Article

More Suttas on Sakka and why the Shorter Chinese Sa?yukta-?gama should not be attributed to the K??yap?ya school

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Abstract

This article is part of a series on the Shorter Chinese Saṃyukta-āgama (BZA). Continuing the investigation from previous research on the provenance of the BZA, it is concluded that the attribution of the BZA to the Kāśyapīya school is mistaken. A comparison of the BZA’s Śakra-saṃyukta with the Pāli Sakka-saṃyutta shows that, with minor exceptions, the narrative content of both saṃyuttas is identical though the number of suttas varies. Finally, the article completes the translation of the Śakra-saṃyukta, the first part of which appeared in BSR 25 (2).

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Article
This article first briefly examines the textual structure of the Brahma Samyutta of the Pali Samyutta-nikaya in conjunction with two other versions preserved in Chinese translation in Taisho vol. 2, nos 99 and 100. Then it compares the main teachings contained in the three versions. This comparative study of these three different versions focuses on some shared images of Brahmas and on disagreements of some teachings presented in the three versions. It reveals similarities and significant differences in structure and doctrinal content, thus advancing the historical/critical study of early Buddhist doctrine in this area.
Article
This article is one of a series concerning the Shorter Chinese Saṃyukta Āgama / Bieyi za ahan jing 別譯雜阿含經 (BZA) (T.100). The series is in turn part of a larger project conducted at Dharma Drum Buddhist College, Taiwan, and currently hosted at: http://buddhistinformatics.ddbc.edu.tw/BZA/. The present article discusses the arguments that are advanced in favour of attributing the BZA to the Dharmaguptaka and Mahīśāsaka schools, analyses the different names of Śakra/Sakka and their etymologies found in BZA 35, and presents a translation of BZA 33 to BZA 42, the first ten of twenty suttas on Sakka in the BZA. Regarding the attribution we find that there is only one single passage that links the BZA with the Mahīśāsaka Vinaya . The comparison of Indian and Chinese forms of Sakka’s names clarifies some textual problems in the northern and the southern traditions. In the case of Purindada, this offers us a rare glimpse into how the early Buddhists had to ‘spin’ their texts when they incorporated the warrior god Indra into their pantheon.
Article
This is the third article in a series concerning the Shorter Chinese Saṃyukta Āgama, the Bieyi za ahan jing 別譯雜阿含經 (T.100) (BZA). The articles are part of a larger project that constructs a digital parallel edition of the 364 suttas of the BZA and their various versions. Starting from the fact that we are dealing with text-clusters, i.e. groups of texts, which share relevant narrative elements, the idea behind this edition is to present the texts of each cluster in a convenient and reliable fashion and to improve on previous editions in various ways. The online interface to the database is currently hosted at: http://buddhistinformatics.chibs.edu.tw/BZA/. This article first discusses some comparative issues regarding the different versions of the Bhikkhunī Saṃyutta/Bhikṣuṇī Saṃyukta, especially concerning the names of the nuns. The evidence from the Chinese suggests that the name Vajirā in the Pāli Saṃyutta Nikāya is a mistake for Vīrā. The article concludes with the first translation of the BZA Bhikṣuṇī Saṃyukta, into a western language.
Article
This article addresses some philological and structural-narrative issues concerning the suttas on Māra the Bad in Āgama literature. Included is a translation of the Māra Samyukta of the Bieyi za ahan jing (BZA) T.100, which includes such famous passages as the suicide without further rebirth of Godhika.
Article
The Other Translation of Saṃyuktāgama 別譯雜阿含經 exists in two versions. The version preserved as text no. 100 in the Taishō edition of the Chinese canon is divided into sixteen fascicles, a format carried over from the Korean edition on which the compilers of the Taishō mainly relied. The other version, found in most editions produced in China itself, is instead divided into twenty fascicles. These two versions contain almost the same collection of sūtras, but differ in their arrangement. As regards the grouping into Saṃyuktas, the twenty-fascicle version is in good order while the sixteen-fascicle version is in disarray. This article examines the proposition by Anesaki (1908) that the sixteen-fascicle version resulted from accidental disarrangement of a text that closely resembled the twenty-fascicle version, and seeks to identify how and when this could have come about. 1
Article
This article provides quantitative evidence for a hypothesis concerning fourth-century translations of Indian Buddhist texts from Prakrit and Sanskrit into Chinese. Using a Variable Length n-Gram Feature Extraction Algorithm, principal component analysis and average linkage clustering we are able to show that 24 sutras, attributed by the tradition to different translators, were in fact translated by the same translator or group of translators. Since part of our method is based on assigning weight to n-grams, the analysis is capable of yielding distinctive features, i.e. strings of Chinese characters, that are characteristic of the translator(s). This is the first time that these techniques have successfully been applied to medieval Chinese texts. The results of this study open up a number of new directions for the lexicographic and syntactic study of early Chinese translations of Buddhist texts. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ALLC and ACH. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected] /* */
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Many thanks to Venerable Anālayo, Ken Su, Simon Wiles and Peter Harvey who read the drafts of this paper and made valuable corrections. ABBREVIATIONS BL Buddhist Legends: Burlingame 1921. Translation of Dhp-a. BZA Bieyi za ahan jing 別譯雜阿含經 (T.100) CBETA Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association 中華電子佛典協會 CBETA/T. CBETA edition of the Taishō canon CD-Version 2007
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ZA: zheluojia 遮羅迦. 遮羅迦 as caraka is attested in other sūtras as well
  • 遮勒 Zhe Le
  • Skt
  • Caraka
zhe le 遮勒. Skt. caraka. ZA: zheluojia 遮羅迦. 遮羅迦 as caraka is attested in other sūtras as well (e.g. CBETA/T.02.99.31c18).
Not in the ZA. Unique in the canon. Probably a transliteration for Skt
  • Po Luo Po Shi 婆 羅 婆 寔
po luo po shi 婆 羅 婆 寔. Not in the ZA. Unique in the canon. Probably a transliteration for Skt. pārivrājaka.
ZA: 老弟子. jarā-śrutin? 70 da sheng wen 大聲聞. ZA: 大弟子. mahā-śrutin? 71 zai 在 in this sentence must be a mistake for zuo 左
  • Wen Lao Sheng
  • 老聲聞
lao sheng wen 老聲聞. ZA: 老弟子. jarā-śrutin? 70 da sheng wen 大聲聞. ZA: 大弟子. mahā-śrutin? 71 zai 在 in this sentence must be a mistake for zuo 左.
Shi jian jie 世間解 is Skt. loka-vid
  • Taking
Taking 時說 as ākāliko. Shi jian jie 世間解 is Skt. loka-vid.
This seems to make better sense, since -even if there are "many jewels in the ocean" -to say that there are "many jewels of merit in the ocean of the Saṅgha" still would indicate that there a lot of Saṅgha members
  • 此 眾 廣 無 量 猶 海 出 珍 寶 聖 眾 亦 如 是
The Ekottarika-āgama parallel expresses the simile differently: there the members of the Saṅgha are compared to jewels in the ocean of human beings: 此 眾 廣 無 量 猶 海 出 珍 寶 聖 眾 亦 如 是 (CBETA/T02.125.575a22). This seems to make better sense, since -even if there are "many jewels in the ocean" -to say that there are "many jewels of merit in the ocean of the Saṅgha" still would indicate that there a lot of Saṅgha members, who are not jewels of merit.
Probably following Indian syntax. Cf. the ZA parallel 自手平等與
  • 淨心手自施
淨心手自施. Probably following Indian syntax. Cf. the ZA parallel 自手平等與.