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Repellent activity of citrus oils against the cockroaches Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana and P. fuliginosa

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Abstract

The repellent efficacy of 17 essential oils against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica was examined using a T-tube olfactometer. Five oils repelled B. germanica with good efficacy, ranging from 70.0 to 96.7%. Four of these oils, grapefruit, lemon, lime, and orange, were from the citrus family Rutaceae. These citrus essential oils showed similar repellent activity against two more cockroach species, such as Periplaneta americana and P. fuliginosa. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the major components responsible for the repellent activity of the citrus oils were limonene, β-pinene and γ-terpinene. Limonene appears to be the main component responsible for the repellent activity rather than β-pinene and γ-terpinene. The repellent efficacy of these components varied with different doses and the cockroach species tested. It is likely that minor components of the oils also contributed to the overall repellent activity of citrus essential oils, except orange oil. The activity of orange oil is almost solely attributed to the activity of limonene. Also, the repellent activity of citrus oil and that of each of the terpenoids makes little difference to the efficacy of a repellant against the three species of cockroaches.

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... The repellent properties of Citrus derived EOs have been studied and confirmed in a band wider than the larvicidal band of target organisms. In these, the following is included: six Coleoptera, Periplaneta americana [40,41], P. fuliginosa [41], Blattella germanica [40,41], Neostylopyga rhombifolia [40], Tribolium castaneum [38,42], and Sitophilus zeamais [43]; the aphid Tetranychus urticae [44]; seven Diptera, Loutzomyia youngi [45], Simulium damnosum [46], Aedes albopictus [21,47], Ae. aegypti [48], Anopheles dirus (ibid.), An. stephensi [34], and Culex quinquefasciatus [49]. ...
... The repellent properties of Citrus derived EOs have been studied and confirmed in a band wider than the larvicidal band of target organisms. In these, the following is included: six Coleoptera, Periplaneta americana [40,41], P. fuliginosa [41], Blattella germanica [40,41], Neostylopyga rhombifolia [40], Tribolium castaneum [38,42], and Sitophilus zeamais [43]; the aphid Tetranychus urticae [44]; seven Diptera, Loutzomyia youngi [45], Simulium damnosum [46], Aedes albopictus [21,47], Ae. aegypti [48], Anopheles dirus (ibid.), An. stephensi [34], and Culex quinquefasciatus [49]. ...
... The repellent properties of Citrus derived EOs have been studied and confirmed in a band wider than the larvicidal band of target organisms. In these, the following is included: six Coleoptera, Periplaneta americana [40,41], P. fuliginosa [41], Blattella germanica [40,41], Neostylopyga rhombifolia [40], Tribolium castaneum [38,42], and Sitophilus zeamais [43]; the aphid Tetranychus urticae [44]; seven Diptera, Loutzomyia youngi [45], Simulium damnosum [46], Aedes albopictus [21,47], Ae. aegypti [48], Anopheles dirus (ibid.), An. stephensi [34], and Culex quinquefasciatus [49]. ...
Article
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Present essay explores the potentials of Citrus juice industry’s by-products as alternative bioactive natural products resources. Four crude Cold Pressed Essential Oils (CPEOs), derived from orange, lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin, were studied. All CPEOs were subjected to water distillation, in order to obtain the volatile fragment, which was further fractionated with respect to distillation period in two parts, concluding to eight samples. These samples along with the four original CPEOs were assessed in relation to their phytochemical content and their repellent and larvicidal properties against Asian Tiger Mosquito. The volatiles recovery rates ranged from 74% to 88% of the CPEO. Limonene presented a significant increase in all samples ranging from 8% to 52% of the respective CPEO’s content and peaked in mandarin’s 2nd volatile fragment which comprised 97% of the essential oil. The refinement process presented clear impacts on both bioassays: a significant increase in larvicidal potency was observed, annotated best by the improvement by 1100% and 1300% of the grapefruit volatile fractions; repellence testing provided only one significant result, the decrease of landings by 50% as a response to mandarin’s second volatile fraction. The applied methodology thus may be considered for the improvement of Citrus juice industry’s by-products chemistry and bioactivity.
... Furthermore, several plant essential oils have been widely used as fragrances and flavoring agents for foods and beverages (Isman 2000). The insecticidal and repellent activities of plant essential oils and their constituents against cockroaches have also been studied for this purpose (Appel et al. 2001;Peterson et al. 2002a,b;Yoon et al. 2009;Phillips et al. 2010;Yeom et al. 2012;Yeom et al. 2013;Liu et al. 2015;Yeom et al. 2015). ...
... Cilantro, parsley, and carvi oils showed <60% repellent activities. The repellent activities of plant essential oils against German cockroaches have been reported in previous studies (Appel et al. 2001;Peterson et al. 2002a,b;Yoon et al. 2009;Liu et al. 2015). Appel et al. (2001) reported that mint (Mentha arvensis L.) oil showed strong repellent activity against American and German cockroaches. ...
... All of the extracts were found to repel German cockroaches. Yoon et al. (2009) examined the repellent activity of 17 essential oils using a T-tube olfactometer. The essential oils of grapefruit, lemon, lime, orange, and clove leaf were highly repellent to German cockroaches. ...
Article
We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected]
... Therefore, the presence of such compounds (e.g, α-pinene, limonene, alphapinene, and 1,8-cineole) in C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil can justify the mortality of the cockroaches. Yoon et al. (2009) investigated the repellent efficacies of certain essential oils components, the results varied with different doses and cockroach species. It was reported that the major components responsible for the repellent activity were γ-terpinene, β-pinene and limonene [26]. ...
... Yoon et al. (2009) investigated the repellent efficacies of certain essential oils components, the results varied with different doses and cockroach species. It was reported that the major components responsible for the repellent activity were γ-terpinene, β-pinene and limonene [26]. El-Seedi et al. (2012) claimed that the oil with main compounds of 1,8-cineole, 4-terpineol and carvone was the most repellent oil among many oils tested against cockroaches [27]. ...
Article
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Cockroaches are among the most adaptive creatures to the environment; they dwell on the earth’s surface for the past millions of years. The presence of cockroaches is posing serious health issues in many countries of the world. Searching for an effective natural repellent agent has become a highly important attempt to control these insects. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the chemical compositions of essential oil from Sudanese Cyperus rotundus rhizomes and determine their repellent activity against American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). The obtained essential oil was radish yellow in color, the oil content was 0.73% and forty-four constituents were identified. The most major components were: Isolongifolol (7.63%), longiverbenone (5.61%), β-cadinene (5.54%), and longifolenaldehyde (5.16%). The oil was characterized by sesquiterpenes abundance 52.45% (oxygenated sesquiterpenes 30.72% and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons 21.73%); whereas, monoterpenes comprised 8.43% (oxygenated monoterpenes 6.81%, and monoterpenes hydrocarbons 1.62%). The experiment showed that the essential oil possesses promising results as a repellent against P. americana. Therefore, conducting more research on isolation, identification of active compounds and extensive tests on other types of cockroaches are priorities in future studies.
... Monoterpenes are among the most successful botanical insecticides that have been used in insect control for decades (Isman 2006). Many monoterpenes exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities against public health insects, such as insecticidal activity (Priestley et al. 2006;Kweka et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2017;Gaire et al. 2019) and repellent effect (Yoon et al. 2009;Alzogaray et al. 2013;Dambolena et al. 2016;Lima et al. 2019;Santos et al. 2019). They also have insect growth regulatory properties (Zahran and Abdelgaleil 2011). ...
... Alzogaray et al. (2013) found that menthone and linalool had repellent activity against B. germanica. Also, limonene, β-pinene and γ-terpinene, possessed repellent efficacy against the cockroaches, B. germanica, Periplaneta americana and P. fuliginosa (Yoon et al. 2009 ...
Article
Insects of medical importance are the most harmful pests impacting the human health as they are vectors to many human diseases. The fight against these insects is mainly based on the use of synthetic insecticides. However, an inappropriate use of these chemicals, can cause harmful impact on the environment and human health, and/or the development of resistance in insects. Therefore, natural products, including botanicals can be effective alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of these vectors. Among the plant products, monoterpenes have been widely studied for their insecticidal activity against insects of public health importance. In this regard, monoterpenes are known to show toxic (fumigant and contact toxicity), repellent, antifeedant, ovicidal and sterilizing effects against mosquitoes, flies, lice, fleas, bed bugs and cockroaches. In this review, we focus on studies describing the bioactivities of monoterpenes against these public health insects. The chemistry, mode of action and structure–activity relationship of monoterpenes are also discussed.
... The term "cockroaches" covers a large number of species which have a worldwide distribution, with these insects being considered to be excellent transporters of pathogenic and allergic substances of faecal origin [42,44]. However, as occurs in the control of other pests, the frequent use of synthetic insecticides has also generated resistance in cockroaches. ...
... The results of several studies have suggested that insecticidal activity depends on several factors such as dose, species assayed, toxicity methods, and target [2,44,50,127]. However, due to discrepancies in the methodologies used by different authors, comparison of the insecticidal effects for the evaluated compounds is difficult using these investigations. ...
Article
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Many insects affect food production and human health, and in an attempt to control these insects the use of synthetic insecticides has become widespread. However, this has resulted in the development of resistance in these organisms, human diseases, contamination of food, and pollution of the environment. Plants natural products and essential oil components such as terpenes and phenylpropenes have been shown to have a significant potential for insect control. However, the molecular properties related to their insecticidal activity are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the toxicity of terpene compounds against three insects of importance to human health: lice, cockroaches, and Triatominae bugs and to evaluate which molecular descriptors are important in the bioactivity of terpenes. For the insects studied, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed in order to predict the insecticidal activity of terpene compounds. The obtained QSAR models indicated that the activity of these compounds depends on their ability to reach the targets and to interact with them. The QSAR analysis can be used to predict the bioactivities of other structurally related molecules. Our findings may provide an important contribution in the search for new compounds with insecticidal activity.
... Besides, lemon oils showed β pinene as the second principal component (12.6%) (Table1). These two monoterpenes also were reported as the main compounds of citrus oils (Ahmad et al., 2006;Yoon et al., 2009;Hosni et al., 2010). Zunino et al. ...
... This is in accordance with field experience, where R. subtilis is more resistent to comercial insecticides than S. pinguis (data not shown). Eucalyptus and citrus fruit essential oils already have been studied as insecticides in several insects (Mareggiani et al., 2008;Sfara et al., 2009;Yoon et al., 2009;Pinto Junior et al., 2010). However, essential oil activity on these two insects has not been investigated. ...
Article
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In the present study, the essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Citrus limon L. were analysed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and evaluated for their toxic effects on Sternechus subsignatus and Rhyssomatus subtilis, two important pest of soybean in South America. Contact toxicity assayed by impregnation on filter paper discs showed that these oils caused significant mortality of the test insects (100% of mortality at 5 μL/cm2). Eucalyptus oil (98.9 % of 1,8-cineole) had the greatest contact toxicity (LD50 = 0.40 and 0.84 μL/cm2 for S. pinguis and R. subtilis, respectively), whereas orange (87.6 % of limonene) and lemon oils (62.5 and 12.6 % of limonenen and β pinene, respectively) were less toxic (LD50 > 1 μL/cm2 for both insects). All the responses were found dose-dependent. Rhyssomatus subtilis was more resistant than Sternechus pinguis to the toxicity of the essential oils studied.
... Pure components from EOs were screened for lethality against different developmental stages of Blatella germanica Linnaeus [34]. [33]. This work demonstrates the very complex synergistic and suppressive interactions among the monoterpenes in these Citrus EOs and the species specific nature of repellency in these cockroach species. ...
... In future work involving chiral monoterpenes, the enantiomeric purity of the active component in the EO and in the purchased reference sample should be taken into account. Another area of importance is the deciphering of the synergistic, suppressive, and other interactions of the components of EOs (and extracts) as was done in the complex and stimulating work by Yoon et al. [33] for the components of Citrus L. EOs against several cockroach species. In many of the scientific papers reviewed herein, the isolated active components are recognizably less active than the plant extracts and EOs from which they were isolated, and so doubt remains whether the component is the most important active component or whether synergism or perhaps a "cocktail of components" is in fact the active agent responsible for the effect of the plant derivative. ...
... Yoon (26) was tested the repellent efficacies of certain components and their obtained results indicated that the efficacies were varied with different doses and the cockroach species, and the major components responsible for the repellent activity of the essential oils were limonene, β-pinene and γ-terpinene. El-Seedi et al. (27) claimed that the O. basilicum oil with major compounds of 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol, and carvone was the most repellent oil among many oils tested against cockroach. ...
Article
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an important culinary herb and essential oil source widely recognized worldwide. The oil of the plant is beneficial for medicinal uses, and it has many biological activities such as insect repellent, larvicidal, and bactericidal. This study aimed to investigate basil's essential oil for its chemical composition and repellent activity. The essential oil of basil was extracted from fresh leaves by steam distillation method, and the chemical composition of the oil was determined by using GC/MS. Also, the repellent activity of the oil was tested against American cockroaches. Ebeling Choice-Box test with a little modification used in repellence test. The obtained results of chemical composition revealed that the amount of the oil contained forty-one chemical constituents (~97.1%); the major constituents were methyl cinnamate (25.3%), linalool (19.1%) and estragole (12.3%) as the major oxygenated monoterpenes. While α-bergamoten (5.3%), germacrene (4.6%), γ-cadinene (2.8%), and β-elemene (2.4%) were the main compounds in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Whereas, in oxygenated sesquiterpenes, Tau-cadinol (4.3%) was an important compounds and ocimene the highest compound in monoterpene hydrocarbons. The obtained results also indicated that the essential oil had good activity against the P. American, at a 100% concentration of oil; the repellence reaches 100% after 1 h. The IC50 and IC90 values of basil essential oil against P. Americans were 53.0 and 83.0%, respectively. The major compound methyl cinnamate which exists in basil essential oil is a very important compound and could be used in a wide area of industrial applications as repellent products, medicinal products, and cosmetics.
... Limonene is a terpenoid found in lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf) and orange (Citrus Sinensis L.) and has been reported as a cat, dog and insect repellent (Yoon et al., 2009). Ginger oil (Zingiber officinale Roxb.) and plai oil (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) both belong to genus Zingiber and both of these plants contain essential oils with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and repellent activities (Sharifi-Rad et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Natural repellent products are of interest worldwide due to their low toxicity, rapid degradation, and being friendly to the environment. The current study evaluated the efficiency of herbal oils from fragrant plants as mouse repellents. Orange oil (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), peppermint oil (Mentha × piperita L.), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf), ginger oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), plai oil (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), menthol and their combination were tested in a radial arm maze and light/dark transition test. For the short-term effect (week 0), each of the herbal oils and their combination were effective as mouse repellents, as shown by increased latency times and decreased time spent in arms containing repellents in the radial arm maze. Similarly, mice exposed to each of the herbal oils and their combination in the dark chamber spent more time in the light chamber in the light/dark transition test. Only peppermint oil and menthol failed to maintain their repellent activity in the long-term effect (week 1). Thus, we recommend spraying orange oil, lemongrass oil, ginger oil, plai oil and the combination of all oils every week for effective mouse repellant activity. Keywords: Medicinal plant, Mice, Natural product, Essential oils, Anxiety
... Limonene and α-pinene were major monoterpenes presented in C. maxima peels essential oil. Both these secondary metabolites are reported to have insecticidal [63], fumigant [64] and repellent properties from other citrus species [65]. For stored grain insects, cuticle damage caused by hydrocarbon absorption and abrasion can also result in death due to desiccation [66]. ...
Article
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The wastes generated during the post-harvest handling of various agricultural commodities is rather under-utlilized. The peels of citrus fruits are often discarded as waste. Citrus peels are rich in essential oils and exhibit toxicity towards various insect species. The essential oils are also an eco-friendly option for insect pest management. The Citrus maxima peel essential oil (CMEO), a waste product, characterized it, and evaluated its potential for insect pest management. The major terpenoids present in CMEO are Limonene and α-Pinene. The CMEO displayed potentials in controlling the insect pests via contact and fumigant toxicity. Moreover, CMEO showed significant larvicidal activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Aedes aegypti species of mosquitoes; however, Armigeres subalbatus was more resistant. The biological safety of the essential oil was also tested against the stored seeds, where no significant inhibition of seed germination was noticed compared to the control. Utilizing a waste product such as citrus peel for pest management can achieve the dual objective of waste utilization and eco-friendly pest management. Overall, the CMEO is therefore found to be a bioactive essential oil extracted from the wastes of pomelo (C. maxima).
... Many previous studies showed wide differences in chemical compositions of essential oils affected by climatic, nutritional, genic factors, and extraction methods (Telci et al., 2006;Amiri et al., 2018), which can result in different bioactivity. Besides, inconsistencies in bioactivity often resulted from interspecific divergence in physiological processes have been often reported both in insecticides and repellents (Yoon et al., 2009;Phasomkusolsil and Soonwera, 2010;Qi and Casida, 2013;He et al., 2018). ...
Article
In South Korea, control agents for small flying insects are subjected to approval under newly enforced Act on biocidal products by the Ministry of Environment starting from 2019, along with other conventional household insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate 18 compounds for their toxicity and repellency in various contexts. A tube assay revealed the greatest toxicity of synthetic repellent DEET. Interestingly, spatial repellency of several plant essential oils was greater than those of conventional repellent, indicating their suitability for temporal grants. Meanwhile, unlike conventional repellents, botanical oils often lost their choice repellency in gaseous unsaturable condition. Spatial repellency was positively correlated to the evaporation rate of the compounds while choice repellencies were negatively correlated regardless of their gaseous saturability. Our results are expected to provide implications for both the regulation process and product development.
... The orange oil has been used as an alternative agent for controlling many insect pests since it is neurotoxic to insects while it showed low mammalian toxicity and short environmental persistence (Regnault-Roger et al., 2012). Essential oils from citrus fruits have been used to control domestic pests such as mosquitos, flies, and cockroaches Michaelakis et al., 2009;Murugan et al., 2012;Palacios et al., 2009;Raina et al., 2007;Yoon et al., 2009). Citrus oils have also been used as a repellent to prevent infestation of insect pests on plants and stored grains (Emeasor and Okorie, 2008;Hollingsworth, 2005;Rotimi and Ekperusi, 2012;Saleem et al., 2013). ...
Article
Sustainable and environmentally safe pest management often involves the use of natural enemies as an alternative to chemical means. For successful management of pests by natural enemies, a balanced population between insect pests and their natural enemies should be achieved. In this study, we compared such population balances in rice fields of Cambodia under the following conditions: no insecticide (NI), chemical pesticide-based conventional practice (CP), the use of a biopesticide (Beauveria bassiana, Bb), and the use of an orange oil extract (Oo). Treatment effects were evaluated by monitoring 17 species of insect pests and 15 species of natural enemies at two sites for two seasons. In the NI treatment, the level of natural enemies was the highest, however, the pest population density was also higher in this treatment than in the Bb and the Oo treatments, resulting in a low grain yield similar to that in the CP treatment notably in one trial. The Bb and the Oo treatments showed the lowest insect pest populations, although the Oo treatment had little impact on the populations of natural enemies. These results suggest that contributions of Bb and Oo treatments to decreasing pest populations were greater than those of the NI and the CP treatments, and that the Bb and the Oo treatments resulted in a favorable balance between populations of insect pests and their natural enemies. A high level of white earhead caused by stemborers resulted in significant yield losses in one trial. Among the four treatments in the trial, the Bb treatment resulted in the highest grain yield, and importantly, this treatment depressed the insect pest populations without much affecting the populations of their natural enemies. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the use of biopesticides in rice paddies is effective to keep the well-balanced population between insect pests and natural enemies by decreasing the serious pests such as stemborer and leaf folder that directly affect rice grain yields.
... Other authors found fumigant activity of the essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), M. domestica, B. germanica (Lee et al. 2002), and Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (Lee et al. 2003), as well as repellent activity against B. germanica, Periplaneta americana (Linn), Periplaneta fuliginosa (Serville) (Yoon et al. 2009), and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) (Toloza 2010). These show the potential of this essential oil as an insecticide. ...
Article
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Indiscriminate use of insecticides to control vector-borne disease contaminates the environment and with time, mosquitoes gradually become resistant, making their control increasingly difficult. An alternative to synthetic insecticides, such as use of essential oils and extracts from plants, is needed for vector control. This study aimed to evaluate Cuban essential oil of Citrus aurantium (Sapindales: Rutaceae) against Aedes aegypti L. mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of arbovirus in Cuban. Calculated mean lethal concentrations (LC) were significantly low (LC50 = 13.5 mg/liter (Rockefeller) and 15.5 mg/liter (Marianao 2013). A developmental inhibitory effect was obtained by exposing each population of mosquito larvae to lethal concentration LC90. The emergence of adult mosquitoes was inhibited by exposing larvae to the LC90 of each population. Neither adulticidal activity was obtained with papers and bottles impregnated at neither 60 mg/ml nor, repellent activity with the evaluated formulations. C. aurantium oil is a promissory candidate for control larvae of Ae. aegypti, although it was not effective against adults nor repellent unless formulations were enhanced.
... Insecticidal activity of limonene was reported effective against Tuta asoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) [25]. Yoon et al. [62] revealed repellent property of different citrus oil and its major compound limonene against different species of cockroaches like Blatella germanica, Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta fuliginosa. However, Karr and Coats [63] did not get significant insecticidal activity of d-limonene against Blattella germanica, Musca domestica, Sitophilus oryzae and Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. ...
Chapter
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Citrus essential oils (CEOs) and their constituent compounds are being reported to have multifarious activities. In this chapter an attempt is made to discuss the insecticidal activities, as well as CEO profile of different vegetative part of Citrus species and biocidal potentiality of their constituent compounds against diverse insect pests. It is observed that in most of the CEO constituent profile, limonene is the major constituent compound. Other important constituents present in different percentages in different CEOs are β-citronellal, linalool, pinene, β-caryophyllene, β-myrcene, terpinene, citral etc. These plant EO constituents are reported to have insecticidal effects against diverse insect species. Taking the four peel EOs of Citrus limon, Citrus paradisi, Citrus medica, Citrus maxima commonly grown in North Eastern part of India, study on their insecticidal effects against Dolichoderus affinis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was made and result is presented showing higher fumigant toxicity of C. medica and C. limon oil against the ant sp. With the increasing awareness for using safe insecticidal products among consumers, the citrus EOs with their attracting terpene compounds having good insecticidal potency bear all attributes to be used as commercial green pesticides in coming days both in indoor and outdoor management of insect pests.
... EβF repellent bioassay was performed using a T-tube olfactometer (inner wall diameter 18 mm, stem 10 cm, arm length 30 cm, angle Table 2. between arms 180 • ) as previously described by Yoon et al. (2009). One arm of the olfactometer was set as the treatment arm, the other arm served as blank control arm. ...
Article
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play an essential role for insect chemosensation in insect peripheral nervous systems of antennae. Each antennal sensilla contains more than one OBP at high concentrations but the interactions and cooperation between co-localized OBPs are rarely reported. In present study, we cloned, expressed and purified eight OBPs of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae. The effects of knocking down the expression of these OBP genes by RNAi on the electrophysiological and behavioural responses of M. persicae to the aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-β-farnesene (EβF) were investigated. The results showed that the aphids could still be repelled by EβF when the expression of each of three OBP genes was individually knocked down. However, the simultaneous knockdown of MperOBP3/7/9 expression significantly reduced the electrophysiological response and the repellent behaviours of M. persicae to EβF than the single OBP gene knockdown (P < 0.05). Rather than a normal saturation binding curve of individual OBP, the binding curve of MperOBP3/7/9 is bell-shaped with a higher affinity for the fluorescent probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN). The competitive binding assays confirmed that MperOBP3, MperOBP7, MperOBP9 and MperOBP3/7/9 mixture exhibited a stronger binding affinity for EβF, than for sex pheromones and plant volatiles with a dissociation constant of 2.5 μmol/L, 1.1 μmol/L, 3.9 μmol/L and 1.0 μmol/L, respectively. The competitive binding curve of MperOBP3/7/9 mixture to EβF is shallow without bottom plateau, suggesting a conformational change and a rapid dissociation after the displacement of all 1-NPN (in vivo after the saturation binding of all OBPs by EβF). The interaction between OBPs and formation of a heterogeneous unit may facilitate the delivery EβF to the OR at electrophysiological and behavioural levels during insect odorant signal transduction thus mediate M. persicae response to the alarm pheromone EβF.
... The repellent property of essential oils of the Citrus genus has also been highlighted against insects. Yoon et al. (2009) (Nerio et al., 2009 ;Waked, 2016). ...
... The repellent property of essential oils of the Citrus genus has also been highlighted against insects. Yoon et al. (2009) (Nerio et al., 2009 ;Waked, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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Two essential oils were extracted from the peel of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium to evaluate their acaricidal effect on the adults, larvae and eggs of the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The repellent effect and the residual activity were also assessed. The chemical composition of two essential oils was assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Limonene was obtained as the majority compound in the essential oil of C. sinensis (96.11%) and C. aurantium (96.10%). The efficacy of both essential oils was studied by means of toxicity tests. Five increasing concentrations of each product were tested: 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8% with contact treatment. The toxicity tests demonstrated a good efficacy of the two essentials oils studied against the various stages of development of T. urticae. At a concentration of 8% of C. sinensis and C. aurantium, the mortality was 63.33% and 68.74% on adults, 100% and 75% on larvae and 85.41% and 95% on eggs, respectively. These oils had a repellent effect on T. urticae adults and they were not very persistent on the leaves. These results indicated that both essential oils have the potential to be developed as botanical acaricides for eco-friendly management of T. urticae.
... According to neurotoxic studies, acetylcholinesterase enzymes, ionotropic GABA receptors and metabotropic octopamine receptors are the molecular targets of EOs on cockroaches (Jankowska et al. 2017). Additionally, a repellent efficacy has been demonstrated for some citrus essential oils, that is grapefruit, lemon, lime, and orange, against the B. germanica (Yoon et al. 2009). A synergistic effect was evidenced on an equal part mixture (3-blend) of eugenol (17), a-terpineol and cinnamic acid (34), which provoked hyperactivity followed by hyperextension of the legs and abdomen, then fast knockdown or quick immobilization followed by death to P. americana (Enan 2001). ...
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Natural compounds of botanical origin are increasingly being investigated for the development of novel biocides. Intensive use of synthetic biocides and the confined array of chemical classes in use has led to the buildup of unwanted residues and to parasites’ adaptive responses and resistance. Meanwhile, the geographic and host ranges of arthropod vectors and vector-borne diseases are broadening. In an effort to develop “friendly” biocidal compounds for the environment and human health, plant secondary metabolites originating in a number of botanical families could be engaged. This mini-review compiles the recently available knowledge on plant secondary metabolites exhibiting biocidal properties and provides a brief overview on their activity against arthropods with a focus on toxic and repellent properties. The selected examples show that it is valuable to consider plants as a promising source for new products development to support the fight against arthropods related to human health. Finally, we outline the biocides regulatory framework in the European Union (EU) and pinpoint some issues of concern regarding the development of low risk biocides. Graphic abstract Plant secondary metabolites acting against arthropods of medical importance Open image in new window
... Thavara et al. (2007) recorded that essential oils (100%) derived from kaffir lime leaves was the most effective repellency tested showing complete repellency against P. americana and Blattella germanica and essential oil (100%) derived from ginger rhizomes showed moderate level of repellency (85%) against P. americana. Previous studies showed that some essential oils and components from peels of orange (Citrus spp.), eucalyptus, grapefruit, lemon, lime, and orange oils had repellent activity against American and German cockroaches (Imjai et al., 2008;Yoon et al., 2009). Recently, some essential oil components can serve as repellents to American cockroach (Ling et al., 2009) and to German cockroach Alzogaray et al., 2011;Liu et al., 2011). ...
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Repellency and fumigant toxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum) oils were investigated against American cockroach (Periplaneta americana (L.) in the laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah Province, Saudi Arabia at 25 ± 3°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. Both clove and sesame oils showed variable percentages of repellency according to concentrations, exposure periods and stages. Clove oil exhibited strong repellent activity than sesame oil. First nymph was more sensitive than the fourth one followed by adults. After 48 h of exposure, complete repellency (100%) was recorded against first nymph at concentration of 2% for clove oil and 6% for sesame oil. Same result was obtained against fourth nymph at concentration of 10% of sesame oil after 48 h. While clove oil completely repelled all fourth nymphs after 24 h at concentration of 8%. For adult stage, the greatest repellency percentages were recorded by clove oil (90.00 ± 5.77%) and sesame oil (83.33 ± 3.33%) after 48 h at a concentration of 10%. Regarding the fumigant toxicity, clove oil provided highly significant effects against nymphs and adults of P. americana after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Complete mortality (100%) was recorded at a concentration of 7.5 µl/L of air for first nymph, 10 µl for fourth one and 17.5 µl for adults after 48 h of fumigation. First nymph was the most sensitive to clove oil by LC 50 value 1.06 µl followed by 3.12 µl for fourth nymph and 8.20 µl for adults. The fumigant tests showed that sesame oil did not exhibit toxicity against P. americana at concentrations range of 5 to 20 µl/L of air. In conclusion, both clove and sesame oils can be used as repellent botanical insecticides, but only clove oil can be used as fumigant agent against P. americana because sesame oil gave no effect at tested concentrations.
... Cockroaches remain as public health and medically important pests (ree et al. 2006) with cosmopolitan distribution (Kinfu & erko 2008;Yoon et al. 2009). The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) is the main pest in households, hospitals and residential areas (Limoee et al. 2012), whereas the american cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) is a predominant pest cockroach in housing premises especially in Southeast asia (Tee et al. 2011a). ...
... For this reason, many researchers have investigated the biological activity of essential oils and their components against German cockroaches (Appel et al. 2001;Peterson et al. 2002a,b;Jang et al., 2005;Yoon et al. 2009;Phillips and Appel 2010;Phillips et al. 2010;Yeom et al. 2012Yeom et al. , 2013Yeom et al. , 2015Liu et al. 2015;Lee et al. 2017). ...
Article
The insecticidal activities of 13 Lamiaceae plant oils and their components against adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae), were evaluated using fumigant and contact bioassay. Among the tested oils, basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint showed the strongest insecticidal activities against adult B. germanica. Insecticidal activity of pennyroyal was 100% against male B. germanica at 1.25 mg concentration in fumigant bioassay. Basil and spearmint revealed 100% and 100% insecticidal activity against male B. germanica at 5 mg concentration, but their activities reduced to 80% and 25% at 2.5 mg concentration, respectively. In contact, toxicity bioassay, basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint oils exhibited 100%, 100%, and 98% mortality against female B. germanica at 1 mg/♀, respectively. Among the constituents identified in basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint oils, insecticidal activity of pulegone was the strongest against male and female B. germanica.
... Over the last decade, a wide range of EO was investigated for many uses, such as pest repellents, anti-inflammatories and antioxidants (El-Mougy, 2009;Tumen et al., 2012;Yoon et al., 2009). The most widely studied properties of EO were their effect on microorganisms, which proved them to be effective at inhibiting the growth, and in some cases killing, a wide range of bacteria, fungi and parasites (El-Mougy, 2009;Hammer et al., 1999;Inouye et al., 2006;Kunicka-Styczyńska et al., 2009;Rosato et al., 2007). ...
Article
In this study, a novel method which can be easily applied in industry for the modification of sodium exchanged montmorillonite (NaMt) and commercial organically modified montmorillonite (OrgMt) with essential oils (EO) such as oregano oil, thyme oil and basil oil was presented. The obtained clays-essential oils powders were promising nanostructures for controlled release applications. The presence of EO molecules in the interlayer space was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG) was used to calculate the adsorbed amount of EO into NaMt and OrgMt clay layers and to determine the temperature region where EO release took place. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study the adsorption mechanism. The interlayer space of NaMt was found not to be affected by the adsorption of EO molecules while a significant increase of OrgMt interlayer space was recorded. EO amount released from NaMt surface above 220 °C and between 100 °C to 220 °C in OrgMt. A hydrogen bond between OH groups of EO and external surface OH groups of NaMt in the case of NaMt/EO hybrids and a weak interaction between aromatic EO groups and amino chains in interlayer space of OrgMt in the case of OrgMt/EO hybrids were suggested.
... Citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco) oil containing limonene repelled adults up to 98%. However, when it was mixed at 10% with soybean oil, repellency was reduced to 86% [7]. It means soybean oil can act as antagonist. ...
Article
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Plant extracts in water or chemical solvents; crude oil, essential oils and other allelochemicals of several plant species were tested at the laboratory as contact poison and/or fumigant. Most of them acted as repellent to insects and mites. Toxicity effect was dose-dependent and varied as per plant species and organism tested. In some instances, plant-derived products causing mortality were less effective than synthetic pesticides. However, considering possible environmental contamination of synthetics and the eventual toxicity to non-target organisms, plant-derived products against household and structural pests have been recommended by researchers. The major pest species with mode of actions of plant products and integrated strategies for effective, practical and ecofriendly pest control are discussed throughout this review.
... The hydrolate of the flowers has been used for treatment of mild depression, sedation and as a heart tonic for many years in Iran (Zargary 1986, Ayenechi 1991. The studies on biologic effects of C. aurantium indicated potential mosquito repellent, larvicidal and insecticidal activities of this plant (Cetin et al. 2006, Sumroiphon et al. 2006, Yoon et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Background Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bio-active agents against mosquito vectors. Methods The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory condition. Then chemical composition of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62%) constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81). Conclusion The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.
... Grapefruit oil showed high insect-repellent activity against cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta fuliginosa), and its activity was higher than that exhibited by lemon, lime, and orange oils (Yoon et al., 2009). ...
Chapter
Grapefruit oil (Citrus paradisii) exhibits an array of activities encompassing anti-elastase, insecticidal, and antimicrobial activities. Decanal, octanal, citral, bergamottin (5-geranoxypsoralen), limonene alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, alpha- and beta-sinensal, alpha-cubebene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, beta-caryophyllene, (Z)-carvone, perillene, (E)-carveol, heptyl acetate, nootkatone, perillyl acetate, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol are prominent compounds in grapefruit oil and contribute to the functionality of grapefruit oil.
... The repellent property of Citrus oils against other arthropods has also been investigated. Using a T-tube olfactometer, Yoon et al. (2009) found that oils from C. sinensis and C. aurantium were the most repellent among species of Citrus against Blattella germanica L., Periplaneta americana Linnaeus and Periplaneta fuliginosa Serville. In another study, the essential oil from Citrus limon L. Burm demonstrated the same degree of repellence as N, N-diethyl-3methylbenzamide (DEET) against the mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston in laboratory experiments (Oshaghi et al., 2003). ...
... Moreover, highly repellent insecticides, such as pyrethrum, are useful as flushing agents in areas of low visibility to determine relative abundance of cockroaches . Thus, many essential oils and their components have been screened for repellent activity against cockroaches with some showing potential further development (Ngoh et al. 1998, Appel et al. 2001, Peterson et al. 2002, Paranagama and Ekanayake 2004, Yoon et al. 2009, Oz et al. 2013. During our mass screening program for new agrochemicals from wild plants and Chinese medicinal herbs, essential oil of patchouli, Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Bentham (Family: Labiatae) leaves were found to possess insecticidal and repellent activity against the German cockroach, B. germanica. ...
Article
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The aim of this research was to evaluate contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Bentham leaves against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) (L.) and to isolate any active constituents. Essential oil of Pogostemon cablin leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-three components were identified in the essential oil, and the main constituents were patchoulol (41.31%), pogostone (18.06%), alpha-bulnesene (6.56%), caryophyllene (5.96%), and seychellene (4.32%). Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of pogostone, patchoulol, and caryophyllene as active compounds. The essential oil of Pogostemon cablin leaves exhibited acute toxicity against male Blattela germanica adults with an LC50 value of 23.45 mu g per adult. The constituent compound, pogostone (LC50 = 8.51 mu g per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than patchoulol (LC50 = 207.62 mu g per adult) and caryophyllene (LC50=339.90 mu g per adult) against the male German cockroaches. The essential oil of Pogostemon cablin leaves and the three isolated constituents exhibited strong repellent activity against German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 ppm. The results indicated that the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin leaves and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural insecticides and repellents.
... In addition to its rapid running speed (Full & Tu 1991) and evasive behavior, P. americana in the tropics is capable of flight (Ritzmann et al. 1980;Libersat & Camhi 1988). Periplaneta americana is resistant to all major groups of insecticides, and has also been regarded as model for studying insect physiology (Irles et al. 2009;Yoon et al. 2009). However, no information has been available for RPS23 in this evolutionarily important organism so far. ...
Article
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Ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23) constitutes the ribosomal binding site for mRNA in the 40S initiation complex, and appears to be involved in initiating the translation of messenger RNA into protein (translation step). In this study, a full-length of RPS23 cDNA was cloned from the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattodea: Blattidae) by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of the P. americana RPS23 (PaRPS23) was of 615 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 116 bp, a 3' UTR of 67 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 432 bp encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 16.03 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 10.47 (NCBI accession number: KJ472479). BLAST analysis revealed that amino acids of PaRPS23 shared identity with Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret) 99%, (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) 99%, (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Pediculus humanus corporis L. 98%, (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), Riptortus pedestris (F.) 98%, (Hemiptera: Alydidae), Biphyllus lunatus (F.) 98%, (Coleoptera: Biphyllidae), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) 97%, (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and Drosophila yakuba Burla 97%, (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and so on. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that PaRPS23 could be detected in all the tested tissues, in which the relative expression levels were 1.2-, 17.9-, 7.3-, 5.6- and 2.2-fold higher in the ovary, head, thorax, leg and gut than in the testis, respectively. The results provided some important base data for further functional studies in P. americana, and the information may also help to understand the evolution of ribosomes in insects.
... Moreover, Gleiser et al. [21] showed a dose-dependent activity of the EO of A. polystachya against the same mosquito. Considering that the EO of A. citriodora contains also other compounds such as limonene (7.4%) with potential repellent effects, synergistic phenomena should not be discarded [22]. ...
... EOs consist of mixtures of many bioactive compounds, such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, aromatic phenols, and lactones as well as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (Regnault-Roger et al. 2012;Regnault-Roger 2013). Many essential oils from different families have diverse biological activities against B. germanica: the EOs from Lamiaceae produce contact toxicity and behavioral activity Peterson et al. 2002;Tunaz et al. 2009), the EOs from Chenopodiaceae cause contact and fumigant toxicity (Zhu et al. 2012), those from Myrtaceae produce fumigant and contact toxicity and repellent activity (Alzogaray et al. 2011;Liu et al. 2011;Yeom et al. 2013), and those from Rutaceae, Cyperaceae, Anacardiaceae, Umbelliferae, and Zingiberaceae produce repellent activity (Sánchez Chopa et al. 2006;Yoon et al. 2009;Liu et al. 2011). ...
Article
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The physicochemical characterization and residual insecticidal activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles containing essential oils (EOs) from geranium (Geranium sp.) and bergamot (Citrus reticulata L.) were evaluated against Blatella germanica for 1 year. The nanoparticles’ size increased during the storage time from <235 to <450 nm; the EO content decreased approximately 50 %, and the abundance of the major components did not show any differences between pre- and post-formulation. The surface characteristics of nanoparticles were analyzed by transmission electronic microscopy. The EO nanoparticles produced a notable increase in the residual contact toxicity apparently because of the slow and persistent release of the active terpenes. In addition, the nanoformulation enhanced the EO contact toxicity. The results indicate that these novel systems could be developed as control agents against German cockroaches
... They can be easily obtained by steam distillation, and many bioactive compounds including terpenoids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and aromatic phenols have been identified [10]. Many essential oils and their components have insecticidal or repellent activity against the German cockroach [8,[11][12][13]. Furthermore, because of the high vaporization of plant essential oils, there is little concern about their residue when applied in the field and in water [14][15][16]. ...
... Moreover, Gleiser et al. [21] showed a dose-dependent activity of the EO of A. polystachya against the same mosquito. Considering that the EO of A. citriodora contains also other compounds such as limonene (7.4%) with potential repellent effects, synergistic phenomena should not be discarded [22]. ...
Article
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As part of a screening program to evaluate the biological activity of indigenous plants, we report the composition and the bioactivity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Té de Burro Aloysia polystachya [(Griseb.) Moldenke] and Lemon Verbena Aloysia citriodora [Palau] against two of the most widespread secondary pests of stored products, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum [Herbst] and the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum [Jacqueline du Val]. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the EOs led the identification of their major constituents and their relative proportions. EO of A. citriodora showed the highest repellent activity against both beetles (>70%). On the other hand, both plants showed fumigant toxicity only against T. confusum, without significant differences between them (LC50 values of 5.92 and 5.53 mg/L air for A. polystachya and A. citriodora, resp.). For contact toxicity (topical applications) the EO of A. polystachya was more effective (LD50 = 7.35 μg/insect) than the EO of A. citriodora (LD50 = 13.8 μg/insect) only against T. castaneum. On the other hand, T. confusum was not susceptible by contact to any of these EOs. These results provide important tools for the development of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program.
... Essential and vegetable oils have not been evaluated for their biological activity against B. tryoni. Essential oils are reported to be active against many domestic (Cheng et al. 2007;Pavela 2008;Yoon et al. 2009;Nerio et al. 2010) and agricultural pests (Hori 1998;Guerra et al. 2007;Gonzalez et al. 2010;Olivero-Verbel et al. 2010;Yang et al. 2010), including tephritids such as Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel and Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (Mareggiani et al. 2008;Chang et al. 2009;Kimbaris et al. 2009;Barroso et al. 2010). However, little is known of the control properties of vegetable oils, with the exception of neem oil. ...
Article
Eight plant essential oils and five vegetable oils were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their repellency and oviposition deterrence effects against female Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni, using artificial substrates and apple fruits. The results showed that vegetable oils were more effective than essential oils in deterring oviposition. The oil with most potential was that of safflower Carthamus tinctorius. This vegetable oil, at a concentration of 10 mL/L, significantly reduced oviposition in apples by 56.4% in a 24 h choice test, but none of the tested essential and vegetable oils had a significant effect on oviposition in apples in a no-choice test. Based on the number of fruit flies landing on treated apples, vegetable oils were not repellents but deterred oviposition. The likely mechanism is that safflower and other vegetable oils created a slippery surface, and females were unable to make punctures in the fruit for egg deposition. Essential oils, especially lemon-scented tea tree Leptospermum petersonii, peppermint Mentha piperita and honey myrtle Melaleuca teretifolia, repelled female B. tryoni, but their persistence on apple fruits was very low, only for a few hours.
... Essential oils of grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange from the citrus family Rutaceae demonstrated repellent activity against three cockroach species B. germanica, P. americana and P. fuliginosa [18]. Liu et al. [19] reported that Cyperus rotundus L., Eucalyptus robusta Sm. essential oils and alpha-pinene, 1,8-cineole components have strong repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches. ...
Article
The aim of this research was to evaluate the repellent activity of three essential components (cineole, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-pinene) against 10-15 days-old (2nd or 3rd instar) nymphs of Blattella germanica L. and Supella longipalpa Fabricius with Y-tube olfactometer. When all essential oil components were compared on the basis of repellent activity against B. germanica nymphs, cineole was the most repellent component at all times and there was no statistical significant difference between terpinen-4-ol and alpha-pinene. The highest repellency (96.4%) for cineole was seen at 20 th min. Cineole was also more statistically significant repellent than the other two components against S. longipalpa nymphs. As a result, all components showed repellent activity against both cockroach species and exhibited no significant time dependent repellent activities (P>0.05).
Article
Cockroaches are urban pests that are very difficult to control. Using repellents is a green, safe and effective strategy for their control. In order to find novel cockroach repellents, the repellent activity of 45 bridged-ring terpenoid derivatives synthesized from β-pinene against Blattella germanica was tested. The relationship between the molecular structure of these bridged-ring terpenoid derivatives and their repellent activity against Blattella germanica was also analysed. The results show that some of the bridged-ring terpenoid derivatives exhibit good repellent activity against Blattella germanica, and six compounds (RR = 60.44–87.32%) show higher repellent activity against Blattella germanica than DEET (RR = 54.77%), making them promising for development as new cockroach repellents. Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) analysis revealed that the HOMO-1 energy, Kier and Hall index (order 2), Balaban index, and relative positive charged surface area of bridged-ring terpenoid derivatives have effects on repellent activity against Blattella germanica. The present study may provide a theoretical basis for the high-value use of β-pinene and can be helpful to the development of novel repellents against Blattella germanica.
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Essential oils were extracted from Syzqiumoramac clove, Nigella sativa and eucalyptus oil for purpose of studying effect of these oils on adult cockroaches as repellents and extent of their attraction to them by treating biscuits with three concentrations (0.5, 0.25,1%). The results showed that clove oil was significantly more repellent than black seed oil at a concentration (1%), as average for five days was (0.32) compared to black seed oil (1.36). Insects attracted towards lunch averaged 7.58, 14 and this indicates fading of repellent effect due to penetration of the aroma of volatile clove oil. Results also showed that clove oil has a more lethal effect by direct spraying on nymphs and adults than black seed oil, as mortality in a specific time period of death for adults was 11.93 and nymphs 6.57, compared to black seed oil, the death rate of adults was 6.66, while for nymphs it was 3.46, which leads to the consideration of oil Clove oil has a more repellent and deadly effect than black seed oil.
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Synanthropic cockroaches are a public health concern, because they can carry pathogens and allergens. These insects inhabit urban spaces and must be constantly monitored in order to assess the pest emergence outbreaks. Here, we combined spatial population monitoring with microbiological testing to survey the main pest cockroach species found inside residences of the city of Quetta, Pakistan. We evaluated the distribution of pest cockroaches at two scales: landscape (neighborhood) and patch (inside houses). We found at least one of the following pest species in the 73.2% of the total residences surveyed (n = 112): Shelfordella lateralis 37.1%, Periplaneta americana 23%, Blatella germanica 16.7%, Blatta orientalis 13.4% and Polyphaga aegyptiaca 9.8%. At landscape scale, the most common was S. lateralis, presenting a clustered distribution in two sampled zones, also heavily urbanized. At indoor scale, S. lateralis were most frequently found in kitchens. When we studied the bacterial loads in this species, we found that S. lateralis carried several pathogenic bacteria. Susceptibility tests tested on these strains against 10 common formulations showed antibiotic resistance for some bacteria. For instance, Pasteurella spp was susceptible towards six antibiotics tested, while Helicobacter spp showed resistance against eight antibiotics tested. Our evidence suggests that S. lateralis have the potential to displace main cosmopolitan pests and, most concerning, also carry antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Considering that this emergent Asian-native pest is now present in Europe and America, it may correspond to a relevant urban pest deserving further international public health attention.
Article
In this work the preparation and characterization of a multilayer film reservoir with clay/essential oil (EO) composites is described. The goal is to analyze the potential use of these reservoirs with clay/EOs composites as aroma-controlled release for various applications such as pesticide or attractant for pest control as well as antimicrobial. Two types of clays were analyzed, porous halloysite (HNT) and octadecyl modified montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay as well as two types of essential oils, orange (OO) and thyme oil (TO). The characterization was performed by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis. FTIR confirmed that both clays adsorbed the EOs. The DRX and TGA results showed that MMT clay showed higher thyme oil adsorption and better interactions than with orange oil. The Clay/EO composites encapsulated in Polyethylene/tie/Polyamide/tie/Polyethylene multilayer film showed a continuous aroma release for longer periods. It was found that the Polyamide (PA) barrier layer thickness had has an effect on the liberation of the volatile compounds through the multilayer film. On the other hand, the highest cymene aroma release at 72 h was 800 μg for the MMT clay/thyme oil encapsulated in the multilayer film with lower PA layer thickness. This multilayer film encapsulated clay/EO composites could be an option to prepare aroma-controlled release systems for pest control and food packaging applications as antimicrobial or fungicidal systems.
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The population of arthropods increases with time due to their rate of reproduction and this have tremendously amplified the susceptibility of human or plant attack. Under normal circumstances, this could be easily controlled. However, existing methodologies are gradually becoming unsuitable for pest control. Methods such as chemical control are usually designed to kill certain species of pest and could be potentially detrimental to human health in the long run through ingestion of these substances. Although most of the biological control strategy usually involves the introduction of natural enemies periodically, the most common method involves the use of predators, parasitoid and microbial antagonists which are unfortunately deterred by effectiveness, and cost of implementation. Presently, scientists adopt the use of extract of plants (such as artemisia, rosemary, cinnamon, ginger etc.)as scorpion repellents.However, this study focuses on the adaptation of biological and environmentally sustainable methodologies by using Fresh leaves from parent plants and an examination to know if the repellence activities of the plants are time dependent. A statistical evaluation of the conducted experiment which was based on the use of natural plant-based repellents like Citrus spp (Citrus sinensis and Citrus maxima) and mint leaves (Mentha piperata) for the repellent of scorpion proved to be time independent and an effective method as opposed to the existing methodologies which are not environmentally friendly and requires technical expertise. The results showed that the most effective repellent of the three was the Citrus maxima which recorded the lowest number of crosses.
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There are various way of pest control. Repellent, is one of the way, has the merit that which worries of insect-resistance and persistence is fewer than such as insecticide. Many repellent substances, including terpens, are reported. On the other hand, study of the mechanism of action and structure-activity relationship is inadequacy. Today, various repellent against not only insects but also birds and mammals are sold. Besides, there are a wide range of the shape and purpose of item. Consumors which wants safety and security is on the increase nowadays. With these situations as a background, in future, market of repellent will expand further.
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Cockroaches are important sanitary pests and very difficult to control worldwide. With public concern about traditional insecticides, cockroach control agents should be environmentally friendly, highly efficient, and economical. In this article, 12 essential oils were screened to test their repellent effect against Blattella germanica. To develop essential oils as repellent agents, the oils were further examined in binary synergistic combinations. Ilex chinensis Sims (Sapindales: Aquifoliaceae) oil, Lavandula spp (Tubiflorae: Labiatae) oil, and Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb.) Hyland (Tubiflorae: Labiatae) oil showed excellent repellent activities with lower RD50 (repellency dose for 50% of treated adults) values of 218.634, 154.590, and 223.989 µg/cm2, respectively, compared to those of other oils and the positive control. The I. chinensis oil and E. ciliata oil (weight ratio of 1:1.41) combination also displayed a remarkable synergistic effect against B. germanica. Their cotoxicity coefficient was 214.4. The major chemical constituents in E. ciliata and I. chinensis oils were respectively 3,7-dimethyl-1, 6-octadien-3-ol and methyl salicylate. The binary oil mixtures were formulated as a sustained release agent with γ-CD. The optimal preparation should be an 8:1 ratio of γ-CD to oils, with a 1 h stirring time, 50°C stirring temperature, and 1:12 ratio of γ-CD to ddH2O. The results of this study suggest that sustained release of binary oil-γ-CD exhibited a prolonged repellent activity (10 h) against B. germanica. This sustained-release agent could be further investigated and developed as a novel repellent preparation.
Article
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a hemimetabolous insect pest of economical and medical importance. N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is an insect repellent whose effect on this species has received very little attention. The objective of this work was to determine whether the behavioral response of B. germanica to DEET varies along its life cycle. DEET repellence was assessed in small, medium, and large nymphs, and in adults of both sexes, all originated from the same laboratory colony (CIPEIN). The experimental arena consisted in a piece of filter paper treated with repellent on one half (195 µg/cm2) and solvent alone on the other half. A cockroach was placed on the filter paper, and its behavior was filmed. An image analyzer was used to quantify how long the insect spent on each side of the paper. As a control, a cockroach was exposed to a piece of filter paper treated with solvent (acetone) alone. Each assay was repeated independently six times. Distribution coefficient (DC) values were calculated, a parameter that ranges between 0 (attraction) and 1 (repellence). Small nymphs were more sensitive to DEET (mean DC = 0.93). The mean DC values of the other groups varied between 0.62 (medium nymphs) and 0.71 (male adults). The group of medium nymphs was the only one whose behavior was not significantly altered by exposure to DEET. The results show the importance of assessing insect repellents at different stages of the insect's life cycle in order to obtain a complete panorama of its effect.
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Se reune la información existente con respecto la evaluación de la actividad insecticida de plantas sobre mosquitos realizados en la región de las Américas en los últimos veinte años. Se utilizó Pubmed Central, SCielo regional y BioOne y se acudió a buscadores como Google y Bing. Como criterio de inclusión se introdujeron las categorías: actividad larvicida, adulticida-repelente, ovicida e inhibidora del desarrollo de aceites esenciales y extractos de plantas en condiciones de laboratorio contra mosquitos en el área de las Américasen un período desde 1995-2015. La especie de mosquito más estudiada ha sido Ae aegypti, seguido de Cx. quinquefascitus, Ae. albopictus, Cx. tarsalis, Cx. pipiens, An. albimanus. El país a la vanguardia en estudios sobre esta temática es Brasil seguido de Cuba México, Estados Unidos. Estados Unidos se destaca por la evaluación de productos comerciales registrados a base de plantas con actividad repelente. En 239 plantas y el 64 % de los artículos revisados estudia este tipo de actividadcon aceites esenciales. La repelencia es el acápite más estudiado después de la actividad larvicida, dentro de los que se destacan la evaluación de formulaciones comerciales con principios activos naturales. Con escasa representación, se encuentran los estudios sobre la actividad ovicida e inhibidora del desarrollo. Más de 85 plantas se evaluaron en forma de extractos y el extracto mas evaluado fue el etanólico seguido del metanólico y el acuoso.
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El siguiente trabajo pretende compilar la información existente con respecto a estudios realizados en cuanto a la evaluación de la actividad insecticida de plantas contra mosquitos realizados en la región de las Americas en los últimos 20 años. Se utilizó las bases de datos Pubmed Central, SCielo regional, BioOne y buscadores como Google y Bing .Como criterio de inclusión se introdujeron las categorías: actividad larvicida, adulticida-repelente, ovicida e inhibidora del desarrollo de aceites esenciales y extractos de plantas en condiciones de laboratorio en especies del género Culex, Aedes, Anopheles en el área de las Américas en un período desde 1995-2015. La especie de mosquito más estudiada la constituye Ae aegypti seguido de Cx. quinquefascitus, Ae albopictus y Cx tarsalis, Cx pipiens, Anopheles albimanus. El país a la vanguardia en estudios sobre esta temática es Brasil seguido de Argentina, México, Estados Unidos, Perú, Bolivia. Estados Unidos se destaca por la evaluación de productos comerciales registrados a base de plantas con actividad repelente.Al menos de 239 plantas se evalua la actividad larvicida, el 64 % de los articulos revisados estudia este tipo de actividad con aceites esenciales, y el resto de los articulos evalua , las variantes conjuntas del aceite esencial y los extractos de diversos tipos en una misma planta o los extractos aislados del aceite esencial . La evaluación repelente es el acápite más estudiado después de la actividad larvicida, dentro de los que se destacan la evaluación de formulaciones comerciales con principios activos naturales. Con escasa representación, se encuentran los estudios sobre la actividad ovicida e inhibidora del desarrollo. Más de 85 plantas han sido evaluada en forma de extractos y el extracto mas evaluado ha sido el etanólico seguido del metanólico y el acuoso.
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Various pest insects (hygenic pest, stored insect, and agriculture and forestry pest insect, etc.)exist in our living environment. They invite the deterioration such as qualities such as diets on the hygiene side of the person, and become big problems. As measures, there is problems such as persistencies and safety probabilities, and the method of using an environment-friendly natural substance, for instance, the fragrance components are paid to attention though a lot of synthesized chemical substances that have an excellent control action are developed. When the plant puts the root on a part and the earth, moving cannot be taken. Therefore, the chemical substance with a high control effect and safety probability has been generated as a method for correspondence to the attack such as peripheral microbes and insects. Here, the focus will be appropriated to the chemical substance with a high insect pest control function that the plant produced to consider those use, and it outline it.
Conference Paper
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This paper describes the research, design, and development of a ligthweight system created in order to track multiple insects on just-recorded videos, and generate statistics using the obtained information. The system was created in order to replace the previous methods (manual monitoring that requires a lot of human assistance, or expensive specific instrumental) used in a laboratory to analyze insect behavior, and uses algorithms that are fast enough to allow it to run on a simple mobile phone. The final installation is simple and unexpensive, and allows the researchers to immediately obtain the data needed to evaluate their work. Typical segmentation and tracking problems (bad-quality frames, changes on the appearence of the tracked objects or the background scene, occlusion between an object and the scene or between multiple objects, or camera movement) were attacked. The tortuosity of the insect’s path was calculated using our own algorithm to approximate the fractal dimension of the trails, and the result is a flexible system that allows researchers to record and immediately analyze the behavior of multiple insects in a laboratory.
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This study assessed the suitability of layered silicate substrates as adsorption media for an essential oil (EO) blend with antimicrobial properties. It is anticipated that adsorption of the EO blend within the layered silicate will lead to controlled release of the blend. Three montmorillonites (Mt), a natural/synthetic hybrid Mt and two synthetic layered silicates were selected as potential adsorption materials. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to follow static adsorption of the EOs from heptane. The GC adsorption studies enabled the effect of adsorption on the individual molecular components of the oils to be determined, as well as providing a value for the overall level of adsorption of the Ea The Mts were found to degrade some of the important molecules in the EO and were therefore deemed to be unsuitable. The synthetic layered silicates provided the highest levels of adsorption, achieving up to 170 mg.g(-1) without the degradation effects shown by the natural Mts.
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The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.
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Main method to control insect pest is using synthetic insecticides, but the development of insect resistance to this products, the high operational cost, environmental pollution, toxicity to humans and harmful effect on non-target organisms have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control insect pest. Furthermore, the demand for organic crops, especially vegetables for the fresh market, has greatly increased worldwide. The ideal insecticide should control target pests adequately and should be target-specific, rapidly degradable, and low in toxicity to humans and other mammals. Plant essential oils could be an alternative source for insect pest control because they constitute a rich source of bioactive chemicals and are commonly used as flavoring agents in foods. These materials may be applied to food crops shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residues. Moreover, medically safe of these plant derivatives has emphasized also. For these reasons, much effort has been focused on plant essential oils or their constituents as potential sources of insect control agents. In this context, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family would rank among the most important families of plants. In the last few years more and more studies on the insecticidal properties of essential oils from Apiaceae family have been published and it seemed worthwhile to compile them. The focus of this review lies on the lethal (ovicidal, larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal) and sublethal (antifeedant, repellent, oviposition deterrent, Growth inhibitory and progeny production) activities of plant essential oils and theirmain components from Apiaceae family. These features indicate that pesticides based on Apiaceae essential oils could be used in a variety of ways to control a large number of pests. It can be concluded that essential oils and phytochemicals isolated from Apiaceae family may be efficacious and safe replacements for conventional synthetic insecticides.
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An interest in natural products from plants has been increased due to the disruption of natural biological control systems, undesirable effects on non-target organisms,environmental hazards, and the development of resistance to synthetic insecticides, which are applied in order to reduce the populations of insects. Essential oils (EOs) from plants may be an alternative source of insect control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use in integrated management programs. These materials may be applied to food crops shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residues. Furthermore, medically safe of these plant derivatives has emphasized also. For these reasons, much effort has been focused on plant EOs and their constituents as potential sources of insect control agents. In this context, Myrtaceae family would rank among the most important families of plants. In the last few years more and more studies on the insecticidal properties of EOs from Myrtaceae family have been published and it seemed worthwhile to compile them. Therefore, the subject matter of this paper lies on the insecticidal effects of EOs from Myrtaceae and their compounds in insect pest's control. Natural essences of Myrtaceae plants owe its insecticidal action to the presence in its composition of terpenic derivatives such as 1.8-cineole, limonene, linalool, myrcene, terpineol, thymol and α-pinene, which have introduced as potential insecticides. These review indicated that pesticides based on Myrtaceae essential oils could be used in a variety of ways to control a large number of insect pests.
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Olfactory behaviors of Neotoxoptera formosana, an aphid pest of allium crops, to host and non-host plant odors were investigated with a linear track olfactometer. Aphids were significantly attracted to odors of host plants, Allium fistulosum and A. tuberosum. On the contrary, they were repelled by odors of non-host plants, rosemary and pennyroyal. The odor of pennyroyal masked the attractiveness of host plant odor and the odor of rosemary repelled aphids even in the presence of host plant odor. Rosemary oil also had a repellency effect against aphids, and repelled them even in the presence of host plant odor. Six components of rosemary oil identified by GC-MS analysis, 1,8-cineole, d,l-camphor, α-pinene, etc., showed this repellency as well. 1,8-Cineole and d,l-camphor repelled aphids even in the presence of host plant odor and α-pinene masked host plant attractancy. 1,8-Cineole is the main component of rosemary oil and is thought to be main factor responsible for the repellency of rosemary. It was concluded that N. formosana may use host plant odors for host selection and be repelled by certain non-host plant odors. Rosemary volatiles may play an important role in defense of the plants from attack by parasites.
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The aim of this study is to observe the adulticidal activity of five essential oils against the mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. Fumigating adulticidal activity was investigated by airtight fumigation in conical flasks. The result showed that the toxic effect of the five essential oils varied with the period of fumigation. Rutaceae oil was the most toxic of the five. Carvacryl oil had the shortest adulticidal time (6.087 min). The chemical components of rutaceae oil were analyzed by GC/MS. The major components were alpha-citral (33.50%) and citral (35.77%). Citral showed marked adulticidal activity in a short-term fumigation. All five essential oils had considerable adulticidal effects on Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus. (c) Pesticide Science Society of Japan.
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The behavioral responses of the female cigarette beetle to 57 plant essential oils commonly used for the flavoring of foods and cosmetics, were investigated with an olfactometer. Forty-eight of these essential oils exhibited repellency and only patchouli oil exhibited attractiveness at a dose of 1 μl. The repellency of the 28 essential oils that strongly repelled the beetles at this dose were furthermore evaluated at a dose of 0.1 μl. Six plant oils (shiso, savory, cassia, thyme, peppermint and Litsea cubeba oils) strongly repelled the beetles at this dose. Then, the dose-responses of these six oils on repellency against the beetles were investigated. These oils exhibited attractiveness at lower doses than each threshold except shiso oil, which did not attract the beetles at any doses tested. The first major components of these six oils repelled the beetles at a dose of 1 μl or 1 mg. However the repellency of these components was less than that of each essential oil. The repellency of shiso oil in the presence of cured tobacco odor, which attracted the beetles, was further evaluated. Shiso oil repelled the beetles at a dose of 10 μl even in the presence of the tobacco odor.
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Asthma and allergy are the most common diseases associated with cockroach infestation of houses in the United States and other parts of the world. Sensitization and exposure to cockroach allergens is associated with increased asthma morbidity in the United States, especially among lower socioeconomic groups, including African American and Hispanic populations. Exposure to cockroach allergens in the first 3 months of life has been associated with repeated wheezing and asthma. The principal domestic cockroach species are Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana. Both species produce several potent allergens, including Bla g 2 (inactive aspartic proteinase), Bla g 4 (calycin), Bla g 5 (glutathione-S-transferase), the group 1 cross-reactive allergens Bla g 1 and Per a 1, and tropomyosin. Structural homology between tropomyosins from cockroaches, mites, and shrimp may explain clinical cases of the oral allergy syndrome. The 3-dimensional structures of several cockroach allergens are known, and biologically active recombinant allergens have been produced in high-level expression vectors. The use of recombinant cockroach allergens should allow mechanisms of cockroach-induced asthma to be investigated and may lead to the development of new approaches to asthma treatment. Environmental allergen measurements of Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 have allowed exposure levels that cause allergic sensitization to be established. Abatement studies have shown that a sustained decrease in cockroach allergen levels is difficult but can be accomplished by professional application of insecticides, together with rigorous household cleaning. Cockroach asthma is an important public health problem that affects patients who are the least likely to be compliant with treatment with asthma medications or environmental control. Patient education, improvements in the housing stock, and improvements in environmental and immunologic treatment strategies are likely to be the most successful approaches to reduce the prevalence of cockroach-induced asthma.
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The insecticidal constituents of hexane-soluble fraction from a methanolic extract of the seeds from Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae) against adult females of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal activity of 13 Myristica seed compounds against female B. germanica was examined by using the filter-paper contact toxicity and vapor phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of the other 23 known compounds of Myristica seed and currently used insecticides: dichlorvos, deltamethrin, permethrin, and propoxur. In contact toxicity tests using female B. germanica, (IS)-(-) -beta-pinene (0.06 mg/cm2) was the most toxic insecticide, based on 24-h LD50 values. The insecticidal activity of this compound was comparable with that of permethrin (0.05 mg/cm2). (1R)-(+) -Camphor, (1S)-(-) -camphor, dipentene, (1R)-(+) -3-pinene, and (+)-alpha-terpineol (0.10-0.14 mg/cm2) were more toxic than propoxur (0.19 mg/cm2). (E)-Sabinene hydrate and propoxur were almost equitoxic. Potent insecticidal activity also was observed with (R)-(+) -citronellal, (S)-(-) -citronellal, (R)-(-) -alpha-phellandrene, (1S)-(-) -alpha-pinene, (1R)-(+) -alpha-pinene, and safrole (0.27-0.48 mg/cm2). In vapor phase toxicity tests, the compounds tested were effective in closed but not in open containers. These results indicate that the effect of these compounds was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Myristica seed compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides or as leads for the control of cockroaches.
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Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations.
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The powers of survival of 4 species of cockroaches under a low temperature of 5.5±0.5℃ were investigated. No any stage of Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica could tolerate the chilling treatment of 40 days. Nymphs of older instars of P. fuliginosa survived for 90 days and some oothecae for more than 80 days under the chilling treatment, when given an exposure to 15±1℃ beforehand. Most of nymphs and adults of P. japonica tolerated the chilling treatment for more than 90 days with the preliminary exposure. These results suggest that P. americana and B. germanica hardly survive the coldest 3 months outdoors or in unheated buildings in Central Japan, whereas P. fuliginosa and P. japonica tolerate the winter under outdoor conditions.
Article
Two new techniques to evaluate repellency against the German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) were devised, a test tube method and a beaker method. The former estimates the repellent impact on a roach attracted by roach excrement on a paper filter. The latter, estimating effectiveness by changes in the number of roaches in a beaker, is an excellent method for evaluating olfactory repellency. Among the reference compounds, α-naphthoquinone, 2-hydroxyethyl-n-octylsulfide and naphthalene were effective in the test tube method, however their 2% sublimates were not effective in the beaker method. Those compounds were thus not judged as promising olfactory repellents. The oils of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) and spearment (native and Scotch type, Mentha specata) were the most effective among 92 such substances. Strong mosquito repellents such as oils of citronella, lavender, rosemary, and penny royal had little or no effect against the cockroach.
Article
The repellency of the acetonic oil extracts of Black pepper, Piper guineense (Schum and Thonn) (Family: Piperaceae) were evaluated against Maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) at 30 0 C, 65 ± 2% R.H and 12h: 12h light:dark regimes in the laboratory. The different dosages used were 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 mg. All the dosages tested evoked a repellency of the highest class 80.1-100% in S. zeamais adults. The proximate and chemical analysis revealed that there was no adverse effect on the basic food components and mineral elements in the grains treated with P. guineense seed oil and powder but the grains treated with P. guineense seed oil performed best. The sensory evaluation test revealed that the boiled maize from treated grains after 3 months of storage were of normal colour, taste and texture in all the treatments hence, the overall acceptability score was not adversely affected. The strong repellent property of P. guineense seed oil implies that stored maize may be adequately protected against population of S. zeamais thus reducing their infestation level.
Article
Essential oil from the leaves of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. was obtained by hydrodistillation and cold extraction, and the chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major identified components were limonene, geijerene, pregeijerene, germacrene D and trans-beta-ocimene. Laboratory bioassays of the essential oil and four constituents of essential oil isolates were evaluated for insecticidal, antifeedant and oviposition deterrent effects on tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.). Toxicity was determined by topical application of the isolates at varying concentrations. Pure oil, geijerene and pregeijerene were found to be more toxic, with LD50 values of 28.6, 35.4 and 40.7 microg per larva respectively. Maximum feeding deterrence was noted for geijerene and pregeijerene, with DC(50) values of 82.5 and 95.1 microg cm(-2) respectively. Furthermore, pure oil, geijerene and pregeijerene displayed oviposition deterrence, even at low concentrations. These results indicate that these natural products may lead to useful, biodegradable, environmentally safe insect control agents.
Article
The toxic and repellent properties of nine major constituents of essential oils, comprising benzene derivatives and terpenes, were evaluated against Periplaneta americana (L.). Contact and fumigant toxicities to adult females and repellency to nymphs were determined. The decreasing order of knockdown activity via contact was methyl-eugenol>isosafrole=eugenol>safrole. The killing effect via contact was in the order eugenol=methyl-eugenol=isosafrole>safrole. Fumigant toxicity was only observed for safrole and isosafrole, with safrole being the more potent. Isoeugenol and the tested terpenes had neither contact nor fumigant toxic effect. The decreasing order of repellency to nymphs was safrole>isosafrole>methyl-eugenol=α-pinene> eugenol>isoeugenol. The benzene derivatives were generally more toxic and repellent to P. americana than the terpenes. The distance of the side chain double bond from the aromatic ring and the substitution of a methoxy group to these compounds appeared to be important determinants of their toxicity and repellency. © 1998 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Bait (50 mg AI kg−1) and spray (10 mg AI m−2) formulations of the novel insect growth regulator (IGR) lufenuron were tested against populations of the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis L. and the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. that had been established in simulated domestic environments. The treated populations of B. germanica declined rapidly three to four months after the start of bait or spray treatment, and were completely eradicated after 12 months. As well as disrupting the moulting process, lufenuron affected the reproduction of B. germanica by preventing the hatch of the oothecae. In B. germanica, it appeared probable that lufenuron was transferred from female cockroaches to the oothecae while they were being carried. By contrast with B. germanica, the treated populations of B. orientalis did not show any substantial decline compared with the control, even after 18 months' exposure to lufenuron bait or spray treatments. Moreover, neither moulting nor reproduction in the populations of B. orientalis appeared to be affected by either of the lufenuron treatments. Subsequently, laboratory investigations with surface deposits of either technical or formulated lufenuron, applied at dose rates up to 50 mg AI m−2, failed to demonstrate any significant effects on the development or reproduction of B. orientalis. Laboratory tests with first-instar nymphs of both species revealed substantial differences in sensitivity to the moult-disrupting effects of the compound. These differences extended to the adult insects, where reproduction was markedly affected in B. germanica, but apparently unaffected in B. orientalis. Thus, both bait and spray formulations of lufenuron have been shown to provide rapid and effective control of German cockroach populations in simulated domestic environments. However, the same treatments were much less effective against similar populations of the Oriental cockroach. These results are discussed in terms of the potential effectiveness of lufenuron as a cockroach control agent, and in relation to the substantial differences in susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of this compound on reproduction that were apparent between Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica.
Article
Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and flavors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against specific pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an effort aimed at the development of reduced-risk pesticides based on plant essential oils, toxic and sublethal effects of some essential oil terpenes and phenols have been investigated using the tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) as model pest species. In this paper I review (i) the range of biological activities of essential oils and their constituents; (ii) their toxicity and proposed mode-of-action in insects; (iii) their potential health and environmental impacts as crop protectants; and (iv) commercialization of pesticides based on plant essential oils.
Article
Naturally occurring insecticides are abundant and varied in their effects, though but a few are articles of commerce. Even for these, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone, hellebore, ryania, and sabadilla, there is a paucity of information on mammalian toxicology and environmental effects. In general, these materials are characterized favorably by low acute toxicity and ready dissipation in nature. Unfavorable aspects of natural insecticides are the contained mixture of active and inactive components and the low active ingredient content on a crop yield basis pointing to a high unit cost. Natural insecticides can serve additionally as leads to unnatural mimics, of which the commercially successful synthetic pyrethroids are prime examples. The chemical nature, relationship of insecticidal activity to chemical structure, occurrence, production, and utilization, registered uses, metabolism, and insect and mammalian toxicity are reviewed.
Article
n. In industrialized as well as developing countries, urbanization has moved humans away from many arthropod pests, but into intimate associations with others. Since the introduction of synthetic organic insecticides, urban dwell­ ers have fought pests almost exclusively with repeated applications of chemi­ cals. In agriculture, such unilateral reliance on residual pesticides has been heavily and effectively criticized, resulting in a gradual shift since the 1950s to Integrated Pest Management (lPM), "a pest population management that utilizes all suitable techniques in a compatible manner to reduce pest populations and maintain them at levels below those causing economic in­ jury" (153). Sawyer & Casagrande (139) concluded that the urban pest management process has failed to develop an integrated approach to managing various pests. Rather, they argue, urban (not "integrated") pest management has addressed, in a fragmented manner, single pest types with few management options, usually in isolation from other components of the urban ecosystem. True integration, according to this view, would set the urban ecosystem as the management unit, and design and implementation components would include target pests and natural enemies in the household and structural habitat, on ornamental and shade plants, in private and public housing, parks, etc, The disciplines of entomology, horticulture, plant pathology, soil and environ­ mental science, the social sciences, and governmental agencies would all be elements of this system. In this review, we de-emphasize this conceptual approach and, rather, employ an empirical operational approach that stresses the importance of
Article
Forty-five field-collected strains of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica were tested for resistance to 12 different insecticides by the time-mortality response method in comparison with a known susceptible strain. Only low to moderate resistance to diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and acephate was detected. Resistance to malathion was widespread; about half of the strains tested showed high resistance. High resistance to the carbamates propoxur and bendiocarb also occurred. High resistance was uncommon with propoxur, but about 35 strains were highly resistant to bendiocarb. High resistance to pyrethrins was observed in about of the strains tested. Resistance to the pyrethroids allethrin, permethrin, phenothrin, fenvalerate, and cyfluthrin was detected in some of the strains examined. All of the strains tested were susceptible to one or more of the insecticides used. These results indicate that, although resistance is a serious problem in this species, satisfactory control should be possible by selection of an appropriate insecticide.
Article
A German cockroach (Blatella germanica (L)) strain, Apyr-R, was collected from Opelika, Alabama after control failures with pyrethroid insecticides. Levels of resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in Apyr-R (97- and 480-fold, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain, ACY) were partially or mostly suppressed by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), suggesting that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are involved in resistance to these two pyrethroids in Apyr-R. However, incomplete suppression of pyrethroid resistance with PBO and DEF implies that one or more additional mechanisms are involved in resistance. Injection, compared with topical application, resulted in 43- and 48-fold increases in toxicity of permethrin in ACY and Apyr-R, respectively. Similarly, injection increased the toxicity of deltamethrin 27-fold in ACY and 28-fold in Apyr-R. These data indicate that cuticular penetration is one of the obstacles for the effectiveness of pyrethroids against German cockroaches. However, injection did not change the levels of resistance to either permethrin or deltamethrin, suggesting that a decrease in the rate of cuticular penetration may not play an important role in pyrethroid resistance in Apyr-R. Apyr-R showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid, with a resistance ratio of 10. PBO treatment resulted in no significant change in the toxicity of imidacloprid, implying that P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxication is not the mechanism responsible for cross-resistance. Apyr-R showed no cross-resistance to spinosad, although spinosad had relatively low toxicity to German cockroaches compared with other insecticides tested in this study. This result further confirmed that the mode of action of spinosad to insects is unique. Fipronil, a relatively new insecticide, was highly toxic to German cockroaches, and the multi-resistance mechanisms in Apyr-R did not confer significant cross-resistance to this compound. Thus, we propose that fipronil could be a valuable tool in integrated resistance management of German cockroaches.
Article
Pest management in confinement swine production relies primarily on calendar-based applications of broad-spectrum insecticides. However, regulatory restrictions imposed by the U.S. Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, the large financial obligation of pesticide registration, and development of insecticide resistance have led to a renewed search for alternative control methods. Boric acid dust has long served as an insecticide in urban pest management and has been shown an effective alternative for use in sensitive environments such as swine production. However, dust formulations are difficult to apply and require specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of liquid baits containing boric acid for the control of German cockroaches in a commercial swine nursery. Bait, consisting of 1 or 2% boric acid and 0.5 M sucrose, was deployed in 21 bait delivery tubes per room. Results of a 2-yr study showed significant reductions in cockroach populations. When baits were withdrawn in the summer, the cockroach population increased significantly faster than when the baits were removed during the winter. These data indicate that liquid formulations of boric acid effectively reduce the burden of cockroach infestation in swine production. This approach should have applications in structures in other urban and agricultural environments.
Article
The toxicity of marjoram, Origanum majorana L., oil, 41 monoterpenoids, and 2 sesquiterpenoids against adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., was examined using direct contact and vapor phase toxicity bioassays and compared with those of deltamethrin, dichlorvos, permethrin, and propoxur, four commonly used insecticides. In a filter-paper contact toxicity bioassay, the adulticidal activities of pulegone (0.06 mg/cm2), (+/-)-camphor (0.07 mg/cm2), and verbenone (0.07 mg/cm2) were comparable to that of permethrin (0.05 mg/cm2) but more pronounced than that of propoxur (0.18 mg/cm2), as judged by the 24-h LC50 values. These compounds were less effective than either deltamethrin (0.013 mg/cm2) or dichlorvos (0.007 mg/cm2). The toxicity of marjoram oil, thymol, alpha-terpineol, (-)-alpha-thujone, linalool, 1,8-cineole, (-)-camphor, and (+)-carvone, ranging from 0.08 to 0.18 mg/cm2, was higher than that of propoxur. In vapor phase toxicity tests, verbenone (11.48 mg/L air) was the most toxic compound followed by (-)-alpha-thujone (18.43 mg/L of air), thymol (18.76 mg/L of air), alpha-terpineol (21.89 mg/L of air), (+/-)-camphor (24.59 mg/L of air), linalool (26.20 mg/L of air), and marjoram oil (38.28 mg/L of air) on the basis of the 24-h LC50 values. Dichlorvos (0.07 mg/L of air) was the most potent fumigant. Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as degrees of saturation and types of functional groups rather than types of carbon skeleton, and hydrophobicity and vapor pressure parameters appear to play a role in determining the monoterpenoid toxicities to adult B. germanica. Marjoram oil and the monoterpenoids described merit further study as potential fumigants or leads for the control of B. germanica.
Article
For children living in the inner city, asthma tends to be more frequent and severe. Although the causes for this heightened severity of asthma are not clearly established, environmental allergens likely play a major role. To characterize, understand, and treat children with asthma living in the inner city better, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health established an Inner City Asthma Program in 1991. Over the past 15 years, 3 separate inner-city asthma research networks have been formed and funded by this institute. The work from these programs has led to important observations including evidence that environmental allergens, particularly cockroach, are important for sensitization and severity of asthma of the affected children. Furthermore, reductions in the allergen load can lead to improved asthma control. The most recent program, the Inner City Asthma Consortium, was formed in 2002 with a goal to develop immune-based therapy for children with asthma in the inner city and to determine mechanisms of these therapies as well as immunopathogenesis of asthma in these high-risk children. This article reviews these programs and how they have begun the effort to understand and treat children with asthma who live in inner cities better and what their findings mean in relationship to unique features of asthma in inner city children.
Article
This study investigates the potential of essential oils from commonly used medical and culinary herbs in Lebanon as an environmentally safe measure to control the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. The composition of essential oils extracted from parsley seeds and leaves, alpine thyme inflorescences, anis seeds, and coriander fruits were analyzed by GC-MS, and the major components of these oils were found to be thymol, sabinene, carvacrol, anethole, and linalool, respectively. Mosquito larvicidal assays were conducted to evaluate the LC(50) and LC(90) after 24 and 48h of the essential oils and their major constituents. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (LC(50): 15-156ppm) against Oc. caspius fourth instars, with the most potent oil being thyme inflorescence extract, followed by parsley seed oil, aniseed oil, and then coriander fruit oil. Toxicity of each oil major constituent was also estimated and compared to a reported larvicidal compound, eugenol.
Article
Essential oils extracted from ten plant species were screened for repellency against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three oils; Zanthoxylum piperitum, Anethum graveolens and Kaempferia galanga, exerted protection against A. aegypti, with median complete-protection times of 1, 0.5 and 0.25 h, respectively. The protection times were increased significantly by incorporating 10% vanillin. The highest potential was established from Z. piperitum oil +10% vanillin (2.5 h, range=1-2.5 h). Mixtures from pairs of the effective oils possessed slight repellency that ranged from 0-0.5 h. None of the oil combinations repelled A. aegypti for longer than their constituent oil alone. With vanillin added, however, each oil mixture provided improved protection, which was approximately equal to oil on its own. GC/MS analysis revealed that the main component of Z. piperitum fruit oil was limonene (37.99%), with minor amounts of sabinene (13.30%) and beta-myrcene (7.17%). Repellent testing of stored samples of Z. piperitum fruit oil against A. aegypti demonstrated that repellent activity of those kept at -20 degrees C or 4 degrees C was present for a period of at least 3 months. Therefore, the essential oil of Z. piperitum fruit may prove useful in the development of mosquito repellents as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites.
Article
Arthropod bites remain a major cause of patient morbidity. These bites can cause local or systemic effects that may be infectious or inflammatory in nature. Arthropods, notably insects and arachnids, are vectors of potentially serious ailments including malaria, West Nile virus, dengue, and Lyme disease. Measures to curtail the impact of insect bites are important in the worldwide public health effort to safely protect patients and prevent the spread of disease. The history of insect repellent (IR) lends insight into some of the current scientific strategies behind newer products. Active ingredients of currently available IRs include N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), botanicals, citronella, and, the newest agent, picaridin. Currently, the Environmental Protection Agency's registered IR ingredients approved for application to the skin include DEET, picaridin, MGK-326, MGK-264, IR3535, oil of citronella, and oil of lemon eucalyptus. DEET has reigned as the most efficacious and broadly used IR for the last 6 decades, with a strong safety record and excellent protection against ticks, mosquitoes, and other arthropods. Newer agents, like picaridin and natural products such as oil of lemon eucalyptus are becoming increasingly popular because of their low toxicity, comparable efficacy, and customer approval. Various characteristics and individual product advantages may lead physicians to recommend one agent over another.
Article
A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.