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Environmental Conscious Manufacturing for Sustainable Growth

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Companies must be more environmentally conscious, focus on sustainable practices and materials, and become more socially responsible corporations. Current manufacturing activities have caused the degradation of the environment, the depletion of resources at an accelerated rate, global warming, and affected the quality of life. New technologies, the short life cycle of products consumed more resources that hinder sustainable growth. Thus, companies have to transform their manufacturing activities, not only to increase competitiveness but to consider the impact of their activities on the environment in a socially responsible manner. Environmental conscious manufacturing when practiced addressed the environmental necessity and provide the means of managing the depletion of resources. Enhancing the understanding of the practices of ECM and their impacts on the environment will enable companies to develop their manufacturing strategies
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Environmental Conscious Manufacturing
for Sustainable Growth
Rosnah Binti Mohd Yusuff
1
, Ali Haji Vahabzadeh
2
, Hamidreza Panjehfouladgaran
3
1,2,3
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UPM, 43400, Serdang,
Selangor, Malaysia
rosnah@eng.upm.edu.my
Abstract Companies must be more
environmentally conscious, focus on sustainable
practices and materials, and become more socially
responsible corporations. Current manufacturing
activities have caused the degradation of the
environment, the depletion of resources at an
accelerated rate, global warming, and affected the
quality of life. New technologies, the short life
cycle of products consumed more resources that
hinder sustainable growth. Thus, companies have
to transform their manufacturing activities, not
only to increase competitiveness but to consider the
impact of their activities on the environment in a
socially responsible manner. Environmental
conscious manufacturing when practiced
addressed the environmental necessity and provide
the means of managing the depletion of resources.
Enhancing the understanding of the practices of
ECM and their impacts on the environment will
enable companies to develop their manufacturing
strategies.
Keywords - Environmental conscious
manufacturing (ECM), Reverse logistics, 6Rs,
sustainable growth
INTRODUCTION
n recent decades, environmental degradation
and global warming are of great concerns
globally. In today’s competitive world,
implementing the remanufacturing strategy to
regain the value of products and assemblies have
been the focused of many companies. The benefits
of remanufacturing to reduce the energy
consumption and waste production have been
discussed. Improving the flow of products in
various recycling and remanufacturing channels to
eliminate waste energy and raw materials has to be
considered. Recycling, remanufacturing and
disposal have important roles in sustainability [1].
The legal, economical and commercial issues are
some of the reasons to motivate companies to
consider the environment [1]. In the mid 1980s,
most developed countries just consider their
responsibilities to properly dispose their chemical
wastes. This is commonly known as
‘cradle-to-grave” life cycle. While, today, in
modern countries all entities who have critical roles
in product life cycle such as suppliers and
manufacturers focus on modern environmental
management and sustainable manufacturing to
prevent waste production and improve the use of
natural resources in their products. This
‘cradle-to-cradle’ life cycle concept focuses on
recovery, recycling or up-cycling, and reuse of
resources [2].
Hence, in the beginning of the twenty-first century,
environmentalism, a practice of responding to
environmental or green issue in a socially
responsible manner, remains an important social
and business issue. Government regulations,
changing consumer demand and development of
international certification standards are some other
motives. However, green manufacturing is applied
as the manufacturing paradigm that employs
various green strategies and techniques to become
more eco-efficient. Green supply chain
management endeavors to develop green
manufacturing not only in manufacturing, but also
to increase social awareness on environmental
issues in the different layers of supply chain
management [3].
The consideration of environmental issues and
concerns during manufacturing and the design
practices throughout the life cycle of the product
will help reduce the overall negative impacts on the
environment. This paper highlights on some of the
issues and practices of environmental conscious
manufacturing for sutainable growth.
I
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUS
MANUFACTURING (ECM)
reen revolution had influenced the whole
world and humanity from the economical to
the political aspects, and also from
conceptual to action, since 1970’s. Improved
environmental protection awareness, together with
advancement in modern science and technology, is
how green manufacturing technology and related
research were being initiated. Building a
sustainable society is crucial to social reform in the
21st century, where green manufacturing is aimed
at minimizing the environmental impact throughout
manufacturing, and maximizing resource efficiency
during the whole product life cycle: design,
manufacturing, packaging, transportation,
consumption, until disposal, and may prolong to
renewable resource.
Thus, ECM involves the planning, development,
and implementation of manufacturing processes
and technology that minimize or eliminate
hazardous waste, reduce scrap, are operationally
safer, and can design products that are recyclable,
or can be remanufactured or reused [5]. Developing
the various ECM practices and technologies is not
just because of competitive advantage, but the
environmental necessity and the limited natural
resources have also been considered in
manufacturing strategies of some developed
countries. The European ECM has focused on
recycling program, and designing products with
environmentally conscious features in R&D [6].
Some tools and techniques in ECM are product
development life cycle (PDLC) assessment which
is one of the approaches that reflects the outcomes
of corporate manufacturing. PDLC assessment is a
valuable approach in investigating environmental
impacts and should be a part of business processes.
Reduction or waste minimization is another
approach which has been defined by the US
Congress in the 1994 Hazardous and Solid Wastes
Amendments of the Resource Recovery Act
(RCRA). The main goal of waste minimization is
source reduction or pollution prevention. To reduce
the waste production, a broad range of activities
and operations at different levels of the
organization should be changed such as product and
production redesign, inventory control, input
changes, training on environmentally conscious
practice, and the suppliers and vendors should
provide environmentally friendly products,
particularly, with the capability of recycling [6].
Furthermore, to implement the recycling strategy,
substantial investment in all the equipments and
technologies involved in recycling process should
be taken into account, as well. Different recycling
strategies may be defined for various types of
products such as: recycling of wastes into
alternative products like making fiberglass from
glass bottles or processing of recycled material into
products that are not usually made of the material,
where all properties of the original product have
been lost, for instance, glass to glass halt.
Remanufacturing is the other tool for ECM.
Remanufacturing strategy is regaining the value of
products and assemblies. From the environmental
aspects, the benefits of remanufacturing to reduce
the energy consumption and waste production have
been discussed. Improving the flow of products in
various recycling and remanufacturing channels to
eliminate waste energy and raw materials has been
considered as one of the main discussions in current
studies [6].
GREEN CONCERNS AND
SUSTAINABILITY
reen manufacturing concerns about
environmental sustainability during
manufacturing and entire product life cycle
as the main criterion for adopting green
practice and strategy [7]. It is in particular to
enhance innovative green thinking in product design
and material selection, and green practice in
production, packaging technology, and remaining
close loop system in life cycle based on
zero/minimum environmental impact deliberative
method [8]. Effective goal and strategy are
important in green manufacturing. Its main goals are
to make products by concerning product life cycle
with clean manufacturing process, not
over-packaging, less in transportation, disposal and
recyclability that keep minimum negative
environment impact and use of resource efficiently.
Figure 1 shows the principle of green manufacturing.
Lesser energy deterioration, zero environment
impact, efficient use of resource, environmental and
economical advantage, modern technology and zero
pollution are all green principles that help to achieve
in improving the environmental coordination,
improving economical advantage, less environment
impact and lesser resource depletion [9].
G
G
Figure 1
. Green Manufacturing Principles [9]
Jawahir
et al. [10] illustrated the evolution of
manufacturing sustainability from traditional
manufacturing to innovative-
Manufacturing (Figure 2.). The adoption of
sustainable manufacturing will increase the
stakeholder value at a more rapid rate.
Figure
3
Ensure development
do
not compromise the future needs of society, economy and environment
Environment
Climate Change
Contribute to
greenhouse
Gas reduction targets
Air Quality
Meet UK national
and EU air quality
standards
Noise
Meet UK national
and EU noise
standards
Waste Management
Minimize waste and
impact of waste
produced
. Green Manufacturing Principles [9]
et al. [10] illustrated the evolution of
manufacturing sustainability from traditional
based sustainable
Manufacturing (Figure 2.). The adoption of
sustainable manufacturing will increase the
Figure 2
. Evolution of sustainable manufacturing
(Jawahir, 2008)
[10]
Kopac [9] emphasized the necessity for human
well-
being and survival by encouraging the
employment of green technique and technology. It
expected to reduce the engagement between
manufacturing with environmental impact. Other
than sustainability need, the increasing demand of
green products would reduce manufacturing’s
environmental impact by energy efficiency actions,
remanufacturing a
nd material reuse. Figure 3
illustrates that a sustainable development ensures
that the future needs of the society, economy and the
environment are not compromised through a
sustainable distribut strategy
of these factors [11]
3
:
Sustainable Distribution: A Strategy [11]
Sustainable Development
not compromise the future needs of society, economy and environment
SUSTAINABLE DISTRIBUTION
Safety
Improve vehicle, driver
and other road user
safety
Health
Protect the health of the
road user and the public
Disturbance
Minimize the impact of
noise and vibration on
the public, minimize
community severance,
Access
Promote wide access to
markets,
services
Equity
Efficient distribution
services available to all:
user pays principle
Economy
Growth
Promote continued
economic growth
Jobs and prosperity
New and secure jobs:
relevant skills
Fair pricing
Reflecting direct and
wider costs of transport
Choice
Ensure a plentiful and
cheap supply of goods
through an efficient
system of goods
distribution
. Evolution of sustainable manufacturing
[10]
Kopac [9] emphasized the necessity for human
being and survival by encouraging the
employment of green technique and technology. It
is
expected to reduce the engagement between
manufacturing with environmental impact. Other
than sustainability need, the increasing demand of
green products would reduce manufacturing’s
environmental impact by energy efficiency actions,
nd material reuse. Figure 3
illustrates that a sustainable development ensures
that the future needs of the society, economy and the
environment are not compromised through a
of these factors [11]
not compromise the future needs of society, economy and environment
Society
Improve vehicle, driver
and other road user
safety
Protect the health of the
road user and the public
Disturbance
Minimize the impact of
noise and vibration on
the public, minimize
community severance,
Promote wide access to
markets,
goods and
services
Efficient distribution
services available to all:
user pays principle
GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
n general, supply chain consists of five main
logistic elements, which are suppliers,
Manufacturing/Services,distribution/wholesaler
centers, retail centers or transportation assets
and customers. Figure 1 shows the SCM structure.
Green supply chain management (GSCM) implies
green manufacturing and SCM theory with
emphasizing on knowledge of technology;
involving suppliers, manufacturers, vendors and
users. It originates from the development of SCM
in the manufacturing industry. The GSCM is a
modern management model that has a
comprehensive consideration on environment and
utilizes resources in the entire supply chain [12].
The operation layer chain of green industry
includes; green design, green purchasing, green
suppliers, green manufacturing, green marketing,
green consumption and green recycling and other
elements in establishing a closed-loop GSCM.
“Greening requests enterprises have to carry a
comprehensive transformation and promotion to
production technology. Simultaneously, all these
could improve enterprise’s environmental
performance and commercial performance.
REVERSE LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT
everse logistics was developed in recent
years to pursue environmental concerns
simultaneously. The management of flow
that returns the reused product for better utilization
emerged as a field of reverse logistics research. It
includes all activities which attempt to find a way
to reuse product in the reverse direction of
production [4] and focuses on environmental and
economical goals [13]. Furthermore, green
concerns make reverse logistics valuable in the
operations management research area. Reverse
logistics has the potential to produce new products
and open new market for the companies that were
not available previously. It consists of all processes
which transfer used product at the point of
consumption to the point of origin in terms of
re-achievement of value in the product [14, 15, 16].
It is one of the five main activities which has an
important role in establishing reverse supply chain
management and consists of network design and
remanufacturing process [17]. In addition, the focus
of reverse logistics is on the waste management,
product recovery and material recovery [18].
It is the process of continuously taking back
products or packaging materials to avoid further
waste disposal in landfills or high energy
consumption through the incineration process. In
most cases, manufacturers implement reverse
logistics because of heightened consumer interest in
environmentally friendly products or government
legislation. Reverse logistics affects many
components of the logistics process and expand the
responsibilities of the logistics function as well as
the supply chain because companies are responsible
for products after they have been sold and after
customers have disposed of them.
Reverse logistics consists of six processes which
are repair, refurbishing, remanufacturing, reuse,
recycling, and disposal. These processes are known
as 6R. Repair is defined as the least amount of
effort to upgrading product as new. Refurbishing is
similar to repair but needs more effort for repairing.
Remanufacturing is a strategy to regain the value of
products and assemblies. Reuse is related to those
products which can be returned to the consumption
cycle without any changes in its structure.
Recycling process is similar to reuse but recycling
process ae related to products which reduced its
basic elements. Disposal refers to those products
that cannot be categorized in the mentioned
processes [19].
Jayal et al. [20] explained the 6R concept as forming
the basis for sustainable manufacturing which is
theoretically a closed-loop, multiple life-cycle
paradigms. Different authors highlighted that to
achieve overall sustainability requires a holistic
view spanning the entire supply chain, including
manufacturing systems and processes, and involving
multiple product life-cycles. This requires improved
product performance models, predictive process
models and optimization of individual
manufacturing processes, as well as optimization of
the entire closed-loop supply chain operations.
MALAYSIA’S GREEN INITIATIVES
The Environmental Performance Index is an
authoritative way to judge an environmental policy
on a country’s environmental performance.
According to latest environmental performance
index, Malaysia was ranked 10 in the list of Asia
and Pacific region with 65 EPI score [21]. “Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy” which has been
included in the Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006-2010) is
undergoing a second stage of review during the
I
R
Tenth Malaysia plan to ensure potential growth in
the manufacturing sector. Salsuwanda et al. [22]
expected 350MW of renewal energy to be supplied
in Malaysia during 2010. However, it is still in a
fuzzy zone of effectiveness, whether to generate
renewable energy or to reduce energy consumption.
Furthermore, the establishment of the Ministry of
Energy, Green Technology and Water in April 2009
represented a great driving force powered by the
Malaysia Cabinet towards the development of
green in Malaysia. The Ministry pioneered the
government initiatives towards sustainable
development with the aim to minimize
environmental impact and contribute to the national
green technology industry. One of the efforts is
under the Small Renewable Energy Power
Programme (SREP), where small power plants can
apply to sell electricity generated from renewable
basis to the utilities companies through distribution
grid systems. This project applies to all types of RE,
including biomass, biogas, municipal waste, solar,
mini-hydro and wind.
The National Green Technology Policy is another
form of encouragement to ensure better quality of
green applications and environment management. It
provides the strategy for every of its pillars, energy,
environment, economy, and social. The policy
provides guidance for business and industries to
enhance economic growth by reducing energy
usage rate and facilitating the growth of the green
technology [23]. The policy is lined with three
stages of different aims (short term, intermediate,
and long term) to enhance industrial green
technology development. The three stages are
enclosed with the Tenth, Eleven, and Twelve
Malaysia Plan. A Green technology Financing
Scheme (GTFS) was formed to benefit the
firms/industry that are willing to implement green
technology with soft loans partly subsidized by the
government [24, 25]
CONCLUSION
The current rate of resource depletion and
environmental degradation requires Government
and businesses to take proactive actions to ensure
that the earth is preserved and sustained for future
generations. Developing countries where the
process of industrialization is rapid have their fair
share in contributing to the state of the earth that we
live. Since manufacturing contributes to the wealth
creation of a nation, it is imperative that
manufacturing strategies be developed to sustain
this contribution.
With environmental conscious manufacturing
strategies, companies can survive longer, since
resources are utilized efficiently and creating more
wealth from the practices of 6Rs. Manufacturers
must be more vigilant in all their activities. At
every stage of the manufacturing process,
environmental considerations must be in place,
from the design, production, use and disposal. It is
no longer viable to consider reduce measures of
environmental problems after it has been produced.
Green, Environmental conscious manufacturing,
clean, sustainable, environmental responsible
manufacturing have the same goals of minimizing
the negative impacts of the manufacturing activities
and processes from designing and delivering the
products to the environment.
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... Yusuff et al. [36] have discussed the importance of the manufacturing process and environmental considerations which must be in place, from the design, production, use, and disposal. It is no longer viable to consider reduction measures of environmental problems after it has been produced. ...
... The highlight of the recycling program is reducing the variety and volume of plastics used, avoiding composite materials, and making logos with plastic parts. Mercedes and Swatch Remanufacturing Zhang et al. [38] Environmentally conscious design and manufacturing Guide et al. [39] Production planning and control for remanufacturing Guide [40] Production planning and control, inventory management and control, disassembly, reverse logistics Tang et al. [41] Disassembly modeling, planning, and application Williams [42] Electronic demanufacturing processes Kim et al. [43] Disassembly scheduling Duhan et al. [35] Analytical network process (ANP) Yusuff et al. [36] Disassembly design, production planning, and application 6 Journal of Nanomaterials jointly designed a prototype car with vegetable fibers instead of metals. BMW announced a pilot program to test the feasibility of recycling BMW automobiles under the compulsion of German laws for recycling [70], [70]. ...
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