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Dietary Protein Source and Level Affects Growth in Neon Tetras

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Nutritional studies for aquarium fishes like the neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45, and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or plant protein sources in a 4 × 2 factorial treatment design. Neon tetras (initial weight, approximately 0.12 g) were reared in 5-L fiberglass tanks (25 fish/tank, 3 tanks/diet) in a freshwater recirculating system. Fish were hand-fed the experimental diets three times per day for 12 weeks. Average weight gain of neon tetras fed diets with marine protein sources was significantly higher than that for fish fed diets based on plant proteins. Fish fed diets containing 45% or 55% crude protein had significantly greater weight gain than did fish fed 25% crude protein from either protein source. Fish fed 25% crude protein from either source had a significantly higher feed conversion ratio than did those fed 45% or 55% crude protein. Survival ranged from 71% to 84% and was not significantly altered by dietary protein source or level. No significant interactions between dietary protein source and level were found for any of the response variables. As the price of fish meal continues to increase, the formulations of feeds for food fish will probably contain lower amounts of fish meal and higher amounts of plant protein products. If a similar trend occurs for ornamental fish diets, further refinement of nutritional requirements and assessment of palatability of feed ingredients for neon tetras and other aquarium species will be required.
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North American Journal of Aquaculture
ISSN: 1522-2055 (Print) 1548-8454 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/unaj20
Dietary Protein Source and Level Affects Growth in
Neon Tetras
Wendy M. Sealey , Frederic T. Barrows , Mike Casten & Ronald W. Hardy
To cite this article: Wendy M. Sealey , Frederic T. Barrows , Mike Casten & Ronald W. Hardy
(2009) Dietary Protein Source and Level Affects Growth in Neon Tetras, North American Journal
of Aquaculture, 71:4, 320-324, DOI: 10.1577/A08-017.1
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1577/A08-017.1
Published online: 09 Jan 2011.
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Dietary Protein Source and Level Affects Growth in Neon Tetras
WENDY M. SEALEY*
University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station,
3059F National Fish Hatchery Road, Hagerman, Idaho 83332, USA
FREDERIC T. BARROWS
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Trout Grains Project, Hagerman Fish
Culture Experiment Station, 3059F National Fish Hatchery Road, Hagerman, Idaho 83332, USA
MIKE CASTEN AND RONALD W. HARDY
University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station,
3059F National Fish Hatchery Road, Hagerman, Idaho 83332, USA
Abstract.—Nutritional studies for aquarium fishes like the neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi are sparse in
comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of
neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45, and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal
protein or plant protein sources in a 4 3 2 factorial treatment design. Neon tetras (initial weight, approximately
0.12 g) were reared in 5-L fiberglass tanks (25 fish/tank, 3 tanks/diet) in a freshwater recirculating system.
Fish were hand-fed the experimental diets three times per day for 12 weeks. Average weight gain of neon
tetras fed diets with marine protein sources was significantly higher than that for fish fed diets based on plant
proteins. Fish fed diets containing 45% or 55 % crude protein had significantly greater weight gain than did
fish fed 25% crude protein from either protein source. Fish fed 25% crude protein from either source had a
significantly higher feed conversion ratio than did those fed 45% or 55% crude protein. Survival ranged from
71% to 84% and was not significantly altered by dietary protein source or level. No significant interactions
between dietary protein source and level were found for any of the response variables. As the price of fish
meal continues to increase, the formulations of feeds for food fish will probably contain lower amounts of fish
meal and higher amounts of plant protein products. If a similar trend occurs for ornamental fish diets, further
refinement of nutritional requirements and assessment of palatability of feed ingredients for neon tetras and
other aquarium species will be required.
Keeping an aquarium is a hobby that engages an
estimated 10–20 million enthusiasts, who own more
that 90 million tropical fish with a retail value of
approximately US$1.5 billion (Chapman 2000). Japan
and the USA are the primary markets for aquarium
fishes and account for over half of the world’s
ornamental fish trade (Holt 2000). In a 2000 survey,
the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association
found that a growing number of U.S. households own
fish as pets (12.9% in 2000 versus 9.2% in 1998).
Continued growth of the ornamental fish industry is
anticipated based, in part, on the increasing popularity
of keeping fish as a hobby and the increasing
restrictions on collecting fish from the wild.
The neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi is one of the
most popular ornamental fishes kept in U.S. house-
holds, with an average of 1.8 million neon tetras sold
during a single month in the USA (Chapman et al.
1997). Most neon tetras available in the United States
are imported (Chapman et al. 1998). Imported
ornamental fish are usually in poor health, and losses
of 50–70% are often reported (Conroy 1975); for neon
tetras and cardinal tetras P. axelrodi specifically,
interviews with commercial fish importers indicate
that losses average 80% (Chapman et al. 1998).
Published data on nutrient requirements for orna-
mental fish are limited. Most ornamental fish farmers
buy their feed from commercial manufacturers (Royes
and Chapman 2003). The top-selling commercially
available tropical fish feeds reported by the Florida
Tropical Fish Farmers Association (Wallat et al. 2005)
were Arkat Minnow Meal (Arkat Feeds, Dumas,
Arkansas), BioKyowa Series C-700 (Kyowa Hakko
Kogo, Tokyo, Japan), and Silver Cup Color Enhancing
Blend (Nelson and Sons, Murray, Utah). Manufactured
guaranteed protein analysis for these feeds list protein
levels of 42, 55, and 3 5% protein, respectively.
However, in addition to the wide variations in protein
content, these diets also differ substantially in protein
sources. For these reasons, we conducted a preliminary
* Corresponding author: wsealey@uidaho.edu
Received April 10, 2008; accepted December 18, 2008
Published online July 9, 2009
320
North American Journal of Aquaculture 71:320–324, 2009
Ó Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2009
DOI: 10.1577/A08-017.1
[Article]
Downloaded by [US Fish & Wildlife Service] at 14:44 25 September 2015
study to assess the effects of dietary protein source and
level on growth performance of neon tetras.
Methods
Experimental approach.—A practical-type aquacul-
ture diet (NRC 1993; Hardy 2002) was formulated to
contain 25, 35, 45, or 55% dietary protein from either
marine animal (marine) or terrestrial plant (plant)
sources in a 4 3 2 factorial design (Table 1). Krill
and squid meals were included in addition to fish meal
for the marine animal protein diets to simulate
premium, commercially available marine ornamental
formulations, while the diets based on plant proteins
included ingredients that are typically used in less-
expensive formulations for freshwater ornamental
species. Diets were manufactured as flake feeds at the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife S ervice’s Bozeman Fish
Technology Center, Bozeman, Montana. Approximate-
ly 800 juvenile neon tetras were obtained from a
commercial source and stocked into eight 38-L tanks at
the University of Idaho’s Hagerman Fish Culture
Experiment Station. Water temperature was maintained
at approximately 258C with aquarium heaters. Fish
were fed a commercially available ornamental fish diet
for 1 week before initiation of the experimental feeding
trial. To begin the trial, fish were counted into groups
of 25 fish each, group weighed, and stocked into
twenty-four 5-L tanks with three replicate tanks per diet
(average 6 SE initial tank weight, 2.92 6 0.3 g).
Tanks were randomly assigned to one of eight
experimental diets. Fish in each tank were hand-fed
all that they would consume in 20 min; such feedings
were administered three times per day, 6 d/week for 12
weeks. A constant photoperiod was followed (14 h of
daylight) using fluorescent lights controlled by a timer.
Fish in the trials were bulk-weighed and counted every
3 weeks, and fish growth rates and feed conversion
ratios (FCRs) were calculated. All fish handling and
experimental protocols were approved by and con-
ducted in accordance with the guidelines of the
University of Idaho’s Animal Care and Use Commit-
tee.
Chemical analyses.—Dry matter and ash analysis of
diets was performed according to standard methods
(AOAC 1995). Cr ude protein (N 3 6.25) was
determined by the Dumas method (AOAC 1995) on
a LECO nitr ogen analyzer (TruSpec N; LECO
Corporation, St. Joseph, Michigan). Lipid was deter-
mined using a Foss Tecator Soxtec Model HT6 solvent
extractor (Foss Tecator, Ho¨gana¨s, Sweden). Total
energy was determined by adiabatic bomb calorimetry
TABLE 1.—Ingredients and proximate composition of eight experimental diets fed to neon tetras during a growth performance
study.
a
Ingredients or
component
Marine protein (%) Plant protein (%)
25 35 45 55 25 35 45 55
Atlantic menhaden
(Brevoortia tyrannus) meal
7.27 14.02 20.76 27.51
Krill meal 8.42 16.24 24.07 31.90
Squid meal 6.61 12.73 18.85 24.98
Soy concentrate 9.27 17.69 26.11 34.54
Wheat gluten 2.21 4.22 6.23 8.24
Rice protein 5.12 9.77 14.43 19.08
Barley concentrate 6.21 11.86 17.50 23.14
Starch 55.68 38.89 20.01 0.91 50.79 30.05 9.31
Wheat flour 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00 1.56
Fish oil 5.39 3.42 1.61 0.0 7.72 7.95 8.18 8.42
Dicalcium phosphate 1.93 3.98 3.76 3.54 3.32
Vitamin premix
b
0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Choline chloride 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Ascorbic acid 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Trace mineral premix
c
0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Analyzed composition
d
Crude protein (%) 19.6 31.8 43.9 56.9 19.0 31.3 43.8 56.2
Lipid (%) 7.5 9.2 10.3 11.6 4.2 5.2 6.0 6.7
Gross energy (kcal/g) 4,668 4,923 5,079 5,264 4,567 4,822 5,031 5,297
Ash (%) 4.5 5.0 7.2 9.2 4.8 5.5 5.8 6.0
Moisture (%) 7.4 6.8 6.4 6.2 7.3 6.6 6.0 5.5
a
Diets were formulated on an as-fed basis.
b
Contributed per kilogram of diet: vitamin A (as retinol palmitate), 10,000 international units (IU); vitamin D
3
, 720 IU; vitamin E (as DL-a-
tocopheryl-acetate), 530 IU; niacin, 330 mg; calcium pantothenate, 160 mg; riboflavin, 80 mg; thiamin mononitrate, 50 mg; pyridoxine
hydrochloride, 45 mg; menadione sodium bisulfate, 25 mg; folacin, 13 mg; biotin, 1 mg; and vitamin B
12
,30lg.
c
Contributed per kilogram of diet: zinc, 37 mg; manganese, 10 mg; iodine, 5 mg; and copper, 3mg.
d
Means of two replicate samples per diet on an as-fed basis.
DIETARY PRO TEIN A LTERS NEON TETRA GROWTH 321
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(Parr 6300; Parr Instrument Company, Inc., Moline,
Illinois).
Statistical analyses.—The MIXED procedure in the
Statistical Analysis System version 7.00 (SAS Institute
1990) was used to conduct a 2 3 4 factorial analysis of
variance for a mixed-effects model (Ott 1977) in which
protein source (marine or plant) and protein level (25,
35, 45, and 55%) were defined as a fixed effects and
tank within treatments was defined as a random effect.
Binomial data were transformed using the arcsine
transformat ion before analysis. Differences among
treatment means were determined using the Tukey’s
procedure for pairwise comparisons. Treatment effects
in all statistical analyses in this project were considered
different when probabilities for a greater F-value were
less than 0.05.
Results
Dietary protein level and source significantly altered
growth performance of neon tetras (Table 2, Figure 1).
TABLE 2.—Growth performance of neon tetras fed experimental diets for 12 weeks. Means of three replicate tanks (25 fish/
tank) are shown. Within columns, values with different letters differ significantly (P 0.05) based on Tukey’s multiple range
test.
Dietary
protein source
Protein
level (%)
Survival
(%)
Weight gain
a
(% increase)
FCR
b
(g feed/g gain)
Marine 25 75 89.9 y 5.48 z
35 81 114.5 yz 4.41 yz
45 68 163.0 z 3.24 y
55 79 162.2 z 2.70 y
Plant 25 77 60.9 y 6.75 z
35 71 109.7 yz 5.24 yz
45 77 108.2 z 4.11 y
55 84 108.1 z 4.23 y
Pooled SE 7.8 22.7 0.67
Analysis of variance P . F
c
0.7027 0.0216 0.0171
Protein source 0.6787 0.0162
Marine . Plant
0.0372
Plant . Marine
Protein level 0.6056 0.0170 0.0046
Source 3 level 0.4878 0.5019 0.9495
a
Percent increase ¼ [(average fish weight initial average fish weight)/initial fish weight] 3 100; 25 fish/tank.
b
FCR ¼ feed conversion ratio (g dry feed/g wet gain).
c
Significance probability associated with the F-statistic.
FIGURE 1.—Effect of dietary protein level (25, 35, 45, or 55%) and source (marine or plant) on average weight of neon tetras
after 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of feeding.
322
SEALEY ET AL.
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As early as 6 weeks postfeeding and throughout the
remainder of the 12-week feeding trial, average weight
gain of neon tetras fed diets with marine protein
sources was significantly higher than that of fish fed
the plant-protein-based diets (Figure 1). At the
conclusion of the 12-week trial, fish fed 45% or 55%
crude protein had significantly greater weight gain than
fish fed 25% crude protein from either protein source.
Feed conversion ratio followed the same trend as the
growth data; FCR in fish fed plant-based protein
sources was significantly elevated when compared with
that in fish fed the marine-based protein sources (Table
2). Fish fed 25% crude protein from either source had a
significantly higher FCR than those fed either 45% or
55% crude protein.
Survival ranged from 71% to 84% and was not
significantly altered by dietary protein source or level
(Table 2). No significant interactions between dietary
protein source and level were observed for any of the
examined response variables.
Discussion
Nutrition of ornamental fish is primarily based on
extrapolation of results from research conducted on
food fish species under intensive farming conditions
(Sales and Janssens 2003) as only a limited amount of
research on nutrient requirements of o rnamental
species has been conducted. Of the limited data that
are available, published protein requirements have
varied from 29% dietary protein for growing omniv-
orous goldfish Carassius auratus (Lochmann and
Phillips 1994) to 50% for the carnivorous discus
Symphysodon aequifasciata (Ch ong et al. 2000) .
Results of the present study indicate that neon tetras
performed best when diets contained at least 45% crude
protein, a level closer to the value reported for the
discus. While these levels are considerably higher than
the 29% reported for juvenile goldfish, other research-
ers have observed that goldfish larvae required 53%
crude protein (Fiogbe´ and Kestemont 1995). The
difference in goldfish protein requirements between
these two studies has been attributed to the age of the
fish used; however, the growth rate of the juvenile neon
tetras in this study suggests that the high dietary protein
needs are probably related to species-specific differ-
ences as opposed to ontogenetic stage effects. In
agreement with the results from the present study, other
species, including the tinfoil barb Barbonymus schwa-
nenfeldii (Elangovan and Shim 1997), the redhead
cichlid Vieja synspila (Olvera-Novoa et al. 1996), and
the green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii (Kruger et al.
2001), have been reported as having protein require-
ments of 41, 41, and 45% crude protein, respectively,
although the protein sources used varied somewhat
among those studies.
Although little research has addressed protein source
preferences of ornamental fish, it is generally recom-
mended that fish meal should be the major protein
source in ornamental fish diets (Francis-Floyd 2002).
The conventional wisdom behind this recommendation
is that fish meal is a highly digestible protein source
with an appropriate amino acid profile. Results from
the current study support this assertion in that fish fed
marine-based protein grew faster and larger than those
fish fed the diets based on plant proteins. Despite the
negative effect of plant protein sources on neon tetra
growth in the present study, Elangovan and Shim
(2000) demonstrated that soybean meal could replace
33% of the fish meal protein in the diet of juvenile
tinfoil barbs without reducing performance. However,
in the present study the plant protein diets were not
supplemented with lysine and methionine, which were
previously shown to be necessary for rainbow trout
Oncorhynchus mykiss fed these ingredients (Barrows et
al. 2007). Thus, amino acid deficiencies may have
contributed to the poor performance of fish fed these
diets. In contrast, Elangovan and Shim (2000) found
that the remaining fish meal in diets fed to tinfoil barbs
provided the necessary levels of these amino acids.
Alternatively, analyzed dietary lipid values differed
somewhat from the targeted 10% level; thus, we cannot
rule out the possibility that the reduced lipid content of
the 45% and 55% plant protein diets could have
contributed to observed results.
A further limitation of the present study is the
potential differences in palatability of diets formulated
with plant-based ingredients versus marine protein
sources. A number of studies have shown that
carnivorous fish species may find plant-based ingredi-
ents unpalatable; therefore, consumption and growth
rates will be suboptimal even if the diets are
nutritionally complete. We attempted to minimize the
palatability concerns by using refined plant ingredients
that have been demonstrated as palatable for rainbow
trout (Gaylord et al. 2006), but palatability was not
addressed directly in the present trial. Also, the feeding
strategy employed (using flake feeds) precluded
feeding to apparent satiation; therefore, excess feed
was given, as indicated by the high FCR.
From this experiment, it appears that approximately
45% crude protein from marine sources will support
good growth of neon tetras. As the price of marine
proteins, including fish,krill,andsquidmeals,
continues to increase, the composition of aquaculture
feeds will change, with decreased amounts of marine
proteins and increased amounts of protein products
from plants. If a similar trend occurs for ornamental
DIETARY PRO TEIN A LTERS NEON TETRA GROWTH 323
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fish diets, development of plant-b ased feeds f or
ornamental fishes will require further evaluation of
nutritional requirements and assessment of feed
palatability.
Acknowledgments
We thank the staff at the Hagerman Fish Culture
Experiment Station for their contributions. Funding for
the study was provided, in part, by the Morris Animal
Foundation. Mention of trade names or commercial
products in this article is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information and does not imply
recommendation by the U.S. Department of Agricul-
ture or the University of Idaho.
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... The final BW of neon tetras was significantly higher than the starting BW only in the T group. Among the few papers on P. innesi which could provide a point of reference [29][30][31][62][63][64][65][66][67], it was established that these characids prefer high-protein diets (>50%) [30,31] and that animal protein provides better growth rates than plant protein [30]. This might be a slight suggestion that of the two tested commercial feeds, the protein content/origin of TetraMin flakes was preferred by neon tetras, at least due to its higher total dietary percentage (47.8%, ...
... The final BW of neon tetras was significantly higher than the starting BW only in the T group. Among the few papers on P. innesi which could provide a point of reference [29][30][31][62][63][64][65][66][67], it was established that these characids prefer high-protein diets (>50%) [30,31] and that animal protein provides better growth rates than plant protein [30]. This might be a slight suggestion that of the two tested commercial feeds, the protein content/origin of TetraMin flakes was preferred by neon tetras, at least due to its higher total dietary percentage (47.8%, ...
... The final BW of neon tetras was significantly higher than the starting BW only in the T group. Among the few papers on P. innesi which could provide a point of reference [29][30][31][62][63][64][65][66][67], it was established that these characids prefer high-protein diets (>50%) [30,31] and that animal protein provides better growth rates than plant protein [30]. This might be a slight suggestion that of the two tested commercial feeds, the protein content/origin of TetraMin flakes was preferred by neon tetras, at least due to its higher total dietary percentage (47.8%, ...
Article
Full-text available
Little to no research has been conducted thus far regarding aquarium fish nutrition. In order to ensure the welfare of house-kept ornamentals, such studies should take into account that there are distinct biological differences occurring between different fish species/taxa, especially in regard to the structure of their digestive organs. Accordingly, a 12-week trial was executed to assess the effects of two commercial flakes and a mix of lyophilized natural food on the condition of co-reared neon tetras, Paracheirodon innesi (Characidae), and glowlight rasboras, Trigonostigma hengeli (Danionidae). The four feeding groups were as follows: (T)—Tetra flakes; (O)—Omega flakes; (TO)—Tetra + Omega; (TOL)—Tetra + Omega + Lyophilizate (twice a week). There were no differences in final body weight (FBW) between the feeding groups of either species, but in the case of neon tetras, FBW increased significantly from the initial value only for the T group. However, histological observations and measurements of digestive organs (livers, intestines) showed pronounced differences between the two species. The supplementation with natural food in group TOL caused lipoid hepatic degeneration only in the rasboras. The healthiest histological structure of livers and longest intestinal folds were found in group T of the tetras and group TO of the rasboras. Whole-mount staining for bone and cartilage did not reveal any significant deformities or differences in terms of bone mineralization. In conclusion, it was outlined that concurrent feeding of co-housed, anatomically diverse ornamental fish species is a highly ambiguous task, because the nutritional strategy applied for a community tank may yield radically divergent effects, most of which may remain unnoticed when depending only on external body observations and measurements. Most emphatically, this was highlighted in regard to the dietary supplementation with natural food—although no significant effects were observed in neon tetras, severe lipoid liver degeneration occurred in glowlight rasboras.
... Results indicate the dietary protein requirement of clownfish at 44.9-46.2%. Similar higher requirements were observed in other ornamental fishes like discus, Symphysodon aequifasciata (Chong et al., 2000) and neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi (Sealey et al., 2009). Higher protein requirement was also observed for edible fishes such as European seabass, mangrove red snapper, rainbow trout, olive flounder and cobia (Teles et al., 2020). ...
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Clown fishes are the most popular marine ornamental species owing to their unique behaviour and symbiotic association with sea anemones. Captive propagation of these fishes is relatively easy; however, the lack of suitable diets influences their survival, growth and colouration. In this study, growth response of juvenile sebae clownfish Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853 was evaluated through a feeding trial. Six iso-caloric experimental diets with graded dietary protein levels of 33.06 (D 33), 36.54 (D 36), 39.19 (D 39), 41.88 (D 42), 45.17 (D 45) and 47.94% (D 48) of dry matter were prepared. Lipid content of approximately 6% was maintained for all dietary treatments. The study was conducted for nine weeks in triplicate to evaluate survival, growth and feed utilisation. Fishes fed with diet D 36 did not present any mortality; those fed diets D 39, D 45 and D 48 had a lower survival with 86.7%, without significant differences among the treatments. However, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiencies showed a significant difference among the treatments (p<0.05). Weight gain and SGR of sebae clownfish increased gradually among tested diets and peaked at D 45 (697.28 mg and 3.84). A sharp decline in weight gain and SGR (486 mg and 3.39) was observed with the replicates fed with D 48. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were superior with diets D 42 (1.40 and 1.71) and D 45 (1.60 and 1.38). The results of the present study revealed higher growth when fed with dietary protein level of 45%. The second-order polynomial regression on SGR and weight gain suggested an optimal dietary inclusion at 44.9-46.2%. Based on these results, it can be inferred that juvenile sebae clownfish has a higher dietary protein requirement of about 45%. However, the study also suggested the efficacy of diets having 36% protein and 6% lipid for healthy aquarium upkeep of sebae clownfish. These findings will be beneficial for the commercial propagation and maintenance of clownfishes.
... En cuanto a la conversión alimenticia aparente (CAA) en M. orinocensis los resultados se encontraron entre los rangos reportados en peces ornamentales de gran importancia como Trichogaster lalius (de 3.92 a 6.26) (Zuanon et al., 2013), Paracheirodon innesi (de 2.7 a 5.48) (Sealey, Barrows, Casten, & Hardy, 2009), Xiphophorus helleri (de 2.02 a 2.45) (Chong, Ishak, Osman, & Hashim, 2004). En jovenes de Pterophyllum scalare alimentados con dietas prácticas, Ribeiro et al. (2007) encontraron que la CCA fue de 2.09 a 2.58 y Franca et al. (2017) reportan valores entre 1.63 y 1.2. ...
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Introducción: La moneda o pez dólar, Metynnis orinocensis, es una de las especies ornamentales nativas de Colombia, con gran participación en el mercado internacional. Habitan principalmente en lagunas permanentes y áreas de inundación de las cuencas de los ríos Amazonas y Orinoco. Es una especie que ha sido reproducida en cautiverio. Sin embargo, la información es muy escasa o nula referente a los efectos de la alimentación sobre el desempeño productivo de la especie en condiciones de cultivo. Objetivo: Determinar el requerimiento de proteína en jovenes de Metynnis orinocencis. Métodos: Se emplearon 425 alevinos de M. orinocencis con peso promedio de 0.5 ± 0.1 g y longitud total promedio de 2.7 ± 0.3 cm. Fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en siete tratamientos con tres réplicas para cada uno, en un sistema de recirculación cerrado con aireación constante y alimentados hasta aparente saciedad dos veces al día durante 60 días. Se formularon siete dietas variando el nivel de proteína (20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40 y 44 % PB). Los siguientes parámetros fueron evaluados: ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, incremento de longitud, conversión alimenticia aparente, tasa específica de crecimiento, tasa de eficiencia proteica y sobrevivencia. El requerimiento de proteína fue estimado, empleando la ganancia de peso, por análisis de regresión polinomial de segundo orden. Resultados: Los datos de crecimiento muestran que se presentó un incremento gradual en la ganancia de peso en relación con el nivel de proteína en la dieta hasta un máximo de ganancia de 2.56 g en los peces alimentados con 32 % PB. La conversión alimenticia aparente mostró una disminución progresiva a medida que se incrementó el nivel de proteína, siendo para el 20 % de 2.9 y para el 40 % de 1.9. Conclusión: Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de ganancia de peso el requerimiento óptimo de proteína bruta para M. orinocencis es de 34.3 %.
... En cuanto a la conversión alimenticia aparente (CAA) en M. orinocensis los resultados se encontraron entre los rangos reportados en peces ornamentales de gran importancia como Trichogaster lalius (de 3.92 a 6.26) (Zuanon et al., 2013), Paracheirodon innesi (de 2.7 a 5.48) (Sealey, Barrows, Casten, & Hardy, 2009), Xiphophorus helleri (de 2.02 a 2.45) (Chong, Ishak, Osman, & Hashim, 2004). En jovenes de Pterophyllum scalare alimentados con dietas prácticas, Ribeiro et al. (2007) encontraron que la CCA fue de 2.09 a 2.58 y Franca et al. (2017) reportan valores entre 1.63 y 1.2. ...
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Dollar fish, Metynnis orinocensis, is one of the ornamental species native to Colombia, with great participation in international market. They inhabit mainly permanent lagoons and flood areas of basins of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. It is a specie that has been reproduced in captivity. However, the information is very scarce or null concerning the effects of feeding on the productive performance of the specie under culture conditions. Objective: Determine the protein requirement in juveniles of M. orinocencis. Methods: We used 425 M. orinocencis fingerlings with average weight (Mean = 0.5, DE = 0.1 g) and total length (Mean = 2.7, DE = 0.3 cm), were randomly distributed in seven treatments with three replications for each, in a closed recirculation system with constant aeration and fed until apparent satiety two times a day for 60 days. Seven diets were formulated varying the protein level (20 %, 24 %, 28 %, 32 %, 36 %, 40 % and 44 % PB). The following parameters were evaluated: weight gain, feed intake, length increase, apparent feed conversion, specific growth rate, protein efficiency and survival rate. The protein requirement was estimated, using the weight gain, by second-order polynomial regression analysis. Resulted: The growth data show that there was a gradual increase in the weight gain in relation to the level of protein in the diet until a maximum gain of 2.56 in the fish fed with 32 % PB. The apparent food conversion showed a progressive decrease as the protein level was increased, being for 20 % of 2.9 and for 40 % of 1.9. Conclusions: Considering the results of weight gain, the optimal crude protein requirement for M. orinocencis is 34.3 %.
... Decreased in FCR at week six and eight for TP0 might be attributed to maintenance energy requirements that could have been utilized for growth. These findings have been parallel with study by Sealey et al (2009) which showed that the SR in neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi was not affected by the protein level in the diet. The SR might be ascribed to the effects of pH and temperature on the survival and growth of fry and juvenile B. schwanenfeldii (Rashid 2014). ...
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Tinfoil barb, Barbonymus schwanenfeldii is a commercially important freshwater fish, which is found in the sub-tropical and the tropical regions like Malaysia. Despite the commercial importance, research on the growth performance of B. schwanenfeldii is yet to be explored. This study aimed to determine the growth performance which includes the survival rate (SR) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of B. schwanenfeldii fed with different types of portentous diets in a controlled laboratory condition. The experiment was carried out for 60 days, and three types of different treatments consisted of TP0 (32% protein content), TP1 (28% protein) and TP2 (23% protein). All experiments were performed in triplicates, with every treatment being carried out in nine plastic boxes with 1 metre depth and 2 metre diameter. Every container held 330 fish, which were fed two times a day depending on their body weights, at a 10% rate (for the initial 1 month) and at the rate of 5% for later stages. Findings indicated that the fish had significantly (p < 0.05) different growth performance when fed on different level of protein content diets. The significant higher final body weight and lower FCR value was observed when the fish were fed with TP0, which contained the highest protein content, followed by the TP1 diet and TP2. However, it was observed that the SR did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) amongst the three different treatments. Our study suggested that the B. schwanenfeldii could be cultured in the diets containing 32% protein, in a controlled environment.
... Much progress has been made concerning aquaculture nutrition in fish for human consumption. There have been multiple species-specific experiences to discover their nutritional requirements (Tibaldi et al. 1994;Schuchardt et al. 2006) and both beneficial and harmful effects that may have been due to the different ingredients incorporated into the diets (Cahu et al. 1999;Yigit et al. 2012). However, in the case of aquaculture of ornamental species, little is known about their nutritional requirements and the effects of diets on the organism. ...
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Little is known about the nutritional requirements of ornamental fish and the effects which they may have on fish histology. Because of this, 45 young, captive-bred seahorses (1.37 g ± 0.51) were randomly divided and put into fifteen, 35-L, glass aquariums. Three experimental diets were tested in triplicate: live enriched Artemia (LEA); frozen enriched Artemia (FEA); and commercial Mysis (M). seahorses were fed twice daily, 6 days a week for 102 days throughout the experiment. The body weight and length of the seahorses were measured every 20 days, and at the end of the experiment, fish liver samples were taken for histological studies. Biochemical analyses of the diets and the seahorses fed on the experimental diets were recorded, and the differences in the total lipid content in each of the three diets were also observed, each reflecting their respective liver lipid content. seahorses fed with LEA treatment showed lipid vacuoles in the hepatocytes with nuclei displaced to the periphery. Similar results were also observed in FEA fed seahorses, but to a lesser extent. In contrast, the M fed seahorses were characterized by having livers with lower size hepatocytes and centrally located nuclei.
... Marine protein sources were more efficiently to induce the weight gain in neon tetra (Paracheirodon innesi) than diets based on vegetable proteins; however, fish fed with both protein sources diets containing 45% or 55% crude protein showed a better growth performance than 25% crude protein diets (20). These authors confirm the need to carry out additional studies on the nutritional requirements of ornamental fish species using mainly vegetable protein sources to reduce the productive cost. ...
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The knowledge of nutritional requirements in ornamental fish species is essential to improve the productive development; however, the nutritional information of these species is scarce and sometimes this information is extrapolated from results obtained from non-ornamental fish species. In ornamental fish, a correct formulation of the diet improve the nutrient digestibility and supply the metabolic needs, reducing the maintenance cost and at the same time the water pollution. Inert food such as meal powder, flakes, milk powder, bovine heart and liver, tubifex worms, as well as live food including Artemia sp., rotifers and Moina have been used extensively in ornamental fish feeding with a diverse range of nutritional values and productive properties. In contrast with farmed fish, skin pigmentation is a mandatory characteristic in ornamental fish and the use of dietary supplements with carotenoids is recommended. The aim of this document is to review the specific nutritional requirements which are indispensable to improve economical and productive potential of freshwater ornamental fish.
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An emerging model organism in the fields of evolution, development, and biomedical research is the teleost fish, Astyanax mexicanus. Two morphotypes exist: an eyed surface dweller (surface fish) and a blind cave dweller (cavefish). These morphs are interfertile and can be bred and reared within a laboratory environment. This chapter presents an introduction to the fish, including a summary of the research carried out on traits that have evolved due to the selective pressures of the cave environment. Insights into aspects of husbandry, including housing, water quality, population density, nutrition, and aggression, are provided. The authors explore welfare indicators in this species, along with common health problems encountered in a captive environment. Finally, suggestions are provided on a variety of technical procedures, including tagging, gamete collection, in vitro fertilization, anesthesia, and euthanasia.
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Discus (Symphysodon spp.), a valuable ornamental species (mean initial weight 4.40–4.65 g) were fed five isoenergetic (gross energy: 200–209 kJ g–1), semipurified diets (casein, gelatine and Danish fish meal as protein sources) twice a day to satiation for 12 weeks. Five levels of protein were evaluated (350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 g kg–1 diet) and each fed to four replicates. Growth rate increased significantly with protein level up to 500 g kg–1 diet and then decreased. Feed conversion rates (FCRs) ranged from 2.2 to 3.8, varying inversely with observed growth rate. A similar trend was also observed in the efficiency of protein utilization (PER). Analysis of dose (protein level)-response (growth rate) with second order polynomial regression suggested a requirement of 449–501 g kg–1.
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This book contains articles on the nutrient requirements and feeding of finfish for aquaculture. Topics include the following: introduction to fish nutrition; marine fishes (European sea bass, Asian sea bass, red sea bream, gilt-head sea bream, Atlantic salmon, Atlantic halibut, Japanese flounder, North American flounder, yellowtail, red drum, southern bluefin tuna, and milkfish); and freshwater fishes (rainbow trout, Arctic char, percids, coregonids, common carp, Indian major carps, tilapia, channel catfish, eel, hybrid striped bass, sturgeon, silver perch, largemouth bass, hybrid bluegill, Brazilian species, snakehead and Pangasius catfish, and baitfish).
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This book contains articles on the nutrient requirements and feeding of finfish for aquaculture. Topics include the following: introduction to fish nutrition; marine fishes (European sea bass, Asian sea bass, red sea bream, gilt-head sea bream, Atlantic salmon, Atlantic halibut, Japanese flounder, North American flounder, yellowtail, red drum, southern bluefin tuna, and milkfish); and freshwater fishes (rainbow trout, Arctic char, percids, coregonids, common carp, Indian major carps, tilapia, channel catfish, eel, hybrid striped bass, sturgeon, silver perch, largemouth bass, hybrid bluegill, Brazilian species, snakehead and Pangasius catfish, and baitfish).
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The neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi is one of the most valuable species in the ornamental fish trade. Most neon tetras available in the United States are imported from Southeast Asia, where they are farm raised, or from South America, where they are collected from the wild. In this study, we describe a method for artificially breeding the neon tetra that can be adapted to domestic commercial production. Broodfish pairs were routinely spawned in acidified, soft water at 25°C (pH, 5.5–6.5, adjusted with phosphoric acid; total alkalinity, 3.2 mg/L, and total hardness, 6.0 mg/L, as CaCO3). The water was also conditioned with humic acids (0.04%). A spawning substrate (nylon brush) was available for egg deposition. Fish reared in the laboratory had a significantly higher number of larvae (82 larvae/female) than broodstock collected from the wild or cultured abroad (28 larvae/female). The domestic population reached sexual maturity at 5–6 months of age, and broodfish pairs produced an average of 82 larvae every 2 weeks over a period of 1 year. Rotifers and boiled egg yolk were the first larval feeds. Thereafter, fish were fed nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia sp., shaved cattle liver, and formulated diets. At approximately 1 month of age, larvae obtained their adult body coloration. The described method can be adapted for domestic commercial production of neon tetras.