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Mittelruthenisch (Mittelweißrussisch und Mittelukrainisch): Ein Überblick

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Abstract

The Middle Ruthenian (Middle Belarusian and Middle Ukrainian) period is an important stage in the development of the Ukrainian and Belarusian languages. It is characterized by several significant innovations on all linguistic levels. Of utmost significance is the broad functionality of Middle Ruthenian as a literary language, particularly beginning from the second half of the 16th up to the middle of the 17th century.

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Article
The “próstaja mova” is one of the written languages used by both Ukrainians and Belorussians during the 16th and 17th centuries. In this article it is argued that its name is based on a calque of German Gemeinsprache, die gemeine Sprache, a term from the Reformation age. The „prostaja mova” was based on the Ruthenian (Ukrainian and Belorussian) chancery language and developed into a literary language because of its growing polyfunctionality, its increasingly superregional character, and its stylistic variability. The norms of the “prostaja mova” were based on its common usage, not on codification. We discuss the role of Church Slavonic and Polish elements on the different levels of this language and try to show that a “prototypical” text written in the “prostaja mova” was a translation from a real or only virtual Polish text, consisting in the “Ruthenization” of its phonology and morphology and, if it was a written text, in a change of the alphabets - the lexicon and the syntax, instead, remained mainly on a Polish basis. Until the 18th century the Polish language itself had gained so much importance among the Ruthenian gentry that the “prostaja mova” had lost its main addressee and was restricted only to some homiletic and cathechetic works for the common people of the Greek-Catholic Church.
Ostukrainische Urkunden-und Geschäftssprache im 18
MOSER 1998: M. Moser, Ostukrainische Urkunden-und Geschäftssprache im 18. Jahrhundert, in: Zeitschrift für slavische Philologie 57, 1998/2, 379-407.
1973: I. I. Slyn'ko, Istoryčnyj syntaksys ukrajins'koji movy
  • Slyn 'ko
SLYN'KO 1973: I. I. Slyn'ko, Istoryčnyj syntaksys ukrajins'koji movy, Kyjiv 1973.
Historyja belaruskaj litaraturnaj movy
  • Žuraŭski Pryhodzič
ŽURAŬSKI – PRYHODZIČ 1994: A. I. Žuraŭski – M. R. Pryhodzič, Historyja belaruskaj litaraturnaj movy, in: Belaruskaja mova. Ėncyklapedyja, rėd. A. Ja. Michnevič, Minsk 1994, 147–156.
I. I. Slyn'ko, Istoryčnyj syntaksys ukrajins'koji movy, Kyjiv 1973. SSVJA 1968: Sravnitel'no-istoričeskij sintaksis vostočnoslavjanskich jazykov, Členy predloženija
  • Slyn 'ko
SLYN'KO 1973: I. I. Slyn'ko, Istoryčnyj syntaksys ukrajins'koji movy, Kyjiv 1973. SSVJA 1968: Sravnitel'no-istoričeskij sintaksis vostočnoslavjanskich jazykov, Členy predloženija, red. V. I. Borkovskij, Moskva 1968.