos.] A obesidade é uma
das doenças nutricionais mais frequentemente observa-
da em cães e pode provocar sérios problemas de saúde,
como os distúrbios cardiovasculares. Realizou-se este
estudo visando avaliar algumas das possíveis alterações
estruturais e funcionais cardíacas decorrentes da corre-
ção da obesidade canina. Para isso foram utilizados 18
cães obesos divididos pelo peso corporal em Grupo I (até
15kg), Grupo II (entre 15,1 e 30 kg) e Grupo III (acima de
30 kg). Os animais foram submetidos à restrição calórica
de forma a perderem 15% do peso vivo. Foram realiza-
dos os exames ecocardiográfico em modo-M, eletrocar-
diográfico e mensuração da pressão arterial dos animais
antes do início do tratamento da obesidade e após atingi-
rem o peso meta. Os resultados revelaram que após a
redução de peso ocorreram diminuições significativas da
espessura da parede livre do ventrículo esquerdo duran-
te a sístole e diástole no Grupo III, diminuição da pressão
arterial sistólica no Grupo III e também da pressão arteri-
al média no Grupo II. Assim, concluiu-se que a perda de
peso pode reverter as alterações estruturais cardíacas,
como a hipertrofia excêntrica do ventrículo esquerdo em
cães obesos acima de 30 kg, como também reduzir a pres-
são arterial sistêmica em cães obesos submetidos à res-
trição calórica mediante administração de dieta hipocaló-
rica.
TERMOS DE INDEXAÇÃO: Ecocardiografia, eletrocardiografia,
pressão arterial, obesidade, cães.
INTRODUCTION
Obesity is an important condition that has been a point of
concern worldwide and it is considered the main public
Effects of weight loss on the cardiac parameters of obese dogs
1
Gláucia B.P. Neto
2*
, Márcio A. Brunetto
2
, Marlos G. Sousa
2
, Aulus C. Carciofi
3
and Aparecido A. Camacho
3
ABSTRACT.- Pereira-Neto G.B., Brunetto M.A., Sousa M.G., Carciofi A.C. & Camacho
A.A. 2010. Effects of weight loss on the cardiac parameters of obese dogs. Pesquisa
Veterinária Brasileira 30(2):167-171. Setor de Clínica Médica Veterinária, Faculdade de
Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-
900, Brazil. E-mail: glaucia.vet@gmail.com
Obesity is one of the most frequent nutritional problems in companion animals and can
lead to severe health problems in dogs and cats, such as cardiovascular diseases. This
research aimed to evaluate the structural and functional cardiac changes after weight loss
in obese dogs. Eighteen obese healthy dogs were assigned into three different groups,
according with their initial body weight: Group I (dogs up to 15 kg), Group II (dogs weighing
between 15.1 and 30 kg), and Group III (dogs weighing over 30 kg). The animals were
submitted to a caloric restriction weight-loss program until they lose 15% of the body weight.
The M-mode echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure evaluations were
performed before the diet has started and after the dogs have reached the target weight.
Data showed a decrease in left ventricular free wall thickness during diastole and systole in
Group III, decrease in the systolic blood pressure in Group III, and also in the mean blood
pressure in Group II. It was possible to conclude that the weight loss program can reverse
structural cardiac changes such as left ventricle eccentric hypertrophy in dogs weighing
more than 30 kg, and decrease the arterial blood pressure in obese dogs.
INDEX TERMS: Echocardiography, electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, obesity, dogs.
1
Received on September 8, 2009.
Accepted for publication on January 7, 2010.
2
Postgraduate student, Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veteriná-
ria, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV), Universida-
de Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato
Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. *Autor para corres-
pondência: glaucia.vet@gmail.com
3
Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinária, FCAV, Unesp, Ja-
boticabal, SP.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 30(2):167-171, fevereiro 2010
Gláucia B.P. Neto et al.
168
health problem in modern society. In recent years, a great
number of obesity in companion animals has been observed.
Epidemiological surveys performed in clinics and veterinary
hospitals estimate the prevalence of canine obesity
between 25-35% (Greco 2002). Therefore, it is believed
that sedentary lifestyles, which have become the norm
rather than exception for many dogs, as well the supply of
flavourful, hypercaloric foods, contribute to energy imba-
lances that lead to excess weight (Burkholder & Toll 2000,
Markwell & Edney 2000).
The obese dog is in great risk of developing chronic
health problems including respiratory, cardiovascular, and
osteoarticular disturbances. It can also develop hyper-
insulinemia, glucose intolerance, exercise and heat into-
lerance and reduced physical disposition (Case et al. 1998,
Markwell & Edney 2000, Lund et al. 2006, German 2006).
Due to a lack of information on this issue in animals,
cardiovascular problems related to obesity in humans are
frequently extrapolated to dogs (Atkins 1999). Obesity is
a volume expansion illness with high cardiac output,
increased plasma and extracellular fluid, neuro-humoral
activation, reduced urinary excretion of sodium and water,
increased heart rate, elevated arterial pressure, systolic
and diastolic ventricular dysfunction, and exercise
intolerance (Atkins 1999, Alpert 2001a). Reduction in body
weight is capable of reversing the structural and hemo-
dynamic abnormalities associated with human obesity,
decreasing left ventricular mass and improving diastolic
ventricular filling in patients who have ventricular hyper-
trophy prior to weight loss. Furthermore, in patients with
obesity-associated congestive cardiac failure, reduction
of body weight may revert some of the clinical manifes-
tations decurrent of cardiac changes (Alpert 2001b, Uwaifo
et al. 2003).
Studies performed in dogs have demonstrated that
weight gain in animals submitted to a hypercaloric diet
was associated with an increase in heart rate, cardiac
output, arterial pressure, plasma volume and fasting
insulin; the rise of these parameters is related directly to
body weight gain. At the end of the weight loss program it
was observed that the analyzed variables gradually
returned to their basal values (Rocchini et al. 1987).
The purpose of the study reported herein was to
investigate possible structural and functional cardiac
changes in dogs submitted to obesity correction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Animals. Eighteen privately owned obese dogs were divided
into three groups based on animal body weight. Group I (GI):
obese dogs with body weight up to 15 kg (n=6). This group was
composed of 6 females (5-10 years old), including one Beagle,
one Dachshund, one Fox Terrier and three mongrels. Group II
(GII): obese dogs with body weight between 15-30 kg (n=6).
This group comprised 5 females and 1 male (3-11 years old),
including one American Pit Bull, one English Cocker Spaniel,
and four mongrels. Group III (GIII): obese dogs with body weight
above 30 kg (n=6). This group comprised 3 males and 3 females
(5-11 years old), including one German Shepherd dog, one
Brazilian Mastiff, and four mongrels. All animals were submitted
to four exams: physical, hematological (including hemogram and
serum dosages of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phos-
phatase, creatinine, urea, total protein, albumin, cholesterol,
triglycerides, and fasting glucose), electrocardiograph, and
echocardiograph. Obese individuals with results within normal
parameters in physical and haematological tests and without
congenital or acquired cardiac disease participated in the
experiment. Consequently, only obese animals ingesting
excessive high caloric food were accepted. Obesity was
diagnosed based on body inspection and direct palpation. Dogs
were classified according to their body condition score (BCS)
using a 9-point system, in which animals that presented scores
of 8 and above were considered obese (Laflamme et al. 1997).
The study protocol was reviewed and approved by an animal
care committee of Sao Paulo State University (process number
016914).
Weight loss protocol. All dogs were submitted to a weight
reduction program in which they were fed 60% of their
maintenance energy requirements (NRC 2006), calculated by
their estimated target weight (TW). TW was considered as actual
weight (AW) less 15% (TW = AW - 15% AW). A specific
commercial hypocaloric diet
4
was administered until TW was
attained. Caloric restriction (CR) was calculated as 80 x TW
(kg)
0.75
Kcal of metabolizable energy per day. Weight reduction
protocol also included dividing the volume of daily food into at
least three meals.
Echocardiography. A complete routine transthoracic
echocardiographic examination was performed in each dog with
an echocardiograph
5
and a 5.0-7.5 MHz mechanical sector
transducer. Echocardiographic images were recorded on
videotape with a simultaneous lead II electrocardiogram for
offline measurements by using the measurement software in
the echocardiographic recorder. Hair was clipped between the
right 3
rd
and 6
th
intercostal spaces, and left 2
nd
and 7
th
intercostal
spaces. Generous coupling gel was applied to these areas of
the thorax immediately before echocardiography was started.
Measurements were taken by using two-dimensional-guided M-
mode on the standard right parasternal long-axis view at aortic
valve level for measurement of left atrial (LA) and aortic diameter
(AO); at chordae tendineae level for measurement of left
ventricular end-systolic (LVESD) and end-diastolic (LVEDD)
dimensions, interventricular septal thickness in systole (IVSS)
and diastole (IVSD), left ventricular free wall thickness in systole
(LVWS) and diastole (LVWD). Such values were used for
calculation of the left atrium-to-aorta ratio (LA/AO), ejection
fraction (%EF), and fractional shortening (%FS); and at mitral
valve level for measurement of E-point to septal separation
(EPSS). Heart rate was also calculated based on RR interval
determined from simultaneous lead II electrocardiogram
(Kittleson & Kienle 1998).
Electrocardiography. A 6-lead computerized electro-
cardiogram
6
was used for the electrocardiography recording.
Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency and the
electrode clips were attached to the animal’s skin in the standard
positions as described by Tilley (1995). The paper speed was
50mm/sec and the electrocardiogram was standardized at 1mV
= 1cm. The electrocardiogram analysis was obtained from lead
4
Obesity Canine, Royal Canin.
5
Pandion S300, PieMedical, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
6
ECG-PC, TEB, São Paulo, Brazil.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 30(2):167-171, fevereiro 2010
Effects of weight loss on the cardiac parameters of obese dogs 169
II. We measured the following parameters: duration of P wave
(Pms), P wave amplitude (PmV), duration of PR interval (PRms),
duration of QRS complex (QRSms), R wave amplitude (RmV),
duration of QT interval (QTms), ST segment amplitude (ST), T
wave amplitude (T), mean electrical axis, heart rate (HR) and
heart rhythm.
Non-invasive arterial pressure evaluation. Non-invasive
arterial pressure measurements were obtained from all dogs.
Dogs were gently restrained in a lateral recumbency for
examination. An oscillometric monitor
7
was used to obtain
measurements with appropriate sized cuff (inflatable bladder
width 0.4 times the circumference of limb at measurement site)
(Brown et al. 2007). Five consecutive readings were obtained
from systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial
blood pressure, the lowest and highest values were discarded
and the remaining three averaged.
Statistical analysis. Echocardiographic and electro-
cardiographic evaluations and measurements of systolic, mean
and diastolic arterial pressure and body weight were done before
initiating therapeutic weight reduction protocol (T
before
), and after
the dog had attained its target weight (T
after
). Variables analysed
at T
before
and T
after
were compared, observing for alterations
resulting from weight reduction. The data was then evaluated
using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The means of dependant
variables studied at the two experimental times (T
before
and T
after
)
were compared for dogs within the same group. Data are given
as mean ± SD.
Tukey’s Studentized Range test was applied to compare the
means of Groups I, II and III, with the level of significance at 5%.
For all analysis, it was used a statistical software (Schlotzhauer
& Little 1997).
RESULTS
All dogs demonstrated consistent weight loss and reached
the target weight stipulated by the therapeutic protocol (a
minimum 15% reduction from initial body weight). Analysis
of the three groups separately revealed that Group I
presented 19.4% mean weight loss, Group II, 19.3%, and
Group III, 15.4%; similar weight loss percentage between
groups (Table 1). With restricting calorie intake to 60% of
maintenance energy requirements, it has observed weekly
weight loss percentage of 1.64%, 1.07% and 0.69% for
Groups I, II and III, respectively.
In regards to the echocardiographic data collected in
the present research (Table 2), after weight loss a significant
reduction was observed in systolic and diastolic left
ventricular free wall thickness only in Group III (p<0.05).
Percentage reductions in LVWS and LVWD for Group III
were 19.08% versus 13.6%, respectively.
Heart rate, left ventricle diameters, aorta and left atrium
diameters and their interaction, mitral valve E-point to
septal separation, interventricular septal thickness, ejection,
and shortening fractions did not show significant variations
in any of the groups after weight loss (p>0.05). However,
some of these parameters that depend on weight (AO,
LA, LVED, IVS and LVW) show significant differences
among Groups I, II, and III (p<0.05).
During the evaluation of electrocardiograms it was not
observed significant alterations of all electrocardiographic
variables studied (Table 3). However, P wave duration in
all dogs from Group III, 20% from Group I and 40% from
Group II was above normal values for the canine species
and body weight. After reaching their target weight, P wave
durations for these animals returned to reference values.
A significant decrease in arterial pressure was seen in
all dogs after weight reduction (Table 4). It was verified that
Table 2. Mean values and standard deviation of M-mode echocardiographic parameters
obtained from obese dogs of Groups I, II and III (each group, n=6), before and after weight loss
Group I Group II Group III
Before After Before After Before After
LVESD 1.76±0.22
Aa
1.63±0.37
Aa
2.37±0.36
Ba
2.37±0.23
Ba
2.65±0.38
Ca
2.92±0.37
Ca
LVEDD 2.77±0.50
Aa
2.71±0.47
Aa
3.66±0.62
Ba
3.59±0.32
Ba
4.24±0.57
Ca
4.38±0.55
Ca
IVSS 0.96±0.24
Aa
1.06±0.12
Aa
1.14±0.17
Aa
1.27±0.17
Aa
1.54±0.27
Ba
1.52±0.14
Ba
IVSD 0.72±0.06
Aa
0.75±0.12
Aa
0.86±0.27
Aa
0.89±0.17
Aa
1.08±0.26
Ba
1.06±0.11
Ba
LVWS 1.07±0.14
Aa
0.96±0.09
Aa
1.38±0.26
Ba
1.23±0.32
Ba
1.52±0.41
Ba
1.23±0.30
Bb
LVWD 0.80±0.07
Aa
0.73±0.05
Aa
0.93±0.10
Ba
0.83±0.13
Ba
1.07±0.17
Ba
0.84±0.24
Bb
%EF 66.80±7.36
Aa
72.20±9.52
Aa
65.40±2.97
Aa
63.20±7.76
Aa
67.80±4.82
Aa
62.00±5.29
Aa
%FS 36.00±5.96
Aa
40.20±7.76
Aa
34.80±2.59
Aa
33.60±5.86
Aa
37.60±3.65
Aa
33.20±4.14
Aa
AO 1.60±0.21
Aa
1.57±0.15
Aa
2.06±0.30
Ba
1.96±0.17
Ba
2.56±0.50
Ca
2.58±0.41
Ca
LA 1.75±0.16
Aa
1.82±0.24
Aa
2.17±0.30
Ba
2.04±0.09
Ba
2.64±0.42
Ca
2.75±0.29
Ca
LA/AO 1.10±0.12
Aa
1.16±0.11
Ab
1.06±0.06
Ba
1.04±0.04
Ba
1.04±0.08
Ba
1.07±0.08
Ba
SSPE 0.34±0.15
A
0.26±0.16
Aa
0.31±0.09
Aa
0.28±0.09
Aa
0.37±0.13
Aa
0.28±0.19
Aa
A, B, C = means in the same line with different capital letters indicate statistical significance (p<0.05) among Groups I,
II and III.
a, b = means in the same line with different small letters indicate statistical significance (p<0.05) between before and
after times.
Table 1. Percentage of weight loss of dogs from Groups I,
II and III (each group, n=6), during weight loss program
Grupo 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210
GI 0 6.87% 13.98% 16.34% 19.47% - - -
GII 0 6.43% 9.57% 12.88% 17.95% 19.35% - -
GIII 0 4.70% 6.45% 9.67% 12.05% 13.72% 15.09% 15.46%
0 = percentage of initial weight loss; 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 e 210 =
percentages of weight loss after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210
days on hypocaloric diet, respectively.
7
DX 2710 - DIXTAL non-invasive pressure.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 30(2):167-171, fevereiro 2010
Gláucia B.P. Neto et al.
170
the decrease was significant for SAP in Group III (p=0.0479)
and for MAP in Group II (p=0.0499). Arterial pressure
decrease for Groups I, II and III were, respectively, 11.94%,
4.20% and 8.86% for SAP; 11.34%, 17.86% and 8.93% for
MAP, and 17.07%, 18.89% and 14.44% for DAP.
DISCUSSION
The caloric restriction adopted by this research was 60% of
the maintenance energy requirement of each animal. As a
result, each group satisfactorily attained the stipulated target
weight, with mean weekly loss in agreement with others
authors (Laflamme et al. 1997). Mean weight loss rate is
directly related to the degree of caloric restriction. In dogs,
restricting calorie intake to 50, 60 or 75% of maintenance
energy requirements can generate weekly weight loss
ranging from less to 1% to greater than 4%. This consi-
derable variation can be explained by individual animal
differences (Laflamme et al. 1997). On the other hand, lower
percentage weight losses result in better chances of
maintaining post-diet weight (Laflamme & Kuhlman 2002).
According to what was observed in this research, a minimum
weekly weight reduction must be 0.5% in order to keep the
animal’s owner interested and disposed to complete the
weight reduction program within a reasonable period
(Burkholder & Bauer 1998, Burkholder & Toll 2000).
Basal values for LVWS and LVWD were found to be
higher in all groups than values cited as normal by the
literature (Kittleson & Kienle 1998) with normal or no
significant mild increase LVESD and LVEDD. Neverthe-
less, it was not evaluated left ventricle volumes in this
research, this characteristic may reflect similarly, to what
occurs in obese, normotensive humans - eccentric hyper-
trophy of the left ventricle resulting from an increase in
preload associated with obesity. This eccentric hypertrophy
is a mechanism to normalize stress on the left ventricular
wall (Alpert 2001a, Vasan 2003).
Similar data was not
encountered in the findings of other studies when inducing
obesity in dogs by administering hypercaloric diets, did
not observe any alterations in left ventricle wall thickness
(Verwaerd et al. 1996, Massabuau et al. 1997).
The significant mean regression of left ventricular
hypertrophy verified in group III after reaching target weight
corroborated the findings documented by other researches
that demonstrated the effect of weight loss on LVWS and
LVWD reduction in humans submitted to hypocaloric diets
(Sidó et al. 2000, Uwaifo et al. 2003).
The computerized electrocardiographic evaluation
initially showed an increase in mean P wave duration for
100%, 40% and 20% of the dogs in groups I, II and III, res-
pectively, compared with normal values for computerized
electrocardiography in literature (Wolf et al. 2000), this data
could indicate alteration in an electrical conduction thought
the atria in obese dogs, but further studies are necessary
to prove this hypothesis. After weight reduction, a decrease
in duration was observed in all groups, differing from that
reported in morbid obese humans (Alpert et al. 2001c).
Table 3. Mean values and standard deviation of the systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic
(DAP) arterial blood pressure in mmHg from obese dogs Groups I, II and III (each group, n=6),
before and after weight loss
Group I Group II Group III
Before After Before After Before After
SAP 134±6
Aa
118±25
Aa
143±6
ABa
137±7
ABa
158±20
Ba
144±11
Bb
MAP 97±4
Aa
86±23
Aa
112±6
ABa
92±13
ABb
112±19
Ba
102±9
Ba
DAP 82±13
Aa
68±24
Aa
90±8
Aa
73±17
Aa
90±18
Aa
77±6
Aa
A, B, C = means in the same line with different capital letters indicate statistical significance (p<0.05) among Groups I,
II and III.
a, b = means in the same line with different small letters indicate statistical significance (p<0.05) between before and
after times.
Table 4. Mean values and standard deviation of electrocardiographic parameters obtained from
obese dogs of Groups I, II and III (each group, n=6), before and after weight loss
Group I Group II Group III
Before After Before After Before After
Pms 45.40±3.91
Aa
42.20±2.17
Aa
46.80±4.09
Aa
42.40±1.34
Aa
50.80±4.27
Aa
47.40±2.88
Aa
PmV 0.27±0.06
Aa
0.21±0.06
Aa
0.25±0.12
Aa
0.26±0.08
Aa
0.7±0.06
Aa
0.27±0.05
Aa
QRSms 46.80±6.02
Aa
49.40±1.34
Aa
56.80±7.19
Aa
57.40±6.58
Aa
56.20±3.70
Aa
57.20±4.38
Aa
RmV 1.04±0.24
Aa
1.23±0.29
Aa
1.82±0.68
Ba
1.81±0.70
Ba
0.91±0.44
Ca
0.95±0.47
Ca
PRms 94.20±10.71
Aa
90.20±8.44
Aa
101.40±3.78
Aa
116.40±20.29
Aa
98.60±10.69
Aa
104.80±8.67
Aa
QTms 183.4±10.60
Aa
198.00±12.61
Aa
205.0±10.71
Aa
203.40±13.67
Aa
210.60±11.89
Aa
201.40±16.86
Aa
FCbpm 124.00±21.85
Aa
102.80±19.03
Aa
99.00±12.98
Aa
105.60±20.33
Aa
105.80±17.48
Aa
115.40±14.67
Aa
Eixo 55.80±5.89
Aa
64.40±15.95
Aa
60.80±13.25
Aa
77.80±14.75
Aa
56.00±8.66
Aa
69.00±22.75
Aa
A, B, C = means in the same line with different capital letters indicate statistical significance (p<0.05) among Groups I,
II and III.
a, b = means in the same line with different small letters indicate statistical significance (p<0.05) between before and
after times.
Pesq. Vet. Bras. 30(2):167-171, fevereiro 2010
Effects of weight loss on the cardiac parameters of obese dogs 171
Arterial pressure values for all groups at both evaluation
times were found to be within the reference ranges for
canine species, they were not hypertension, like observed
by Rocchini et al. (2004) that conclude hypertension was
not directly related to obesity in dogs. As in this work, Brown
et al. (2007) observed that overweight dogs possessed
higher reference range arterial pressures in relation to
those of ideal body weight. As such, food restriction is
considered an important non-pharmacological treatment
for controlling arterial pressure, especially in dogs of
excessive weight (Rocchini et al. 1987, Rocchini et al.
1989).
This study demonstrated that, in consideration of the
weight loss protocol employed, dogs presented adequate
rates of body weight reduction. It also verified that weight
reduction reverts some of the cardiac structural alterations
observed through echocardiography, like eccentric hyper-
trophy in obese dogs above 30 kilograms. Systolic, mean
and diastolic arterial pressure dropped significantly in all
obese dogs after a 15% minimum loss of their initial body
weight.
Acknowledgments.- To Waltham Foundation (Project 2004/083) for
funding and to Royal Canin of Brazil for supporting this research.
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... Estes resultados demonstram que o nível de restrição energética foi adequado. Outros estudos, nos quais foi realizado programa de perda de peso em cães de proprietário, demonstraram taxas de perda de peso semanal médias inferiores a 1% (Weber et al., 2007;Neto et al., 2010). Taxas mais baixas em cães domiciliados podem ocorrer devido à indisponibilidade dos proprietários em cumprir o protocolo terapêutico estabelecido (Neto et al., 2010), o que não ocorreu no nosso estudo. ...
... Outros estudos, nos quais foi realizado programa de perda de peso em cães de proprietário, demonstraram taxas de perda de peso semanal médias inferiores a 1% (Weber et al., 2007;Neto et al., 2010). Taxas mais baixas em cães domiciliados podem ocorrer devido à indisponibilidade dos proprietários em cumprir o protocolo terapêutico estabelecido (Neto et al., 2010), o que não ocorreu no nosso estudo. ...
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O papel fundamental das abelhas na vida do planeta vem sendo reafirmado cada vez mais. Porém ainda existem vários obstáculos para serem superados quando se pensa na atividade produtiva, como a mortandade ocasionada por agroquímicos, a necessidade de se elevar a produtividade das colmeias, o combate à informalidade na produção, a qualificação da mão de obra, o atendimento das exigências sanitárias etc. O trabalho conjunto entre especialistas, pesquisadores, associações, apicultores e meliponicultores, demonstra grandes benefícios à comunidade no geral, inclusive pela disseminação da informação apropriada, tão essencial nos tempos de hoje. O Brasil tem potencial para desenvolver ainda mais essas criações, além da oportunidade de reconstruir a biodiversidade que recebeu pouca importância até então. Este capítulo apresenta informações gerais da apicultura e da meliponicultora. O texto propõe a aplicação do conceito de capital social como promotor do capital natural promovido pela atividade. O caso apresentado para a análise empírica é o da promoção do “Dia da Abelha”, por parte do LAE/FMVZ/USP em colaboração com a Associação dos Apicultores de Pirassununga (Assapira).
... Estes resultados demonstram que o nível de restrição energética foi adequado. Outros estudos, nos quais foi realizado programa de perda de peso em cães de proprietário, demonstraram taxas de perda de peso semanal médias inferiores a 1% (Weber et al., 2007;Neto et al., 2010). Taxas mais baixas em cães domiciliados podem ocorrer devido à indisponibilidade dos proprietários em cumprir o protocolo terapêutico estabelecido (Neto et al., 2010), o que não ocorreu no nosso estudo. ...
... Outros estudos, nos quais foi realizado programa de perda de peso em cães de proprietário, demonstraram taxas de perda de peso semanal médias inferiores a 1% (Weber et al., 2007;Neto et al., 2010). Taxas mais baixas em cães domiciliados podem ocorrer devido à indisponibilidade dos proprietários em cumprir o protocolo terapêutico estabelecido (Neto et al., 2010), o que não ocorreu no nosso estudo. ...
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O Brasil possui papel de destaque no cenário da suinocultura mundial, não sendo possível hoje elencar os principais players do mercado da proteína suína sem citá-lo. No entanto, um dos gargalos existentes está nos controles internos deficientes e na gestão empírica da atividade, o que faz com que não seja possível conhecer a informação que deveria nortear a tomada de decisão quanto ao uso dos fatores de produção e recursos: o custo do suíno produzido. Por meio do conhecimento dos custos de produção é possível realizar a gestão estratégica e planejada da atividade, obtendo melhores resultados. Neste sentido, o presente estudo teve dois objetivos principais: (i) desenvolver um modelo matemático para cálculo dos custos de produção de suínos, que permita análises econômicas da atividade e sirva como ferramenta de gestão em propriedades comerciais; e (ii) desenvolver um índice de custo de produção para acompanhar o comportamento e a evolução dos custos de produção do suíno ao longo do tempo. Dois estudos de caso foram realizados em propriedades relevantes do estado de São Paulo para auxiliar na caracterização da suinocultura independente em ciclo completo, bem como para definição das características das propriedades representativas, e estas foram tomadas como base para a construção do modelo e do indicador de custos. O modelo de cálculo foi desenvolvido utilizando o software Microsoft Excel®. Todos os itens de custo foram considerados conforme preconiza a Teoria Econômica Neoclássica dos Custos e alocados na ordem: custos variáveis; custos fixos operacionais; e custos de oportunidade do capital e da terra; sendo o custo total a somatória de todos os custos envolvidos na produção suinícola. Foram então acompanhados os preços dos insumos e calculados mensalmente os custos de produção para as granjas representativas, permitindo a elaboração dos índices de custo de produção do suíno paulista (ICPS). As granjas representativas foram categorizadas segundo o número de matrizes alojadas, sendo ICPS500 uma categorização para granjas com até 500 matrizes, e ICPS2000 para granjas com 501 a 2000 matrizes alojadas. Um dos grandes diferenciais deste trabalho está no fato da consolidação do método de cálculo e do ICPS, que já possui oito edições publicadas. O modelo desenvolvido é eficaz em sua proposta de gerar informações importantes para a tomada de decisões estratégicas nas granjas, bem como o indicador possui potencial para colaborar com a organização e transparência do setor, trazendo informações acerca da situação mercadológica da cadeia suinícola.
... Electrocardiography is an important technique for cardiovascular evaluation, specifically for the identification and qualification of arrhythmias. However, in wild animal medicine, the various patterns of normality and the evaluation of electrical traces associated with heart disease have not yet been sufficiently elucidated [11,23] and descriptive studies on the ECG trace profile of these animals, obtained under sedation, have not been reported to date. ...
... The morphology of the ECG traces measured in the DII derivation of peccaries, since the patterns of measurement and analysis of QRS morphology were best established in this derivation [30]. Despite a few references to ECG patterns, in pigs and Göttingen minipigs was observed QRS measurements (mean duration of 36 ms and amplitude of 0.9 mV) and QT interval (252 ms) similar to those found in this study, although we performed our evaluations in anesthetized animals [23]. Similarly, comparing our results with one of the first studies using awake conventional pigs, QRS duration (mean of 37 ms) and QT interval (218 ms) values were also concordant with results for anesthetized peccaries [10]. ...
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Background: Peccaries (Tayassu tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758) are wild suiformes that belong to the Tayassuidae family. Elec-trocardiography is an important technique for cardiovascular evaluation. Analysis of various intervals, segments, complexes and waveforms of electrocardiographic (ECG) traces aids in the diagnosis of cardiac alterations and in the differentiation of congenital and acquired heart diseases from physiological cases. However, in wild animal medicine, the various patterns of normality and the evaluation of electrical traces associated with heart disease have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. The purpose of this study was to characterize the electrocardiographic (ECG) traces of peccaries sedated using ketamine and xylazine. Materials, Methods & Results: Fourteen healthy adult animals that were subjected to digital ECG examination were used. Animals with evidence of systemic diseases, cardiovascular abnormalities (murmurs or arrhythmias), or any degree of valve insufficiency observed on echocardiogram and animals that exhibited excessive stress during the examination were excluded from the study. All animals presented with a normal sinus rhythm. A combination of 15 mg/kg of ketamine hydrochloride and 3 mg/kg of midazolam maleate was applied intramuscularly for chemical immobilization. The animals were manipulated after 15 min, when the onset of the anaesthetic effect was verified, for a duration of 45 min, and no reinforcement dose was necessary to complete the electrocardiographic examination. No significant differences were observed in the P-wave duration, PR interval and QT interval between genders (P > 0.05). No significant differences were found between the amplitudes of the P and R waves between males and females (P > 0.05). The observed P waves were small, monophasic and positive. The QRS complex was positive in the DI, DII, DIII, aVF, V4 and V10 derivations and negative in the aVR, aVL, V1 and V2 derivations. In 71% of the animals, the T wave showed negative polarity in the DI, DII, DIII, aVL, aVF, and V10 derivations and positive polarity in the aVR, V1, V2 and V4 derivations. The ST segment was isoelectric in 100% of the animals. GraphPad Prism 7 (La Jolla, CA, USA) software was used to analyze the data, with non-parametric tests used to test for differences in the variables between the sexes. In these tests, a P-value of 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Discussion: Although studies on the cardiac electrophysiology of wild animals have previously shown good results for several species, this is the first study concerning the standardization ECG traces for peccaries. However, due to the wild nature of these animals, their manipulation for handling and data collection purposes is only feasible under chemical containment, although other studies have used non-anaesthetized agoutis. It is not known to what extent these results may have been influenced by the effects of stress. Drugs used for this function may have direct effects on cardiac function. Therefore, the presumed normal ECG values, as well as the recognition of changes due to drug or iatrogenic interactions, are of fundamental importance. This protocol provided high-quality anaesthetized peccary ECG traces, allowing reliable measurements of waves and intervals and assessment of the cardiac rhythm and heart rate. The surface registry digital ECG recording technique used with chemical containment allowed good monitoring and rapid acquisition and was well tolerated by the animals.
... Canine obesity is a complex condition with a high prevalence (around 40% to 50%) among the worldwide population of dogs [1][2][3][4][5]. Overweight is associated with certain diseases, such as orthopedic [6][7][8], cardiovascular [9][10][11][12][13] and respiratory [14][15][16][17], metabolic disorders like insulin and leptin resistance [18,19], hyperlipidemia [20][21][22], immunoinflammatory response alterations [23], and reduced lifespan [24], which can be partially or completely reversed after weight loss despite reaching ideal body condition score [23]. Additionally, overweight also relates to an increased risk for anesthesia [25]. ...
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Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in dogs and it is associated with many comorbidities. Some obesity risk factors have already been established, however, the evaluation of the effect of different individual variables on weight loss induced by calorie restriction, although very important, is still poorly explored. The weight loss protocol can be updated and improved by more precise and adjusted equations throughout the weight loss program in the clinical routine practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze weight loss program dynamics in groups according to reproductive status, age, body size, and breed, as well as to define more accurately the amount of calories per target metabolic weight throughout the program. Data of 1,053 cases, presented between 2012 and 2019 at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo (FMVZ-USP) were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 77 obese dogs (body condition scores 8/9 or 9/9) of different ages, breeds, sizes, and reproductive status were selected. These dogs did not have any concomitant illnesses and successfully completed the weight loss program. Statistical analysis was performed and values of p≤0.05 were considered significant. The proposed weight loss program was based on an energy restriction protocol where daily energy intake (in kcal) was estimated as 70 kcal × target weight 0.75 . The target weight (TW) was defined as 80% of the animal’s current weight. The average calorie intake for weight loss (calories x target weight 0.75 ) was lower for spayed females (62.36), differing from intact males (66.14) and neutered males (65.41), while intact females (63.66) showed intermediate values without differing between groups (p = 0.015). There were no differences between weight loss calories according to age (p = 0.473) or body size (p = 0.084), allowing the use of the same mathematical equation for intact and neutered dogs; for dogs older than 1 year and of different body sizes. Regarding the breed, the average calorie intake was lower (p = 0.002) in mixed breed dogs (61.54xTW 0.75 ) when compared to obesity-prone purebred dogs (64.17xTW 0.75 ) and other purebreds (65.27xTW 0.75 ). It was concluded that spayed females and mixed breed dogs have greater difficulty in losing weight, that is, they need fewer calories per metabolic body weight for the weight loss program to succeed. A more accurate equation for energy requirement for weight loss can improve chances of success, therefore improving compliance and helping clinical management of obesity in dogs.
... Improper feeding, inadequate exercise and managemental negligence favours obesity that may leads to heart diseases (Devi et al., 2009). ECG patterns in animals can be different depending upon the body weight, age and fat deposit, causing changes in electrical activity and cardiac rhythm that can be seen in the ECG (Neto et al., 2010). Any type of disturbance or variance of a normal heart rate or rhythm in dogs is considered canine arrhythmia (Reetu et al., 2017). ...
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Background: The objective of the present study was to define existence of age and body weight related cardiac structural and functional changes in both healthy GSD as well as those having structural or functional cardiac affections. Thus the present study was conducted to establish the reference values of various parameters of ECG based on age and body weight and further evaluation of clinical cases based on these reference values. Method: The present study was conducted on eight apparently healthy German shepherd dogs aged 36 - 72 months with body weight 22 – 33.2 kg free from cardio-thoracic diseases to establish the reference values of various electrocardiographic parameters (Group-I) and used to evaluate the cardiac rhythm in 3 GSD dogs having some cardiac diseases (Group-II) based on the reference values obtained from Group-I. Result: Heart rate showed negative correlation with age and body weight. Positive correlation of amplitude of S and T wave, QRS complex, duration of T wave, P-R interval and R-R interval with age and body weight; amplitude of Q wave, duration of P wave and QT interval with body weight was observed. Negative correlation of amplitude of P and R wave, S-T interval with age and body weight; amplitude of Q wave, duration of P wave and Q-T interval with age was observed. Key words: Electrocardiographic, Cardiac Rhythm, Cardiac affections, Cardiothoracic, Healthy dogs.
... The consequences of obesity on the health of dogs and cats are widely described in the veterinary literature, and include reduced lifespan [13], as well as orthopedic [14][15][16], cardiovascular [7,[17][18][19][20], respiratory [21][22][23][24] and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance [25] and hyperlipidemia [26][27][28]. ...
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Obesity is characterized by a low degree of chronic inflammation state that, along with metabolic modifications, promotes important changes in the animal's organism. Adipose tissue actively participates in inflammation and immunity, and several defense cells of the organism may, therefore, be involved in the diversity found between obese and ideal weight individuals. Studies regarding this subject have shown immune cell changes in humans and rats, however, the literature is scarce in relation to dogs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the gene expression profile of immunoinflammatory response and the lymphoproli-feration of obese dogs before and after weight loss. Eight female dogs, neutered, of different breeds, aged between 1 and 8 years (4.74±3.19), obese, with body condition score (BCS) of 9 out of a 9-point scale and body composition determined by the deuterium isotope dilution method were included. The obese dogs were enrolled in a weight loss program and after losing 20% of their initial weight became a second experimental group. A third experimental group consisted of eight female dogs, neutered, aged between 1 and 8 years (3.11±0.78) and with ideal BCS (5 out of a 9-point scale). Gene expression of immunoinflammatory cyto-kines (resistin, leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) was assessed by qRT-PCR and immunity was assessed by lymphoproliferative response using the flow cytometry technique .
... Several previous studies have demonstrated that obesity in dogs and cats is related to metabolic impairment, musculoskeletal problems, respiratory distress, and cardiovascular disease [1,[7][8][9][10]. A previous echocardiographic study in dogs demonstrated that obesity can induce left ventricular hypertrophy [11]. Moreover, the effect of obesity on the heart in a rat model demonstrated that obese-insulin resistance can lead to LV contractile dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac sympathovagal imbalance or HRV impairment [12]. ...
Article
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Obesity can induce cardiovascular diseases in both humans and animals. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of sympathovagal balance and is used to identify cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, HRV and cardiac function have rarely been investigated in obese dogs. This study investigated the effect of obesity on oxidative stress, HRV, and cardiac function in obese and non-obese dogs. The nine-scale body condition score (BCS) system was used to determine obesity. Thirty small breed dogs were divided into a normal weight group (n = 15) and an obese group (n = 15). All dogs underwent physical examination, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) measurement, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and two hours of Holter monitoring. This study found that obese dogs had increased plasma MDA and sympathovagal imbalance, which was indicated by impaired time and frequency domains compared to normal weight dogs. Although cardiac function was within normal limits, the echocardiographic study found that the obese dogs had reduced cardiac wall thickness and lower systolic function, as indicated by a reduction in %ejection fraction, %fractional shortening, increased left ventricular (LV) internal diameter during systole, and LV end-systolic volume compared to normal weight dogs. This study concluded that obesity in dogs can induce increased plasma oxidative stress, impaired HRV, and reduced cardiac systolic function compared to non-obese dogs.
... In addition, the deleterious of being overweight on the health of dogs and cats are widely described in the literature and include effects declining of lifespan (Kealy et al., 2002), orthopedic changes (Brown et al., 1996;Kealy et al., 1997;Kealy et al., 2000), cardiovascular (Edney & Smith, 1986;Pereira-Neto et al., 2010;Pereira-Neto et al., 2014;Piantedosi et al., 2016;Tropf et al., 2017), respiratory (Hendricks, 1992;German, 2006;Bach et al., 2007;Devito et al., 2015;Pereira-Neto et al., 2018) and metabolic disorders (Chikamune et al., 1995;Jeusette et al ., 2005;Brunetto et al., 2011a, Brunetto et al., 2011b. The worsening of all these effects may eventually require surgical intervention, and the rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament is an example in the dog, since obesity a predisposing factor for the excess load on this structure that may be already compromised by the degenerative process and can only be corrected through surgical intervention (Lampman et al., 2003, Bach et al., 2015. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to compare the dosages for anesthesia induction in obese dogs using propofol based on lean body weight or total body weight. For this purpose, seven dogs with ideal body condition score (BCS) (BCS 4-5; 17.3 ± 2.5% fat mass) were included in the control group (CG), seven obese dogs (BCS 8-9; 45.7 ± 2.9% fat mass) in the total body weight group (TBWG) and seven obese dogs (BCS 8-9; 42.8 ± 6.3% fat mass) in the lean body weight group (LBWG). Anaesthesia was induced by a constant rate infusion of propofol at 150 mg kg⁻¹ hour⁻¹ through a propofol infusion pump until the loss of consciousness; the animals in CG and TBWG received a propofol infusion based on total body weight; the animals in LBWG received a propofol infusion based on lean body mass (in kg) determined by the deuterium dilution method. The results were compared between the groups using the Tukey test (p < 0.05). The propofol dosage used was 11.4 ± 3.2 mg kg⁻¹, 8.0± 2.0 mg kg⁻¹ and 14.1 ± 4.7 mg kg⁻¹ in groups CG, TBWG and LBWG, respectively, and they were different among all groups (p < 0.001). There was also a statistical difference in the time between the start of propofol infusion and loss of consciousness in which LBWG took longer than CG and TBWG (p = 0.004). This study shows that obese dogs require lower dosages of propofol when inducing anesthesia than ideal BCS dogs anesthetized with dosages based on total body weight, when the propofol dosages are calculated on the basis of muscle mass it should be increased.
... Wanneer obese dieren gewicht verliezen, kunnen de veranderingen van het cardiorespiratoire stelsel ten gevolge van obesitas grotendeels omkeerbaar zijn. Ventrikelhypertrofie verdwijnt en waarden, zoals de bloeddruk, hartfrequentie en PaO2, normaliseren zich (Neto et al., 2010;Pereira-Neto et al., 2018). Aangezien de parameters zich relatief snel normaliseren bij gewichtsverlies, is het aangewezen de dieren, in de mate van het mogelijke, vóór de anesthesie op dieet te zetten. ...
Article
Previous study demonstrated decreased allergenicity in vitro of some food allergens after conjugation with polyphenols. However, little is known about how polyphenol conjugation with food allergens affects in vivo allergenicity. We conjugated a well-known food allergen, ovalbumin (OVA), with quercetin (QUE) to assess the potential allergenicity of OVA in vitro and in vivo in a BALB/c mouse model. QUE could covalently conjugate with OVA and changed the protein structure, which might destroy and/or mask OVA epitopes. Conjugation with QUE decreased IgE-binding properties and the release capacity of the conjugates. In vivo, as compared with native protein, conjugation with QUE decreased the levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG, plasma histamine and mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) on the surface of sensitized mast cells, along with decreased FcεRI+ and c-kit+ expression. The levels of Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) were decreased and that of a Th1-related cytokine (IFN-γ) was increased slightly, which suggests that conjugation with QUE modulated the imbalance of the Th1/Th2 immune response. Conjugation of OVA with QUE could reduce OVA allergenicity in vitro and in vivo, which could provide information for reducing food allergenicity by conjugation with polyphenols.
Article
During a weight loss program, energy restriction is performed, which can result in nutrient intake below the minimum recommendations if a proper diet is not offered. A common recommendation for dogs undergoing energy restriction is to use a veterinary diet formulated for the management of obesity to potentially reduce the likelihood of nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this study was to perform bromatological and essential mineral analysis in veterinary diets for the management of canine obesity available in the Brazilian market and to analyse whether these diets provide the recommended amount of nutrients per kg of metabolic body weight (kg BW0.75) for animals undergoing energy restriction. Samples of all veterinary diets for the management of canine obesity available in the Brazilian pet food market were analysed (n = 8). The nutrient supply per kg BW0.75 was calculated and compared with the NRC recommended allowance and FEDIAF recommendations by descriptive statistics. For this purpose, the weight loss energy requirement equations of 70 kcal/target body weight0.75 and 63 kcal/target body weight0.75 were used, in which target body weight corresponds to 10%–40% of the initial body weight according to the body condition score. The manufacturers’ intake recommendations were also evaluated and compared to the NRC and FEDIAF recommendations. Almost all of the diets (n = 7/8) had at least one nutrient below the NRC and FEDIAF recommendations when target weight of minus 10%, 20% or 30% was considered, and all diets had at least one nutrient deficiency when the target weight was minus 40%. When the energy intake was restricted a further 10%, all diets had at least one nutrient below recommendations at the minus 30% target weight. The nutrients for which the recommendations were not met were as follows: calcium, magnesium, potassium, selenium, sodium, protein and fat. When compared to the manufacturers’ recommendations, nutrient deficiencies were observed in all of the diets when compared to the NRC and in 7/8 when compared to FEDIAF, and all diets had at least one deficiency when compared to both NRC and FEDIAF after an extra 10% calorie restriction. It was concluded that the majority of veterinary diets formulated for weight loss/obesity management in Brazil did not meet all the recommendations of the analysed nutrients, which reinforces that diets for weight loss should be used according to veterinary prescription and should ideally be prescribed by nutrition specialists that can better understand the limitations of the diet's composition.
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The objective of this work was to analyze and to compare the electrocardiograms of normal dogs, obtained by conventional and computerized methods and by reading the computerized registration printed on paper. The obtained results showed that there are differences among the three methods on P wave and QRS complex.
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Long term studies indicate that the majority of humans regain the weight lost during weight reduction programs. In dogs, while some information is available regarding weight loss programs, no data have been published regarding the ability to maintain lower weight following weight loss. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of dogs to maintain weight loss following a weight reduction program and to determine if the degree of caloric restriction or rate of weight loss affected subsequent body weight change. Thirty-nine dogs were assigned to 4 treatment groups (100%, 75%, 60% or 50% calculated maintenance energy requirements for target body weight) and were allowed up to 16 weeks for weight loss. Following weight loss, dogs were assigned to be fed ad libitum or were fed to maintain body weight for an additional 26 weeks. All dogs were fed the same low calorie dog food throughout the study. The weights of all groups of dogs fed ad libitum during the maintenance period “rebounded”, increasing by the end of week 1. The percent weight gain was correlated to the amount of weight lost and to the level of caloric restriction (p
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O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e comparar os registros eletrocardiográficos de cães clinicamente normais, obtidos pelos métodos convencional, computadorizado e pela leitura direta do registro computadorizado impresso, visando padronizar o método informatizado e confrontá-lo com o convencional. Concluiu-se que existem diferenças quanto a amplitude e duração da onda P e duração do complexo QRS entre diferentes métodos, especialmente em relação ao computadorizado, devendo-se sempre levar em consideração esse fato durante a interpretação dos exames.
Article
We have previously shown that weight gain in the dog results in an increase in blood pressure. To study the pathogenesis of the rise in blood pressure associated with weight gain, we compared the serial changes in blood pressure, body weight, sodium balance, plasma volume, and three hormones known to affect sodium balance (norepinephrine, insulin, and aldosterone) in seven dogs fed a high fat diet for 6 weeks and seven dogs fed a control diet. The sodium content of both diets was equal. During a 2-week control period, no differences were noted between the two groups. Weight gain was associated with a progressive increase in blood pressure (mean pressure increased by 18.5 +/- 2.1 mm Hg in the high fat group) and plasma volume (plasma volume increased from 1,426 +/- 202 to 2,053 +/- 250 ml in the high fat group). Sodium retention occurred after 1 week of the high fat diet and persisted. Over the 6-week period, the dogs on the high fat diet increased their cumulative sodium balance by 2,024 +/- 462 meq versus an increase of only 289 +/- 97 meq for the dogs on the control diet. In the high fat diet group of dogs, there was a significant relation between change in cumulative sodium balance and the change in blood pressure and plasma volume. After 1 week of the high fat diet, norepinephrine was the only hormone that significantly increased from baseline. Over the next 5 weeks norepinephrine increased no further, whereas fasting insulin and aldosterone progressively increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
To study the relationship between body weight and blood pressure, we have developed an animal model of obesity-induced hypertension. Nine adult mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented with aortic and vena caval catheters. After a 2-week control period, all dogs were made to gain weight by adding 2 lb/day of beef fat to their diet for 5 weeks. Blood pressure, heart rate, and body weight were measured daily before the addition of dietary fat, during the 5 weeks of the high fat diet, and for 6 weeks after the fat supplement was stopped. Plasma volume and cardiac output were measured prior to and after 5 weeks of the fat diet. During the 5-week high fat diet, the dogs' body weight increased from 22.2 +/- 2.1 to 27.4 +/- 3 kg (p less than 0.001); mean blood pressure increased from 90 +/- 5 to 112 +/- 6 mm Hg (p less than 0.01); and heart rate increased from 70 +/- 7 to 85 +/- 5 beats/min (p less than 0.05). Blood pressure, heart rate, and body weight returned to near control values after the fat diet was stopped. Over the 5-week fat diet, the dogs' plasma volume increased from 920 +/- 130 to 1059 +/- 195 ml (p less than 0.05); cardiac output increased from 2.5 +/- 0.4 to 3.1 +/- 0.3 L/min (p less than 0.05); and systemic vascular resistance increased from 35.3 +/- 8 to 38.9 +/- 9 mm Hg/L/min (p less than 0.1). Weight gain in the dogs was also associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)