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Dialects in Norway: Catching up with the Rest of Europe?

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Abstract

Norway has sometimes been described as a sociolinguistic paradise with its abundant linguistic heterogeneity — both written and spoken. Dialect diversity has been and is still considerable and dialects are used in practically all social domains. However, dialects in Norway are changing. In this article I will discuss the historical background for the linguistic situation in Norway, and I will take a closer look at present-day developments and discuss the structural, sociocultural, and psychological mechanisms behind them. The question is whether the dialect situation in Norway remains very different from most other parts of Europe, or if at least some areas of Norway may be experiencing similar developments.

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... Yet not every European country exhibits exactly the same ideology. In Norway, there is no spoken standard language (Papazian 2012a), it is considered normal that Norwegians should speak in their local dialect both privately and publicly; this has been called a pro-dialect ideology (Røyneland 2009). In Serbia, the recent change in the name of the language from Serbo-Croatian to Serbian, causes disagreements amongst linguists and politicians about what Serbian language actually is (cf. ...
... They are used in public and private communication, in media, SmS, in the parliament and in church (Sandøy 2011). In other words, Norway has a "pro dialect ideology" (Røyneland 2009). The idea of a "spoken national standard" is considered obsolete by most language users (Vonen 2012). ...
... For example, the commentator below experienced a public speaker that used a great amount of English words in his vocabulary and expresses worry for the national character of the language. The uses the metonymy language is a glue, also noticed in Berthele (2008) One portion of the comments express the pro-dialect ideology, the idea that each person should speak his own dialects without mixing or using standardised speech (Røyneland 2009). geographical representation is expressed through an old belief that those who are not using their own dialect are trying to appear 'lordlier': ...
... On the contrary, every individual is expected to use a variant of his or her local dialect in nationwide arenas such as the national parliament or public broadcasting. Even if increasing contact across regions has had some harmonizing effect on the Norwegian dialect diversity, regional speech variance is generally seen as a normal component of the Norwegian language situation (Maehlum, 2009;Røyneland, 2009). This heterogeneous language situation also has consequences for which varieties one may encounter in social settings, and have the effect that the Norwegian language has a multifaceted appearance in both speech and writing. ...
... Argument in favor of one variety by defining the other as non-Norwegian is, therefore, irrelevant for the vast majority of Norwegians. In addition, the variation between Norwegian dialects is decreasing (Skjekkeland, 2005;Røyneland, 2009), and, due to a series of spelling reforms, both written varieties now are more similar to each other than the two written languages they originated from more than one hundred years ago (Vikør, 2015). And while the deficit view of bilingualism today is outdated, cf. ...
... Because of this, writing with orthographic and idiomatic fidelity in Bokmål and Nynorsk may have a restrictive effect on the writing of many language users. According to Røyneland (2009) ...
Chapter
This article discusses whether active use of the two Norwegian written varieties can be described as bilingualism, and if the ability to use both in writing provides the user with potential bilingual benefits. The article uses insights from international research on bilingualism and biliteracy to better understand the conceptualization of the Norwegian language in both past and present. In the conclusion, the author argues that competency in both written forms of Norwegian should be defined as monolingual biliteracy.
... The majority of Norwegians speak their dialect in all (or most) circumstances, both formal and informal, although given numerous changes currently taking place across varieties, it is not always clear what is a dialect and what is the standard (see e.g., Røyneland 2005Røyneland , 2009). In fact, whether or not Norway has a standard spoken language is a heavily debated issue. ...
... The variety spoken in and around the capital, Oslo, is considered the most prestigious variety and the converge-to variety in cases of accommodation. Most changes in the language are also considered to go in the direction of this variety (see Røyneland 2005Røyneland , 2009 and references therein; but see Stausland Johnsen 2015 for a different perspective). This variety is often referred to as Standard East Norwegian, a label that we use in the present paper as well. ...
... This variety is often referred to as Standard East Norwegian, a label that we use in the present paper as well. This variety is the native spoken language for many Norwegians, and it is relatively close to the written standard Bokmål (Røyneland 2009). ...
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It is well known that grammatical gender systems may change historically. Previous research has documented loss of the feminine gender in several Norwegian dialects, including those spoken in Oslo and Tromsø (Lødrup in Maal og Minne 2:120–136, 2011; Rodina and Westergaard in J Ger Linguist 27(2):145–187 2015). In these dialects, the change is characterized by replacement of the feminine indefinite article ei (e.g., ei bok ‘a book’) with the masculine form en (e.g., en bok). Child and adult native speakers of the Trondheim dialect (N = 71) participated in two production experiments that tested gender marking in indefinite and double definite forms, using an identical methodology to the Tromsø study. Results show that both children and adults are affected by the change. The Trondheim-Tromsø comparison reveals that the change is more advanced in the Trondheim dialect. We conclude that the loss of the feminine gender reflects a general development taking place across a number of dialects at the current time, presumably due to the high prestige of a spoken variety of one of the written standards of Norwegian.
... The research on language contact also encompasses a sociolinguistic dialectological approach and studies on language variation and change, such as studies on dialect leveling (cf. Røyneland, 2009, for an overview). 3 The socio-dialectological approach is, however, beside the scope of this chapter because it involves the use of traditional dialects and a (regional) standard, and has mainly been conducted in rural areas of Norway, for example, as in one of the earliest international studies on the social meaning of code switching, conducted in North-Norway (Blom & Gumperz, 1972). ...
... There are, however, ongoing processes of dialect leveling (e.g. Røyneland, 2009;Solheim, 2009), and even language shift in some villages, toward a South-Eastern standard-like variant (e.g. Papazian, 1997). ...
... Moreover, different dialects 16 Multilingual Urban Scandinavia hold, as in most other countries, different prestige, and dialect mixing is in general looked down upon (Maehlum & Røyneland, 2009). Dialect diversity, however, has been and still is considerable, and dialects enjoy relatively high prestige and are used in practically all social domains (cf. Røyneland, 2009). A recent study conducted by the Norwegian Broadcasting Cooperation (NRK) and the Norwegian Language Council (2009), confi rms that Norwegians in general are dialect friendly; that is positive to dialect use in the society as a whole and in the national news broadcasts on radio and television. ...
... Dialects and to some degree sociolects have high ideological value among Norwegians (e.g. Røyneland, 2009;Røyneland, 2010). Dialects are generally widely accepted and used both within private and public domains-also within different musical genres like Hip Hop. 1 After an initial phase where English was the dominant language, Norwegian rap went through a period of "Norwegianisation" and today many rappers use their local dialects, however often with American English Hip Hop expressions interspersed as a way to reference the provenance of African American Hip Hop (Brunstad et al., 2010). ...
... Whereas the merger long has been associated with adolescent culture, sloppiness, childishness, and so on, using/ /instead of/ç /now seems to be fully accepted as the new norm in many adolescent environments. Though initially stigmatized, and subject to greater pressure toward norm maintenance than most contact-induced changes associated with dialect leveling (see Røyneland, 2009), we are facing a change in attitudes and a loss of potential meaning associated with the innovation, i.e. it no longer functions as a group identity marker. This developmental pattern shows how the relative indexical value of linguistic features may change relatively fast, and may perhaps serve as an indication to the likely fate of some of the linguistic characteristics associated with a multiethnolectal speech style. ...
... Attitudes toward mixed or leveled ways of speaking are not particularly favorable, and are often regarded both by the users of mixed varieties themselves and by others as "bad" or "poor" ways of speaking (Maehlum, 2011;Røyneland, 2009). This has to do with a view of language as something that should be kept pure, clean, and unspoiled. ...
Article
In this paper we examine the role of Hip Hop and rap lyrics in the reevaluation and legitimization of a new multiethnolectal speech style developed in multiethnic and multilingual environments in Oslo, Norway. This speech style, commonly referred to as “Kebab-Norwegian”, has been met with negative attitudes not only from the establishment but also in mainstream media. However, attitudes seem to be changing, partly due to the efforts of rappers from immigrant backgrounds who promote themselves as users and propagators of the new speech style. They take a clear stance against the prevalent idea that “Kebab-Norwegian” poses a threat to the Norwegian language. In our paper we present on-going research on some of the most recent high school textbooks where lyrics from these performers have been included, and we also consider the strategies of promotion employed by some of the publishing houses.
... Norway is sometimes described as an exceptionally liberal speech community with high tolerance for dialect use in most contexts (see, e.g. Jahr and Janicki 1995;Wiggen 1995;Røyneland 2009). For instance, Trudgill (2002, 31) says that "Norway is […] one of the most dialect-speaking countries in Europe", and that Norway has "an enormous social tolerance for linguistic diversity." ...
... Based on previous research (e.g. Omdal 1994;Haugen 2004;Maehlum andRøyneland 2009, 2018;Røyneland 2009;Sollid 2009Sollid , 2014Maehlum 2011;Ommeren 2016), there are mainly two Norwegian language ideologies that are relevant for our purposes. First, there is a high acceptance of dialects in Norway, but as indicated in the introduction, this is not acceptance without frames or limits. ...
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Today, in an era of increased mobility and migration, there is also increased in-migration within regions and countries. In the case of Norway, there is high tolerance for dialect use, and in this context, it is interesting to ask which kinds of sociolinguistic strategies in-migrants consider to be available given their current situation. This article explores the reported language attitudes from the point of view of people who have moved to Tromsø from other parts of Norway. The data is from a survey about (1) in-migrants’ attitudes towards various forms of dialect use, including dialect maintenance, shifts or changes, and (2) how the in-migrants perceive attitudes in Tromsø towards various forms of dialect use. The study shows that it is seen as ideal to maintain one’s initial dialect, rather than changing or shifting the dialect. However, most of the respondents reportedly changed their own initial dialect and changing or shifting the dialect is perceived as a tolerable sociolinguistic strategy to fit in and accommodate the new place. We also find that a common assumption is that people in Tromsø have positive attitudes towards other dialects, but it seems to matter where one comes from and which dialect one speaks.
... Compared to Danes and Swedes, Norwegians are described as being more receptive to linguistic variation (Torp, 2004). In the Norwegian "polylectal" language situation, dialect use is well-accepted, with dialects used widely in all registers and contexts, and no officially codified spoken standard variety of the language (Havas & Vulchanova, 2018;Røyneland, 2009). Furthermore, Norwegian has two distinct written standards: Bokmål ('Book Language') and Nynorsk ('New Norwegian'), both taught in school. ...
Article
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How do native speakers process texts with anomalous learner syntax? Second-language learners of Norwegian, and other verb-second (V2) languages, frequently place the verb in third position (e.g., *Adverbial-Subject-Verb), although it is mandatory for the verb in these languages to appear in second position (Adverbial-Verb-Subject). In an eye-tracking study, native Norwegian speakers read sentences with either grammatical V2 or ungrammatical verb-third (V3) word order. Unlike previous eye-tracking studies of ungrammaticality, which have primarily addressed morphosyntactic anomalies, we exclusively manipulate word order with no morphological or semantic changes. We found that native speakers reacted immediately to ungrammatical V3 word order, indicated by increased fixation durations and more regressions out on the subject, and subsequently on the verb. Participants also recovered quickly, already on the following word. The effects of grammaticality were unaffected by the length of the initial adverbial. The study contributes to future models of sentence processing which should be able to accommodate various types of “noisy” input, that is, non-standard variation. Together with new studies of processing of other L2 anomalies in Norwegian, the current findings can help language instructors and students prioritize which aspects of grammar to focus on.
... In the current study, we examined word recognition and word comprehension in two groups of Norwegian infants: monodialectal infants receiving similar input from both parents speaking the Oslo (Eastern) dialect, and bidialectal infants exposed to the Oslo dialect and to a different type of Norwegian dialect (that can belong to one of the remaining three group-types of dialects: Western, Central, and Northern). All four types of dialects are mutually intelligible, but clearly recognizable even by an untrained ear for their differences at segmental and suprasegmental levels, that is, the phonetic realization of a number of sounds (or their omission) and the use of lexical pitch accents 5 (Johnsen, 2012;Kerswill, 2016;Maehlum & Røyneland, 2012;Røyneland, 2009), but also for their differences at morpho-syntactic (in particular related to differences in gender attribution for words) and lexical levels. Word recognition was tested using the Visual Fixation paradigm (as in Frank et al., 2020), where infants heard, in a random order, eight lists of familiar and nonsense words. ...
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Previous research suggests that exposure to accent variability can affect toddlers’ familiar word recognition and word comprehension. The current preregistered study addressed the gap in knowledge on early language development in infants exposed to two dialects from birth and assessed the role of dialect similarity in infants’ word recognition and comprehension. 12‐month‐old Norwegian‐learning infants, exposed to native Norwegian parents speaking the same or two Norwegian dialects, took part in two eye‐tracking tasks, assessing familiar word form recognition and word comprehension. Their parents’ speech was assessed for similarity by native Norwegian speakers. First, in contrast to previous research, our results revealed no listening preference for words over nonwords in both monodialectal and bidialectal infants, suggesting potential language‐specific differences in the onset of word recognition. Second, the results showed evidence for word comprehension in monodialectal infants, but not in bidialectal infants, suggesting that exposure to dialectal variability impacts early word acquisition. Third, we observed perceptual similarity between parental dialects to tendentially facilitate bidialectal infants’ word recognition and comprehension. Forth, the results revealed a strong correlation between the raters and parents’ assessment of similarity between dialects, indicating that parental estimations can be reliably used to assess infants’ speech variability at home. Finally, our results revealed a strong relationship between word recognition and comprehension in monodialectal infants and the absence of such a relationship in bidialectal infants, suggesting that either these two skills do not necessarily align in infants exposed to more variable input, or that the alignment might occur at a later stage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Secondly, Norwegian has many dialects, which differ lexically, grammatically and phonologically. There is no spoken standard of Norwegian, and speakers use dialects even in official settings (Røyneland, 2009). It is likely that many speakers also use their dialect, or would prefer to use it, when speaking with speech assistants, smart-home devices, dictation software and other kinds of technology with a voice user interface. ...
Preprint
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The Norwegian Parliamentary Speech Corpus (NPSC) is a speech dataset with recordings of meetings from Stortinget, the Norwegian parliament. It is the first, publicly available dataset containing unscripted, Norwegian speech designed for training of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. The recordings are manually transcribed and annotated with language codes and speakers, and there are detailed metadata about the speakers. The transcriptions exist in both normalized and non-normalized form, and non-standardized words are explicitly marked and annotated with standardized equivalents. To test the usefulness of this dataset, we have compared an ASR system trained on the NPSC with a baseline system trained on only manuscript-read speech. These systems were tested on an independent dataset containing spontaneous, dialectal speech. The NPSC-trained system performed significantly better, with a 22.9% relative improvement in word error rate (WER). Moreover, training on the NPSC is shown to have a "democratizing" effect in terms of dialects, as improvements are generally larger for dialects with higher WER from the baseline system.
... An openness toward varieties of English would be in keeping with ideologies of equality which are for many perceived to be part of Nordic exceptionalism. Indeed, tolerance toward variation of domestic languages in the Nordic countries is a hallmark of overall equality (but see, for example, Røyneland, 2009). It is therefore interesting to observe if the tolerance and acceptance of varieties of English is in evidence, or rather if externally modeled attitudes against certain varieties of English manifest. ...
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The global spread of English, manifest in multiple Englishes around the world, and its role as a global language continue to be dynamically evolving areas of investigation. A range of studies have emerged along related strands of research concerned with the global spread and creation of Englishes (World Englishes); the use of English as an additional language, international language, and lingua franca; and the functions of English as the language of globalization mediating global cultural flows. An explicit and implicit corollary of the global spread of English is the contact that Englishes have with other languages and the influences that emerge from this contact. This Research Topic aims at foregrounding the effects that surface from the interplay of Englishes with other languages. The interaction scenarios may differ widely, ranging from remote language contact (e.g. English influence being mediated) to the presence of English in everyday multilingual practices - both individually (as emerging from multilingual minds) and socially (e.g. English impacting on the communal use of other languages). By showcasing current research that investigates different contexts in which Englishes interact with other languages, this Research Topic aims at furthering our understanding of the processes of language contact and multilingualism in various domains of language use, including their social implications for speakers of Englishes and other languages.
... The sociolinguistic situation of Limburgian corresponds to that of other dialects in the Netherlands and other European countries, where dialects are changing due to the omnipresence of the standard language (Røyneland 2009). Grammatical interference often takes the form that variation between two forms is given up if the influencing language makes a categorical choice for just one form. ...
Article
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In this paper, we report on a study of gender reference in Limburgian, specifically the use of the neuter subject pronoun het ‘she’ (lit. ‘it’) to refer to a female referent. This pronoun is used in addition to the feminine pronoun ze ‘she’. We investigate the role of the referent’s social and grammatical characteristics in the variation between grammatically feminine and ‘non-feminine’ ( nf; i.e., neuter and masculine) pronouns in two experiments. First, we test the effect of a referent’s age in a language production study, in which 41 native speakers participated. The results of this study indicate that speakers use het more often to refer to younger than to older women. Second, we use an acceptability judgment task ( N = 72) to assess whether the preference for non-feminine pronouns for younger women might be explained by grammatical agreement with non-feminine antecedent nouns (e.g., grammatically neuter maedje ‘girl’). The results indicate that this is not the case: het is preferred as a pronoun for younger but not older women, regardless of an antecedent noun’s grammatical gender. We conclude that the variation in pronoun gender in Limburgian is a socio-pragmatic phenomenon, and we offer suggestions for future research in this area.
... For instance, while the majority of Indo-European languages use one acoustic cue to signal changes in vowel identity, (i.e., changes in formants, as in English 'bed'low first formant versus 'bad'high first formant), Norwegian, in addition, uses pitch (i.e., lexical (tone) accents, [1hendəɾ] 'hands' vs [2hendəɾ] 'happens') and vowel lengthening (tak [a:] -'roof' vs takk [a] -'thank you'). Note that although the above-mentioned three types of dialects are mutually intelligible, they are clearly recognisable even by an untrained ear for their differences at segmental (the phonetic realization of a number of sounds or their omission) and supra-segmental (e.g., the use of lexical tone accents) levels (Johnsen, 2012;Kerswill, 2016;Maehlum & Røyneland, 2012;Røyneland, 2009). For instance, while low tone accent is used in Oslo (Eastern) dialect, high tone accent is used in Bergen (Western) dialect; that is, tone accents follow opposite patterns in Oslo and Bergen. ...
Article
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Multi-accent environments offer rich but inconsistent language input, as words are produced differently across accents. The current study examined, in two experiments, whether multi-accent variability affects infants’ ability to learn words and whether toddlers’ prior experience with accents modulates learning. In Experiment 1, two-and-a-half-year-old Norwegian toddlers were exposed, in their kindergarten, twice per day for one week, to a child-friendly audiovisual tablet-based e-book containing four novel pseudowords. Half of the toddlers heard the story in three Norwegian accents, whereas the other half heard it in one Norwegian accent. The results revealed no differences between conditions, suggesting that multi-accent variability did not hinder toddlers’ word learning. In experiment 2, two-and-a-half-year-old Norwegian toddlers were exposed, in their homes, for one week, to the e-book featuring three Norwegian accents. The results revealed overall better learning in toddlers raised in bi-dialectal households, as compared to mono-dialectal peers – suggesting that accent exposure benefits learning in multi-accent environments.
... In addition, Norway does not have a spoken standard language norm (e.g. Røyneland, 2009). Hence the bias follows logically from connecting grammar to written norms and rules, when no such rules exist for spoken language. ...
Article
This paper explores the conceptions of grammar of first-year teacher students ( N = 235) in Norway. A conventional content analysis is used to analyse the answers from the first part of a survey exploring the teacher students’ views of grammar through the following questions: Q1. How would you define the term grammar? Q2. Do you think grammar is an important part of Norwegian as a school subject? Q3. Do you feel confident in grammar? The second part of the survey is a grammar knowledge test. The results show that most students define grammar as writing correctly. Many answers also refer to language structure. Among the less frequent definitions are: theoretical knowledge of language structure, precise communication, text, and constituent analysis. Nearly all students report that they consider grammar important. Moreover, most consider their own grammar competence to be relatively good. However, there is a discrepancy between this self-evaluation and the results from the knowledge test, which are quite poor. Our study contributes to the body of research on teacher students’ conception of grammar, which, in a Norwegian context, has been unexplored. We discuss our findings in the light of national and international literature, and we propose plausible contributing factors. We also reflect upon possible consequences for teacher education.
... Despite recent urbanization, leading to one-third of the population residing in cities with >100,000 inhabitants, Norway remains characterized by rural communities and small coastal cities. The diversity in dialects across the country suggests limited gene flow in the past [13]. ...
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The aim of the present study was to describe the genetic structure of the Norwegian population using genotypes from 6369 unrelated individuals with detailed information about places of residence. Using standard single marker- and haplotype-based approaches, we report evidence of two regions with distinctive patterns of genetic variation, one in the far northeast, and another in the south of Norway, as indicated by fixation indices, haplotype sharing, homozygosity, and effective population size. We detect and quantify a component of Uralic Sami ancestry that is enriched in the North. On a finer scale, we find that rates of migration have been affected by topography like mountain ridges. In the broader Scandinavian context, we detect elevated relatedness between the mid- and northern border areas towards Sweden. The main finding of this study is that despite Norway’s long maritime history and as a former Danish territory, the region closest to mainland Europe in the south appears to have been an isolated region in Norway, highlighting the open sea as a barrier to gene flow into Norway.
... To some extent, Norway can be called a multilingual paradise (Røyneland 2009;Haukås fc). The official national languages are Norwegian and Sami, a group of indigenous languages spoken in northern Scandinavia. ...
... To some extent, Norway can be called a multilingual paradise (Røyneland 2009;Haukås fc). The official national languages are Norwegian and Sami, a group of indigenous languages spoken in northern Scandinavia. ...
Article
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The main objective of this article is to discuss the theoretical background and rationale for developing Ungspråk, a longitudinal, mixed methods study set in Norwegian lower secondary schools. The paper starts with an overview of different scholarly approaches to the study of multilingualism and their implications for research on multilingualism in education. After a brief introduction to multilingualism in Norwegian society and educational contexts, we present our research areas of interest and the main research questions. Particular attention is paid to the relevance of the concept of multilingual identity to the study. In addition, we discuss how the project will contribute to furthering the understanding of the relationship between multilingualism and intercultural competence. The mixed methods design of the Ungspråk project innovatively explores how different research methods and instruments can be combined to investigate questions related to multilingualism and multilingual identity and to create opportunities for meaningful interactions between researchers and participants. When discussing the mixed methods design of the project, we focus on how quantitative and qualitative components are integrated to address the research questions, engage participants in the research process and strengthen the overall validity of the findings. Overall, we hope that the Ungspråk project will contribute new insights into how languages can be learned and cultures explored in the 21st century multilingual classroom. Furthermore, the project may impact how researchers and participants interact with and benefit from empirical studies on education.
... The diglossic situation often found elsewhere, where speakers code-switch to a standard in certain (formal) situations is not the norm in Norway. Despite this, there are examples of dialect levelling in the direction of SEN, together with regionalisation (Maehlum 2009, Røyneland 2009, see also Lundquist et al. this issue for examples in the Tromsø dialect). For these reasons, among others, it is a matter of debate whether Norwegian has a standard spoken variety at all (Jahr & Maehlum 2009;Bull 2009), and, if so, which one(s) should be regarded as (the) standard (see e.g. ...
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This paper investigates the variation in and development of a set of morphological variables in a register known to be used by Norwegian children when engaging in role play. In this register they code-switch to something resembling the standard or Oslo variety for their in-character role utterances. The variation across variables, subjects, and age is demonstrated and discussed, and although most variables are used in the standard variants, their rates vary. A fitted binomial generalised mixed effect analysis on the most frequent variables shows that the rate of standard variants increases significantly as an effect of age.
... How far do YL weaken standard norms and foster destandardization processes in the society as a whole? With the development of internet and social media, written practices -and not only oral practices -are seen as new avenues of expression that challenge standard language ideology(Røyneland 2009, Kristiansen & Coupland 2011, Jørgensen et al. 2011.Development of YL studies was first connected with the development of urban suburbs with important foreign migrant population. It then spread to different environments like little provincial towns and even rural villages showing the influence of YL practices as kind of unformal standards (Ziegler & Lenzhofer 2016; Røyneland 2009). ...
... Not only has the linguistic diversity in the country increased immensely, but the degree of dialect and language contact has intensified substantially. As a consequence, we experience increasing dialect change and shift, alongside emergence of new lects, and changing norms (Opsahl 2009;Røyneland 2009Røyneland , 2020Svendsen and Røyneland 2008). Traditionally, Norway has had a number of regional minority languages all of which are now recognised either as official languages or as national minority languages. ...
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Norway is known for its dialect diversity and also for the fact that dialects, on the whole, are cherished and used within all social domains and by people in all social strata. Previous studies indicate that also immigrants to Norway tend to acquire and use local speech, and that this generally is positively perceived. However, language alone may not always be enough to be accepted as someone who belongs and claims of local identity may be rejected. This article reports on a study of attitudes towards immigrants’ use of dialect by a large number of high school students from six different urban and rural places in Eastern and Western Norway. In order to examine the extent to which adolescents with an immigrant background are seen as legitimate and entitled users of local speech, a visual-verbal-guise and an extensive online questionnaire were designed and focus group interviews were conducted. In the study we ask whether adolescents with an immigrant background are evaluated differently than their non-immigrant peers while speaking the same variety, and whether dialect has an impact on how ‘foreign’ or ‘Norwegian’ they are perceived to be.
... Traditionally, Norway has often been described as a "linguistic paradise" (Maehlum and Røyneland 2012) due to the country's high degree of acceptance and tolerance of the use of dialects in all situations, as opposed to a diglossic situation found in many other countries, for example, Germany. Conversations among Norwegians of various dialect backgrounds are often "polylectal" (Røyneland 2009), that is, each one speaks her/his dialect, although some accommodation may occur. Indeed, one can find Norway presented as an exceptional case in regards to this acceptance of local dialects as a form of weak standard language ideology, as opposed to a strong standard language ideology (cf. ...
Chapter
This article addresses the need to investigate family language policy in regard to issues concerning immigration in contemporary urban spaces. Family language policy is an emerging field of inquiry that bridges the gap between studies of child language and the field of language policy research in its approach to understanding language maintenance and shift in multilingual families and communities. A case study on Norway concerning the school performance of children with an immigrant background is presented to illustrate the importance of addressing language ideologies at the societal level and how they may affect language policies in the home. While Norway has been considered a sociolinguistic paradise in the widespread acceptance of dialectal variation, without diglossia, the use of other immigrant languages is not looked upon as favourably. Drawing on media data of a particular case that received considerable national attention, the article highlights how political pressures were placed on families with an immigrant background in order to promote their speaking Norwegian in the home. Such a policy would ultimately promote monolingualism in society. The study shows how family spaces, traditionally considered private domains, have essentially become public spaces through mediatised discourses. A comparison is made with other similar cases in Europe.
... 9 Now, both rural and urban hip-hop artists from outside Oslo typically use the local rural or urban dialect in their rap lyrics to express local pride and identity. 10 Hence, both rural and urban Norwegian rappers appear to be reversing the trend toward the disappearance of regional dialects by employing dialectal features very consciously in their rap performances (Brunstad 2006;Røyneland 2009 (2002) has shown for copula absence among African American rappers. 13 ...
... Literature of Norwegian dialects suggests: the more centralized and dictatorial is/was a society the more common is to think hierarchic in language use (Trudgill, 2008). Røyneland (2009) suggests that the prestige of provinces and a growing self-esteem of provincial population could lead to positive attitudes to dialects in Norway. However, counterexample of the neighbouring Denmark and Sweden is mentioned where a better economy is not coupled with respecting regional dialects (see also Akselberg, 2005). ...
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The paper presents two connecting studies on the linguistic mentality of the Hungarian society to regional dialects. The focus of the study is to find an explanation of the problem that Hungarians learn to respect diversity, although, misbeliefs and standard-based culture usually lead to debates in communication or even to linguicism. The main hypotheses are: white-collar-to-be students cannot apply what they learnt about dialects, therefore, many corrections are motivated by regionalisms of which they are not aware, and it is all rooted in problems of teacher training and practice related to language variability. 548 university students and 170 teachers in middle and high schools were asked in questionnaires about their language attitudes and everyday experiences and practice. The results highlighted: while tolerant attitudes are represented theoretically, standard-based practice suggests negative lessons about dialects.
... Es erlaubt zugleich aber auch eine synchrone und diachrone typologische Einordnung unterschiedlicher Varietätenrepertoires in ihren charakteristischen Zügen, auch solcher, die im europäischen Vergleich ungewöhnlich erscheinen (vgl. etwa zur Anwendung auf die Verhältnisse im Norwegischen Røyneland 2009, Höder 2017 ...
Chapter
Die deutsch-dänische Grenze von 1920 durchschneidet heute einen traditionell mehrsprachigen transnationalen Kommunikationsraum. Der Beitrag stellt die sprachgeschichtliche Entwicklung Schleswigs im Kontext der Grenzziehung dar und fokussiert dabei die Frage, welche Auswirkungen diese auf den Wandel der regionalen Varietätenrepertoires im Sinne von Auers (2005, 2011) Modell zur Repertoiretypologie hat.
... This innovation is fairly recent, and it is not a change towards the prestige norm (unlike a number of other changes in East Norwegian these days, cf. Røyneland 2009). The first thing to note about the new forms is that, previously, /a/ did not combine with feminine stems in the definite plural in these dialects. ...
Article
There has been some debate over the notion of “morphomes”, i.e., patterns of inflection without any clear motivation outside of morphology. Morphomes are taken as evidence for some autonomy of morphology. However, it has been claimed that there is “very little evidence for change which operates on morphology alone”, in other words that morphology does not change independently – and this has, consequently, been used as an argument against the “morphomic” approach. This paper presents evidence of inflection classes arising or being “strengthened” in Scandinavian, classes that do not have any function outside of morphology. This, then, is evidence of change, operating on morphology alone – even in the relatively “poor” inflection systems of Scandinavian. One of the case studies also shows affixes being changed in order to align better with non-affixal inflection. This goes against the claim that non-affixal inflection is epiphenomenal. The paper also presents criticism of some other arguments that have been used against the morphomic approach. Notably, the “diagnostic problem” suggested for morphomes is hardly more severe than that involved in many other approaches to morphology. The paper also shows a (perhaps unexpected) convergence between the morphomic approach and strands of functionalism. While morphomic patterns may seem redundant and local, this is not unique to them. Many generalisations done by language users may seem redundant and local to linguists.
... In una situazione di questo tipo si assiste già da qualche decade allo sviluppo spontaneo di uno standard basato sulla varietà parlata ad Oslo (e strutturalmente vicino al bokmål). Questo "standard eastern Norwegian"(Røyneland 2009) è in via di diffusione dalla Norvegia sud-orientale a varie altre zone del Paese e rappresenta "an overarching spoken standard variety" (ivi: 12) verso la quale tendono a convergere i dialetti locali. la situazione norvegese si caratterizza per un fenomeno altrettanto raro nel quadro europeo ma di tutt'altra natura. ...
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In many parts of Europe, a range of intermediate varieties now fills up the linguistic space between base dialects and standard. In this paper similarities and differences between various European situations will be discussed, with particular reference to the Italo-Romance domain. A comparison will be drawn on the basis of the following elements: the shape(s) of the linguistic space between base dialects and standard, the development of new standard varieties (as a result of the massive spread of the standard language), and the actual 'coherence' of certain sets of linguistic variables in the speakers' usage. An overall picture will tentatively be sketched.
... To put such a hypothesis to the test, I have chosen to base the empirical data on three quite different linguistic environments. Norway is specific for two reasons: firstly, dialects have an unusually high status, even news anchors speak their own dialect on air -this is called a 'pro-dialect ideology' by some scholars (Røyneland 2009), and, secondly, the two written standards of Norwegian have undergone a long struggle in the first half and the middle of the 20 th century, which split the society in Norway into distinctive groups. a 'stable' culture of language learning in schools. ...
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Standard language ideology is the dominant ideology in the environment where there is a standard language with a high status, with its main features being a prescriptive view on language, the notion that language is not in the ownership of its speakers and efforts are invested to preserve the language (Milroy 2001). Linguists, especially sociolinguists, have been engaged in language debates, promoting a different view of language, but are mostly either misinterpreted or misquoted by journalists, who share the 'folk' view of language (Johnson 2001; Jaspers 2014). Since journalists have had more influence than linguists over users when it comes to language issues, it is only natural to assume that the majority of non-linguists will share this view. However, the growing online communities provide a new sphere for public debate (the virtual sphere), which, unlike traditional media, includes two-way communication, lesser degree of regulation than in the traditional media and many communication outlets (user blogs, comment sections, photo sharing etc.). This article aims to explore different types of notions of language in comment sections of internet portals in Lithuania, Norway and Serbia. The metaphors of language analysed are categorized into eight different notions of language according to the way metaphors are used. The results show that four of eight notions are shared in two or more countries, while four are specific for one of them, though quantitative research and more comparison are needed to confirm how specific they are for exactly these countries.
... A number of studies followed the British pattern to include many parts of Europe such as Norway (e.g. Kerswill 1996b, Haug Hilton 2010, Røyneland 2009) and France (e.g. Armstrong 2001, Temple 2001, Esch 2002, Hornsby 2002, Pooley 2002, Lodge 2004, Boughton 2005 as well as areas beyond Europe such as the Arab world (e.g. ...
... There exist studies of local dialect vitality (e.g. Røyneland 2009) and of attitudes (e.g. Sandøy 2013), but few on language competence in and use of languages other than Norwegian (e.g. ...
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The objective of this paper is to explore the dynamics of citizen science (CS) in sociolinguistics or citizen sociolinguistics, i.e. the engagement of non-professionals in doing sociolinguistic research. Based on a CS-study undertaken in Norway where we engaged young people as citizen scientists to explore linguistic diversity, this paper aims to clarify the definition of citizen sociolinguistics; it seeks to advance the discussion of the advantages of CS and of how CS can contribute to sociolinguistics; it also addresses the opposite: how sociolinguistics can contribute to the general field of citizen science; and it discusses the challenges of a CS-methodology for sociolinguistic research, epistemologically and ethically, as well as in terms of recruitment, quality control and possible types of sociolinguistic tasks and topics. To meet the needs of society and societal challenges of today there is a need to develop methods and establish scientific acceptance for the relevance of public engagement in research. This paper argues that citizen sociolinguistics has the potential to advance the societal impact of sociolinguistics by constructing a dialogue between 'the academy' and 'the citizens'; citizen sociolinguistics relies on and encourages participatory citizen agency, provides research experience, stimulates curiosity, further research, public understanding of science and (socio)linguistic awareness, and encourages linguistic stewardship.
... Røyneland (2009),Maehlum (2009) andPapazian (2012) point to the existence of spoken varieties of Bokmål in the Oslo region. This would be an instance of dialectal differentiation within Bokmål. ...
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The paper contains an analytical description of the development of translocated Danish in historical Norway and the Faroes within a framework of postcolonial linguistic development, namely the ‘Dynamic Model of Postcolonial Englishes’ (Schneider [2007] 2009), originally proposed to cover the development of postcolonial varieties of English. The paper compares the socio-political development of the two territories and their relationship with Denmark, the identity constructions of the speakers, the sociolinguistic setting with regard to attitudes and language contact and, finally, the linguistic characteristics of the local varieties of Danish. Despite the fact that neither the Faroes nor Norway had actual colonial status, the development from historical Dano-Norwegian to today’s Bokmål follows a postcolonial path closely in that it shows a completed advancement from a translocated Danish to an indigenous variety, Bokmål. In contrast, the comparison with Norway and the other postcolonial situations that the ‘Dynamic Model’ is based on, shows that the evolution of Faroe-Danish does not follow a postcolonial path. This local variety of Danish seems to be best characterized as a lingua franca learned as an (early) L2 that is entrenched within the Faroese society that shows but few signs of nativization.
... This system is, however, currently in decline in eastern Norway where the use of infinitives with schwa is expanding (e.g. Røyneland 2009, Skjekkeland 2005. The infinitive ending with -e is by far the most frequent in modern Nynorsk written texts (and is the only permitted variant in Bokmål), whereas the subsidiary divided form [-a]/[-e] has almost fallen out of use (cf. ...
Article
In the Nordic countries, widespread proficiency in English is positioned as a positive and even critical component of overall global competitiveness and competence. Indeed, maps illustrating who speaks the “best” English in Europe show a swath across the Nordic countries, and the number of people in the Nordic countries claiming proficiency in English is only a few percentage points below those in places such as the UK and Ireland. At the same time, the Nordic countries are routinely listed as the “happiest,” the most egalitarian, the most classless, least corrupt, and an epicenter for so-called “tender values.” In recent years, there has been a spate of publications highlighting how Nordic exceptionalism carries with it some unfortunate downsides, including the possibility for people to ignore or fail to acknowledge issues such as racism, sexism, and other social inequalities because of the affordance: “But our society is equal.” There is a parallel in the use of English. The entrenched notion that “everyone is good at English” overlooks that certain segments of the population—such as the elderly, immigrants and rural inhabitants—do not have the same level of access to the symbolic capital represented through facility in English. In this sense, the use of English presents social/class-based barriers that the national languages do not. This article offers a critique of the social realities relating to the use of English in the Nordic Countries within the context of the social welfare system and “Nordic exceptionalism,” focusing mostly on Finland. Making use of examples of discourse in newspapers, previous research and language policy documents, the chapter highlights how aspects of the use of English in Finland parallel other potentially hyped yet unequitable social issues.
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V članku je obravnavano jezikovno preklapljanje iz narečja v nadnarečje oz. standardni jezik v treh položajih rabe jezika v folklornem dogodku. Ta označuje razmerje med petjem pesmi, govorom med informatorjem ali informatorko in spraševalcem ali spraševalko ter prilagajanje obeh različnim govornim položajem v dogodku. Ugotovitve temeljijo na analizi treh variant ljudske balade »Samomor nune« iz treh narečnih okolij in ene molitve ter analize govora. Ob tem avtorica razpravlja še o simbolnem pomenu rabe jezika v jezikovno-socialnem položaju ter vprašanju identitetne rabe obravnavanih jezikovnih kodov.
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Norwegian is peculiar not only with a view to the written language, which has two official standards, but also regarding the spoken language, which lacks a standardized form. In fact, Norway is one of the most dialect-speaking countries in Europe. The use of a regional dialect in all fields of one’s life is rather perceived as part of one’s identity, and a sign of democracy and decentralization. Although theoretically there are four main dialects, in practice the variety of dialects differing in grammar, vocabulary or pronunciation is much wider, and depends on the part of the country or even on a specific town. The present paper is mainly focused on analyzing how the issue of diatopic variation in the Norwegian spoken language has been depicted in recent years (2008-2012) in Norway’s largest daily newspaper, Aftenposten. Even if dialects are accepted in everyday life, one of the recurrent debates in the newspaper is however related to using a standard form at least in the news programs from the largest Norwegian television and radio company, NRK, where the language ought to be considered a point of reference. Another topic of interest is related to the dialects used in dubbing in children’s television series.
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This paper discusses grammatical gender in Norwegian by bringing together data from first language acquisition, Norwegian heritage language, and dialect change. In all these contexts, gender is often claimed to be a vulnerable category, arguably due to the relative non-transparency of gender assignment. Furthermore, the feminine gender is in the process of being lost in many Norwegian dialects, as feminine agreement forms (for example, the indefinite article) are merged with the masculine. The definite suffix, in contrast, is quite stable, as it is acquired early and does not undergo attrition/change. We argue that the combined data provide evidence that gender and declension class are separate phenomena, and we outline a possible formal analysis to account for the findings.*
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Emerging as an important field in the 21st century, family language policy brings forth core challenges of language ideologies, practices, maintenance, shifts, losses and transmission at the micro-level unit of the society. This special, first-ever bilingual French-English volume illustrates a range of issues exploring immigrant and transnational families facing the survival of their own ancestral language in the face of the hegemony of the language of their host country. The comprehensive introduction puts at centre-stage the studies made in this field in France and discusses recent scholarship. In its thirteen chapters, contributors have stressed crucial aspects of the dynamics of language interplay, with illuminating case studies from around the world in the field of family language policy. Champ d’études important au XXIème siècle, la politique linguistique familiale soulève des défis essentiels s’agissant des idéologies, des pratiques, du maintien, des changements et des pertes linguistiques ainsi que de la transmission au sein de ce microcosme de la société qu’est la famille. Ce premier volume bilingue français-anglais illustre tout un éventail de questions relatives à l’étude des familles immigrées et transnationales confrontées à la survie de leur langue ancestrale face à l’hégémonie de la langue du pays d’accueil. Articulée autour de recherches menées en France, l’introduction détaillée de l’ouvrage présente les derniers travaux réalisés en la matière. Au travers de ces treize chapitres, des contributeurs mettent en lumière des aspects cruciaux de la dynamique de l’interaction langagière grâce à des études de cas éclairantes effectuées dans le monde entier sur la politique linguistique familiale.
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In rural Valdres, Norway, the traditional regional dialect, called Valdresmål, has become an important resource for popular style and local development projects. Stigmatized through much of the twentieth century for its association with poor, rural, “backward” farmers and culture, Valdresmål has been thoroughly revalorized, with particularly high status among local youth and those involved in business and tourism. While today’s parents and grandparents attest to historical pressures to adopt normative urban linguistic forms, many in Valdres now proclaim dialect pride and have re-embraced spoken Valdresmål in various forms of public, interdialectal communication. In addition, Valdres natives also make abundant and creative use of dialect on social media, the primary locus for written Valdresmål and for emergent orthographic norms representing local speech, including strategies of maximal sociolinguistic distinction. This innovative use of written Valdresmål has been taken up by local businesses as a marketing strategy in recent years, as well, further normalizing and legitimating nonstandard forms. In the ongoing revalorization of traditional Valdresmål, it is also, inevitably, transformed—linguistically, socially, and ideologically—as it enters and circulates within new and innovative cultural domains: while widespread written Valdresmål challenges the normal sociolinguistic order, in such a process the dialect is also refunctionalized and, perhaps, increasingly standardized.
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Norwegian is peculiar not only with a view to the written language, which has two official standards, but also regarding the spoken language, which lacks a standardized form. In fact, Norway is one of the most dialect-speaking countries in Europe. The use of a regional dialect in all fields of one's life is rather perceived as part of one's identity, and a sign of democracy and decentralization. Although theoretically there are four main dialects, in practice the variety of dialects differing in grammar, vocabulary or pronunciation is much wider, and depends on the part of the country or even on a specific town. The present paper is mainly focused on analyzing how the issue of diatopic variation in the Norwegian spoken language has been depicted in recent years (2008-2012) in Norway's largest daily newspaper, Aftenposten. Even if dialects are accepted in everyday life, one of the recurrent debates in the newspaper is however related to using a standard form at least in the news programs from the largest Norwegian television and radio company, NRK, where the language ought to be considered a point of reference. Another topic of interest is related to the dialects used in dubbing in children's television series.
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This article investigates encounters between the two overall language resources – standard vs. non-standard and regional varieties – in two linguistic minority communities in Denmark. Concentrating on Turkish and Farsi mother tongue classes, the study departs from two interviews with the parents of mother tongue students. Additional ethnographic evidence from the respective mother tongue classes show when and how the two overall varieties of the respective languages are reacted to and valorized among the study participants.
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2018. Analyzing youth practices in computer-mediated communication - edited by C. Cutler & U. Røyneland. Cambridge: CUP.
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The purpose of this article is to explore school leaders’ perceptions about multilingualism with regard to learning and social integration for minority students in an upper secondary school. The analysis is based on interviews with school leaders and a social adviser. For the analysis, I used traditional methods of qualitative analysis with a to-and-fro process between the field data and key theoretical points. The findings are discussed within an inclusive leadership approach and they suggest that there is little support for the use of minority students’ first language for learning. There are also indications of a lack of common vision and shared understanding of multilingualism among the school leaders. The study contributes to the field of research by combining a critical school leadership approach with research on knowledge about multilingualism with regard to learning and social integration for minority students.
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Pluralismus oder Assimilation? : zum Umgang mit Norm und arealer Sprachvariation in Deutschland und anderswo / Péter Maitz ; Stephan Elspaß. - In: Kommunikation und Öffentlichkeit / Susanne Günthner ... (Hrsg.). - Berlin u.a. : De Gruyter, 2012. - S. 41-58. - (Reihe Germanistische Linguistik ; 296)
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Based on an analysis of interviews (eighteen in total) conducted in Italy and Norway, this article explores how identity is (re)constructed in a new host society. It especially focuses on how the informants (‘fortunate immigrants’) define their national belonging. We discuss what status their language has for them, and whether language can be considered a symbol of that belonging. It is argued that the sociocultural context and the relationship between participants in social interaction (such as an interview) affect the responses. The divergence that emerged from the responses can be interpreted as emphasizing the differences between a multilingual and a monolingual society
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The most obvious tendency in modern Norwegian dialect change is regional levelling. The aim of this paper is to discuss the pattern of this levelling process, and I aim to test a hypothesis of urban jumping. This will be tested in detail for the region of Mid-Norway, with Trondheim at the top of a hierarchy and other towns and centres as subordinated nodes. The noun morphology of five dialects in Mid-Norway is compared, and we see that the regional capital of Trondheim has a fairly complex system compared to its subordinated towns and centres. The subordinated towns have been exposed to simplifications independent of the Trondheim dialect. The modern changes themselves are dependent on the urbanisation process, which has prevailed at different times in the various communities. Linguistically – in our case in noun morphology – the process seems to be more in the nature of simplification than of adapting the prestigious standard or central system. Accordingly, the new hypothesis suggests the following: Within a region, the dominating centre exerts some influence on the direction of language change, but the simplification processes manifest themselves first in new centres, i.e. in subordinated nodes in the regional hierarchy. Today the Trondheim dialect seems to be adopting certain simplifications. In the other towns and centres these changes were known generations ago. From these bare facts one could perhaps deduce that the regional centre of Trondheim is sensitive to changes in the subordinated towns. This conclusion is strengthened by data from Northern Norway, but not from Eastern Norway, where the changes seem to follow a different route.
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In this article I will discuss the main hypotheses in J.-P. Blom and J.J. Gumperz' (1972) classical and pivotal study ‘Social meaning in linguistic structures: Codeswitching in Norway’. The research of Blom and Gumperz was carried out in the village of Hemnes in Northern Norway, and the focus of the study is the internal relationship between Ranamål, i.e. the local dialect, and Bokmål, i.e. a standardized national spoken variety. According to Blom and Gumperz these two varieties play equivalent roles in the verbal repertoire of the Hemnes population, they are kept completely separate by the speakers and represent as such the main components in discrete codeswitching strategies in this community. My primary intention, then, is to demonstrate that Blom and Gumperz have given a portrayal of a situation that can not be comprehensive of any real-life Norwegian community. I will try to show that their assumptions are based on unjustifiable and unsatisfactory premises, both with respect to certain theoretical as well as methodological principles.
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A high degree of standardization is peculiar to contemporary Danish, the traditional dialects being on the verge of extinction. This is the result of a dialect-levelling process dating back to the end of the 1800s. Due to an early modernization of agriculture, the dominance of the capital, and a strong standard ideology, the spoken standard gained ground outside towns earlier than in the neighboring countries, and an interdialectal convergence and convergence to the standard gathered momentum. This development was almost complete about 1960. After this time dialects were only very rarely transmitted to the next generation. This does not mean that total linguistic standardization has been accomplished. Much spoken standard Danish still has regional features, and there is a certain polarization between an older standard perceived as more sedate and a younger standard connoting dynamism, characterized by more variants from Low Copenhagen.
Article
In this article special emphasis is given to language attitudes that are considered to be “typically Norwegian which also to some extent are linked to the Norwegian language situation. During the last two decades there have been changes in the Norwegian language situation as well as in the attitudes toward language and the pressure people have felt to modify their speech. There is now an increased tolerance of language varieties — both spoken and written — and this period has been particularly favorable for the maintenance of dialect/nonstandard speech, and for its use outside its “natural” environment (“domain”) and in formal situations. The reasons for these changes are discussed.
and Hinskens (1996) and their definitions of dialect leveling, but is not identical. The term is used in the sense of ''bottom-up,'' that is, as the formation of regiolects, and not ''top-down
This definition of regionalization is to a great extent inspired by Trudgill (1986) and Hinskens (1996) and their definitions of dialect leveling, but is not identical. The term is used in the sense of ''bottom-up,'' that is, as the formation of regiolects, and not ''top-down,'' in the course of de-standardization.
Dialects spoken in the semi-urban and rural areas close to the capital Oslo are often not perceived of as ''real'' dialects even by their users, but as some deviant variant of the East Norwegian standard. These dialects are often ridiculed publicly, for instance by comedians or actors
  • However
However, not all Norwegian dialects are equally well accepted. Dialects spoken in the semi-urban and rural areas close to the capital Oslo are often not perceived of as ''real'' dialects even by their users, but as some deviant variant of the East Norwegian standard. These dialects are often ridiculed publicly, for instance by comedians or actors, who use these dialects when portraying naive or ridiculous persons.
Utvalde palatal-tal: metodekritisk ljos på avpalataliseringi i yngre mål i Herøy på Sunnmøre
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Some observations on the role of lexicalization in standard/dialect phonology and in sociophonological change
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Auer, Peter. 2000b. Some observations on the role of lexicalization in standard/dialect phonology and in sociophonological change. In Chris Schaner-Wolles, John Rennison & Dialects in Norway 27
Kan eg kjøre med DU'': Litt om sammenfall av kasus i 2. person entall av personlig pronomen i
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Broberg, Elin. 2001. ''Kan eg kjøre med DU'': Litt om sammenfall av kasus i 2. person entall av personlig pronomen i Aust-Agder. Målbryting 5. 205-235.
Dialect and standard in a language contact area in northern Norway
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Bull, Tove. 1992. Dialect and standard in a language contact area in northern Norway. In Jan van Leuvensteijn & Jan Berns (eds.), Dialect and standard language, Dialekt und Standardsprache in the English, Dutch, German and Norwegian language areas, 365-378. Amsterdam: North Holland.
Den ''sjedelige'' kj-lyden. Sj-uttale av kj-lyden -slurv eller språkending? Språklig samling 1
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Dalbakken, Liv O. 1997. Den ''sjedelige'' kj-lyden. Sj-uttale av kj-lyden -slurv eller språkending? Språklig samling 1. 5-10.
Talemålet i Trondheim
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Det svenska språklandskapet. De regionala språken och deras ställning i dag -och i morgon
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Edlund, Lars-Erik. 2003. Det svenska språklandskapet. De regionala språken och deras ställning i dag -och i morgon. In Gunnstein Akselberg, Anne Marit Bødal & Helge Sandøy (eds.), Nordisk dialektologi, 11-51. Oslo: Novus.
Nynorsk faktabok 1998. Volda: Nynorsk Forum
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Grepstad, Ottar. 1998. Nynorsk faktabok 1998. Volda: Nynorsk Forum.
Språk og språkhaldningar hjå ungdomar i Sogndal
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Haugen, Ragnhild. 2004. Språk og språkhaldningar hjå ungdomar i Sogndal. Bergen: University of Bergen dissertation.
Talemål i endring? Ein longitudinell studie av talemålsutvikling og språkleg røyndomsoppfatning hjå ungdomar i Os
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Hernes, Reidunn. 2006. Talemål i endring? Ein longitudinell studie av talemålsutvikling og språkleg røyndomsoppfatning hjå ungdomar i Os. Bergen: University of Bergen dissertation.
On the use of dialects in Norway
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Jahr, Ernst H. 1997. On the use of dialects in Norway. In Heinrich Ramisch & Kenneth Wynne (eds.), Language in time and space: Studies in honour of Wolfgang Viereck on the occasion of his 60th birthday, 363-369. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.
Den store Dialektboka
  • Ernst H Jahr
Jahr, Ernst H. (ed.). 1990. Den store Dialektboka. Oslo: Novus Forlag.
Mobility, meritocracy and dialect levelling: The fading (and phasing) out of Received Pronunciation. Paper presented at British Studies in the New Millennium: The Challenge of the Grassroots
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Kerswill, Paul. 2000. Mobility, meritocracy and dialect levelling: The fading (and phasing) out of Received Pronunciation. Paper presented at British Studies in the New Millennium: The Challenge of the Grassroots, University of Tartu, 21 August.
Sprogholdninger hos folkeskolelaerere, unge mennesker og personalechefer på Naestvedegnen
  • Tore Kristiansen
Kristiansen, Tore. 1991. Sprogholdninger hos folkeskolelaerere, unge mennesker og personalechefer på Naestvedegnen. Danske Folkemål 33. 51-62.
Sproglig regionalisering i Danmark?
  • Tore Kristiansen
Kristiansen, Tore. 2003. Sproglig regionalisering i Danmark? In Gunnstein Akselberg, Anne Marit Bødal & Helge Sandøy (eds.), Nordisk dialektologi, 115-149. Oslo: Novus.
Hvor går vi -og hvorfor? Et forsøk på å trekke noen antydningsvis store linjer i utviklingen av norsk talemål. Målbryting 6
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Maehlum, Brit. 2002. Hvor går vi -og hvorfor? Et forsøk på å trekke noen antydningsvis store linjer i utviklingen av norsk talemål. Målbryting 6. 67-93.
Ü ber Destandardisierung, Umstandardisierung und Standardisierung in modernen europäischen Standardsprachen
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Mattheier, Klaus J. 1997. Ü ber Destandardisierung, Umstandardisierung und Standardisierung in modernen europäischen Standardsprachen. In K. J. Mattheier & Edgar Radtke (eds.), Standardisierung und Destandardisierung europäischer Nationalsprachen, 1-11. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Dialektdød i Numedal? Om språkutviklinga i Nore og Uvdal. Maal og Minne 2
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Papazian, Eric. 1997. Dialektdød i Numedal? Om språkutviklinga i Nore og Uvdal. Maal og Minne 2. 161-189.
Den språklege røynda: Om oppfatta og realisert talemål i austre Vest-Agder. Kristiansand: Høgskolen i Agder dissertation. Røyneland, Unn
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Røsstad, Rune. 2005. Den språklege røynda: Om oppfatta og realisert talemål i austre Vest-Agder. Kristiansand: Høgskolen i Agder dissertation. Røyneland, Unn. 1998. Språkleg regionalisering på Røros og Tynset. Målbryting 2. 98-120.
Is age-grading always a potential problem in apparent time studies?
  • Unn Røyneland
Røyneland, Unn. 2001a. Is age-grading always a potential problem in apparent time studies? In Josep Fontana, Louise McNally, M. Teresa Turell & Enric Vallduví (eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Language Variation in Europe, 187-197. Barcelona: Unitat de Recerca de Variació Lingü ística (UVAL), IULA, UPF.
Ein komparativ studie av språkleg variasjon og endring i to tilgrensande dialektområde
  • Unn Røyneland
Røyneland, Unn. 2005. Dialektnivellering, ungdom og identitet. Ein komparativ studie av språkleg variasjon og endring i to tilgrensande dialektområde, Røros og Tynset. Oslo: University of Oslo dissertation.
Utviklingslinjer i moderne norske dialektar. Folkmålsstudier 39
  • Helge Sandøy
Sandøy, Helge. 2000. Utviklingslinjer i moderne norske dialektar. Folkmålsstudier 39. 345-384.
Dei norske dialektane
  • Martin Skjekkeland
Skjekkeland, Martin. 1997. Dei norske dialektane. Kristiansand: HøyskoleForlaget.
Dialektutviklinga i Noreg dei siste 15 a ˚ra-drøfting og analyse
  • Martin Skjekkeland
Skjekkeland, Martin. 2000. Dialektutviklinga i Noreg dei siste 15 a ˚ra-drøfting og analyse. Skriftserien nr. 67. Kristiansand: Høgskolen i Agder.
Egentlig så ha'kke vi no'n spessiel dialekt
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