Article

Restoration, Reintroduction, and captive Propagation for at-risk Butterflies: A review of British and American Conservation Efforts

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Abstract

Populations of at-risk butterfly species are declining at an alarming rate. Conservation strategies emphasize a mix of restoration of butterfly habitat, captive propagation, and reintroduction of butterflies to repopulate sites at which populations have gone extinct and to augment declining populations. We review the use of these strategies to conserve butterflies for 25 British species with Species Action Plans and 25 American species listed as Endangered, Threatened, or Candidate under the US Endangered Species Act and found in the continental US. Based on a broad review of published and unpublished literature and 47 interviews with agency staff, we find that the majority of species require active restoration (n = 47 of 50) and that most species receive restoration enhancements (n = 45), but only for a few species are ecological responses to this management monitored (n = 15). In addition, we find that most conservation strategies recommend reintroduction (n = 34) and it has been attempted for 21 British species but for only 5 American ones. Captive propagation is recommended for 12 of 25 American species and has been attempted for 8. Documentation of both reintroduction and captive propagation is limited, with the number of founders known for just over half of the species. We conclude that advancing butterfly conservation will require systematic recording and communication of activities in readily accessible venues, improved experimental design and monitoring, enhanced use of ecological modeling, and improved knowledge of species-specific biology. Project designs that connect on-the-ground efforts to ecological responses of at-risk butterfly species would have tremendous impacts on our ability to use scarce resources to recover these species.

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... Butterfly populations are in global decline due to habitat degradation (Schultz et al. 2008). ...
... Invasive plants are a key factor (Dennehey et al. 2011, Wagner and vanDriesche 2010, New et al. 1995Wilcove et al. 1998), and management of exotic flora is part of recovery plans for 83% of threatened, endangered and at-risk butterflies in the United States and Great Britain (Schultz et al. 2008). Control of invasive plant species is an ongoing challenge in butterfly habitats worldwide, and methods that are promising for one butterfly species may be detrimental to another. ...
... Solarization is very effective (Schultz 2001) but unfortunately impractical at landscape scales (Marushia and Allen 2011). Herbicide application is a viable and oft-selected option, particularly in the United States (Schultz et al. 2008), as it is relatively simple to implement as well as cost-effective. Grassspecific herbicides are particularly efficacious in managing exotic grasses if timed properly (Marushia and Allen 2011) and coupled with seeding of native plant species (Stanley et al. 2011b). ...
Thesis
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Habitat degradation is a major contributor to butterfly population decline worldwide. Agencies and land managers often elect herbicides to reduce invasive flora and improve native plant community in habitat restoration and maintenance. These herbicides may harm butterfly larvae and are sometimes the impetus for management of invasive flora. Butterfly larvae are commonly present during spring and fall when herbicides are most effective. We examine larval response to a grass-specific herbicide using three, common and closely-related surrogates within a genus that includes many endangered and at-risk butterfly species. We detect fitness and behavioral treatment effects in our three Euphydryas surrogates; each species responded distinctively. In one species, we find a reduction in diapause biomass, a proxy for survival to adulthood and overall fitness. In two species, we detect a reduction in group size, with the potential to affect larval survival in the field. Additionally, there is significant interactive effect between herbicide exposure and novel hostplant in two butterfly species, and marginal effect in the third. These factors could contribute to reduction in metapopulation viability and overall population decline if larvae are exposed to this herbicide in the field. Scheduling herbicide application to avoid the vulnerable pre-diapause larval stage may allow land stewards to use this tool conscientiously in habitat management and land conservation where endangered and at-risk species reside.
... These have certain common key features (Olden et al., 2011). First, the success rate of both reintroductions (Griffith et al., 1989;Armstrong and Seddon, 2008) and assisted colonization (Gallagher et al., 2015) has been low, resulting from insufficient consideration of species biology and ad hoc selection of release sites (Seddon et al., 2007;Schultz et al., 2008;Chauvenet et al., 2013b). Second, translocation resources are often limited and only a few options can be implemented. ...
... Second, translocation resources are often limited and only a few options can be implemented. Thus potential success of different alternatives should be scrutinized with appropriate tools (Rout et al., 2007;Schultz et al., 2008;Lewis et al., 2012). Indeed, increasingly sophisticated approaches are available for assessing factors determining the success of population establishment (Fordham et al., 2012;Chauvenet et al., 2013a). ...
... It is increasingly argued that government schemes aiming to promote grassland biodiversity (particularly AES) should support maintaining and restoring these beneficial elements in the landscapes around the actual grassland patches (Donald and Evans, 2006). Thirdly, habitat quality in the translocation sites is important, as low quality has been one of the primary limiting factors for the success of species reintroductions (Schultz et al., 2008). Habitat quality could be examined also at the landscape-scale level, by considering the characteristics (e.g. ...
... Recently published data indicate an alarming decline in these and other pine rockland species (Deyrup & Franz 1994;Worth et al 1996;Schwartz et al. 1996;Schultz et al. 2008;Salvato & Salvato 2010a,b;Minno 2010;IBWG 2011;Schweitzer et al. 2011). Less than 2% of the original pine rocklands outside of Everglades National Park remain (Miami-Dade County undated;Snyder et al. 1990;U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2014), but the Atala also has made use of domestic and botanical gardens that support ornamental landscape plantings of Zamia; 100 to 300 ephemeral Atala colonies may exist in natural areas and on private property during any given year (S. ...
... In addition to a harsh natural environment, more than half of this butterfly's extant populations now live in domestic gardens or remnant natural areas that are small and fragmented (S. K., unpublished data), surrounded by a highly urbanized matrix, filled with non-native ornamental plants that provide no nectar, or non-native invasive plants and animals (ants, reptiles, and amphibians) competing with E. atala over host plant and natural nectar sources (Hanski 1999;Hardy & Dennis 1999;Smith 2000Smith , 2002New & Sands 2002;Schultz et al. 2008;IBWG 2011). Furthermore, these urban populations likely are exposed to herbicides, unnatural fertilizers, pollution, and mosquito control adulticide applications (Hoang et al. 2011;Bargar 2012). ...
... However, there are good aspects about urbanization for E. atala, such as increased availability of its host resources in both domestic and public botanical gardens, which are a vital link in the survival of this butterfly (Smith 2000;Koi 2008). Continued support of educational programs, re-introduction endeavors, and monitoring of wild and semi-wild colonies are other important steps in maintaining the viability of a species (Rawson 1961;Covell & Rawson 1973;Kremen 1992a,b;Emmel & Minno 1993;New 1993;Deyrup & Franz 1994;Cornell & Hawkins 1995;Hanski 1999;Hardy & Dennis 1999;Schultz et al. 2008;Algar et al. 2009;IBWG 2011). ...
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Southeast Florida is considered part of the Caribbean archipelago and a biodiversity hotspot for conservation priorities, with many endangered species precinctive to the Lower Peninsula. The tropical butterfly Eumaeus atala (Poey) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is currently found in Southeast Florida, the Caribbean, Cayman Islands, and Cuba, but was once considered probably extinct in Southeast Florida, where it has made a significant population increase during the past 30 yr. The State of Florida lists E. atala as imperiled, based on the species' ephemeral and cyclic abundance, isolated extant populations, reduced and highly fragmented habitat, and vulnerability to stochastic weather events. The objective of this captive-rearing intensive study was to fill gaps related to E. atala's overall biology and ecology in order to assist recovery efforts. Life history was studied under controlled environmental conditions to document the life span, reproduction, and development. Longevity proved to be much greater than previously recorded, reproductive behavior supports increased genetic cross-over, and conservation efforts point toward the need for continued monitoring of fragmented populations. Results may help in the design or improvement of management practices for E. atala and other imperiled pine rockland species.
... Reintroductions are commonly used in conservation to offset the ongoing decline in biodiversity (Seddon et al. 2007(Seddon et al. , 2012. Historically these were typically undocumented in the scientific literature (Schultz et al. 2008). However, this has changed since the turn of the millennium with reintroductions being the focus of various studies including monitoring (Wakamiya and Roy 2009;Bernardo et al. 2011;Nichols and Armstrong 2012), management (Jones and Merton 2012;West et al. 2017), range expansion (Halley et al. 2012;Gaywood 2018) and population modelling (for summary see Armstrong and Reynolds 2012). ...
... Within the UK there is a long, though poorly documented, history of amateur invertebrate reintroductions in the UK, mostly of butterfly species (Schultz et al. 2008).The majority of these reintroductions failed due to insufficient planning, poor habitat quality at release sites, limited release numbers and incomplete understanding of species' biology (Schultz et al. 2008). Nevertheless there have been successful invertebrate reintroductions in the UK, the best known being that of the Large Blue butterfly (Phengaris (= Maculinea) arion). ...
... Within the UK there is a long, though poorly documented, history of amateur invertebrate reintroductions in the UK, mostly of butterfly species (Schultz et al. 2008).The majority of these reintroductions failed due to insufficient planning, poor habitat quality at release sites, limited release numbers and incomplete understanding of species' biology (Schultz et al. 2008). Nevertheless there have been successful invertebrate reintroductions in the UK, the best known being that of the Large Blue butterfly (Phengaris (= Maculinea) arion). ...
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The Marsh Fritillary butterfly (Euphydryas aurinia) is a Eurasian species which has suffered significant reductions in occurrence and abundance over the past century, particularly across the western side of its range, due to agricultural intensification and habitat loss. This loss has been particularly severe in the UK with extensive localised extinctions. Following sympathetic management, reintroduction was undertaken at four Cumbria (northern UK) sites in 2007 with stock from a captive admixture population descended from Cumbrian and Scottish founders. Annual population monitoring of the reintroductions was undertaken. Nine years post-reintroduction, the level of population genetic variation was assessed using microsatellites. Variation in historical Cumbrian samples was determined using museum samples and Scottish samples from current populations were assayed to characterise natural population variation. Half of the Scottish sites also served as indicators of the alleles present in the founder populations. The genetic contribution of the founder populations allied to population size data allowed patterns of genetic variation to be modelled. Alleles from Cumbrian and Scottish founders are present in the reintroduced populations. The four sites have levels of variation akin to natural populations and exhibit differentiation as predicted by statistical modelling and comparable with natural populations. This suggests that reintroduction following captive breeding can produce self-sustaining populations with natural levels of genetic diversity. These populations appear to be undergoing the same evolutionary dynamics with bottlenecks and drift as natural populations. Implications for insect conservation Reintroduction of captive bred individuals is a viable strategy for producing populations with natural levels of genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics. Hybridisation of populations on the brink of extinction with those thriving can preserve some of the genetic distinctiveness of the declining population.
... Local adaptation can have important impacts on individual populations, for example, resulting in differences in host plant use or climatic response between populations (Aardema et al. 2011) and individual variation in phenotype and genotype can potentially alter reintroduction outcomes (Aardema et al. 2011;Wheat 2010), although we argue that this is unlikely to be a significant issue for Quino checkerspot. Also, maintenance of animals in captivity can result in unintentional selection and genetic shifts (Ford 2002;Lewis & Thomas 2001;Schultz et al. 2008;Snyder et al. 1996). Reintroduction efforts will therefore benefit from information available regarding founder quality with respect to the target reintroduction site but it should also be emphasized that inaction due to the absence of such information is more likely to cause further population extirpation and decline (Aardema et al. 2011). ...
... The primary reason for failure of butterfly reintroduction (or one can presume augmentation) efforts is low quality habitat at the recipient site (Schultz et al. 2008). Indeed this has been the experience in Great Britain (Oates 1992;Pullin 1996). ...
... The possibility for genetic drift and/or selection while in captivity is an issue for any captive breeding program (Ford 2002;Lewis & Thomas 2001;Schultz et al. 2008;Snyder et al. 1996). It is possible, for example, that selective pressure results in genetic changes favoring compliant butterflies that respond to mating in captive environments at the expense of necessary behaviors for obtaining mates in the wild. ...
... Modification of terrestrial habitat by invasive plant species is a widespread threat to at-risk butterfly populations (Schultz et al. 2008;Wagner and Van Driesche 2010). Selective herbicides are often sought as a viable and preferable management tool, in cases where other options fail to address invasive species-caused habitat stress (LaBar and Schultz 2012). ...
... Reduction in non-native plants improves threatened and endangered butterfly habitat and warrants consideration of aggressive management tools (Schultz et al. 2008;Severns 2008;Severns and Warren 2008;Wagner and Van Driesche 2010). Graminicides which target invasive grasses with intercalary meristemic growth patterns (Walker et al. 1988) may be an effective tool to combat invasive grasses in areas which contain beneficial broad-leaf forbs as well as native bunch grasses (Blake et al. 2011). ...
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Habitat modification by invasive species places numerous butterfly species at risk of extinction. Grass-specific herbicides, graminicides, are a sought-after tool to reduce invasive grasses, augment forbs and enhance butterfly populations. However, possible non-target effects raise concern. We investigated non-target effects of graminicides on three species of caterpillars in the genus Euphydryas (Nymphalidae), a taxon with numerous species in decline worldwide. In one experiment, we compared the effects of three graminicides (clethodim, sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl) on E. colon. In a second experiment, we assessed the effects of fluazifop-p-butyl, the most commonly used graminicide in prairies in the Northwest USA, on three Euphydryas species (E. colon, E. editha and E. phaeton), each raised on two different hostplants. In the first experiment, fluazifop-p-butyl did not affect survivorship of pre-diapause larvae, sethoxydim reduced survivorship by 20?% relative to controls, and effects of clethodim were inconclusive. Graminicides did not change the total concentration of iridoid glycosides in the caterpillars, but all three graminicides increased the concentration of aucubin to almost double the level in control treatments. In the second experiment, the effects of fluazifop-b-butyl were not consistent across butterfly and host plant species. However, fluazifop-b-butyl reduced group size of gregarious pre-diapause larvae under all conditions. Our results suggest that if managers use graminicides over the short-term to control invasive grasses, fluazifop-p-butyl has the most promise for minimal effects. However, efforts should be paired with demographic and behavioral monitoring to quantify context-dependent impacts.
... These efforts have had varying success, and most have focused on plants, mammals, and birds (Seddon et al. 2005;Bajomi et al. 2010;Godefroid et al. 2011). However, butterflies, as an intensively studied and flagship group for invertebrate conservation, have been the subject of several reintroduction programs, particularly in Europe (Schultz et al. 2008). The successful reintroduction of Maculinea arion to the United Kingdom has become a model for similar actions (Thomas et al. 2009). ...
... A review of British and American conservation efforts for threatened butterfly species (Schultz et al. 2008) shows that reintroductions are often desirable. Although there are many variables that can affect the success of a species reintroduction, habitat availability and quality are critical for butterflies, as is an appropriate choice of a source population (Wynhoff 1998;Kuussaari et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Species reintroductions are increasingly used as means of mitigating biodiversity loss. Besides habitat quality at the site targeted for reintroduction, the choice of source population can be critical for success. The butterfly Melanargia russiae (Esper's marbled white) was extirpated from Hungary over 100 years ago, and a reintroduction program has recently been approved. We used museum specimens of this butterfly, mitochondrial DNA data (mtDNA), endosymbiont screening, and climatic‐similarity analyses to determine which extant populations should be used for its reintroduction. The species displayed 2 main mtDNA lineages across its range: 1 restricted to Iberia and southern France (Iberian lineage) and another found throughout the rest of its range (Eurasian lineage). These 2 lineages possessed highly divergent wsp alleles of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. The Hungarian specimens represented an endemic haplotype belonging to the Eurasian lineage, differing by one mutation from the Balkan and eastern European populations. The Hungarian populations of M. russiae occurred in areas with a colder and drier climate relative to most sites with extant known populations. Our results suggest the populations used for reintroduction to Hungary should belong to the Eurasian lineage, preferably from eastern Ukraine (genetically close and living in areas with the highest climatic similarity). Materials stored in museum collections can provide unique opportunities to document historical genetic diversity and help direct conservation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... The Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]) is one of 25 lepidopteran taxa that are either candidates for listing or are currently listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (Schultz et al. 2008). One of ; 20 recognized E. editha subspecies, the taxon has a restricted distribution in chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California (Mattoni et al. 1997). ...
... The Quino checkerspot butterfly is one of 12 federally endangered, threatened, or candidate lepidopteran species in the United States that has been recommended for captive propagation and one of eight taxa where captive propagation has actually been attempted (Schultz et al. 2008). General methods of captive rearing of butterflies and moths are summarized by Friedrich (1986). ...
Article
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Captive populations can play a significant role in threatened and endangered species management. An important consideration when developing and managing captive populations, however, is the maintenance of genetic diversity to ensure that adequate variation exists to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding. In this investigation, we compared genetic diversity patterns within captive and wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]), a taxon with a restricted distribution to chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California. Our analyses revealed that medium to high-frequency alleles from the wild populations were also present in the captive populations. While there was no significant difference in genetic diversity as quantified by expected heterozygosity, the captive populations showed tendencies toward significantly lower allelic richness than their wild counterparts. Given that alleles from the wild populations were occasionally not detected in captive populations, periodic incorporation of new wild specimens into the captive population would help ensure that allelic diversity is maintained to the extent possible. If performed in advance, genetic surveys of wild populations may provide the clearest insights regarding the number of individuals needed in captivity to adequately reflect wild populations.
... host foraging and shelter construction) is needed to inform conservation actions, including in situ habitat management (Rigney 2013) and ex situ breeding and reintro duction programs (Delphey et al. 2016, USFWS 2019. Indeed, despite the increasing use of ex situ breeding and reintroduction programs as conservation tools for imperiled butterflies (Crone et al. 2007, Thomas et al. 2011, their successes historically have been limited and difficult to quantify (Oates & Warren 1990); many likely are unsuccessful due to poor speciesspecific knowledge (Schultz et al. 2008, Bier zychudek & Warner 2015 and/or scientific rigor (Daniels et al. 2018). ...
Article
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With only ~1% of native prairie remaining in North America, populations of many prairie-obligate species, including the imperiled Dakota skipper butterfly, have drastically declined in recent decades. Unfortunately, population recovery is impeded by an insufficient understanding of Dakota skipper biology. Because larvae have never been naturally observed in the wild, even basic life history elements including preferred host plant(s) are not well understood, and potential hosts have been inferred from grasses inhabiting remnant sites rather than direct observations. To improve our understanding of Dakota skipper biology and habitat needs and inform recovery efforts, we conducted a no-choice performance experiment offering larvae 1 of 5 commonly occurring native grasses and 2 pervasive invasive grass species found across their historic range. We monitored larvae during key life history intervals and evaluated host plant quality by measuring larval and pupal mass, time to pupation, and survivorship. Larvae fed on all offered host grasses, but mass, phenology, and survivorship varied among treatments. Larvae reared on prairie dropseed and porcupine grass had the highest survival, the shortest time to adulthood, and the greatest mass, whereas larvae provided smooth brome and Kentucky bluegrass fared poorly for all observed metrics. All other grasses offered during the study were deemed ‘medium’ quality. Our results suggest that although larvae can feed on a variety of potential host plants, these hosts vary in quality. Invasive grasses across prairies in North America may pose an ecological trap to the conservation of Dakota skipper and other prairie-obligate Lepidoptera.
... Therefore, there is a need to design and test strategies for tropical butterflies to restore populations for conservation management. Designing such a strategy is complex because a priori knowledge of the species is needed; such as knowledge of species biology, habitat range and dispersal, habitat requirements and an understanding of species survival in potential enrichment locations (Schultz et al., 2008). Species distribution modeling is increasingly being applied to aid such efforts, however, studies tend to lack clear links to ecological interactions that affect the model's translatability to specific conservation management strategies. ...
Article
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Increasing urbanization in the tropics has led to the loss of natural habitats and local extirpations and the introduction of non-native plants in urban centers. Non-native plants can have widespread positive and negative ecological implications on native fauna including butterflies. In the small tropical urbanized city-state of Singapore, Aristolochia jackii (Aristolochiaceae), a native host plant of the nationally threatened Common Birdwing (Troides helena) and Common Rose (Pachliopta aristolochiae), is considered extirpated, but their shared non-native host plant Aristolochia acuminata is a cultivated ornamental in urban habitat. We conducted systematic surveys from years 2010 to 2014 and collated sighting records from 1999 to 2019 to map the distribution of T. helena and P. aristolochiae, and their host plant A. acuminata. We utilized machine learning models (i.e., random forest algorithms) to establish the relationships between various habitat (managed and natural tree cover, waterbody and impervious surface cover) and life-history parameters (minimum distance from the nearest larval host plant and population source derived from expert knowledge) that are associated with the butterfly distributions. Response curves were generated for each species and projected spatially across Singapore's landscape to estimate occupancy. We found that both butterflies had clustered distributions with a greatly reduced probability of occurrence further away from identified population sources and non-native A. acuminata. Both study species had similar spatial niche and similar species occurrence responses though there were differences in habitat preferences and temporal niche. Both species showed positive dependence on managed tree cover (Rose more than Birdwing) but the Birdwing also had high positive dependence on natural tree cover, unlike the Rose. We report novel findings that a non-native host plant can provide positive ecological benefits and critically sustain tropical butterfly populations. While there will be a need to evaluate the full ecological impacts of non-native plantings, we suggest using them as a secondary strategy when re-establishment of the native plants has failed, particularly in highly urbanized tropical landscapes.
... During the present study species diversity values (H-) were found high in summer, spring and early winter. In the past few decades, butterfly populations in India have declined (Grewal, 1996), and it is often suggested that captive rearing / breeding and releasing of butterflies in the wild will help restock at-risk populations and serve as a means of conservation (Nicholls & Pullin, 2000; Mathew, 2001; Crone et al., 2007; Schultz et al., 2008). The basic protocol of captive propagation is to collect eggs from wild-mated female, rear larvae to adult butterflies in captive propagation facilities, and release adults/pupae back into wild populations (Crone et al., 2007). ...
... The need for conservation of insects is increasing with each year and the butterflies are considered to be the important flagships for insect conservation (New et al., 1995, Smetacek, 1996and Venkata Ramana 2010. In the past few decades, butterfly populations in India have declined (Grewal,1996), and it is often suggested that captive rearing / breeding and releasing of butterflies in the wild will help restock at-risk populations and serve as a means of conservation (Nicholls & Pullin, 2000;Mathew, 2001;Crone et al., 2007;Schultz et al., 2008). Currently, conservation organizations across North America, including accredited zoos and aquariums, are engaged in the captive rearing and reintroduction of endangered butterflies, protection of endangered butterfly habitat, and are conducting research about their unique habitat needs (http://www.butterflyrecovery.org/recovery/). ...
... In the past few decades, butterfly populations in India have declined (Grewal, 1996),and it was often suggested that captive rearing/breeding and releasing of butterflies in the wild will help restock at-risk populations and serve as a means of conservation (Nicholls and Pullin, 2000;Mathew, 2001;Crone et al., 2007;Schultz et al., 2008). Several zoos and other facilities currently engaged in captive rearing programs for protected butterfly species. ...
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The life history of the Monkey puzzle butterfly, Rathinda amor and larval performance in terms of food consumption and utilization, and the length of life cycle on its host plant Ixora arborea are described for the first time. The study was conducted during 2008 at Visakhapatnam (17°42' N and 82°18' E), South India. Rathinda amor completes its life cycle in 19-21 (19.80±0.84) days (Egg: 3; Larva: 8-10; Pupa: 8 days). The values of nutritional indices across the instars were AD (Approximate digestibility) 56.71-89.02%; ECD (Efficiency of Conversion of digested food) 2.61-16.83%; ECI (Efficiency of conversion of ingested food) 2.32-13.93%, measured at the temperature of 28 ±2°C and RH of 80±10% in the laboratory. These relatively high values of ECD and ECI explain at least partially the ecological success of Rathinda amor in the urban environment of Visakhapatnam.
... India hosts about 1501 butterfly species (12). But, in the past few decades, butterfly populations in India have declined (13), and it is often suggested that captive rearing/breeding and releasing of butterflies in the wild will help restock at-risk populations and serve as a means of conservation (7,17,20,26). Several zoos and other facilities currently engaged in captive rearing programs for protected butterfly species. ...
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The life history of the Common leopard butterfly, Phalanta phalantha and larval performance in terms of food consumption and utilization, and the length of life cycle on its host plant Flacourtia indicaare described for the first time. The study was conducted during 2009 at Visakhapatnam (17 o 42' N and 8218' E), South India. Phalanta phalantha completes its life cycle in 19 – 21 (20.20  0.84) days (Egg: 3; Larva: 10-12; Pupa: 6 days). The values of nutritional indices across the instars were AD (Approximate Digestibility) 66.49 – 96.29%; ECD (Efficiency of Conversion of Digested food) 1.95 – 30.12%; ECI (Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food) 1.88 – 20.03%, measured at the temperature of 28 ± 2 0 C and RH of 80 ± 10% in the laboratory. These relatively high values of ECD and ECI explain at least partially the ecological success of Phalanta phalantha in the urban environment of Visakhapatnam.
... For herbivores, restoration strategies typically aim to boost target populations by changing the environment to facilitate the establishment and growth of their food plants, with the assumption that vulnerable taxa will recover following the restoration of host abundance (the "Field of Dreams" myth sensu Hilderbrand et al. 2005). The effectiveness of such restoration efforts, however, is often unclear (Schultz et al. 2008, Bried et al. 2014, likely in part because these actions ignore restoration's effect on host plant quality (but see Pickens and Root 2008). This is surprising given the well-established relationships between abiotic v www.esajournals.org ...
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Conservation strategies for threatened species frequently include habitat restoration, but the success of such recovery efforts has been mixed. When the target is an insect herbivore, restoration efforts have traditionally attempted to increase the abundance of its host plant, but these actions' impact on host plant quality has largely been ignored. Here, we test the impact of two forms of habitat restoration, tree removal and stream damming, on the physical and chemical properties of a wetland sedge and on the adult traits of its larval consumer, a wetland butterfly. Tree removal altered plant physical and chemical traits in a manner largely consistent with reduced host plant quality. Females emerging from these plots had fewer mature oocytes in their ovaries upon emergence, suggesting that tree removal has a negative effect on butterfly potential fecundity. Stream damming did not affect plant traits but forewing length increased more steeply with body mass for females from these plots, indicating that small females from dammed plots have a relatively higher wing loading ratio that likely increases the energetic cost of flight. This idea was supported by results from our subsequent capture–mark–recapture study, where both female and male butterflies were less likely to emigrate from dammed plots. Male dispersal was also affected by restoration, but individual body mass rather than wing allometry mediated this effect. Our results highlight the need to consider restoration's impact on host plant quality, in addition to other aspects of habitat quality, when undertaking habitat restoration for threatened herbivores.
... Rare species may be more likely to be extirpated or suffer further declines with fragmentation and degradation because they are more likely to experience demographic stochasticity (Ovaskainen & Meerson 2010, Zhang et al. 2016), tend to have specific characteristics that may consistently cause species to become rare (Gomulkeiwicz 1998), have traits that can synergistically interact with landscape transformation (Davies et al. 2004), and are likely to be habitat specialists and thus less likely to traverse an interfragment matrix (Schultz et al. 2008, Dennis et al. 2013. It is, therefore, of critical importance to include rare species in the context of landscape transformation in Southeast Asia. ...
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Tropical butterfly conservation strategies often focus on total and/or common species richness to assess the conservation value of a patch or habitat. However, such a strategy overlooks the unique dynamics of rare species. We evaluated the species-habitat relationships of 209 common, intermediate, and rare butterfly species (including morphospecies) across four habitat types (mature, degraded, or fragmented forest, and urban parks) and two patch sizes (<400 ha, ≥400 ha) in Singapore. Common species richness was consistent across habitat types. Intermediate species richness declined by more than 50 percent in urban parks (relative to all forest habitats), and rare species richness was reduced by 50 percent in degraded and fragmented forest and by 90 percent in urban parks (relative to mature forest). Large patches had comparable overall richness to small patches, but they supported more rare species and three times as many habitat-restricted species over a similar area. Importantly, a number of rare species were confined to single small patches. Mixed-effects regression models were constructed to identify habitat and ecological/life history variables associated with butterfly abundance. These models revealed that species with greater habitat specialization, rare larval host plants, few larval host plant genera, and narrow global geographic ranges were more likely to be rare species. Overall, these results demonstrate that the richness of habitat-restricted and rare species do not follow the same spatial distribution patterns as common species. Therefore, while conserving mature forests is key, effective butterfly conservation in a transformed landscape should take into account rare and habitat-restricted species.
... With increasing numbers of butterfly species facing extinction, captive rearing programs are often considered as a management tool to augment or repopulate threatened populations. Captive breeding of vulnerable butterfly populations has played an important role in the recovery and ongoing conservation of many threatened and endangered species, but the effectiveness of these efforts can be unclear due to inadequate monitoring and follow-up [92]. Nevertheless, some butterfly species appear to have greatly benefitted from population augmentation enabled by captive breeding programs [93]. ...
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Speyeria (Nymphalidae) are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants). Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.
... Variable life strategies may enable taxa to persist in spite of, or in response to, unstable or stochastic features in their changing ecosystems, as well as determine their range and distribution (Walker 1986;Kinsgsolver 1995;Abrams et al. 1996;Brakefield 1996;Davis et al. 1996;Fischer & Fielder 2002;Hanski et al. 2006;Gaston 2009;Thomas 2011;Xu et al. 2012). The capacity of native invertebrate species to adapt to changing ecological factors may be the driver that either strengthens their fitness, or leads to their extirpation or extinction (Hardy & Dennis 1999;Schultz et al. 2008;Thomas 2011). There are documented changes in dispersal and range records for many species (Blau 1981;Gaston 2009;Walther et al. 2002) because of environmental changes, which lead to variations in survival, size, and fecundity, as well as altered interactions within the interspecies community, such as avian migration and bud break, or senescence (Walther et al. 2002). ...
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Insects are excellent indicator species for documenting changes in ecosystems and biodiversity, and south Florida is a recognized “hotspot” for hundreds of rare and endemic taxa. The capacity of native invertebrate species to adapt to changing ecological factors may be the dynamic that either strengthens their fitness or drives their extirpation or extinction. Variable life strategies may evolve that enable those taxa to persist, in spite of, or in response to, unstable or stochastic features in their changing ecosystems. Florida insects are subject to many extremes: drought, flooding, hurricanes, and high-wind tropical storms, as well as urban threats such as pesticide use and fragmented remnant habitats. The Atala, Eumaeus atala (Poey) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), which was once believed to be extinct, is still considered to be an insect of conservation concern in southeast Florida for those reasons. In this study, environmental chambers were programmed to simulate the widely varying climatic conditions found in southeast Miami, Florida, to understand the ranges in the life history and development of the Atala. Results indicated that pupal and adult male polyphenism and variations in development time are determined by seasonal changes in temperature, humidity, and photoperiod; these factors may indicate stressadaptive responses increasing pupal survival and male mating success.
... Considering the IUCN status of O. croesus which has been classified as NT -near threatened (Böhm, 2018), direct collections of adults and pupae from the natural habitats should be avoided. For species with declining populations, conservation strategies need to be assessed (Schultz et al., 2008). A breeding facility exists on Bacan Island, in which an environmentally friendly method of semi-natural breeding of O. croesus lydius and a few other butterfly species was developed. ...
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Indonesia is rich in endemic species of flora and fauna. One of them is Ornithoptera croesus butterfly, which is endemic to North Maluku. Habitat degradation and trade of this species have caused the populations to decline. To avoid the collection of butterfly specimens from nature and to preserve their habitat and population in nature, a semi-natural butterfly breeding practice at Bacan Island was initiated in 2013. This research was conducted to assess the breeding approach for O. croesus lydius using a qualitative descriptive method. The assessment was based on these variables: the specific ecology of the butterfly; the suitability of the breeding site and development model; the utilization of larval host plants and butterfly nectar plants; and the establishment of the birdwing population at the site. The observations and results are presented here. Based on the assessment, the in-situ semi-natural breeding approach is one of the solutions for sustainable use of this protected species.
... The need for conservation of insects is increasing with each year and the butterflies are considered to be the important flagships for insect conservation (New et al., 1995, Smetacek, 1996and Venkata Ramana 2010. In the past few decades, butterfly populations in India have declined (Grewal,1996), and it is often suggested that captive rearing / breeding and releasing of butterflies in the wild will help restock at-risk populations and serve as a means of conservation (Nicholls & Pullin, 2000;Mathew, 2001;Crone et al., 2007;Schultz et al., 2008). Currently, conservation organizations across North America, including accredited zoos and aquariums, are engaged in the captive rearing and reintroduction of endangered butterflies, protection of endangered butterfly habitat, and are conducting research about their unique habitat needs (http://www.butterflyrecovery.org/recovery/). ...
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The Eastern Ghats are a series of low hills which run parallel to the east coast of India. This series of isolated hills run from Orissa southwards through Andhra Pradesh. For this study Talakona, Seshachalam and Lankamalai areas were chosen. These Bio-Sphere Reserves enjoys a wide variety of plant, insect and animal species. The current study sites were situated at the foot hills of Eastern Ghats has good butterfly fauna. Butterflies in this area belong to 5 families, with 150 species; of which 10 species are endemic, 8 rare and 17 very rare species were recorded. The present study surveyed 84 individual butterfly species belonging to 5 families namely Nymphalidae (29), Pieridae (21), Lycaenidae (18), Hesperiidae (5) and Papilionidae (11), which revealed that Nymphalidae and Pieridae are the rich dominant families, while Hesperiidae and Papilionidae are less dominant. High incidences of butterfly population were observed during June to August and diminished through October to December. The butterfly population of species is gradually decreasing in number due to anthropogenic impacts.
... The Oregon silverspot is a federally threatened butterfly whose survival depends on habitat restoration (McCorkle and Hammond 1988;Bierzychudek and Warner 2015). A reliance on habitat restoration is common for many declining butterflies (Schultz et al. 2008;Wagner and Van Driesche 2010), including two other U.S. federally listed S. zerene subspecies: the Behren's silverspot (S. z. behrensii; endangered) and Myrtle's silverspot (S. z. myrtleae; endangered; Hammond and McCorkle 1983;Sims 2017). Oregon silverspots and other federally listed S. zerene subspecies mostly reside in fragmented coastal grasslands from which it is particularly difficult to successfully remove invasive plants using non-chemical methods (USFWS 2009(USFWS , 2016Silvernail 2017). ...
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Herbicides are used as management tools to improve habitat for native plants and animals, but their application may also have harmful effects on the native community. The federally threatened Oregon silverspot butterfly (Speyeria = Argynnis zerene hippolyta) resides in remnant native grasslands along the Pacific Northwest coast. However, like many grasslands, many of these areas have high incidences of invasive plants, such as false dandelion (Hypochaeris radicata) and velvet grass (Holcus lanatus). These and other invasive plants severely limit the abundance of the Oregon silverspot’s larval host plant, the early blue violet (Viola adunca). Selective herbicides, such as clopyralid and fluazifop-P-butyl, can reduce invasive plant abundance. However, non-target effects of these herbicides, and of adjuvants applied with these herbicides, on Oregon silverspots are unknown. In our study, we applied herbicides and adjuvants to host plants and Zerene silverspot (S. z. zerene) larvae, a subspecies closely related to Oregon silverspots. Responses in silverspot larvae measured in two experiments included survival, sex ratio, development time, mass, morphology, fecundity, and behavior. Our results suggest that negative effects of herbicides, clopyralid and fluazifop-P-butyl, and adjuvants, Agri-Dex® and Nu-Film®-IR, are limited. However, we detected weak effects from clopyralid and fluazifop-P-butyl with and without Agri-Dex® on larval and pupal development time and pupal mass. Implications for insect conservation Our study contributes to the growing literature on non-target effects of herbicides on butterflies, which suggests that butterfly responses are species- and chemical-specific. For Speyeria species, our results indicate that the risks posed by the herbicides we examined are low. In management settings where herbicides are used to combat invasive species posing a conservation threat to native communities, monitoring the direct and indirect effects of herbicides on Oregon silverspots or other Speyeria butterflies will shed additional light on the risk–benefit tradeoffs.
... Appropriate habitat management of endangered butterfly species highly depends on sufficient knowledge of their required habitat quality parameters, which is often lacking (Schultz et al. 2008;Sutherland et al. 2004). Butterflies 1 3 may require a variety of microhabitats to provide the vital resources required during subsequent life stages of their life cycle (Dennis et al. 2006;Wynhoff et al. 2008). ...
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The decline of open habitats in Europe, such as semi-natural grasslands and heathlands, has caused a general decline in biodiversity, which has been well documented for butterflies. Current conservation practices often involve grazing by domestic livestock to maintain suitable butterfly habitats. The extent to which wild ungulates may play a similar role remains largely unknown. Through their rooting activity, wild boar could be effective to reduce grass encroachment and restore pioneer microhabitats that are vital to many grassland insects in temperate climates. Here, we assessed the microhabitat requirements of Pyrgus malvae, an endangered butterfly of heathland and grassland habitats in the Netherlands, with special attention for the influence of wild boar rooting. To date, oviposition site selection of this species has concentrated on calcareous grasslands, whereas we also include heathlands. Overall, larval occupancy was higher in warm, open and sparsely vegetated microhabitats, which supports earlier findings. In heathland, microhabitat occupancy was positively affected by bryophyte and litter cover. In heath-grassland mosaic, microhabitat occupancy was also influenced by bryophyte and litter cover, but in addition low grass cover increased occupancy by favouring host plants. In grassland, only low grass cover and host plant cover determined microhabitat quality. Across all habitats, occupied microhabitats were characterized by lower vegetation as well as higher average daytime temperatures than unoccupied microhabitats. We discovered that wild boar play an important role in reducing grass cover by shallow rooting in grass patches, thereby increasing host plant availability. Hence, wild boar may have an added value in maintaining and restoring P. malvae microhabitats in grassland habitats in addition to grazing by domestic livestock.
... For threatened species being reared in captivity but destined for reintroduction, it may be possible to use rearing conditions that are relevant to conditions likely to be experienced in the field. To date, the success of captive breeding efforts has mostly focussed on the number of founders used to establish colonies (Schultz et al. 2008), but the importance of adaptation in successful reintroductions is at least recognized (Aardema et al. 2011). Minor changes in rearing procedures such as the type of container used to maintain stock populations could have a marked effect on patterns and rates of lab adaption, as noted for life history traits in replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) by Sgrò and Partridge (2001). ...
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Insects and other invertebrates can readily adapt to a range of environmental conditions and these include conditions used in artificial rearing. This can lead to problems when mass rearing insects and mites for release as biocontrol agents or in sterile insect control programs, and when using laboratory strains to understand field population dynamics. Laboratory adaptation experiments also help to understand potential rates of trait evolution and repeatability of evolutionary changes. Here, we review evidence for laboratory adaptation across invertebrates, contrasting different taxonomic groups and providing estimates of the rate of evolutionary change across trait classes. These estimates highlight rapid changes in the order of 0.033 (median) haldanes and up to 2.4 haldanes, along with proportional changes in traits of more than 10% per generation in some cases. Traits tended to change in the direction of increased fitness for Coleoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera, but changes in Lepidoptera were often in the opposite direction. Laboratory-adapted lines tend to be more sensitive to stress, likely reflecting relaxed selection for stress-related traits. Morphological traits show smaller changes under laboratory conditions than other types of traits. Estimates of evolutionary rates slowed as more generations were included in comparisons, perhaps reflecting nonlinear dynamics although such patterns may also reflect variance differences among trait classes. The rapid rate of laboratory adaptation in some cultures reinforces the need to develop guidelines for maintaining quality during mass rearing and highlights the need for caution when using laboratory lines to represent the performance of species in vulnerability assessments.
... The failure of translocation cases were caused by small released populations, disease infection, high dispersal stage used for releasing, low quality of habitat and weather conditions when releasing. The previous study [59] analyzed the documentations of 50 reintroduction activities of butterfly species and concluded that the successful projects had a higher number of attempts (per species) (11.1 ± 11.3 times for successful and 3.5 ± 3.2 times for unsuccessful programs). Successful programs introduced at least 292 individuals per reintroduction and continued for three years. ...
Chapter
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Conservation translocation is frequently used to conserve the threatened fauna by releasing individuals from the wild or captive populations into a particular area. This approach, however, is not successful in many cases because the translocated populations could not self-sustain in the new habitats. In this chapter, I reviewed the concept of translocation for conservation and the factors associated with the success rate. I used example problems from several cases involving different insect taxa. With its often high potential to mass rear in captivity, captive breeding can be a powerful tool by assuring large population size for insect translocation, which can result in a high success rate. However, genetic consequences from inbreeding and genetic adaptation to captivity can reduce the fitness of the captive population to establish successfully in the wild. Additionally, as the evidence in Japanese fireflies shows, the genetic differences between the translocated and local populations should be considered for a sustainable translocation program. A case study involved genetic and behavioral evaluation of S. aquatilis populations to assess the possibility of including the species for the firefly translocation program in Thailand. Although the results revealed no genetic variation among populations, examination of the variation in flash signals showed that the long-distance population had a longer courtship flash pulse than other populations in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. With no geographical barrier, the light pollution and urbanization are probably important fragmented barriers causing adaptation of flash communication to increase the fitness. As a consequence, firefly translocation should consider flash variation between populations to prevent this potential pre-mating isolation mechanism from resulting in probable lower translocation success rates.
... This lack of standardization and communication of translocation results (whether successful or unsuccessful) creates a void for other programs to learn from one another and to benefit from the continued development and refinement of best practices. As organism translocations can be expensive and their success in general has been mixed [15,16], especially for Lepidopteran programs [17], such information would not only help advance the field, but also likely improve overall recovery targets. Structured-decision making processes that were developed by the IUCN [18] weigh the potential costs and benefits for all possible ex situ actions (including no action) in a transparent and informed manner. ...
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The use of human mediated translocations has been an increasing component of many species recovery initiatives, including for numerous imperiled Lepidopteran species. Despite the identified need for this ex situ strategy, few such programs are conducted in a scientifically repeatable way, are executed with a structured decision-making process, are well documented throughout, or are documented only in gray literature. The International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Guidelines for Reintroductions and Other Conservation Translocations are an important tool for conservation practitioners to help implement comprehensive translocation planning. These generalized guidelines are intended to be applicable to all taxa. Though there is a growing body of literature and supplementary guidelines for many vertebrate classes, other proposed standards fail to capture the specific biology of many invertebrate groups, like Lepidoptera. Here, we present a targeted list of detailed recommendations that are appropriate for Lepidopteran translocation programs to expand on the broad and tested guidelines developed by the IUCN. We assert that the increased standardization and repeatability among Lepidopteran translocations will improve the conservation outcomes.
... It is difficult to obtain an adequate sample size to conduct formal meta-analyses of management strategies due to practical challenges in collection of species-habitat data (Beaudry et al., 2010), under-reporting of non-significant results (Koricheva, 2003), and disparate site-histories (Tempel et al., 2016). Quantitative estimates of habitat management effects are limited for many conservation reliant species (Boarman and Kristan, 2006;Schultz et al., 2008). Moreover, datasets on effects of management strategies on endangered species may only include measurements on a small number of focal individuals in a population, thereby failing to satisfy assumptions of parametric modeling techniques (Koricheva and Gurevitch, 2014), and preventing controlled comparisons among focal individuals or groups (Carrete et al., 2008). ...
Article
Meta-analyses are powerful tools for synthesizing wildlife-habitat relationships, but small sample sizes and complex species-habitat relationships often preclude correlative meta-analyses on endangered species. In this study, we demonstrate qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) as a tool that can reliably synthesize habitat-fitness relationships from small sample sizes for species with narrow habitat requirements. We apply QCA to results from a habitat threshold regression tree model and identify habitat thresholds with consistent positive effects on fitness of the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Dryobates borealis; RCW) on the Savannah River Site, USA. We reformulated regression tree results in a QCA framework to examine the consistency of threshold effects on RCW fledgling production at the individual group level (n = 47). Synthesizing regression tree results with QCA revealed alternative combinations of habitat thresholds that in conjunction with group size consistently led to above-average fledgling production for 41 of 47 (88%) individual RCW groups. Importantly, QCA identified unique combinations of habitat thresholds and group size related to above-average fledgling production that were not retained in the regression tree model due to small sample sizes. Synthesizing a small habitat-fitness dataset using QCA provided a tractable method to identify unique combinations of habitat and group size conditions that are consistently important to individual fitness, but may not be detected by meta-analyses that can be biased by small sample sizes. QCA offers a viable approach for synthesis of habitat-fitness relationships and can be extended to address many complex issues in endangered species recovery when correlative meta-analyses are not possible.
... Therefore, it was necessary to know the exact needs of the immature stages to make conservation successful. It was often suggested that captive rearing and releasing of species in the wild will Threatened populations and serve as a means of protection [17,18,19,20] . Butterflies are an essential component of any natural ecosystem. ...
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In the study was described the life history of the small orange tip butterfly, Colotis etrida (Boisduval, 1836), monthly occurrence and seasonality of early stages and larval performance in terms of food consumption and utilization, and the length of the life cycle. Field study indicated that Colotis etrida was in continuous flight and reproduction, with highest densities of early and adult stages occurring during June-September, the time of the entire SouthWest monsoon. The occurrence of the early stages was positive, but non-significantly correlated with rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and day length. Field data on the numerical occurrence of eggs, larvae and pupae on the larval host plant Cadaba fruiticosa (L.), Druce (Brassicales: Caparidaceae) and the laboratory study on the successful development of eggs, larvae and pupae leading to the emergence of adult butterflies. The eggs are laid singly on the foliage. They hatch after 3-4 days. The larva passes through five instars and attains full growth over a period of 11-16 days. The pupal stage lasts 9-10 days. Assuming that the adult's life for 7-12 days, the length of generation time was estimated to span over 23-30 days, and accordingly the number of broods expected are estimated to be 6-7. The fifth instar larva has a greater share of the total food consumed over the entire larval period and growth was directly related to food consumption. While growth rate, fluctuated, consumption index showed a continuous decrease with the advancing age of the larvae, and their average values are 6.6 mm; and 5.4 mg; respectively. While the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested FV Decreased as the larvae aged, with the average values coming to 15.32% and 13.44%, 88.8% respectively. Colotis etrida – Cadaba fruiticosa system presents an interesting situation of the same plant serving as larval and adult host, and the butterfly serving as is an exclusive pollinator.
... Black-veined White Aporia crataegi, Large Copper Lycaena dispar, Mazarine Blue Cyaniris semiargus and Large Tortoiseshell Nymphalis polychloros), the UK has one of the lowest proportions of extinct butterflies among European countries (Fox et al. 2011;Maes et al. 2019). Part of the success of butterfly conservation in the UK can be attributed to reintroduction projects, although not all of them were equally successful (Oates and Warren 1990;Schultz et al. 2008). One of the best known and most successful reintroductions in the United Kingdom is that of the Large Blue Phengaris arion (Linnaeus 1758), a myrmecophilous butterfly that went extinct in 1979, but is now present in several populations in southern England ). ...
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The Chequered Skipper Carterocephalus palaemon inhabits a variety of habitats in NW Europe: heathlands, wet grasslands and chalk grasslands, usually at woodland edges and wide rides and glades in different types of woodlands. It mainly uses broadleaved grasses such as Molinia, Calamagrostis and Brachypodium as host plants. The species became extinct in England in 1976 and an earlier reintroduction attempt in 1995-99 was unsuccessful. Using species distribution models, we located potential source regions in NW Europe for its reintroduction to England. To do so, we gathered distribution data of the butterfly and environmental variables (Corine Land Cover and climate data) from four regions in Belgium (Belgian Campine, Fagne-Famenne-Calestienne, Ardenne-Thiérache and Gaume-Lorraine), two in the Netherlands (Achterhoek and Dutch Campine) and one in the United Kingdom (Argyll, Scotland). We calibrated the models in these regions and projected them to the Rockingham Forest landscape, the reintroduction site in England. The Fagne-Famenne-Calestienne and the Gaume-Lorraine model resulted in the highest average probability when projected to the Rockingham Forest landscape. Based on additional expert knowledge on potential host plant abundance and the presence of large source populations, the Fagne-Famenne-Calestienne was selected as the source region for the reintroduction of the Chequered Skipper to England. To assess the possible impact of climate change, we also built a model with present-day climate data in NW Europe and modelled the probability of occurrence in the Rockingham Forest landscape in the year 2070. The species was predicted to increase in the Rockingham Forest landscape under future climate conditions.
... Remnant prairies represent the best examples of historical tallgrass prairie ecosystems, and thus often serve as target communities for reconstruction efforts. Of particular interest for monitoring and conservation are taxa that may not be able to surmount the obstacles to colonisation posed by habitat fragmentation, such as grasshoppers (Acrididae) (Hjermann & Ims, 1996;Reinhardt et al., 2005;Schultz et al., 2008;Heidinger et al., 2010;Ortego et al., 2015). ...
Article
• Tallgrass prairies, which once occupied a large swath of central North America, face the combined challenges of habitat loss and fragmentation. In Missouri, where less than 1% the historical prairie remains, prairies are being reconstructed from agricultural or wooded land. • Invertebrates are often assumed to colonise reconstructions if native vegetation returns; however, the limited mobility of many invertebrates, the isolation of many tallgrass remnants, and the difficulty in establishing prairie plants raise serious questions as to whether invertebrate communities on reconstructed prairies are and will be equivalent to those found on remnant prairies. • Grasshoppers (Acrididae) display a range of dispersal capabilities and may be valuable for assessing the success of prairie restoration for invertebrates. • Our first objective was to compare grasshopper communities on reconstructed and remnant prairies and, if differences existed, identify species or functional groups associated with each habitat type. The second objective was to evaluate the effect of time because prairie reconstruction on grasshopper communities to determine if communities on reconstructions are converging with communities on remnants. • Our results suggest that prairie reconstructions in Missouri do not support the same communities of grasshoppers as prairie remnants. • Grasshopper diversity was generally greater on remnants. Many species had not colonised nearby reconstructions. • Communities on prairie reconstructions were characterised by a few long‐winged, generalist species that are typically successful in agroecosystems. • Further investigation into the habitat disparities driving low grasshopper diversity on reconstructions could help restore the grasshopper community of reconstructions.
... Conservation of imperiled butterfly species will likely require a multifaceted approach, including habitat restoration and management, population monitoring and management, and organism translocation and reintroduction (Crone et al., 2007;Daniels et al., 2018;Schultz et al., 2008). A review of 50 vulnerable butterfly species across Europe and North America found that the majority of conservation strategies recommend species reintroductions (Schultz et al., 2008, pg. ...
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Raising insects in a laboratory for release into the wild is a common conservation practice, but maintaining breeding colonies year-round can be limited by seasonal food availability. Food availability is particularly challenging for insects which depend on specific host plants. For example, our early efforts to rear the imperiled Atala hairstreak butterfly (Eumaeus atala Poey) resulted in colony failure during winter due to lack of food. To overcome this barrier, we developed a modified freeze-dried host plant diet to support the colony. The diet consisted of reconstituted freeze-dried leaves and stems from fresh-growth coontie (Zamia integrifolia), the host plant for the Atala butterflies. We fed larvae less than 9 mm on this freeze-dried diet and transferred them to live coontie plants after they were more than 9 mm. We reared a colony of Atala butterflies using these methods for 859 days, resulting in more than 3400 animals released into the wild. Comparing colony counts during that time period to the 548 days we reared them without modified freeze-dried diet showed a clear benefit in using freeze-dried diet. A growth trial (N = 40) of larvae fed on only freeze-dried diet compared to larvae fed on fresh coontie cuttings found no significant difference in larval or pupal development between groups (p = 0.71 and p = 0.47, respectively). We, therefore, conclude that the freeze-dried diet provided an appropriate alternative for Atala colonies when fresh growth from the host plant is unavailable, and we recommend use of this technique for raising other host plant-dependent insect species of conservation concern.
... For example, here, modifying canopy cover and managing for a mosaic of shading on hill aspects has proved a valuable climate adaption strategy. Great effort is expended in habitat restoration and species management, but unfortunately, few track ecosystem responses (Schultz, Russell, & Wynn, 2008). Structured annual monitoring and tracking of proximate indicators based on habitat goals can provide quantitative information for adaptive decision making (Bried et al., 2014;Landres, Morgan, & Swanson, 1999;Murphy & Weiland, 2011). ...
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In 2011, an experiment was undertaken to examine spring synchrony between the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) (Kbb) and its obligate host plant, wild blue lupine (Lupinus perennis) at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU), where the southernmost population of Kbb occurred at the time of this study. From 2012 to 2014, field‐placed Kbb eggs were observed for larvae hatching in conjunction with observations of lupine emergence in oak savanna habitat. In 2012, 61% of Kbb hatched when <5% of lupine had emerged due to an extreme early spring event as compared to subsequent years where temporal overlap was >15% between Kbb and lupine. Laboratory experiments testing the sensitivity of Kbb hatching to warm temperatures during the winter of 2011–2012 confirmed that Kbb eggs were susceptible to temperature‐induced hatching. In the summer of 2012, second generation Kbb larvae feeding on sun‐exposed lupine had higher mortality due to the heat and drought conditions that resulted in earlier plant senescence. Following 2012, Kbb were no longer observed at INDU. This observation illustrates the pressing need for adaptive management strategies that account for extreme weather events brought on by climate change.
... For such taxa, more than half of the identified recovery strategies recommend captive propagation or state that captive propagation should be assessed 7 . The use of ex situ conservation efforts for butterflies has grown considerably in recent years 8,9 , and has the potential to be a critical tool to aid recovery efforts 10 . Numerous institutions, organizations, and agencies are currently involved with ex situ efforts for at least 11 ESA-listed butterfly taxa (i.e., Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri, Euphydryas editha quino, Euphydryas editha taylori, Heraclides aristodemus, Hesperia dacotae, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, Oarisma poweshiek, Pyrgus ruralis lagunae, and Speryeria zerene hippolyta) and several other at-risk taxa (e.g., Callophrys irus, Euphydryas phaeton, Speyeria idalia, and Eumaeus atala) 11 . ...
... The need for conservation of insects is increasing with each year and the butterflies are considered to be the important flagships for insect conservation (New et al., 1995;Smetacek, 1996;VenkataRamana,2010VenkataRamana, & 2011. In the past few decades, butterfly populations in India have declined (Grewal,1996), and it is often suggested that captive rearing/breeding and releasing of butterflies in the wild will help restock at-risk populations and serve as a means of conservation (Nicholls &Pullin, 2000;Mathew, 2001;Crone et al., 2007;Schultz et al., 2008). The Eastern Ghats is a series of low hills, which run parallel to the east coast of India. ...
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Astudy was carried out during the period of January 2016 to December 2016.Thebutterflies were collectedfromdifferentaltitudesofNallamalahills (Dornala, Velugodu, Atmakur, Yerragundapalem, PullalaCheruvu, Sundipenta and Srisailam), Eastern Ghats of Southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Ninety-four speciesofbutterflies from 56 genera, 15 subfamilies under fivefamiliesweredocumented. The highest numbers of species wererecorded from the family Nymphalidae (32%) followed by Pieridae (30%), Lycaenidae (15%), Papilionidae (13%), and least number of species were recorded from Hesperiidae (10%).The present study also deals with species dominance, evenness, and diversity variations and observationsthat weremadeonthebasisof differentseasonaloccurrence & altitudes and later. We also documented the rare butterflies in the study area, which acknowledges the value of this region for conservation.
... On the other hand, when it comes to active and sustainable forms of nature conservation, it seems reasonable to re-establish populations by releasing specimens into isolated and vacant habitats, or restoring populations by artificial dispersion and introduction (Turin et al. 2003;Schultz et al. 2008). ...
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The authors report on the occurrence of introduced populations of non-native taxa belonging to the subgenus Chrysocarabus Thomson, 1875 in Belgium. More information is provided regarding the species and habitats. Résumé. Les auteurs signalent la présence en Belgique d'espèces introduites appartenant au sous-genre Chrysocarabus Thomson, 1875. De l'information est fournie concernant les espèces mentionnées et sur les habitats.
... In the past few decades, butterfly populations in India have declined (Grewal, 1996), and it is often suggested that captive rearing/breeding and releasing of butterflies in the wild will help restock at-risk populations and serve as a means of conservation (Varshney, 1986;Herms et al., 1996;Nicholls & Pullin, 2000;Mathew, 2001;Crone et al., 2007;Schultz et al., 2008). Several zoos and other facilities currently engaged in captive rearing programs for protected butterfly species. ...
Article
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We describe, for the first time, the life history of the Joker butterfly, Byblia ilithyia Drury and larval performance in terms of food consumption and utilization, and the length of life cycle on its host plant Tragia plukenetii A. R. Smith. Our study was conducted throughout 2007 in the Andhra University campus and the Zoo Park area, 5 km away from the campus, at Visakhapatnam (17° 42' N and 82° 18' E), South India. Byblia ilithyia completes its life cycle in 19.20 ± 1.30 days (eggs 3, larvae, 9-12, pupa 5-6 days). The values of nutritional indices across the instars were AD (Approximate Digestibility) 55.77-94.98%; ECD (Efficiency of Conversion of Digested food) 1.93-25.26; ECI (Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food) 1.83-14.09, measured at the temperature of 28 ± 2 °C and RH of 80 ± 10% in the laboratory. These relatively high values, at least partially explain ecological success of B. ilithyia in the urban environment.
... Studies have been conducted in various academic fields, such as ecology, embryology, conservation biology, and genetics because the biological scopes of endangered species (gene-cell-individual-population-community) have been diversified and conservation strategies for endangered species have been advanced. In practice, the basic strategy of endangered species restoration follows the process of "introduction","proliferation", and "reintroduction" (Mikota and Aguilar 1996;Yam et al 2010;Schultz et al 2008). During this process, various biological scales are considered at each step. ...
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Continuous development due to human activities has extinctionized many floral and faunal species on earth and seriously threatened the ecosystem. Many countries are working hard to protect and restore endangered species by conducting a range of studies. This study conducted text mining and sentiment analysis based on the results of the previous studies on endangered species to present practical protection and conservation methods through identifying the research trend of endangered species in South Korea. This study found 451 peer-reviewed papers and abstracts. One hundred eight-seven species were studied, and the number of publications exponentially increased from the 1980s to the 2010s. The largest number of studies was conducted in the field of ecology (203 publications), and majority of studies examined plants (223 publications). “Taxa”, “plant”, “study”, and “Korea” appeared the most regardless of weighting factors. It was found that words associated with plant identification, habitat area, and environmental characteristics, those affecting the survival of species and those related to conservation policies formed a network relationship. The results of this study showed that researchers used positive words more than negative words from the 1990s to the 2010s, but the use of positive words decreased over time. The results implied that the restoration of endangered species was hard socially and scientifically. Understanding the research trend on endangered species in South Korea will be helpful in developing and proposing important directions for endangered species restoration research planned at the national level. We hope that various efforts are given to improve endangered species restoration research techniques and raise social awareness for producing practical achievements.
... The need for conservation of insects is increasing with each year and the butterflies are considered to be the important flagships for insect conservation (New et al., 1995, Smetacek, 1996and Venkata Ramana 2010. In the past few decades, butterfly populations in India have declined (Grewal,1996), and it is often suggested that captive rearing / breeding and releasing of butterflies in the wild will help restock at-risk populations and serve as a means of conservation (Nicholls & Pullin, 2000;Mathew, 2001;Crone et al., 2007;Schultz et al., 2008). Currently, conservation organizations across North America, including accredited zoos and aquariums, are engaged in the captive rearing and reintroduction of endangered butterflies, protection of endangered butterfly habitat, and are conducting research about their unique habitat needs (http://www.butterflyrecovery.org/recovery/). ...
Article
Interest in at-risk butterfly conservation has grown tremendously in recent years, as has the number of dedicated recovery initiatives. Zoos, natural history museums, botanical gardens, and state and federal wildlife agencies are progressively focusing on insects, particularly charismatic groups such as butterflies and pollinators, to help advance local conservation efforts and foster increased public interest and community engagement. However, insufficient experience and familiarity with butterflies can often hinder conservation practitioners from adequately planning, implementing and evaluating essential program components. Determining the best ways to make meaningful contributions to new or ongoing at-risk butterfly recovery initiatives is critical and typically driven by available expertise and resources. This book is intended to serve as a basic primer for practitioners interested in working with butterflies. The various chapters provide a combination of specific case studies and broader overviews of key themes inherent to most initiatives. A detailed decision tree is discussed to review available options.
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We present a long-term analysis of the results of the Apollo butterfly Parnassius apollo recovery project in the Pieniny National Park, southern Poland, using a classical population ecology model. Six possible theoretical models of changes in population abundance were constructed and their predictions compared with current data. Models that did not take into account supplementation with captive-reared individuals provided the best fit to the population growth pattern during recovery. This was probably because of the introduction of captive-reared specimens to sites while habitat reconstruction was taking place. In addition, we provide data supporting the hypothesis that a significant reduction in the habitat's carrying capacity occurred during the restoration project, probably as a result of the population being over-supplemented with captive-reared individuals. Our analysis shows that for a recovery project to be successful, captive breeding and habitat restoration should be properly coordinated.
Poster
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We documented the butterfly fauna and the host plants available in the Yogi Vemana University Campus during January 2013 to December 2013. Total 85 species of butterflies belonging to 5 families were recorded. This forms 46% of the butterflies documented from the Eastern Ghats. Fifty species of plants were found to be used as larval food plants in the campus. Among the butterflies recorded, 36 % belonged to Nymphalidae family, whereas family Hesperiidae showed lowest number of species (11%). Catopsilia pomona, Tirumala limniace, Danaus chrysippus, Eurema hecabe, Castalius rosimon, Junonia hierta, Junonia lemonias and Euploea core were the common species found in the campus. Present study reveals the butterfly diversity and habitat richness of Yogi Vemana University Campus. However, alteration of the landscape as part of the construction works and other developmental activities are harmfully affecting the habitat quality and the associated butterfly diversity of this campus. Subsequent to our study, we established Butterflies Park and also declared about 19 acres of the unaffected natural area under Botanical garden with both Larval and Nectar host plants of the campus as a conservation area. This field laboratory, glass house (Butterfly Museum) with attached butterfly laboratory to carry forward the captive breeding methods to conserve the threatened and endangered species and also enables to restock the species in the wild. Conserved species of butterflies is now being used for various in‐campus biodiversity studies as well as conservation awareness programmes focusing school children and people from various backgrounds through seminars and telecasting through Television news channels enlightening the importance of conservation of the locally available species.
Chapter
Examples discussed in the previous chapter help to emphasise that knowledge of mutualisms has two rather different roles in practical conservation, but in both those areas of interest, the importance of fundamental understanding of the interactions’ functions can guide the purposes and practices of any needed management. Threats to, and conservation of, mutualisms are discussed in this chapter.
Conference Paper
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We documented the butterfly fauna and the host plants available in the Yogi Vemana University Campus. Total 54 species of butterflies belonging to 5 families were recorded. This forms 36% of the butterflies documented from the Eastern Ghats. Fifty species of plants were found to be used as larval food plants in the campus. Among the butterflies recorded, 36 % belonged to Nymphalidae family, where as family Hesperiidae showed lowest number of species (11%). Catopsilia pomona, Tirumala limniace, Danaus chrysippus, Eurema hecabe, Castalius rosimon, Junonia hierta, Junonia lemonias and Euploea core were the common species found in the campus. Present study reveals the butterfly diversity and habitat richness of YVU Campus. However, alteration of the landscape as part of the construction works and other developmental activities are harmfully affecting the habitat quality and the associated butterfly diversity of this campus. Subsequent to our study, we established Butterflies Park and also declared about 19 acres of the unaffected natural area under Botanical garden with both Larval and Nectar host plants of the campus as a conservation area. This field laboratory, glass house (Butterfly Museum) with attached butterfly laboratory to carry forward the captive breeding methods to conserve the threatened and endangered species and also enables to restock the species in the wild. Conserved species of butterflies is now being used for various in‐campus biodiversity studies as well as conservation awareness programmes focusing school children and people from various backgrounds through seminars and telecasting through T.V. channels enlightening the importance of conservation of the locally available species.
Article
Full-text available
We documented the butterfly fauna and the host plants available in the Yogi Vemana University Campus during January 2013 to December 2013. Total 85 species of butterflies belonging to 5 families were recorded. This forms 46% of the butterflies documented from the Eastern Ghats. Fifty species of plants were found to be used as larval food plants in the campus. Among the butterflies recorded, 36 % belonged to Nymphalidae family, whereas family Hesperiidae showed lowest number of species (11%). Catopsilia pomona, Tirumala limniace, Danaus chrysippus, Eurema hecabe, Castalius rosimon, Junonia hierta, Junonia lemonias and Euploea core were the common species found in the campus. Present study reveals the butterfly diversity and habitat richness of Yogi Vemana University Campus. However, alteration of the landscape as part of the construction works and other developmental activities are harmfully affecting the habitat quality and the associated butterfly diversity of this campus. Subsequent to our study, we established Butterflies Park and also declared about 19 acres of the unaffected natural area under Botanical garden with both Larval and Nectar host plants of the campus as a conservation area. This field laboratory, glass house (Butterfly Museum) with attached butterfly laboratory to carry forward the captive breeding methods to conserve the threatened and endangered species and also enables to restock the species in the wild. Conserved species of butterflies is now being used for various in‐campus biodiversity studies as well as conservation awareness programmes focusing school children and people from various backgrounds through seminars and telecasting through Television news channels enlightening the importance of conservation of the locally available species.
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An important component of recent nature conservation is the ecological restoration of semi‐natural grasslands. The aim of such projects is usually the restoration of typical plant communities; translocation of animals, by contrast, plays only a minor role. This is based on the assumption that a recovery of the flora will lead to recovered fauna; however, this is not always the case. Suction samplers with gauze collection bags are well‐suited to sample arthropods, and they may also be helpful for transferring animals. However, to date, the suitability of suction samplers as a translocation tool is unclear due to a lack of empirical data on the mortality rate of the sampled arthropod taxa. In this study, we sampled arthropods (leafhoppers, spiders, beetles, and true bugs) with a suction sampler on 21 calcareous grasslands. Immediately after sampling, animals were stored in collection bags and their mortality rate was determined. We compared storage periods (1, 2, and 3 h) and tested the suitability of a cool box to reduce mortality rates. Our study revealed that arthropod mortality was generally low (9% of all sampled individuals); however, the survival rate was affected by (1) storage time, (2) storage conditions, and (3) arthropod group. The mortality of beetles and true bugs was very low and not influenced by storage time or by storage conditions. In contrast, leafhoppers and spiders had higher mortality, which increased with storage time and was reduced by the use of a cool box. According to our results, suction samplers can be a valuable tool to sample arthropod assemblages for conservation translocation. In order to reduce mortality in sensitive groups such as leafhoppers and spiders, the storage process can be optimised. We thus recommend (1) using a cool box and (2) minimising the period until release of the collected arthropods at the restored site.
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Como una alternativa para solucionar la problemática ambiental actual, la restauración ecológica surge como una actividad orientada a la recuperación de los ecosistemas perturbados con el fin de conservar su integridad, así como la diversidad que sustentan. La mayoría de los trabajos sobre restauración se enfocan al monitoreo y manipulación de las especies vegetales; sin embargo, algunos animales, como los artrópodos terrestres (en adelante AT), juegan un papel importante como objetos de estudio y herramientas dentro de los proyectos de restauración ecológica debido principalmente a su gran diversidad y a su alta sensibilidad a los cambios ambientales. Con el fin de identificar las tendencias de investigación sobre el tema, se realizó un análisis bibliométrico sobre estudios de restauración ecológica que contemplaran a los AT, basado en las publicaciones registradas en las principales bases de datos de literatura biológica a nivel mundial y regional hasta abril de 2012. Se analizaron en total 436 artículos. Se encontró que: (1) el interés sobre el tema crece desde finales de la década de 1980; (2) la mayoría de los estudios se realizan en países con alta degradación ambiental; (3) la investigación depende fuertemente del potencial de investigación de los países y de su economía; (4) particularmente en México sólo se registró una publicación sobre el tema; (5) la mayor parte de los estudios son monitoreos (72.2%), mientras que las manipulaciones (4.3%) y simulaciones (2.6%) son menos frecuentes; (6) cerca de la mitad de las publicaciones se interesan en conocer las respuestas de los AT ante las acciones de restauración (44.7%), seguidas por aquellas que utilizan a AT como bioindicadores de éxito de la restauración (20.8%); (7) los ecosistemas más estudiados son los bosques templados y los pastizales y (8) los himenópteros, los coleópteros y los lepidópteros son los órdenes más estudiados, particularmente las hormigas. A pesar de los esfuerzos de restauración realizados con AT, los estudios enfocados hacia hexápodos son insuficientes considerando su gran diversidad, particularmente los dirigidos hacia coleópteros, hemípteros, homópteros y dípteros. Se sugiere que deben dirigirse mayores esfuerzos y atención hacia el estudio de AT en la restauración de los bosques tropicales y subtropicales, así como en los matorrales. Debido a la baja participación de México en los registros globales, consideramos necesario incrementar los esfuerzos dirigidos a investigar a los artrópodos terrestres en la restauración.
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Papilionidae butterflies with three subfamilies, including the species such as the Spot sword tail, Black tail, Common banded peacock and Crimson rose .This family includes the largest attractive, and endangered butterfly species. Three study sites i.e., Lankamalai of Kadapa district, Thalakona and Tirumala Hills of Chittoor district of Eastern Ghats of Southern Andhra Pradesh were chosen. Captive breeding method has been adopted for restocking the population. Nearly 11 species were identified from 3 sub families (Parnassiinae, Zerynthinae and Papilioninae). Species diversity was calculated by using Simpson’s diversity index along with the seasonality and population index, richness and evenness of the species and life stages of certain rare and very rare were also discussed.
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Migration by flight is an important component of the life cycles of most insects. The probability that a given insect will migrate by flight is influenced by many factors, most notably the presence or absence of fully-developed wings and functional flight musculature. Considerable variation has also been reported in the flight propensity of fully-winged individuals with functional flight musculature. We test the hypothesis that these components of migratory tendency are genetically correlated in a wing-dimorhic cricket, Gryllus firmus. Flight propensity and condition of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLM) are examined in fully-winged (LW) crickets from lines selected for increasing and for decreasing %LW, as well as from unselected control lines. Increased %LW is found to be associated with increased flight propensity among individuals with intact DLM, and with retention of functional DLM. The opposite is true for lines selected for decreased %LW. These results indicate both phenotypic and genetic correlations among behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits determining migratory tendency. We propose that these correlations may result from the multifunctional role of juvenile hormone, which has been reported to influence wing development, flight muscle development and degeneration, and flight propensity. Finally, we discuss the potential influence of genetic correlations for migratory traits on the evolution and maintenance of migratory polymorphisms in insects.
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We restored the habitat of the vulnerable Chequered Blue Butterfly (Scolitantides orion Pallas). The population at the restoration site almost became extinct in the late 1980's due to overgrowth by Scots pine forest. The habitat was restored by selective removal of pines in 1990. The abundance of S. orion was estimated in 1990-1996 and 1998-1999, and the population was studied intensively over a short period in 1997. The butterfly recovered after some delay. The numbers of specimens were low during the first five years, but a marked change in 1996-1999 indicated the presence of a persistent population. The habitat restoration most likely prevented the local extinction of S. orion.
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We present analyses of our transect survey data from consecutive years at 11 sites in Wisconsin during 1990-99 for the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia), which is listed under state law as endangered, and the closely related but more widespread and abundant Aphrodite fritillary (Speyeria aphrodite). Within year, the date of peak survey numbers at each site ranged over a period of several weeks or more for each fritillary. Within year and site, the Aphrodite fritillary peak was typically a few days to a week prior to the regal fritillary's peak. Both fritillaries exhibited large annual fluctuations which were significantly correlated between the two species. Relatively larger regal fritillary densities were consistently associated with active non-fire managements (grazing, cutting), relatively lower densities with burning, and widely varying densities with non-management. More unfavorable outcomes from burning occurred at sites where the entire habitat patch was fire-managed. Similar but less sensitive was the Aphrodite fritillary, which did not respond as strongly or clearly to burning, although higher densities were associated with unintensive non-fire managements. In Wisconsin and adjoining areas, the Aphrodite fritillary appears useful as a substitute in tests of techniques for habitat restoration or reintroduction for the regal fritillary. Since the Aphrodite fritillary may be less sensitive than the regal fritillary, success with the former certainly doesn't prove suitability for the latter. But unless and until the method works for the Aphrodite fritillary, it is almost certainly unsuitable for the regal fritillary.
Chapter
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Almost three-quarters of Britain’s 59 resident butterflies regularly breed in woodland and about one-third are confined to this biotope through a large part of their British range. Most species breed in open woodland habitats such as rides, glades and clearings, where their larvae feed on herbs or grasses growing in the field layer. Relatively few species breed on shrubs and trees (Thomas, 1986;Warren and Fuller, 1990).
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Previous work suggests that submergence of Lycaena dispar larvae during overwintering may play a significant role in this butterfly's population dynamics. Since potential re-introduction sites in eastern England are prone to regular seasonal flooding, we further studied the species' submergence tolerance with a view to formulating management protocols conducive to larval survivorship under periodic flood conditions. Simulated flooding regimes using captive-reared larvae showed that enforced submergence has a twofold effect: firstly, a direct increase in mortality after 28 days under water and, secondly, a longer term, post-diapause increase in mortality; manifest either as an inability of larvae to resume feeding, or a failure to complete development. Additionally, there was a marked difference in the response of "early" and "late" diapause larvae; the latter generally succumbing after shorter periods under water, and suffering higher total mortalities. Behavioural investigations suggest that, if afforded the opportunity, diapausing larvae can evade submergence by climbing onto the exposed sections of partially flooded host plants. Significantly, survival on partially flooded plants was found to be comparable to that on unflooded controls. Further re-introductions of L. dispar in the U.K. will probably necessitate a direct translocation of wild Dutch stock. As the flood tolerance of this source population remains largely undetermined, and given that re-introduction site hydrology will be generally unamenable to conservation-oriented manipulation, it is recommended that restoration management be directed towards creating structural diversity in the vegetation of overwintering habitats, thereby providing potential "flood refugia" for hibernating larvae.
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Mass rearing of the endangered lycaenid Glaucopsyche lygdamus palosverdesensis (Palos Verdes blue butterfly) is described. Numerous problems were encountered in our attempts to predictably produce a large stock population both as insurance against extinction and for re-introduction to sites where the species has been extirpated. We describe our approaches to mass rearing with discussion of all aspects of life history, difficulties with parasitoids and predators, cage design, and artificial diet use. Both cylindrical cages placed over individual potted plants and outdoor tent cages were successful in providing conditions where captive individuals would mate without intervention, transcending previous limits posed by hand pairing. From a small initial stock, we produced between 168 and 968 pupae each season. Highest losses were experienced in first instar, with later losses from microsporidian infection. Predation during pupation was also significant in semi-natural confined conditions. The effort has been in progress for eight years and is continuing.
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This literature review concerns insect responses to fire, compared to other feasible and appropriate conservation managements of open habitats. Many insect groups decline markedly immediately after fire, with the magnitude of reduction related to the degree of exposure to the flames and mobility of the insect. Niche diversity is lower in recently burned habitat, and the rate of insect increase following fire also relates to the species' ability to gain access to the regrowing vegetation. Postburn flora can be quite attractive to some recolonizing insects, possibly to some degree a result of fire-caused insect mortality which provides plants with short-term release from insect herbivory. Insect declines may follow immediately after mowing, but usually of lesser degree and shorter duration than after a fire of comparable timing and size. Season and scale of cutting may affect how much and which species showed positive or negative responses. Cut areas offer the vegetational structure and composition preferred by some insects, but cutting – or cutting at certain scales, seasons, or frequencies – may also be unfavorable for some species. Heavy grazing results in niche and assemblage simplification. Nonetheless, some invertebrates prefer the short turfs and bare ground resulting from heavier grazing. Other species vary in whether they peak in abundance and diversity in intermediate, light, or no grazing. In comparisons of mowing/haying and grazing regimes of similar compatibility with maintenance of the same habitat types, responses of particular species and species groups varied as to whether they had a preference for one or the other. Characteristics associated with insect responses to fire related to the degree of exposure to lethal temperature and stress experienced in the post-fire environment, suitability of post-treatment vegetation as habitat, and ability to rebuild numbers in the site (from survivors and/or colonizers). These factors appear equally useful for explicating insect responses to other managements such as haying, mowing, and grazing. By contrast, the assumption that the most habitat-restricted species will be most adapted to ecological forces believed to be prevalent in that ecosystem appears less efficacious for predicting insect management preferences.
Article
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Summary • Like many butterflies, the woodland brown Lopinga achine has disappeared from many locations in western Europe due to habitat loss. The population dynamics and the effects of tree and bush cover on population size were studied experimentally south of Linköping, Sweden. • Most populations in the study area were small (L. achine. • In 1992–95, vegetation was cleared experimentally to create new glade edges at six unmanaged sites where the risk of extinction was high because few glades remained. On average, population size at five of the managed sites increased by > 90%. The population at the sixth site, managed in 1995, decreased by 30%. • Cover of the host-plant Carex montana increased significantly at edges of new glades and decreased in closed unaffected woods. Successful restoration probably requires the presence of C. montana along edges of new glades from the onset of management because this plant was slow to colonize plots where it was initially absent. • Currently, 86% of the sites in southern Sweden occupied by L. achine are unmanaged. If this situation continues, the metapopulation in this study will probably collapse within 20–40 years. Recovery programmes for L. achine should emphasize metapopulation dynamics, host-plant cover and vegetation dynamics over time. As with many butterflies, successful conservation requires a blend of detailed autoecology and active site management to produce the required successional conditions.
Article
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Metapopulation theory has generally focused only on the stochastic turn-over rate among populations and assumed that the number and location of suitable habitat patches will remain constant through time. This study combines in a PVA both the deterministic landscape dynamics and the stochastic colonisations and extinctions of populations for the butterfly Lopinga achine in Sweden. With data on occupancy pattern and the rate of habitat change, we built a simulation model and examined five different scenarios with different assumptions of landscape changes for L. achine. If no landscape changes would be expected, around 80 populations are predicted to persist during the next 100 yr. Adding the knowledge that many of the sites are unmanaged and that the host plant will slowly deteriorate as canopies close over, and adding environmental variation and synchrony, showed that the number of populations will decrease to around of 4.3 and 2.8 respectively, with an extinction risk of 34% – quite different from the first scenario based only on the metapopulation model. This study has shown the importance of incorporating both deterministic and stochastic events when making a reliable population viability analysis. Even though one can not expect that the long-term predictions of either occupied patches or extinction risks will be accurate quantitatively, the qualitative implications are correct. The extinction risk will be high if grazing is not applied to more patches than is the case today. The simulations indicate that an absolute minimum of 10–30 top-ranked patches needs to be managed for the persistence of the metapopulation of L. achine in the long term. The same problem of abandoned and overgrowing habitats affects many other threatened species in the European landscape and a similar approach could also be applied to them.
Article
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Basic ignorance about the ecology and life history of the endangered Mitchell's satyr butterfly, Neonympha mitchellii mitchellii, is impeding conservation efforts. To assist with recovery, we examined Mitchell's satyr butterfly population structure using mark-release-recapture techniques at two sites in southwestern Michigan in 1997 and 1998. During the single annual flight period spanning 2 to 3 wk from mid June to late July, the sex ratio changed over time, with males predominating early in the flight period and females in the latter half of the season. Scott's Method 1 and recapture decay plotting showed average residence times of 1.4 to 5.3 d. Males were more catchable than females, a probable consequence of behavioral differences between the sexes. Males were commonly found patrolling through the vegetation in search of mates, whereas females were rarely observed in undisturbed flight. Daily population estimates were obtained by the Jolly stochastic method and total brood size and flight area population densities were calculated using estimated residence rates. All population size estimates were low. Total brood size estimates ranged from 164 to 372. Peak daily flight area density ranged between 70 and 159 butterflies per ha. Adult movement was limited. Maximum range estimates were 290 m and 420 m at the two sites. Average movement distances were 37 m and 33 m. Male butterflies moved significantly greater distances than females. Remnants of a metapopulation structure are apparent, but the data are insufficient to differentiate between an extinction—recolonization structure and a source—sink structure. Butterfly movements between habitat patches within occupied sites occur, albeit rarely. Short residence times, low density and sedentary behavior make extant populations vulnerable to environmental stochasticity and human disturbance. Conservation actions need to consider the implications of these important life history traits if we are to reduce local extinction probabilities and recover Mitchell's satyr butterfly.
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2004: Marsh Fritillary (Euphy-dryas aurinia) in the Czech Republic: monitoring, metapopulation structure, and conservation of an endangered butterfly. — Entomol. Fennica 15: 231–241. Thirty colonies of the Marsh Fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) have recently been recorded in Western Bohemia, Czech Republic. The majority of colonies are small, their total area are 1.5 km 2 . Small size and intensive grazing/mowing were positively associated with observed declines/extinctions, while abandonment threatens the colonies in the longer term. Short distances to nearest colonies buf-fered against declines. High colony turnover, asynchronous local dynamics pointed and the species'biotope requirements all point to a dynamic metapopula-tion structure; patterns of connectivity revealed that there are several metapopu-lations within the region. Because conserving the species within its extant sites seems unsustainable in the long term, restoration of its habitats is proposed.
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In this work, we report the predicted distribution of the threatened fluminense swallowtail butterfly, Parides ascanius (Cramer 1775), and correlate it to the presence of urban and protected areas within its range. The distribution was modeled using a genetic algorithm. The predicted distribution of the fluminense swallowtail shows high agreement within Rio de Janeiro state, in a near-continuous strip of 2,038,253 ha along the coastal lowlands, 17.8 percent of which is within urban areas. Only 8.7 percent (178,187 ha) of the remaining (nonurban) predicted model overlapped at least partially with protected areas (19 in all). Almost half of these protected areas also overlapped with urban areas, resulting in an additional loss of 58,751 ha. In seven of 19 protected areas, the distribution of P. ascanius was predicted by less than 50 percent of the models; five of the remaining protected areas are less restrictive reserves. Despite the wide distribution predicted by the models, only two of the observed occurrence points matched the predicted distribution within protected areas. Modeling threatened species distribution is a useful tool for highlighting gaps in networks of protected areas and should aid in planning to fill these gaps. However, in several developing countries with high biodiversity, there is insufficient basic biological information for many threatened species. In these cases, prospecting field studies are urgently needed. © 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.
Article
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The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species' population is declining or has fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be viewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for which effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.
Article
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The Red Data Book of European Butterflies, published in 1999, showed that butterflies have declined seriously across Europe and that 71 of the 576 species are threatened (12% of the total) either because of their extreme rarity or rapid decline. Many more species were shown to be declining in substantial parts of their range. A follow up project was conducted in 2002–3 to identify Prime Butterfly Areas (PBAs) in Europe where conservation should be targeted as a priority. Due to constraints of time and resources, this concentrated on identifying the most important (prime) areas for 34 target species, using a network of national compilers. The book gives details of 431 areas covering 1.8% of the land surface of Europe, and shows that target butterflies are declining in one quarter of PBAs, indicating that breeding habitats are continuing to deteriorate even though many are protected by national designation. Chief threats are from agricultural intensification, afforestation, abandonment of traditional practices, and isolation. We make nine recommendations: (1) Produce detailed descriptions of the PBAs within each country and protect all PBAs under national law; (2) Protect PBAs under relevant international EU law (e.g. EU Habitats and Species Directive); (3) Provide adequate protection of PBAs in non EU countries; (4) Ensure sound habitat management within PBAs and sympathetic management in surrounding areas; (5) Take measures to conserve the wider environment and whole landscapes within and surrounding PBAs in order to sustain viable metapopulations; (6) Monitor populations of target species and conduct research to identify appropriate habitat management techniques. (7) Revise pan-European legislation to take account of the new information provided in the Red Data Book of European butterflies (e.g. Bern Convention and the EU Habitats and Species Directive); (8) Conduct a more comprehensive review of Important Butterfly Areas in Europe as soon as possible; (9) Keep the list of Prime Butterfly Areas up-to-date (e.g. via the internet).
Chapter
The vast majority of the world’s species are insects (at least 80%; Mawdsley and Stork 1995). Their importance is overwhelming by almost any measure. For example, insects and other arthropods contribute substantially to standing biomass; 1,000 kg/ha is an estimate for the United States (Pimentel et al. 1980). In most terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems they play critical roles as prey, predators, herbivores and pollinators (Free 1970; Debach and Rosen 1991; Kellert 1993; Lloyd and Barrett 1996). Indeed, in one of the first issues of the Society for Conservation Biology’s journal, E.O. Wilson (1987) called insects “the little things that run the world.” Because they comprise the majority of the earth’s biodiversity, insects should be considered pivotal in conservation efforts (Kim 1993). Unfortunately, an alarmingly small percent of our conservation literature focusses on insect issues. For example, in 1993, 1994 and 1995, the journals Ecological Applications, Conservation Biology, and Biological Conservation published 1,070 articles with only 62 related to insect issues and still fewer related to conservation of declining insect populations. Thus, only 6% of our conservation literature is aimed at 80% of our planet’s biodiversity. This neglect of insect conservation cannot be justified on the basis of insects not being endangered. In Britain where the biodiversity is relatively well-documented, approximately 22,500 insect species occur; 43 insects are believed to have gone extinct between 1900 and 1987 (Hambler and Speight 1996). The number of insect species believed extinct in Britain is over eight times that of number of extinct vertebrates, and over three times that of flowering plants (Hambler and Speight 1996).
Article
Fire is the primary tool used in restoring and maintaining suitable habitat for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov) and its sole larval host plant, wild lupine (Lupinus perennis L.), at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. To minimize the possible detrimental effects of fire on Karner blue butterfly populations, managers at the national lakeshore have developed fire management strategies to prevent complete mortality of isolated populations and maximize the speed of repopulation following burns. Butterfly sites are divided into three or more burn units, and adjacent units are not burned in successive years to provide opportunity for repopulation. Burns conducted in areas known to support Karner blue butterfly populations contain at least one fire exclusion area. Fire exclusion areas are small, open habitat patches containing lupine that intentionally remain unburned to protect eggs and larvae from potentially lethal effects of fire. If fire causes Karner blue butterfly mortality, fire exclusion areas serve as refuges within burn areas and reduce flight distances required for recolonization of portions of burned units. Populations were monitored by walk-through surveys to determine trends and to identify significant changes in butterfly abundance. Survey results suggest that relatively fewer Karner blue butterflies are present in recently burned areas than in unburned areas. However, butterflies were found within burn units during the first brood following prescribed fires, and walk-through surveys indicate that Karner blue butterfly populations survive Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore's fire management methods.
Article
Reviewing the background and ethics of insect conservation as well as current threats to insect diversity, this book explains the reasoning behind, and the techniques used, to maintain and protect insect diversity. Insect conservation has recently become a significant component of conservation biology because insects make up such a large proportion of total species numbers and biomass. © Michael J. Samways 2005 and Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Chapter
Five of the world’s six species of Maculinea butterfly live in Europe. They are among the few insects for which specific conservation measures have been taken, and are regarded as ‘flagship’ species by many Western conservationists (Anon., 1993a). Thus Maculinea butterflies are regularly used for logos and on stamps (Anon., 1981, 1993b), have been the subject of numerous radio and television broadcasts and have frequently featured in magazines as diverse as the National Geographic and The Economist and in newspapers ranging from the European to the Sun.
Article
The development of understanding of butterfly conserva-tion in Australia is reviewed. A summary is given of the dramatic changes to Australian terrestrial environments which have occurred since Caucasian settlement, and some factors leading to butterfly decline in recent years are itemised. The study of Australian butter-flies is summarised, and the limitations of current knowledge in relation to conservation concern are stressed. Recent legislative measures involving butterflies are itemised and discussed. Species-orientated conservation cases are still rare, but the roles of several taxa in increasing political and public conservation awareness are outlined. Introduction "Butterfly Conservation" is a relatively new topic in Australia, and has not yet developed to encompass the broad public and scientific concern it engenders in much of the northern hemisphere. However, during the last few years it, together with other aspects of invertebrate conserva-tion, has started to appear on scientific and political agendas as part of a growing more general concern over the future of the Australian environment and biota. A preliminary report on conservation status of Australian insects by Key (1978) aroused considerable interest. A broader appraisal (New 1984) and a number of other accounts and surveys have been published during the last decade, and many of these are noted below. Thus, in contrast to the more detailed historical and factual treat-ments which are feasible for butterfly conservation in Europe or North America, where this theme has long been accepted readily, this account traces the emerging awareness of the topic and how it is gradually becoming acknowledged as important in Australia. Specific case histo-ries are sparse, and there is thus not a "bank" of experience of conserva-tion of particular taxa equivalent to that available for parts of the northern hemisphere. This account must, in contrast, indicate some of the principles, restrictions, and increasing public and legislative sympa-thy for butterfly conservation in the country. The Problem The Australian environment has been changed dramatically during only 200 years of European settlement, and much of the indigenous biota of the island continent has suffered accordingly. The major change has undoubtedly been the destruction of natural vegetation, and related effects. Vast tracts of land have been cleared for pasture and arable agriculture, so that most categories of forest and woodland have de-clined.
Article
Captive breeding has been suggested as a method of conserving many threatened vertebrates, and is increasingly being proposed as a valuable conservation strategy for invertebrates. Potential genetic problems associated with ex situ conservation are widely recognized, but a further issue has received less attention: the possibility that populations will undergo adaptation to the captive environment, rendering them less well adapted to survival in the wild. We investigated six traits related to dispersal and reproduction in a culture of the large white butterfly Pieris brassicae (L.), that had been captive for c. 100–150 generations, and in recently wild stock reared simultaneously in a common environment. Individuals in the captive culture were heavier, with smaller wings and lower wing aspect ratios. Females from the captive culture laid many more eggs in cage experiments, and had higher ovary mass at the time of peak egg production. These differences are consistent with adaptation to captive conditions. Over time, similar evolutionary changes may affect invertebrates reared in ex situ conservation programmes, decreasing the likelihood that these species can be re-established in the wild. Although the timescale over which most vertebrates are likely to adapt to captivity is longer, and the traits involved will be different, invertebrates like P. brassicae may also provide a model of potential problems in long-term ex situ conservation programmes for both invertebrates and vertebrates. We suggest that measures to reduce or slow adaptation to captivity should be introduced alongside measures to reduce deleterious genetic effects in captive populations.
Article
We compared life-history schedules among populations of the housefly ( Musca domestica L.) maintained in the laboratory under curtailed life span, such that selection on mutations that affected only late-life fitness traits was reduced. As a result of this regime, late-life ( but not early-life) fecundity declined within a few generations. The results suggest that if captive populations are maintained with minimal selection, either by direct manipulation of the environment or by equalizing family contributions, the increased frequency of potentially deleterious mutations may rapidly lower the ability of these populations to exist under natural conditions. This would be independent of population size, so expanding captive populations would not alleviate potential fitness reductions due to relaxed selection.
Article
Despite a worldwide increase in experience with species protection, few scientific publications are available to assist in deciding how to use ecological knowledge to protect species and how to proceed in the absence of this knowledge. To strengthen the link between science and applied conservation, we suggest an article format that covers all activities towards species protection including both its ecological and its political components. This article is an attempt to provide such a template for publishing conservation case studies. The paper focuses on the experience gained in recent activities to promote butterfly conservation in Israel. It describes the parallel components of these activities: (a) selecting species for protection; (b) studying the species and identifying threats while identifying potential links between these threats and services for ecosystems and humans; and (c) acting to raise public awareness and initiate conservation actions. Special emphasis is given to two components of the process that receive little attention in other publications, namely, interpreting scientific knowledge in terms of biological indicators and eco-system services to humans, giving conservation efforts political leverage; and the practical aspects of raising public awareness. Specifically in this context, we elaborate on the relative contribution of local and international NGOs, political institutions, international law, and, especially, the media. The paper closes with lessons from this process that may be of practical use to scientists and conservationists worldwide.
Article
Migration by flight is an important component of the life cycles of most insects. The probability that a given insect will migrate by flight is influenced by many factors, most notably the presence or absence of fully-developed wings and functional flight musculature. Considerable variation has also been reported in the flight propensity of fully-winged individuals with functional flight musculature. We test the hypothesis that these components of migratory tendency are genetically correlated in a wing-dimorhic cricket, Gryllus firmus. Flight propensity and condition of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLM) are examined in fully-winged (LW) crickets from lines selected for increasing and for decreasing %LW, as well as from unselected control lines. Increased %LW is found to be associated with increased flight propensity among individuals with intact DLM, and with retention of functional DLM. The opposite is true for lines selected for decreased %LW. These results indicate both phenotypic and genetic correlations among behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits determining migratory tendency. We propose that these correlations may result from the multifunctional role of juvenile hormone, which has been reported to influence wing development, flight muscle development and degeneration, and flight propensity. Finally, we discuss the potential influence of genetic correlations for migratory traits on the evolution and maintenance of migratory polymorphisms in insects.
Article
A critical aspect in the viability of large copper (Lycaena dispar) populations in Britain is the period of winter hibernation (diapause). Studies on captive-bred larvae, overwintering in England, showed that they suffered substantially greater mortality than did a Dutch population in its native habitat. Inter-habitat variance in survivorship, at both English and Dutch sites, was only marginally influenced by habitat features per se, although current management practices in the Netherlands may contribute significantly towards overwinter losses. Under identical field conditions in England, hibernal survival of wild-caught larvae, collected in the Netherlands, was superior to that of captive-reared British stock. Conversely, when larvae from both sources were ‘overwintered’ in captivity differences in recorded survivorship were not significant. From these two strands of evidence we tentatively infer a genetic divergence of the two stocks. Future re-introduction of this species should therefore involve direct translocation from wild populations rather than using captive-bred populations.
Article
The rehabilitation of raised mires commonly requires water levels to be raised in order to reinstate Sphagnum-based raised mire vegetation over peatland areas which have previously been extensively worked by commercial peat cutters. Coenonympha tullia larvae living on cottonsedge tussocks Eriophorum vaginatum in the base of peat cuttings will be inundated by the rising water levels under such management regimes. The submergence of overwintering C. tullia larvae was found to have a marked impact on their long term survival. The numbers of larvae that survived to resume feeding the following spring was lower for all submergence times (3 to 108 days) compared with controls; no larvae survived a submergence period of 108 days. Total submergence had two effects. First, it caused an immediate increase in mortality after 7 days (with larval death occurring under water) and second, a longer term increase in mortality over the next few months. Behavioural tests suggested that C. tullia larvae usually respond to the raising of water levels by trying to climb out of the water. Results suggest that, on sites where the conservation of C. tullia is important, water levels should not be raised so high as to totally submerge E. vaginatum foodplants containing C. tullia larvae until E. vaginatum has spread sufficiently on the higher peat surface to provide a replacement habitat.
Article
Japanese lepidopterists so far have not defined their strategies to counter the decline of butterfly fauna in their country, although extinctions have so far been restricted to local populations. National and local government policies are to simply promulgate protective regulations. In most cases this means nothing more than the prohibition of collecting and has proved ineffective in reversing the rapid decline and extinction of butterfly populations. The exist-ence and significance of the Red Data Book, currently in preparation in Japan, is as yet not widely acknowledged. However, a volume of collected papers on the history of the decline and protection of Japanese butterflies has been published by the Lepidopterological Society of Japan. It shows that traditional agriculture and silvicul-ture practices in Japan contributed to the dynamic succession of deciduous and non-deciduous broadleaf forests (the latter being the laurisylvae) and maintenance of various types of open fields and meadows, all much needed habitats for the survival of a butterfly fauna with high biodiversity. In the preagricultural wilderness, this continuing dynamism was probably effected by forest fires, typhoons and floods. Fire, wind, water, and traditional culture historically served as protective agents for butterflies, rather than the formal prohibition of collecting.
Article
Evidence suggests that insects whose existence depends on fruit production may serve as good bioindicators, especially for pollination services. In this study we examined this hypothesis, focusing on one of Israel's rarest butterflies, Tomares nesimachus (Rhopalocera; Lycaen-idae). The butterfly is affiliated with open grasslands in the north of Israel, where its sole host plant, Astragalus macrocarpus, occurs. In a two-year field study, we mapped the distribution of the butterfly in Israel and tried to evaluate the causes of its rarity and decline. We found that its abundance in habitat patches was correlated with several factors, including (a) fruit production of the host plants in each patch, (b) the number of other patches in the vicinity, (c) the characteristics of the "matrix" outside the patches within a distance of up to 2 km, (d) the richness of large bee species (the plant pollinators), and (e) the grazing management of the butterfly's habitat. The characteristics of the matrix further affected the richness of bees in the butterfly's habitat. Since butterfly abundance is correlated with species richness of pollinators, it can serve as an indicator of diverse, species-rich butterfly habitats (grasslands). We deduce that spccies that depend on fruit production and by themselves do not contribute to their host-plant pollination, may almost necessarily be affected by multiple ecological factors and therefore can indeed serve as good indicators. Our results further indicate that the butterfly's population dynamics are affected by large-scale processes, and hence its conservation requires the preservation of large open landscapes. Consequently, T nesimachus may also serve as an umbrella species.
Article
In 2005 a nationwide monitoring scheme for butterflies (and diurnal moths) was launched in Germany. Coordinated by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, it started as an integral part of the public relations campaign "Abenteuer Schmetterling" (Adventure Butterfly) with German public television and an environmental NGO as partners. The core objectives of the monitoring scheme are (a) to provide a central element for the analysis of biodiversity and (b) to investigate and develop the role of butterflies as indicators for the state of biodiversity. Both are aims at a regional, national, and European scale. After three years of monitoring (2005-2007), first results and experiences are presented. We show that the use of multiple media (TV, internet, community-level activities) yielded high responsiveness from the public and high recruitment of volunteers. We further show that the quality of data is likely to qualify for scientific analyses of abundances and phenology and therefore possibly for the recognition of long-term trends. Main lessons learned for the successful establishment of a volunteer-based monitoring scheme are that (a) an institution that hosts such a project should be able to provide long-term basic financial and personnel resources; (b) the media can play a vital role in activating a minimum number of volunteers required to start a monitoring project; and (c) the motivation of recorders is the key for success. Therefore permanent coordination, support, motivation activities, continuous contacts with the volunteers, and continuous recruitment of new recorders are all essential to ensure regular data entry and the overall success of such a project.
Article
Mitchell's satyr (Neonympha mitchellii mitchellii) is a restricted fen species currently listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is considered one of the rarest butterflies in North America. The objectives of this study were to estimate population size, determine distribution within the study site and characterize habitat use for this important species. A mark-release-recapture study conducted at a prairie fen in Jackson County, Michigan, yielded a total population estimate of 1106 individuals. Most N. m. mitchellii were captured at the interface of open fen or sedge meadow and tamarack/hardwood forest within 3 m of woody vegetation. Distribution of N. m. mitchellii within the fen was clumped. The longest distances flown by males and females were 511.8 m and 344.8 m, respectively. Minimum home range values were 0.22 ha for males and 0.07 ha for females. Compared with prior studies on two populations in southwestern Michigan, these individuals flew significantly farther and had much larger population and home range sizes. This new information is critical for the conservation of the species and provides evidence that individuals may be capable of dispersing to new areas if linkages exist between isolated colonies.
Article
Studies in many countries show the complexity of management needs for single species, and examples of management and recovery plans demonstrate the worth of this approach. In many tropical regions however, where butterfly faunas are more diverse than in temperate zones and the resources for practical conservation are restricted, the major emphasis is on protection of habitats to safeguard relatively poorly documented assemblages, and on conservation measures that benefit local people. Aspects of butterfly ecology are discussed in relation to sound management of species and faunas, and examples from Europe, North America, and elsewhere exemplify increasing global interest in butterfly conservation. -from Authors
Book
Reviews butterfly conservation efforts.
Article
Although insects have a long tradition of use and appreciation in South Africa, insect conservation in the country dates back to 1976 with the first formal protection of a group of butterfly species. Today South Africa has a strong insect conservation research record, with significant contributions from both professional and amateur entomologists. This activity has in a number of instances led to insect conservation management actions. As in many other parts of the world, threats to arthropod diversity include rapid rates of land transformation in the form of, for example, overgrazing, soil erosion, urbanization, deforestation, the expansion of exotic plantations and invasive species. The impact of exotic and invasive flora is of particular concern in rare and restricted habitat types, such as high-altitude montane grassland. Initiatives aimed at promoting the cause, and improving the status, of insect conservation in South Africa include the identification of bioindicators, ecological landscaping, the conservation of insects in urban environments, as well as the mapping of species distributions to include insects in procedures for the identification of priority areas for conservation. Species that are extensively used as primary resources, such as mopane worms and wild silk moths, pose particular challenges to insect conservation in South Africa. In addition to long-term socioeconomic stability, the future of insect conservation in South Africa lies in national coordination of research and implementation initiatives, as well as continued financial support and the prioritization of conservation and research activities in the country.