Article

Orton-Gillingham and Orton-Gillingham Based Reading Instruction: A Review of the Literature

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

Orton-Gillingham (OG) and Orton-Gillingham-based reading instructional programs are commonly implemented reading programs in the United States. Twelve studies that employed quasi-experimental or experimental designs are reviewed. These studies included elementary students, adolescents, and college students. Of the 12 studies, 5 reported that the OG instruction was more effective than were comparison or control interventions for all measured outcomes, 4 reported that the OG instruction was more effective for at least 1 (but not all) outcomes in comparison to other intervention(s), 2 reported that the alternate instruction was more effective than the OG instruction, and 1 reported no significant differences once covariates were included. The largest effects were reported for word attack and non-word reading outcomes, with mean effect size of .82, and comprehension outcomes, with a mean effect size of .76. Following a summary of each study, limitations of the current review and implications for future research and practice are described. Given the small number of studies, the lack of methodological rigor of the existing studies, and the inconclusive findings of the effectiveness of OG programs, additional research is needed before the scientific basis can be established.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Although an OG-based approach to reading would be considered research based (i.e., aspects of the approach have been demonstrated as effective by research), research on the effectiveness of an OG-based intervention, as a whole, is challenged by threats to internal and external validity (Alexander & Slinger-Constant, 2004;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;What Works Clearinghouse, 2010). Internal validity is how well confounding variables are controlled for by the research design, and external validity is the capacity of the findings generated by the study to be applied to similar populations (e.g., other students with reading disabilities). ...
... Although advocates of OG note that the individualization of intervention delivery is a strength of the program (Davis, 2011;Sheffield, 1991), it does present challenges for research. Other common, uncontrolled variables in prior research on OG have included variation in duration of intervention session, intensity of intervention, and focus of intervention (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). ...
... Although research on branded OG programs can also suffer from similar limitations, such as lack of control groups or random assignment (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006), the structure of the programs and more standardized implementation has resulted in a handful of studies demonstrating "potentially positive effects," particularly in the areas of alphabetics and reading fluency (e.g., Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing and Wilson Reading System; see What Works Clearinghouse, 2010). ...
... It is now widely accepted that dyslexia does not relate to vision (Elliott & Grigorenko, 2014;Vellutino et al., 2004); however, vestiges of these theories can be found in descriptions and simulations drawing on visual symptoms, such as print moving around the page, and vision-based remedies like special fonts (Open Dyslexic, n.d.). Orton, a physician and prominent dyslexia researcher of the early 20th century, also noted the commonality of reversals, but theorized they were due to the brain's failure to establish hemispheric dominance (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). Orton pioneered an instructional approach designed to "scaffold the links between vision, letter knowledge, and sensory-motor processing by means of multisensory stimulation" (Nicholson, 2016, p. 11), the precursor to Orton-Gillingham, or OG (Gillingham & Stillman, 2014). ...
... The most common interventions for dyslexia are based on OG, a "systematic, sequential, multisensory, synthetic and phonics-based approach to teaching reading" (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006, p. 171). OG is the basis for "structured literacy," the branded intervention method marketed by the International Dyslexia Association (Malchow, 2014) and for most popular interventions, although it is not well supported by research (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;What Works Clearinghouse, 2010). Lessons include review and teaching of letters, sounds, spelling patterns, syllable types, and blending letters and phonograms. ...
... However, most of those pages recommend, and often sell, multisensory approaches. Although such approaches are not supported by research (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Vaughn & Linan-Thompson, 2003; What Works Clearinghouse, 2010), they are described in the data as "scientifically based" (e.g., Boston Children's Hospital, n.d.) or "proven" (Dyslexia Help, n.d.;Hanford, 2018). Eight pages assert these interventions can change the dyslexic brain. ...
Article
The internet is a common source of information for parents, educators, and the general public. However, researchers who analyze the quality of internet sources have found they often contain inaccurate and misleading information. Here, we present an analysis of dyslexia on the internet. Employing disability studies in education (DSE), disability critical race studies (DisCrit), and Bakhtin’s construct of ideological becoming, we examined the credibility of sources, the quality of information, and the discourse in which the information is presented. We found the majority of webpages do not meet basic source credibility criteria, much of the content contradicts or is unsupported by research, and most pages convey information in an authoritative discourse, making it seem irreproachable. Building on the findings, we offer criteria for evaluating dyslexia information and suggestions for research and practice. We focus on the need for less divisive, more collaborative dialogue, along with research among stakeholders with multiple perspectives.
... However, the efficacy of OG instruction remains unclear based on results of prior systematic reviews. For example, Ritchey and Goeke (2006) published a systematic review of OG interventions implemented with elementary, adolescent, and college students between 1980 and 2005. Findings demonstrated limited evidence to support the use of OG instruction. ...
... The authors noted the limited number of studies (N = 12) and the poor methodological rigor of those studies, calling for additional research investigating OG interventions; others in the field have also noted the lack of rigorous research examining OG interventions (Lim & Oei, 2015;Ring et al., 2017). Since the Ritchey and Goeke (2006) review, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) also reviewed branded OG programs (i.e., published, commercially available OG programs; WWC, 2010aWWC, , 2010bWWC, , 2010cWWC, , 2010dWWC, , 2010e, 2010f, 2010h, 2010i, 2012WWC, , 2013 and unbranded OG interventions (i.e., unpublished curricula based on the principles of a sequential, multisensory OG approach to teaching reading; WWC, 2010g), finding little evidence supporting the effectiveness of the OG methodology. ...
... Considering that the WWC reviews occurred 10 years ago and the Ritchey and Goeke (2006) review occurred nearly 15 years ago, we aimed to update and extend Ritchey and Goeke's review to inform the field on the current state of the evidence regarding this popular and widely utilized instructional approach. We addressed the following research question: What are the effects of OG interventions for students identified with or at risk for WLRD in Grades K through 12? Due to the lack of methodological rigor noted for studies included in these prior reviews, we also examined whether the effects are moderated by study quality, as determined by research design, the nature of the instruction in the comparison condition, implementation fidelity, and year of publication. ...
Article
Over the past decade, parent advocacy groups led a grassroots movement resulting in most states adopting dyslexia-specific legislation, with many states mandating the use of the Orton-Gillingham approach to reading instruction. Orton-Gillingham is a direct, explicit, multisensory, structured, sequential, diagnostic, and prescriptive approach to reading for students with or at risk for word-level reading disabilities (WLRD). Evidence from a prior synthesis and What Works Clearinghouse reports yielded findings lacking support for the effectiveness of Orton-Gillingham interventions. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of Orton-Gillingham reading interventions on the reading outcomes of students with or at risk for WLRD. Findings suggested Orton-Gillingham reading interventions do not statistically significantly improve foundational skill outcomes (i.e., phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, spelling; effect size [ES] = 0.22; p = .40), although the mean ES was positive in favor of Orton-Gillingham-based approaches. Similarly, there were not significant differences for vocabulary and comprehension outcomes (ES = 0.14; p = .59) for students with or at risk for WLRD. More high-quality, rigorous research with larger samples of students with WLRD is needed to fully understand the effects of Orton-Gillingham interventions on the reading outcomes for this population.
... At the DAS, students are taught the basic concepts of reading, spelling, and writing by adopting the Orton Gillingham (OG) principles of structured, sequential, multi-sensorial and phonics-based teaching (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Rose & Zirkel, 2007). This study aims to include a preference-based teaching approach that is aligned with OG principles in the classroom, which will help increase on-task behaviour further, and improve attentiveness, as well as manage behavioural problems for students with dyslexia. ...
... Many educational researchers on dyslexia conclude that the most effective way to teach learners with dyslexia is by adopting a systematic, multisensory, sequential phonicsbased program with explicit instruction in phonological awareness, sound-symbol correspondence, syllables, morphology, syntax and semantics (Joshi, Dahlgren & Boulware-Gooden, 2002;Manset-Williams & Nelson, 2005;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Shaywitz, 2003), such as the Orton-Gillingham (OG) approach, a structured, sequential, multi-sensorial and phonics-based approach channelled to teach the basic concepts of reading, spelling and writing (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Rose & Zirkel, 2007). This is hierarchical in nature and focuses on the automaticity of specific sub-skills that follow a 'bottom-up approach'. ...
... Many educational researchers on dyslexia conclude that the most effective way to teach learners with dyslexia is by adopting a systematic, multisensory, sequential phonicsbased program with explicit instruction in phonological awareness, sound-symbol correspondence, syllables, morphology, syntax and semantics (Joshi, Dahlgren & Boulware-Gooden, 2002;Manset-Williams & Nelson, 2005;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Shaywitz, 2003), such as the Orton-Gillingham (OG) approach, a structured, sequential, multi-sensorial and phonics-based approach channelled to teach the basic concepts of reading, spelling and writing (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Rose & Zirkel, 2007). This is hierarchical in nature and focuses on the automaticity of specific sub-skills that follow a 'bottom-up approach'. ...
Article
Full-text available
Asia Pacific Journal of Developmental Differences Vol 6, No. 2, July 2019 NOTE: Presentations may also be available on DAS Youtube Channel—www.youtube.com/dyssg If the presenter has provided DAS with permission to publish Development of Adaptive Experiential Learning via Interactive Contemporary Education with Virtual Reality (AELVICE) Pong Ke Xin (Stella)1*, Lau Jia Xian1 and Wesley Tan Chee Wah1 1. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Abstract Today, students with dyslexia are limited in their abilities as they can only practise public speaking within a small class size. The development of our Adaptive Experiential Learning via Interactive Contemporary Education with Virtual Reality (AELVICE) is a fresh educational approach which aims to assist dyslexic students in improving their presentation skills, by allowing them to experience presenting in a virtual room with a larger audience size and providing a safe learning environment. In this virtual environment, the learner will be guided on script reading, and be prompted if he/she is speaking too soft, and/or not having sufficient eye-contact with the audience. Research shows that perceived visual clutters render text illegible for dyslexic learners [1]. AELVICE here enables the customisation of scripts to be read word-by-word, thereby resolving visual clutter and addressing one of the biggest challenges dyslexic students face. Reducing visual clutter empowers dyslexic learners to improve both their presentation and reading skills [2]. An adaptive system will also be implemented, whereby the student will be given less guidance when the student becomes more confident. 1. Perea, M., Panadero, V., Moret-Tatay, C., & Gomez, P. (2012). The effects of inter-letter spacing in visual-word readers and developmental dyslexics. Learning and Instruction, 22, 420-430. 2. Martelli, M., Di Filippo, G., Spinelli, D., & Zoccolotti, P. (2009). Crowding, reading, and developmental dyslexia. Journal of Vision, 9 (14), 1–18. Keywords: Adaptive learning, Contemporary Education, Dyslexia, Virtual Reality Also Presented as a Poster * Correspondence to: Stella Pong Ke Xin, EEE Undergraduate (Infocommunications and Computer Engineering), Nanyang Technological University. Email: pong0009@e.ntu.edu.sg Asia Pacific Journal of Developmental Differences Vol. 6 No. 2 July 2019 © 2019 Dyslexia Association of Singapore www.das.org.sg
... It uses the visual-auditory- kinesthetic (VAK) modalities to provide instruction in phonemic awareness, blending of letters and words, vocabulary development, through spelling of new words and reading comprehension (Rose and Zirkel, 2007). However, literature on the OG approach has produced contradictory results regarding its effectiveness ( Ritchey and Goeke, 2006). This is exemplified by the paradox that although there has been the implementation of additional training and monetary investment for special education teachers to improve teaching approaches, such as the OG, there is still a substantial percentage of students' who have not attained in reading Reid, 2012a;UNESCO, 2000). ...
... Since 1998, it has been compulsory for teachers to be trained in a module on special education ensuring knowledge of the OG approach to teach reading (UNESCO, 2007).This approach was conceptualized during the early 1920's, when Samuel .T. Orton hypothesized that reading difficulties was caused by the lack of dominance in a particular brain hemisphere, which produced mirror images, for example, the letter 'b' is seen as 'd' and vice versa ( Ritchey and Goeke, 2006). Although Orton's proposition on the origins of reading difficulties has not become the accepted theory over the years (instead the phonological deficit theory has been entrenched as discussed in the previous section), his notions of the most appropriate intervention has remained prominent (Alexander and Slinger-Constant, 2004). ...
... Training for Children with Specific Disability in Reading, Spelling, and Penmanship which remains the dominant source of guidance for OG programs' Stillman, 1997, cited in Ritchey andGoeke, 2006, p.171). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study examines the impact of the physical instructional setting of Grade Four students' with reading difficulties in Jamaica, on the effectiveness of the Orton-Gillingham (OG) approach. Using the theoretical lens of the bio-ecological theory, this relationship is explored using a sequential transformative mixed-methods design. This comprises the use of 2 instructional settings, 54 students and 2 teachers to gather and analyze data in two distinct phases. The first phase collects quantitative data from the Grade Four Literacy Test (GFLT), which measures word recognition, writing and reading comprehension. Test score data are analyzed using Mann-Whitney U, which reveals the existence of significant differences for writing and reading comprehension scores based on instructional setting. In the second phase, qualitative data from photographs and interviews are used to investigate the specific physical features of each instructional setting which might have impacted upon the effectiveness of the OG approach. Photographic (visual) data are analyzed using critical visual analysis, while interview data are analyzed using thematic analysis. Data is triangulated at the stage of interpretation. The results led to the conclusion that the presence and use of displays, ample space and an absence of noise, enhance the effectiveness of the OG approach. Additional findings demonstrate that the physical setting cannot be separated from the social or cognitive characteristics of people within that setting. Finally, recommendations for teachers and policy makers are presented. The limitations related to data collection tools and sample size are also given. Consequently, suggestions are provided to improve the methodological rigour of future studies exploring the impact of the physical setting upon the OG approach.
... At the DAS, students are taught the basic concepts of reading, spelling, and writing by adopting the Orton Gillingham (OG) principles of structured, sequential, multi-sensorial and phonics-based teaching (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Rose & Zirkel, 2007). This study aims to include a preference-based teaching approach that is aligned with OG principles in the classroom, which will help increase on-task behaviour further, and improve attentiveness, as well as manage behavioural problems for students with dyslexia. ...
... Many educational researchers on dyslexia conclude that the most effective way to teach learners with dyslexia is by adopting a systematic, multisensory, sequential phonicsbased program with explicit instruction in phonological awareness, sound-symbol correspondence, syllables, morphology, syntax and semantics (Joshi, Dahlgren & Boulware-Gooden, 2002;Manset-Williams & Nelson, 2005;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Shaywitz, 2003), such as the Orton-Gillingham (OG) approach, a structured, sequential, multi-sensorial and phonics-based approach channelled to teach the basic concepts of reading, spelling and writing (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Rose & Zirkel, 2007). This is hierarchical in nature and focuses on the automaticity of specific sub-skills that follow a 'bottom-up approach'. ...
... Many educational researchers on dyslexia conclude that the most effective way to teach learners with dyslexia is by adopting a systematic, multisensory, sequential phonicsbased program with explicit instruction in phonological awareness, sound-symbol correspondence, syllables, morphology, syntax and semantics (Joshi, Dahlgren & Boulware-Gooden, 2002;Manset-Williams & Nelson, 2005;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Shaywitz, 2003), such as the Orton-Gillingham (OG) approach, a structured, sequential, multi-sensorial and phonics-based approach channelled to teach the basic concepts of reading, spelling and writing (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Rose & Zirkel, 2007). This is hierarchical in nature and focuses on the automaticity of specific sub-skills that follow a 'bottom-up approach'. ...
Article
Full-text available
Development of Adaptive Experiential Learning via Interactive Contemporary Education with Virtual Reality (AELVICE) Pong Ke Xin (Stella)1*, Lau Jia Xian1 and Wesley Tan Chee Wah1 1. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Abstract Today, students with dyslexia are limited in their abilities as they can only practise public speaking within a small class size. The development of our Adaptive Experiential Learning via Interactive Contemporary Education with Virtual Reality (AELVICE) is a fresh educational approach which aims to assist dyslexic students in improving their presentation skills, by allowing them to experience presenting in a virtual room with a larger audience size and providing a safe learning environment. In this virtual environment, the learner will be guided on script reading, and be prompted if he/she is speaking too soft, and/or not having sufficient eye-contact with the audience. Research shows that perceived visual clutters render text illegible for dyslexic learners [1]. AELVICE here enables the customisation of scripts to be read word-by-word, thereby resolving visual clutter and addressing one of the biggest challenges dyslexic students face. Reducing visual clutter empowers dyslexic learners to improve both their presentation and reading skills [2]. An adaptive system will also be implemented, whereby the student will be given less guidance when the student becomes more confident. 1. Perea, M., Panadero, V., Moret-Tatay, C., & Gomez, P. (2012). The effects of inter-letter spacing in visual-word readers and developmental dyslexics. Learning and Instruction, 22, 420-430. 2. Martelli, M., Di Filippo, G., Spinelli, D., & Zoccolotti, P. (2009). Crowding, reading, and developmental dyslexia. Journal of Vision, 9 (14), 1–18. Keywords: Adaptive learning, Contemporary Education, Dyslexia, Virtual Reality Also Presented as a Poster * Correspondence to: Stella Pong Ke Xin, EEE Undergraduate (Infocommunications and Computer Engineering), Nanyang Technological University. Email: pong0009@e.ntu.edu.sg © 2019 Dyslexia Association of Singapore www.das.org.sg Asia Pacific Journal of Developmental Differences Vol. 6 No. 2 July 2019
... However, the efficacy of OG instruction remains unclear based on results of prior systematic reviews. For example, Ritchey and Goeke (2006) published a systematic review of OG interventions implemented with elementary, adolescent, and college students between 1980 and 2005. Findings demonstrated limited evidence to support the use of OG instruction. ...
... The authors noted the limited number of studies (N = 12) and the poor methodological rigor of those studies, calling for additional research investigating OG interventions; others in the field have also noted the lack of rigorous research examining OG interventions (Lim & Oei, 2015;Ring et al., 2017). Since the Ritchey and Goeke (2006) review, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) also reviewed branded OG programs (i.e., published, commercially available OG programs; WWC, 2010aWWC, , 2010bWWC, , 2010cWWC, , 2010dWWC, , 2010e, 2010f, 2010h, 2010i, 2012WWC, , 2013 and unbranded OG interventions (i.e., unpublished curricula based on the principles of a sequential, multisensory OG approach to teaching reading; WWC, 2010g), finding little evidence supporting the effectiveness of the OG methodology. ...
... Laws requiring the use of evidence-based practices for addressing WLRD may also mandate the use of OG-seemingly assuming that OG approaches are associated with statistically significant effects for target students. Considering that the WWC reviews occurred 10 years ago and the Ritchey and Goeke (2006) review occurred nearly 15 years ago, we aimed to update and extend Ritchey and Goeke's review to inform the field on the current state of the evidence regarding this popular and widely utilized instructional approach. We addressed the following research question: What are the effects of OG interventions for students identified with or at risk for WLRD in Grades K through 12? Due to the lack of methodological rigor noted for studies included in these prior reviews, we also examined whether the effects are moderated by study quality, as determined by research design, the nature of the instruction in the comparison condition, implementation fidelity, and year of publication. ...
Article
Single-case experimental designs (SCEDs) are frequently used to evaluate whether a functional relation exists between interventions and student outcomes. A critical factor in decision making is the evaluation of graphical data, typically displayed in time-series graphs. Distortion in the graphical display of data can lead to invalid decisions on whether a functional relation exists, as well as overestimating the magnitude of an effect. Previous research has identified two potentially analysis-altering elements that when manipulated alter visual analysts’ decision regarding the presence of a functional relation and magnitude of effect. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the graphical display of data from SCEDs in the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The review included 40 SCEDs, including 258 graphs, published in Behavioral Disorders and Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders over the last 10 years (2010–2019). We identified large variation in the axis proportions of reviewed graphs, as measured using standardized x:y and the data points per x- to y-axis ratio (DPPXYR). A majority of graphs included an ordinate scaling procedure that aligns with findings from preliminary research on this analysis-altering element. We provide recommendations to the field on designing graphs to enhance the validity of visual analysis.
... HillRAP is a small-group, pull-out program for struggling readers. Implementation of HillRAP includes intensive teacher professional development and ongoing mentoring, 45-50 minute instructional sessions 5 days a week (see Ritchey & Goeke, 2006), and a 4:1 student to teacher ratio. According to previous research studies, HillRAP is an effective program to improve student reading achievement (Downing, Williams, & Lasater, 2007;Frome, Bell, & Close, 2005). ...
... HillRAP is a theoretically supported program that builds on the principles of the research-based, multisensory Orton-Gillingham approach (see Ritchey & Goeke, 2006) Ehri, Nunes, Stahl, & Willows, 2001;NICHD, 2000), phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (NICHD, 2000). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Influencing factors in program implementation threaten fidelity and can lead to the dissolution of educational reform efforts. Educational leadership strategies can strengthen program implementation through each of the phases of the reform process. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine what factors impacted the implementation of the Hill Reading Achievement Program during each phase of implementation and to then identify leadership strategies that improved implementation. Results indicated that the use of multiple levels of leadership, including district, principal, and teacher leaders, increased implementation. District leadership was prominent in pre-planning, principal leadership was essential for communication and monitoring, and teacher leadership improved sustainability of program use.
... Due to its initial success at a time when few programs were available in schools, as well as based on anecdotal evidence of the results of this program, the OG method and programs based on it are predominately used in schools [3]. However, despite half a century of widespread use in schools, very little empirical evidence exists supporting the use of the OG [4]. Less scientifically-based information is available for the OG compared to other programs. ...
... This increased error rate following intervention was not large or global enough to reach significance, but it does suggest a potential weakness in the curriculum of both OG-based programs and other reading interventions. The universal focus of reading intervention programs on development of oral and phonological skills [4] may leave deficits in the realm of silent reading. Children with RD who have gone through reading intervention programs relying on oral skills tend to approach silent reading with the same methods, using phonemic awareness and sound-syllable correspondence [2] rather than sight words and sentence structure, which can lead to reduced speed and accuracy in silent reading. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Orton-Gillingham reading-intervention program (OG) is widely used for children with Reading Difficulties (RD). However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the OG. Here, we examined the effects of the OG on oral and silent reading in children with RD. Children with RD who participated in the OG showed similar improvements in speed and accuracy of oral reading after training as did children with RD who participated in the control program. Both groups showed improvement in oral reading speed. Children in the OG group did show greater accuracy in oral reading compared to silent reading. These results suggest that the gain from the OG was not different from participation in another intervention program in improving oral and silent reading speed.
... However, few approaches have been examined in many studies (Inns et al., 2019). Multi-sensory learning methods, often defined as the simultaneous engagement of at least two sensory modalities (Schlesinger & Gray, 2017), has a long history in educational research (e.g., Montessori, 1912), and were early on suggested to be beneficial for students with reading difficulties (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). Methods that engage more senses may strengthen memory capacity and retrieval. ...
... For example, regular instruction typically engages both the visual and auditory senses. Despite the long history, it is still an open question if literacy programs that explicitly and intentionally include multi-sensory methods to engage more senses are more effective than programs that do not (Broadbent et al., 2018;Fritts, 2016;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Snowling & Hulme, 2011). Mirroring this uncertainty, the effects in the few randomized field experiments examining multi-sensory tutoring programs for at-risk students in primary school range from large and positive to null (Ehri et al., 2007;Fritts, 2016;Mesa et al., 2020;Torgesen et al., 2006). ...
Article
This study examined a literacy program that targeted students most at risk of reading difficulties in kindergarten and first grade of 12 Swedish schools. The program used multi-sensory learning methods that focused on phonological awareness and phonics, and was delivered during 10 weeks over 30–35 sessions by teachers in a one-to-one or one-to-two setting. In total, 161 students aged 6–7 years were randomly assigned to a treatment group or a waiting list control group. The treatment group showed large and statistically significant improvements compared to the control group on the two pre-registered primary outcome measures: a standardized test of decoding (Hedges’ g = 1.07) and a standardized test of letter knowledge (g = 1.03). The improvements were also significantly larger on measures of phonological awareness (g = 0.56) and self-efficacy (g = 0.57), but not on measures of enjoyment and motivation. The program appears cost-effective relative to other tutoring programs.
... According to Dr Orton and colleagues, children with dyslexia would benefit from individualized remedial training in systematic phonics-based reading instruction (Henry, 1998). The Orton-Gillingham (OG) approach, conceived by Orton and developed into a curriculum by Anna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman (Gillingham & Stillman, 1956) stood the test of time as the backbone of many published reading programs (Ring, Avrit, & Black, 2017;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). The OG approach is a structured, sequential, multisensory, synthetic and phonics-based teaching of reading ( Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Uhry & Clark, 2005). ...
... The Orton-Gillingham (OG) approach, conceived by Orton and developed into a curriculum by Anna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman (Gillingham & Stillman, 1956) stood the test of time as the backbone of many published reading programs (Ring, Avrit, & Black, 2017;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). The OG approach is a structured, sequential, multisensory, synthetic and phonics-based teaching of reading ( Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Uhry & Clark, 2005). According to Ring et al. (2017), the approach was unique at the time for (a) its emphasis on discrete teaching of phonogram followed by blending of these phonograms into larger grain-sizes such as syllables, (b) the use of visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic cues to teach grapheme-phoneme relationships, and (c) systematic progressive teaching of simple graphemes through to multi-syllabic words. ...
Article
This paper synthesizes research on dyslexia remediation, word recognition development and the Malay language writing system to design and develop a Malay language word recognition intervention program (MyBaca) for children with dyslexia. Malay is alphabetic, is highly transparent, with salient syllabic units. The program is designed based on theories of the Simple View of Reading and Ehri’s phase theory of word development. The objectives of the program are to teach the full alphabetic knowledge of Malay and the consolidated alphabetic knowledge of grapho-syllabic spelling-sound patterns of Malay. The instructional strategies are designed based on pedagogic principles of the Orton-Gillingham approach, the National Reading Panel review, and elements of Structured Literacy. The curriculum is sequenced according to evidence-based research on Malay GPC knowledge acquisition and the grapho-syllabic spelling-sound patterns. The design process which integrates both theory and empirical evidence may provide some insights toward overall dyslexia intervention.
... However, principals report that their preservice training programs and the professional development opportunities in which they have participated included only basic information about reading disabilities so that they lack knowledge of effective intervention for students with reading difficulties (DiPaola & Walther-Thomas, 2003;DuFour & Mattos, 2013;Fletcher et al., 2013;Sanzo et al., 2011). Principals who are more knowledgeable about intervention for students with dyslexia, including phonetic, multisensory intervention, are better able to support staff who work with these students (Dean et al., 2016;Matsumura & Garnier, 2010;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). ...
... Next, principals should support intensive intervention for students identified with dyslexia. This intervention should be delivered more often, in individual sessions or small groups, and for longer periods of time, with the intensity of services to match the severity of the reading disability, to be most effective (Duff & Clarke, 2011;IMSLEC, 2002;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Snowling & Hulme, 2012). See Principal recommendation number 6 (Table 9). ...
Article
Kindergarten through second‐grade elementary schools that best serve students with dyslexia have principals who are knowledgeable about dyslexia and understand the best practices for providing intervention for students with dyslexia. In this study, three styles of leadership were examined to understand the implication that leadership has on intervention for dyslexia: transformational, instructional, and integrated leadership. However, many students in elementary schools have difficulty learning to read despite good leadership by the principal, with 5–20% of students being diagnosed with dyslexia. While these students need phonetic, multisensory intervention to build necessary reading skills, this study found that many principals lack knowledge of this specialized instruction. The purpose of this research was to explore variables that determine the school‐based level of appropriate intervention for students with dyslexia. A questionnaire assessing leadership skills, knowledge, and beliefs about dyslexia, preparation in reading disorders and/or dyslexia received from degree programs and professional development, and services provided to students with dyslexia was given to K‐2 principals serving in schools across the United States. Results indicated that regardless of leadership style, principals who have greater knowledge and more correct beliefs about dyslexia provide more appropriate school‐based services for students with dyslexia. Eight detailed K‐2 principal/practitioner recommendations are included based upon this key finding.
... Although decoding-focused interventions have shown some gains in students' performance on measures of decoding, these have been small-to-moderate and/or variable, and they have little to no effect on more global reading skills (Frankel et al., 2010). Research reviews have made similar conclusions (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;What Works Clearinghouse, 2010). Ritchey and Goeke (2006) pronounced the existing research "inadequate, both in number of studies and in the quality of research methodology, to support that O-G interventions are scientifically valid" (p. ...
... Research reviews have made similar conclusions (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;What Works Clearinghouse, 2010). Ritchey and Goeke (2006) pronounced the existing research "inadequate, both in number of studies and in the quality of research methodology, to support that O-G interventions are scientifically valid" (p. 182). ...
Article
Educators and researchers from a range of fields have devoted their careers to studying how reading develops and how to support students who find reading challenging. Some children struggle specifically with learning to decode print, the central issue in what is referred to as dyslexia. However, research has failed to identify unique characteristics or patterns that set apart students identified as dyslexic from other readers with decoding challenges. Nevertheless, an authoritative discourse that speaks of a definitive definition, a unique set of characteristics, and a specific form of intervention saturates policy and practice around dyslexia, and teacher educators are under increasing pressure to include this state-sanctioned information in their classes. Literacy educators’ experiences teaching reading in schools and preparing literacy professionals can add valuable perspectives to the conversation about dyslexia; however, currently their voices are largely silent in conversations around dyslexia research, policy, and practice. The current research was designed to address this gap through an intensive interview study, in which we employed a Disability Critical Race Studies framework, along with Bakhtin’s notions of authoritative and internally persuasive discourse to explore the perspectives, understandings, and experiences of literacy teacher educators regarding dyslexia. Copyright © 2018 by the National Council of Teachers of English. All rights reserved.
... of the literature describing elementary-grade intervention approaches for students with intensive reading and writing needs, including students with dyslexia. They extended the one previously published synthesis (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006) describing effects of multi-sensory Orton-Gillingham (OG) approaches relative to a control group. There were some positive effects of OG interventions on standardized measures for word reading, with a mean ES of 0.42, but in the six studies that provided effect sizes, these effects varied from large and positive (1.56) to large and negative ( -0.91). ...
... For example, Stevens et al. (2021) reported no significant difference in reading outcomes for Orton-Gillingham-based programs relative to control groups for any foundational skills including phonological awareness, phonics, fluency or spelling, although average effect sizes were positive (mean ES = 0.22). As noted by Ritchey & Goeke (2006), Al and most recently by Stevens et al. (2021), future research should include randomized control trials comparing these approaches to other synthetic phonics approaches. ...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to describe what we know and what we still need to learn about literacy intervention for children who experience significant difficulties learning to read. We reviewed 14 meta‐analyses and systematic reviews of experimental and quasi‐experimental studies published in the last decade that examined the effects of reading and writing interventions in the elementary grades, including research focused on students with reading difficulties and disabilities, including dyslexia. We attended to moderator analyses, when available, to further refine what we know and need to learn about interventions. Findings from these reviews indicate that explicit and systematic interventions focusing on the code and meaning dimensions of reading and writing, and delivered one‐to‐one or in small groups, are likely to improve foundational code‐based reading skills, and to a lesser extent, meaning‐based skills, across elementary grade levels. Findings, at least in the upper elementary grades, indicate that some intervention features including standardized protocols, multiple components, and longer duration can yield stronger effects. And, integrating reading and writing interventions shows promise. We still need to learn more about specific instructional routines and components that provide more robust effects on students’ ability to comprehend and individual differences in response to interventions. We discuss limitations of this review of reviews and suggest directions for future research to optimize implementation, particularly to understand for whom and under what conditions literacy interventions work best. The purpose of this paper is to describe what we know and what we still need to learn about literacy intervention for children who experience significant difficulties learning to read. We reviewed 14 meta‐analyses and systematic reviews of experimental and quasi‐experimental studies published in the last decade that examined the effects of reading and writing interventions in the elementary grades, including research focused on students with reading difficulties and disabilities, including dyslexia.
... Such programs are consistent with the Orton-Gillingham, or OG, approach (Gillingham & Stillman, 2014), which is a "systematic, sequential, multisensory, synthetic and phonics-based approach to teaching reading" (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006, p. 171). In a review of intervention research with OG and OG-based programs, Ritchey and Goeke (2006) found only 10 published studies and two dissertations that met their minimal criteria for sample size and study design. The researchers cautioned that even the studies reporting effectiveness must be viewed with caution because of design and implementation issues, concluding, "Despite widespread use by teachers in a variety of settings for more than five decades, OG instruction has yet to be comprehensively studied and reported in peer-refereed journals" (p. ...
... It was clear the interventionists in our study were committed to the academic growth of their students and firmly believed the programs they used were the only effective interventions for dyslexia, even though research does not support this belief (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;WWC, 2010). According to our participants, these intervention programs present the same skills, in the same sequence, using the same materials, and all students need to begin at the first lesson regardless of reading skill. ...
Article
Although researchers have studied dyslexia for over a century, there is still much debate about how dyslexia differs from other reading difficulties and how to support students labeled dyslexic. Nevertheless, dyslexia policy and practice are steeped in authoritative discourse that speaks of a definitive definition, unique characteristics, and prescribed intervention programs that are not well supported by research. In Texas, and increasingly in other states, only educators trained in these programs are considered qualified to provide intervention for students identified as dyslexic. In contrast to earlier research, which found that the word dyslexia decreased teachers’ confidence and feelings of self-efficacy, the dyslexia interventionists we interviewed expressed a high degree of confidence and certainty about dyslexia and the interventions they used. Bakhtin’s notion of authoritative and internally persuasive discourse helped us think about the reasons for these findings and how to initiate a broader and more inclusive conversation about dyslexia.
... Additional evidence that phonics instruction does not normalize the reading performance of many weak readers comes from studies of program that are deemed by many as the "gold standards" of phonics intervention: the Orton-Gillingham method, the Wilson method, and DISTAR/Reading Mastery. These programs display mixed results in the research (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). One of the overall findings regarding these intensive phonics interventions is that students display improved phonics skills as a result of these programs, but often show limited improvements in overall word reading (Compton, Miller, Elleman, & Steacy, 2014;Kuder, 1990;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Stebbins, Stormont, Lembke, Wilson, & Clippard, 2012. ...
... These programs display mixed results in the research (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). One of the overall findings regarding these intensive phonics interventions is that students display improved phonics skills as a result of these programs, but often show limited improvements in overall word reading (Compton, Miller, Elleman, & Steacy, 2014;Kuder, 1990;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Stebbins, Stormont, Lembke, Wilson, & Clippard, 2012. (pg. ...
... When students are given explicit and systematic phonics instruction, but no additional oral-only phonemic awareness/analysis instruction, their normed nonsense word reading scores grow substantially, often 10, 15, or 20 standard score points. However, their gains on normative tests of real-word identification tend to be in the 2-5 standard score point range (Blachman et al., 2004;Kuder, 1990;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Stebbins et al., 2012;Torgesen et al., 2007;Vaughn et al., 2012). This can be accounted for from the orthographic learning literature. ...
Chapter
The research on the prevention and intervention for word reading problems is reviewed in two parts. First, several key issues are addressed that bear on understanding the findings from the vast reading intervention literature. These include (1) interpreting intervention research in light of the findings from studies of orthographic learning, (2) examining assumptions inherent in current intervention approaches, (3) understanding why some students require intervention in the first place, (4) distinguishing research-based principles from research-based programs, and (5) examining the best ways to determine the effectiveness of interventions for word reading problems. Second, key intervention research findings are examined through the lens of the preliminary issues discussed in the first section. These findings reveal very positive prospects for preventing a large portion of reading difficulties based on modifications to general education classroom instruction. They also show that very substantial reading improvements can be made by struggling readers if the most effective principles are applied to our intervention efforts.
... Similarly, the Orton-Gillingham approach constituted "a systematic, sequential, multisensory, synthetic and phonics-based approach to teaching reading" (p. 171, Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). More precisely, phonological awareness and letter-sound correspondences are taught and letter knowledge is learned in a multisensory way. ...
Article
Introduction. – Several studies have shown that adults can memorize an audio-visual association inresponse to an incidental presentation. Moreover, a motor experience of the letter-shape promotes letterknowledge and reading acquisition. Objective. – In order to develop optimal learning designs for children, we evaluate the effect of the implicitlearning of grapho-phonemic correspondences on decoding abilities (study 1). The action performed onthe letter-shape in this type of learning was then also investigated with regard to the emergence ofmultisensory knowledge (study 2). Methods. – A paradigm inspired by studies conducted with adults was tested in 5-year-old children(study 1). A classical design pre-test/learning/post-test was used in the study 2. During the learning, thechild was asked to explore the letter shape. An incidental presentation of the corresponding sound wassimultaneously proposed to the child. Results - Results indicated that (1) implicit learning was efficient on the discrimination of grapho-phonemic correspondences in young children and (2) the motor action amplified audio-visual integrationwithin a single memory trace. Conclusion. – These results are discussed in the light of knowledge emergence in long-term memory andthe benefit of an implicit training at the beginning of reading acquisition. Keywords: Implicit learning, Children, Letter, Motor, Reading
... Samuel Orton, considered a pioneer in the developing principles of reading remediation beginning in the 1920s, posited that an instructional approach for reading should attempt to capitalize on their students' auditory competence by teaching them the phonetic equivalence of the printed letters and the process of blending sequences of such equivalents so that they might be able to produce for themselves the spoken form of the word from its graphic counterparts [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstrak The main thrust of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Orton-Gillingham approach in the reading ability of Grade I pupils. Moreover, it proposed an action plan to integrate the use of the Orton-Gillingham approach in teaching reading. The study utilized the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. The pretest scores pairing with 24 respondents in each group determined the grouping of the respondents. Orton-Gillingham approach was used in the experimentation. Data were collected using the early grade reading assessment toolkit. These were administered in the two groups of respondents those were exposed to Orton-Gillingham approach from those exposed to Conventional approach (Marungko), respectively. Based on the findings, there is no significant difference in the performance between the pupils exposed to the Orton-Gillingham approach with those exposed to Conventional approach (Marungko). However, the research showed that those exposed to Orton-Gillingham Approach, twelve (50%) pupils performed as outstanding while eight (33.33%) pupils were outstanding using Marungko Approach. Thus, the Orton-Gillingham approach enhanced the pupils’ reading skills in terms of phonological awareness, appropriate spelling, retention, and better understanding. The proposed training and seminar program should be implemented to teachers for them to be able to utilize the Orton-Gillingham approach in teaching reading.
... Similar to CTML, the OG multisensory instructional approach stresses that, for students with dyslexia, activating multiple sensory areas of the brain (e.g., both visual and auditory areas) will improve cognitive processing associated with reading. Ritchey and Goeke (2006) reviewed 12 studies and found that OG-based reading instruction resulted in significantly enhanced comprehension outcomes with a mean effect size of .76. Both the CTML principles and the OG multisensory instructional approach suggest the effectiveness of presenting materials in multiple modalities (e.g., visuals and narrated text) for individuals with dyslexia. ...
Article
One of the strongest instructional interventions documented in educational literature is the use of feedback to influence learning outcomes. However, there is lack of empirical research specifically pertaining to the use of multimedia in the feedback message. The purpose of this research was to test whether organizational pictures and modality as a feedback strategy had an effect on learner comprehension and satisfaction. The research design was a 2 Multimedia (Picture Present vs. Picture Absent) × 2 Modality (Narration vs. On-screen Text) × Trial (Trial 1 vs. Trial 2) with Multimedia and Modality serving as between-subject conditions and Trial serving as a repeated measure. One-hundred fifteen university students participated in the study. Findings show statistically significant increases in comprehension scores from Trial 1 to Trial 2 assessments for all four treatment conditions. Learners in the Picture present conditions were statistically more satisfied with the learning experience. Additionally, we used eye-tracking to verify the extent to which the pictures were used in the feedback message. A discussion and recommendations for future research and feedback design are provided.
... Accountability era standards for acceptance of an approach to reading include the requirement of evidence from scientifically based reading research. However, multiple reviews of research related to Orton-Gillingham-based instruction have identified only a small number of studies, of which only a few conclude such instruction is more effective than a comparison, or no intervention (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006), while some conclude it has a negative effect (see International Literacy Association, 2016, p. 3;NRP, 2000, p. 2-160) The US Department of Education's What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) similarly concluded that no studies of Orton-Gillingham (O-G)-based strategies met evidence standards for scientifically based reading research (WWC, 2010). The WWC, created in order to help schools identify scientifically based reading research, stated that they were ''unable to draw any conclusions based on research'' about O-G strategy effectiveness. ...
Article
In this study, I analyze written testimony submitted to the state legislature regarding Connecticut’s 2015 Act Concerning Students With Dyslexia (PA-15-97), in order to engage with the discourse and rhetoric occasioned by the policy-making process and investigate the phenomenon of dyslexia in contemporary education policy. Drawing on critical discursive psychology, positioning theory, and narrative policy analysis. I examine how dyslexia advocacy discourse forms a cohesive, compelling policy narrative. I argue that this narrative can be understood as a conversion narrative, which drives a privatization agenda in which public schools become mandated consumers for a growing dyslexia industry, and in which the nature of instruction for students with reading difficulties is narrowly prescribed.
... One theory posited that dyslexia was caused by brain lesions in the left occipital and parietal lobes, specifically the angular gyrus (Hinshelwood, as cited in Elliott & Grigorenko, 2014;Morgan, as cited in Elliott & Grigorenko, 2014). Orton, a physician and prominent dyslexia researcher of the early 20th century, theorized that the cause was a delay in the development of brain lateralization (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). Although these theories are no longer considered viable explanations for developmental dyslexia, most current definitions include the wording that dyslexia is "neurobiological in origin" (International Dyslexia Association, 2018) or "brain based" (National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, 2018). ...
Article
After well over a century of research about dyslexia, there is still no consensus about how it differs from other decoding difficulties, how it is identified, and its causes. Nevertheless, there is an abundance of research about dyslexia, mostly conducted outside of education, and much of it focused on the brain. This attention to the brain and dyslexia is also reflected on the Internet. In the study reported here, we analyzed information on the Internet focusing on dyslexia and the brain, grounding our examination in varying perspectives about the connections between neuroscience and education. We found that many of the sites include distortions, simplifications, and misinterpretations of neuroscience research, and some sites used this misinformation to bolster claims for the efficacy of the so-called brain-based interventions. We suggest that educators who become familiar with the limitations and affordances of neuroscience research, while maintaining a focus on the broad range of factors that influence literacy learning, can help to moderate the spread of misinformation.
... Although there is certainly plenty of anecdotal support for these methods, there is a need for more rigorous studies. For example, Ritchey and Goeke (2006) reviewed the available studies on the efficacy of multisensory Orton-Gillingham (OG)-based interventions and reported some mixed effects. In three of the 12 studies, the authors found OG was more effective than the "business as usual" instruction with a large mean effect size of 0.82 for word reading and 0.76 for comprehension (Joshi, Dahlgren, & Boulware-Gooden, 2002;Litcher & Roberge, 1979;Stoner, 1991). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this narrative review of the literature is to provide a description of intensive interventions for elementary grade students with dyslexia, students with learning disabilities, and students with intensive reading and writing needs. Method: First, we provide a brief overview of response to intervention. Second, we explain our theoretical framework for the review. Third, we describe evidence-based interventions, which are divided into predominantly reading or writing interventions. Fourth, we explain data-based individualization for these programs based on a taxonomy of intensity, and we provide an illustrative case study. Conclusion: We conclude by describing a set of links to websites and technical assistance resources that may be helpful for speech-language pathologists, teachers, and other interventionists to stay current with this research base and to lead professional learning communities.
... These programs are characterized by instructional uniformity, presenting the same skills in the same sequence for all students. The programs focus primarily on decoding, do not include opportunities to read high-quality texts, and have not been comprehensively or systematically researched (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). ...
Article
Since 1985, when Texas passed the first dyslexia law, there has been a profusion of dyslexia legislation across the country, with a rapid increase in recent years. Including Texas, which has multiple laws, 42 states have passed dyslexia legislation focused on identification, intervention, accommodations, funding, and/or dyslexia specialists. Seven states, including Texas, require or “encourage” teacher preparation programs to address state-approved information about identification and intervention, even though the concept is not well understood or defined. Teacher educators are frequently criticized for not preparing teachers to address dyslexia, yet their perspectives are not represented in the conversation. To address this gap, we interviewed literacy teacher educators about their perspectives of reading challenges, dyslexia, and legislation that requires them to teach about dyslexia. We analyzed the data employing authoritative discourse and disability critical race studies (DisCrit) as theoretical frameworks. This article presents portraits of three teacher educators that represent a range of participant perspectives.
... Similar to CTML, the OG multisensory instructional approach stresses that, for students with dyslexia, activating multiple sensory areas of the brain (e.g., both visual and auditory areas) will improve cognitive processing associated with reading. Ritchey and Goeke (2006) reviewed 12 studies and found that OG-based reading instruction resulted in significantly enhanced comprehension outcomes with a mean effect size of .76. Both the CTML principles and the OG multisensory instructional approach suggest the effectiveness of presenting materials in multiple modalities (e.g., visuals and narrated text) for individuals with dyslexia. ...
Article
There has been a lack of research on how people with individual differences learn with multimedia materials, in particular with regard to individuals with dyslexia. Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by subpar ability in reading, spelling, writing, word recognition, and phonological decoding. This population could potentially benefit from multimedia learning materials according to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and Orton–Gillingham multisensory instructional approach. This study examined how learning in four multimedia conditions influences dyslexic college students’ ability to recall and recognize information. Seventy-three college students with dyslexia were assigned to one of the four conditions that integrated the modality (spoken text vs. on-screen text) and multimedia (picture present vs. picture absent) principles. They completed a cued-recall and a content recognition test. The results indicated pictures facilitated recognition, which validated the multimedia principle. On-screen text led to a superior performance in recall and recognition compared to spoken text. This finding suggested the modality principle did not hold for participants with dyslexia in this study, which is especially surprising given that dyslexics have difficulty processing written text. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed.
... Georgia tutored a student with dyslexia, which correlates with her interest in refining her expertise in multisensory teaching methods for students with dyslexia. Throughout her tutoring sessions, Georgia integrated multisensory techniques in alignment with the Orton-Gillingham instructional method (Gillingham & Stillman, 1997;Henry, 1998;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006), while also incorporating other word analysis techniques, such as word sorts (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents results of a case study that provides insight into the dimensions of reflection, specifically the interplay of observation and inference. Through their use of the metacognitive tool, The Teacher Learning Instrument, the teachers in the study adopted a metalanguage to discuss their observations of students’ learning, to express their thought processes about instruction, and to pinpoint changes to their instruction to enhance student performance.
... In the 1930s and 1940s, Samuel Orton and Anna Gillingham developed the multisensory Orton-Gillingham approach that utilizes three or more learning modalities including: vi sual, auditory, touch, and kinesthetic (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). Later, Cleland and Clark (1966) advanced the positive effects of multisensory environments for individuals with cognitive defects by stimulating the senses (i.e., smell, sound, touch, and sight) to im prove development, communication, and behavior. ...
Article
Embodied cognition theories are different from traditional theories of cognition in that they specifically focus on the mind–body connection. This shift in our understanding of how knowledge is acquired challenges Cartesian, as well as computational theories of cognition that emphasize the body as a “passive” observer to brain functions, and necessary only in the execution of motor actions. Historically, mental representations within the brain were typically considered abstractions of the original information (i.e., mental representations). Accordingly, these amodal (disembodied) theories provided the knowledge used in cognitive processes, but did not reflect the original sensorimotor states themselves. In contrast, Embodied cognition provides a starting point to advance our understanding of how perceptual, sensorimotor and multisensory approaches facilitate and encourage learning throughout the lifespan. Derived from embodied cognition, embodied learning constitutes a contemporary pedagogical theory of knowing and learning that emphasizes the use of the body in educational practice. Embodied learning approaches scientifically endorse and advance sensorimotor learning, as well as offer potentially useful tools for educators. This article begins with a discussion on the historical progression of embodied understanding in the disciplines of philosophy, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience, with a focus on how embodied cognition differs from traditional models of cognition. Empirical evidence from varied field domains (e.g., reading, handwriting, STEM fields, haptic technology, mixed reality, and special education) are presented that show how embodied learning increases and facilitates learning and memory. Discussions within each content area draw upon embodied principles and show why the reviewed techniques facilitate learning. Also discussed are examples on how these principles can be further integrated into educational curriculum, with an eye toward the learner as a unified whole. Keywords: embodied cognition, embodied learning, classroom body-based learning, multisensory https://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-885
... Dyslexia interventions are commonly based on the Orton-Gillingham (OG) approach, which is a multisensory approach, grounded in a Simple View of Reading, employing synthetic phonics (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). Two meta-analyses offer similar conclusions about the effectiveness of OG methods, which are consistent with the What Works Clearinghouse report. ...
... The 20 students in the intervention group received, in addition to their regular reading program, an evidence-based intervention beginning in first grade and continuing in second, third, and fourth grades. The intervention used an Orton-Gillingham approach (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006) and was provided Mondays through Thursday for 90 min each day in small groups of 4 students by instructors trained to administer Orton-Gillingham instruction who worked together with the regular classroom teachers. ...
Article
Full-text available
The spread of COVID-19 has led to the disruption of K-12 education for about 90% of the world's student population. The effects on children's academic development are unknown. We examined how disruption in schooling over three consecutive summers in disadvantaged minority children affects reading and whether an intensive intervention can ameliorate these effects. Our data were collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. We applied Latent Change Score models to examine developmental trends in a longitudinal study of reading in 111 economically disadvantaged children, assessed biannually from grades 1 to 4, including 3 summers (for a total of 6 months of school hiatus). The students fell behind the normative population in their ability to understand written texts, a decrease in their relative percentile of 0.25 of a standard deviation each summer, and an effect 3-4 times greater than prior studies suggested. Compared to children in a comparison group, children who received an evidence-based intervention during the school year were better able to maintain their reading scores. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in schooling, for example, those implemented to slow the spread of COVID-19, may have a significant detrimental effect on the reading abilities of disadvantaged children and that children who received a reading intervention were better able to maintain their reading scores during the hiatus. It is critical that policy makers prioritize the allocation of necessary resources to minimize the negative effects on reading this pandemic has wrought on these most disadvantaged children.
... Shaywitz 2005), deren Wirksamkeit empirisch belegt werden konnte (z. B. Nijakowska 2010;Ritchey & Goeke 2006). Multisensorisch bezieht sich hier nicht auf die -mittlerweile mehrfach widerlegten -Lernstile bzw. ...
Chapter
The article addresses the role of orthographic competence in inclusive foreign language teaching. It discusses the relevance of orthography in an otherwise communicative foreign language classroom. Moreover, writing samples will be used to illustrate the difficulties learners with dyslexia (might) show when writing in the foreign language and recommendations for the fostering of orthographic competence will be deduced.
... Multisensory methods are primarily practiced among children with dyslexia, affecting 10-15% of all people and 80% of those with a disability (Dyslexia International, 2014), and other speech and language disabilities. Multisensory teaching has shown to improve oral and written language skills in students with dyslexia (Henry, 1998;Koifman, 2017;Lim & Oei, 2015;Oakland, Black, Stanford, Nussbaum, & Balise, 1998), autism spectrum disorder (Iarocci & McDonald, 2006), low socioeconomic households and ethnic diversity (Joshi, Dahlgren, & Boulware-Gooden, 2002; Magpuri-Lavell, Paige, Williams, Akins, & Cameron, 2014), English as a second language (Schneider & Kulmhofer, 2016;Sparks & Miller, 2000), and those who struggle to read (Geiss, Rivers, Kennedy, & Lombardino, 2012;Marsh, 2018) in remedial and non-remedial classes (Jasmine & Connolly, 2015;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Rogers, 1999;Vickery, Reynolds, & Cochran, 1987). Improvements in language skills were found in a variety of learners since multisensory teaching creates a more natural learning environment (Shams & Seitz, 2008) along with student enjoyment (Jasmine & Connolly, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Effective communication is one characteristic of an effective teacher. Communication can engage the learner through a single sensory (i.e., auditory) or through multiple sensory (i.e., auditory, visual, and kinesthetic). Teaching with a multisensory approach provides additional pathways for the learner to receive information. Multisensory teaching is practiced with children with speech and language disorders in language education although this article will describe how it could be incorporated in physical education. While there is limited research in the physical education setting, enhanced communication using multisensory teaching provides opportunities for learning in students with and without speech and language disorders.
... In order to demonstrate the utility of multisensory teaching foreign language to dyslexic students, it is relevant to indicate some researches in the field. The analysis of the literature, concerning Orton-Gillingham and Orton-Gillingham based reading, conducted by Ritchey and Goeke (2006) proved the effectiveness of these methods. Orton-Gillingham based instruction results in positive outcomes concerning spelling, word reading, word decoding, and comprehension. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teaching instruction applied in teaching a foreign language to dyslexic students and their language achievement. The author of the study attempts to explore methods relevant for teaching foreign language to dyslexic students and whether foreign language teachers should provide teaching methods designed specifically for dyslexic students. The researcher applied a mixed method: quantitative combined with qualitative. The data was collected through online questionnaires comprising closed and open-ended questions filled out by parents of dyslexic students and English teachers. According to the research results, foreign language teaching methods offered in Polish public schools are not relevant to dyslexic students. Therefore, foreign language teachers should provide foreign language instruction appropriate for the needs of dyslexic students.
... Similarly, multisensory approaches (e.g., Orton-Gillingham) that teach reading by using multiple senses (i.e., sight, hearing, touch, and movement) to help children make systematic connections between language, letters, and words (Birsh, 2011) are commonplace and have considerable clinical support for facilitating reading development in children who struggle to learn to read. However, there is little scientific evidence that indicates that a multisensory approach is more effective than similarly structured phonological-based approaches that do not include a strong multisensory component (e.g., Boyer & Ehri, 2011;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Torgesen et al., 2001). With further research, we may find that a multisensory component is a critical ingredient of intervention for struggling readers, but we lack this empirical evidence currently. ...
Article
The science of reading should be informed by an evolving evidence base built on the scientific method. Decades of basic research and randomized controlled trials of interventions and instructional routines have formed a substantial evidence base to guide best practices in reading instruction, reading intervention, and the early identification of at‐risk readers. The recent resurfacing of questions about what constitutes the science of reading is leading to misinformation in the public space that may be viewed by educational stakeholders as merely differences of opinion among scientists. The authors’ goals in this article were to revisit the science of reading through an epistemological lens to clarify what constitutes evidence in the science of reading, and to offer a critical evaluation of the evidence provided by the science of reading. To this end, the authors summarize those things that they believe have compelling evidence, promising evidence, or a lack of compelling evidence. The authors conclude with a discussion of areas of focus that they believe will advance the science of reading to meet the needs of all students in the 21st century.
... Vizuálně-kinestetické a auditivně-kinestetické asociace si žák formuje vyslovováním, sledováním, kopírováním a psa-ním každé hlásky. Čtení textů začíná až v době, kdy žák dobře zvládne spojování slov typu souhláska -samohláska -souhláska na vyšší úrovni (Joshi, Dahlgren, & Boulware-Gooden, 2002;Oakland, Black, Stanford, Nussbaum, & Balise, 1998;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). "Slingerland program" je adaptací programu Ortona-Gillinghama. ...
Book
Full-text available
Předkládaná monografie se zabývá zjištěním a analýzou přístupů využívaných při edukaci žáků se specifickými poruchami učení v inkluzivním prostředí základních škol. Teoretická část se zaměřuje na žáky se specifickými poruchami učení v inkluzivní škole. Empirická část formuluje výzkumný problém, výzkumné cíle a použitou metodiku výzkumného šetření. Ve výzkumu jsou analyzovány data z dotazníků vlastní konstrukce, které jsou zpracovány pomocí tabulek. Závěrečné subkapitoly obsahují vyhodnocení stanovených hypotéz, závěry výzkumného šetření a doporučení pro speciálně pedagogickou teorii a praxi.
... They used specifically designed training software to examine whether establishing a "multitude of visuo-auditory associations" might help to "mitigate writing errors in children with developmental Dyslexia." Their study highlighted that according to the retrieval structure model, multisensory training using visual and auditory cues enhances writing performance in children with developmental Dyslexia and non-dyslexic children (See Figure 1) Positive effects of the MSP interventions on reading skills in children have been reported, but there is limited evidence on controlled studies that compare MSP to other traditional reaching approaches (Bhat et al., 2000;Clark & Uhry, 1995;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Rose & Zirkel, 2007). The limited evidence is even more pronounced when it comes to the Middle East and UAE. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-based Multi-Sensory Program (MSP) on English reading skills as a second language of fourth-grade students with reading difficulties and Dyslexia in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pretest-Posttest experimental design was used in this study. The analysis showed that average pretest score in both the experimental and control groups was almost the same and the average post-test score was much higher in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Moreover, results also reveal statistically significant difference in the students’ mean scores between the experimental and control groups after the MSP intervention. The study has implications in the UAE and Arab countries and everywhere in the world for students who are learning English as a second language and facing reading difficulties. Besides, the modified MSP used in this study can be adopted and imitated to create a local version in the Arabic language in the Middle East and in other countries that are teaching Arabic as a second language.
... Wilson Reading System is a supplemental remedial reading and writing program for students in Grade 2 and above. It uses a direct, multisensory approach based on Orton-Gillingham principles (Ritchey & Goeke, 2006). A certified instructor delivers instruction to small groups of students (one to six), three to five times per week for 60-90 minutes. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven early literacy programs that have all been previously identified as effective at improving reading outcomes for students in Grades K-3. We use the ingredients method to collect cost data for each program and compare the cost-effectiveness of programs serving students in the same grade level.
... Through the efforts of researchers from a variety of perspectives and using varied methodologies, much is known about both how the brain works during reading as well as instruction that supports young readers. Although many practices have proven effective, no single best method for teaching children to read has been identified (International Literacy Association [ILA], 2016; Mathes et al., 2005;Ritchey & Goeke, 2006;Turner, 2008;Vaughn & Linan-Thompson, 2003;Reinking et al., 2019). Rather, instruction that is responsive to student needs reduces the number of children with reading difficulties (Vellutino et al., 2000). ...
... This IEP outlines special services the child needs to make school easier. These might include extra time to finish tests, audio books or text-to-speech-a technology that reads words out loud from a computer or book [46]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability can be explained with number of biological and neuropsychological theories. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. The available research in this field show that there is impairment in processing the sensory input that enters the nervous system. It also indicate that there are problem in phonological decoding. There are various educational interventions and programs to address dyslexia which includes regular teaching in small group, a learning support assistant like a specialist teacher, policy interventions etc. The basic strategies of intervention focus on phonemic skill such as the ability to identify and process word sounds.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article aims to provide insights into how employability skills, career development and entrepreneurial mind-sets are embedded into entrepreneurship education to enhance graduate employability in tertiary education. Recent initiatives in United Kingdom universities respond to the calls from The Association of Business Schools to incorporate more practice into the teaching, learning and assessment of entrepreneurship curricular. The calls aim to encourage the development of entrepreneurial skills and mind sets relevant for graduate employability. One of the most appropriate approaches for designing such practice-based curricular is Problem-based learning (PBL). The authors reviewed the literature on entrepreneurship education and also drew on constructivist theories of teaching and learning based on two case studies to demonstrate how entrepreneurship curricular development could enhance graduate employability. Case story approach was used to accurately report the full extent of the knowledge of entrepreneurship educators. The findings showed a critique and rethinking of current university education in the United Kingdom. Instead of the traditional teaching and learning methods, entrepreneurship educators use a portfolio of practice-based pedagogies including starting businesses, design thinking and reflective practice to embed practice into learning and assessment. The findings therefore show how the choice of teaching, learning and assessment focus on enhancing the development of entrepreneurial mind-sets and employability skills in learners. The article analysed practices and techniques for embedding entrepreneurial skills, mind-sets and employability in entrepreneurship education. It therefore highlights the processes through which practice-based curricular design enhance entrepreneurial and employability skills among university graduates.
Article
Ένας συστηματικός τομέας μελέτης των μαθητών με ειδικές εκπαιδευτικές ανάγκες είναι οι Μαθησιακές Δυσκολίες (ΜΔ). Τα παιδιά που έχουν ΜΔ, ενώ δεν παρουσιάζουν εμφανείς νοητικές διαταραχές, ψυχοκοινωνικά προβλήματα ή άλλα αναπτυξιακά προβλήματα, δεν μπορούν να επωφεληθούν της τυπικής εκπαίδευσης λόγω των δυσκολιών που έχουν, με αποτέλεσμα να έχουν σχολική υποεπίδοση ή και αποτυχία. Οι ΜΔ είναι μία ανομοιογενής ομάδα διαταραχών, και, ως εκ τούτου, εκδηλώνονται με διαφορετικό τρόπο. Η κατηγοριοποίησή τους είναι μία δύσκολη διαδικασία λόγω της ποικιλομορφίας που εμφανίζουν οι μαθητές και η συχνότητά τους συσχετίζεται με τον ορισμό, τον τρόπο προσέγγισης και τα δείγματα των ερευνών. Σύμφωνα με τον Meier, το 20-25% του μαθητικού πληθυσμού φαί-νεται να αντιμετωπίζει δυσκολίες σε έναν τομέα μάθησης. Τα τελευταία χρόνια επικρατεί η τάση της διάκρισης των ΜΔ σε γενικές και ειδικές. Η γενική κατηγορία περιλαμβάνει ένα ευρύ φάσμα διαταραχών οι οποίες δεν δυσχεραίνουν μόνο τη σχολική μάθηση, αλλά επηρεάζουν πολλούς τομείς της καθημερινής ζωής. Επίσης οι διαταραχές μπορούν να αποδοθούν σε έναν ενδογενή ή και εξωτερικό παράγοντα και μπορεί να οφείλονται σε περιορισμένο νοητικό δυναμικό ή και αισθητηριακά προβλήματα. Στην κατηγορία «ειδική μαθησιακή δυσκολία» περιλαμβάνεται και η δυσλεξία .
Thesis
Full-text available
In recent years, researchers have shown great interest in studying children's skills in executive functions, as their deficiency has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as dyslexia. Executive functions are considered an important element of academic success, as they support cognitive processes that are fundamental to learning. And since it has been proven that the use of new technologies is a very supportive method of intervention for people with dyslexia and that the use of appropriate software programs and applications significantly improves the academic performance and self-confidence of dyslexic people, the purpose of this study is investigation and recording of computer applications for people with dyslexia related to executive functions. The findings of the research revealed a direct correlation between dyslexia and Executive Functions (EF), as well as connection of EF with the pyramid of consciousness-intelligence-knowledge and metacognitive skills, necessitating their inclusion in intervention of dyslexia and in intervention of each learning disorder. Finally, the findings recorded a variety of ICT applications for the subject, but not a thorough and extensive research on many of them. Therefore, there were a number of useful applications, which due to non-reporting of the results of their pilot application, were not included in the research.
Chapter
Αγγελάκη, Ρ.& Χατζηβασιλείου, Γ. (2018). «Παιδί, Διδακτική της Ιστορίας και της Φιλοσοφίας. Εναλλακτικές μέθοδοι και προσεγγίσεις». Στο Μ. Κανελλοπούλου-Μπότη (Επιμ.), Παιδί και Πληροφορία. Αναζητήσεις Ιστορίας, δικαίου, δεοντολογίας και πολιτισμού (σσ. 262- 266). Αθήνα: Οσελότος. ISBN 978-960-564-609-7
Article
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act grants dissatisfied parents of students with disabilities the right to pursue legal remedies. In 2007, Rose and Zirkel found that parents of students with reading disabilities seeking Orton-Gillingham (OG) instruction under the IDEA’s central obligation for a free appropriate public education (FAPE) were largely unsuccessful in their complaints. Since that review, various factors had the potential to influence the frequency and outcomes of OG-related case law—namely, the peer-reviewed research requirement of the IDEA and growing awareness of the need for specialized reading instruction. Our updated analysis of OG-related case law revealed an increase in the number of cases but similar district-favored outcomes identified by Rose and Zirkel. In particular, the relaxed substantive FAPE standard and deference to local and state authorities diminished the likelihood of parents prevailing in their requests. Implications for parents, school district personnel, special education professionals, and education researchers are presented.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study assesses how corruption impacts on the management of educational infrastructural projects in Ghana. Corruption is a constant concern for countries facing economic problems. Increasingly, researchers have devoted research to the discussion of the phenomenon; however, these discussions have focused mainly on the relationship between corruption and variables such as; economic development, social effects, innovation, firm management quality, gross domestic product (GDP), returns on investment, increase in government budget, political discontent, instability and violence, rule-violating intentions, democracy, and inequality. Despite the extensive research devoted to the subject, there is limited research on the potential impact of corruption on the management of educational infrastructural projects in developing countries. We, therefore, contribute to both academia and practice by assessing the potential impact of corruption on these projects using multiple project management success/failure criteria as the assessment tool. Using an in-depth semi-structured interview, we solicit the views of thirty (30) project management practitioners in Ghana on the subject. The findings indicate that corruption impact negatively on the management of Ghanaian educationalinfrastructural projects on all the performance criteria used as the evaluating tool. The findings indicate that corruption influence government projects failure on all the failure criteria used as the evaluating tool. However, most of the corrupt practices that impact negatively on these projects are traced to partisanship politics, political culture, national culture and institutional system in the country.
Article
This commentary reviews and summarises the strides which neuroscience has made in our present understanding of the development of literacy and numeracy in children. Specifically, it draws attention to key insights from studies which have elucidated the possible neural mechanisms that may account for difficulties in the development of these fundamental learning abilities. It also discusses the possible future applications of neuroscience in providing early detection of these learning difficulties in children, and in guiding the design of appropriate interventions aimed at mitigating these difficulties. Finally, it identifies challenges that will arise as the field of educational neuroscience matures. Importantly, it emphasises that educational neuroscience research must be considered in tandem with research in other fields in order to develop a holistic understanding of the process of learning.
Article
This single case design study examined the effects of video modeling (VM) using an augmented reality iPad application on improving phonics skills of first-grade students who struggle with reading. Results indicated that all students made significant growth in their phonics performance and maintained the intervention gains for 5 weeks following the intervention. The results of the social validity interview revealed that although participants expressed positive perceptions about the intervention overall, the VM sessions should not be lengthy for young students to engage them in learning. Also, the students preferred receiving the instruction combined with other reading activities to the stand-alone VM sessions. We address implications for practice and suggestions for future research direction.
Article
Purpose: Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) appear to be challenged with word reading problems in a number of ways, yet few investigations in this area are known. Of interest in this exploratory study was how children with DLD decode and recognize words and word parts (phonograms) with irregular (opaque) graphemic properties. Method: Sixty children with DLD and typical language (TLD) in 2nd-5th grade, and 19 college-aged adults, were asked to decode individual phonograms, words and pseudowords, and to identify phonogram forms in a recognition task. Responses were categorized as either reflecting graphophonemic (i.e., a letter-to-sound serial decoding pattern), or target (i.e., irregular graphemic spellings typical of English), or unrelated or incorrect responses (i.e., no apparent adherence to grapheme-phoneme correspondences, or conventional English orthography). Results: According to logistic regression analyses, children with DLD at each grade level used higher levels of serial, letter-sound correspondences in their decoded productions of isolated phonograms, real and pseudowords relative to their grade-matched peers with TLD and to adults. DLD2 and TLD1 groups performed similarly across the three production tasks. Results on the phonogram recognition task reflected mixed patterns of responding across child and adult groups. Overall DLD participants made more LS only selections than did TLD participants, although DLD and TLD 4th-5th graders performed similarly to each other in their relative selections of target versus target + LS phonogram forms. Conclusions: Children with DLD appear to demonstrate protracted stages of graphophonemic serial decoding. A gradual catching-up trend seems to occur over 2nd-5th grades on certain aspects of decoding. A number of developmental considerations and clinical implications for children with DLD are drawn from this study.
Article
This meta‐analysis included experimental or quasi‐experimental intervention studies conducted between 1980 and 2020 that aimed to improve reading outcomes for Grade K‐5 students with or at risk for dyslexia (i.e., students with or at risk for word reading difficulties, defined as scoring at or below norm‐referenced screening or mean baseline performance thresholds articulated in our inclusion criteria). In all, 53 studies reported in 52 publications met inclusion criteria (m = 351; total student N = 6,053). We employed robust variance estimation to address dependent effect sizes arising from multiple outcomes and comparisons within studies. Results indicated a statistically significant main effect of instruction on norm‐referenced reading outcomes (g = 0.33; p < .001). Because there was significant heterogeneity in effect sizes across studies (p < .01), we used meta‐regression to identify the degree to which student characteristics (i.e., grade level), intervention characteristics (i.e., dosage, instructional components, multisensory nature, instructional group size), reading outcome domain (i.e., phonological awareness, word reading/spelling, passage reading, or reading comprehension), or research methods (i.e., sample size, study design) influenced intervention effects. Dosage and reading outcome domain were the only variables that significantly moderated intervention effects (p = .040 and p = .024, respectively), with higher dosage studies associated with larger effects (b = 0.002) and reading comprehension outcomes associated with smaller effects than word reading/spelling outcomes (b = −0.080). This meta‐analysis included experimental or quasi‐experimental intervention studies conducted between 1980 and 2020 that aimed to improve reading outcomes for Grade K‐5 students with or at risk for dyslexia (i.e., students with or at risk for word reading difficulties, defined as scoring at or below norm‐referenced screening or mean baseline performance thresholds articulated in our inclusion criteria).
Article
Full-text available
In the last 100 years, research discoveries and new knowledge have transformed the lives of many around the world. Special education research has provided equally startling advances leading to improved practices that have dramatically improved the lives, learning, and competencies of persons with and without disabilities. Common to research in all disciplines is the gap between initial discoveries and their becoming a part of routine practices. However, unique to special and general education research are the sepa-rateness of the research and practice communities, the limited relevance of educational research, the failure to articulate manageable research-validated interventions, and the weak opportunities for professional development. These are among the primary reasons that explain the current gap between research and practice in special education. Implications and solutions are discussed. Major Advances and Discoveries ~Jnique in our lifetime has been arrival of the much-anticipated year 2000. One of the more interesting aspects of this event has been the thought provoking retrospectives on the accomplishments of the last 100 years. Not the least of which was what 100 years of scientific innovation and discovery has meant to the human race. As global communication has moved from taking months to transport a single piece of information to the split-second time it takes to e-mail documents , the pace of scientific discovery has taken a similar path. For example, AIDS research was non-existent less than two decades ago when becoming HIV+ meant certain death. Today AIDS researchers have begun to discuss HIV+ as a serious but manageable disease. This outcome is truly impressive considering that large scale federal funding for research in the US only dates back to World War II; Lewis and Clark's 1803-06 exploration of the territory west of the Mississippi is considered by many to be the first federally-funded research project! Consider just a few of the discoveries that have transformed the lives of the current generation on this planet: the discovery of time, disease mechanisms (bacteriology/ immunology), the brain, computers, and observational measurement (telescope, microscope; magnetic resonance imaging).
Article
Full-text available
T his article presents a set of quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental studies for the field of special education. We believe there is a critical need for such a set of indicators, given the current focus on the need for an increase in rigorous, scientific research in education. Recently, the National Re-search Council (NRC, 2002), in a report on sci-entific research in education, noted that they saw ABSTRACT: This article presents quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental studies for special education. These indicators are intended not only to evaluate the merits of a completed research report or article but also to serve as an organizer of critical issues for consideration in re-search. We believe these indicators can be used widely, from assisting in the development of research plans to evaluating proposals. In this article, the framework and rationale is explained by provid-ing brief descriptions of each indicator. Finally, we suggest a standard for determining whether a practice may be considered evidence-based. It is our intent that this standard for evidenced-based practice and the indicators be reviewed, revised as needed, and adopted by the field of special edu-cation.
Article
This article reviews 27 legal decisions published between 1989 and 1998 involving students with learning disabilities and parental requests for specific reading methods selected and used by the school district. These decisions were analyzed in an effort to look at specific parental requests for particular reading methods and the courts' response to this type of request. The review of these decisions indicated that parents of students with learning disabilities were of the opinion that the basic tenets of IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) were violated when their child did not receive reading instruction using a specific method. This premise was based primarily on the lack of academic progress made by the child in reading. Parents also expressed concern over the appropriateness of the reading programs offered by the school district and voiced the sentiment that their child would show academic progress if the school district used one of several multisensory methods for reading instruction. The legal issues are defined and interpreted through a careful examination of existing decisions at several judicial levels. Rationales employed by the state-level hearing officers, judges, and federal agencies in reaching decisions related to educational methods and children with learning disabilities are discussed in detail and implications are presented.
Article
This paper includes an overview of curriculum information and the basic techniques of a multisensory approach for teaching alphabet and dictionary skills, reading, spelling, and cursive handwriting. It also reports the results of a four-year study of reading and spelling in both remedial and nonremedial classes in a public school. The California Achievement Test (CAT) scores in reading and spelling for students in both remedial and nonremedial classes improved over baseline scores following this multisensory approach. Additionally, there was a tendency for the CAT mean scores to increase corresponding to the number of years students had been taught by the multisensory program.
Article
The high prevalence of learning disabilities in the juvenile delinquent population has been well documented, but attempts to remediate and have an impact on recidivism of this population of delinquents has produced limited results. The present study is a replication of the remediation phase of the 1976 LD/JD Project with methodological refinements to control for treatment integrity and strength of treatment. Delinquents in two detention facilities were screened for a developmental reading disorder. Subjects were selected for the study based on normal intelligence, full English proficiency, and a discrepancy of 15 points between reading achievement and IQ. Subjects in the treatment group received 90 minutes of remedial reading instruction per day using a multisensory (Orton/Gillingham) approach. A comparison group received 45 minutes of daily reading instruction in the regular classroom. There was no significant difference between the two groups in mean age of first arrest, mean age, and mean hours of reading instruction. Based on pre- and posttesting in reading and arrest records one year following release, the treatment group made significantly greater growth in reading (.33 year growth vs -.05 year growth per 10 hours of instruction) and had a significantly lower rate of recidivism (41 percent vs 63 percent) than the comparison group. Results were discussed in terms of hours of instruction necessary to improve reading, intervening treatment variables, and cost effectiveness of remedial program.
Article
Research findings suggest that most students who have foreign language learning problems have language-based difficulties and, in particular, phonological processing problems. Authors of the present study examined pre- and posttest scores on native language and foreign language aptitude tests of three groups of at-risk high school students enrolled in special, self-contained sections of first-year Spanish. Two groups were instructed using a multisensory structured language (MSL) approach. One of the groups was taught in both English and Spanish (MSL/ES), the other only in Spanish (MSL/S). The third group (NO-MSL) was instructed using more traditional second language teaching methodologies. Significant gains were made by the MSL-ES group on measures of native language phonology, vocabulary, and verbal memory and on a test of foreign language aptitude; the MSL/S group made significant gains on the test of foreign language aptitude. No significant gains on the native language or foreign language aptitude measures were made by the NO-MSL group. Implications for foreign language classroom instruction of at-risk students are discussed.
Article
Recent research findings suggest that students who have difficulty learning a second language have weaknesses in oral and written native-language skills which affect their performance in the foreign-language classroom. These weaknesses involve understanding the phonological, syntactic, and semantic codes of language. Evidence suggests that dyslexic/learning-disabled and other "at risk" students who struggle in the second language classroom exhibit particular difficulty with the phonological and syntactic codes of the language. The Orton-Gillingham method, a multisensory, structured language approach which adheres to the direct and explicit teaching of phonology, is presented as an alternative to the "natural" communication approaches recently developed by foreign-language educators to teach a second language. A method for adapting this approach for teaching Spanish is described.
Article
In spite of our best efforts, our son Andrew did not learn to read until he attended the Jemicy School at the age of 12. Our search for help and eventual success led me to take the Orton-Gillingham approach into the public schools of Delaware, first with volunteers and then with teachers. In 1991-92, the Milford School District did a Pre-Post Design pilot using the Woodcock Johnson Reading Mastery Test for decoding and comprehension and the WRAT Revised for spelling. The results are included. Another pilot with a control group from another school district is being done in 1992-93 and a third pilot is being planned for New Castle County, Delaware in 1993-94. Training for teachers in the juvenile justice system is also planned for 1993-94.
Article
According to research findings, most students who experience foreign language learning problems are thought to have overt or subtle native language learning difficulties, primarily with phonological processing. A recent study by the authors showed that when a multisensory structured language approach to teaching Spanish was used with a group of at-risk high school students, the group's pre- and posttest scores on native language phonological processing, verbal memory and vocabulary, and foreign language aptitude measures significantly improved. In this replication and follow-up study, the authors compared pre- and posttest scores of a second group of students (Cohort 2) who received MSL instruction in Spanish on native language and foreign language aptitude measures. They also followed students from the first study (Cohort 1) over a second year of foreign language instruction. Findings showed that the second cohort made significant gains on three native language phonological measures and a test of foreign language aptitude. Follow-up testing on the first cohort showed that the group maintained its initial gains on all native language and foreign language aptitude measures. Implications for the authors' Linguistic Coding Deficit Hypothesis are discussed and linked with current reading research, in particular the concepts of the assumption of specificity and modularity.
Article
Academic problems of the dyslexic child often persist in adult life. Such problems as spelling can interfere with the performance of such adult learners in college. Federal legislation requires reasonable accommodation for these students. At some colleges, this consists of allowing use of tape recorders in lectures and sometimes allowing extra time on examinations. Remediation of reading, writing, and spelling among dyslexic college students is often not addressed. This study reports the use of a modified Orton-Gillingham approach in comparison with a nonphonetic approach and with a group receiving no remediation. The results indicate a significant increase in spelling performance for the group receiving the modified Orton-Gillingham remediation. This contrasts with no significant change in the group receiving nonphonetic remediation and in the control group (no remediation), and indicates that adulthood is not too late for appropriate intervention for the dyslexic student. Colleges offering such intervention and the students receiving it will benefit from improved performance.
Article
A large urban school district contracted with a private nonprofit educational foundation to train 126 special education resource teachers in the last three years in an Orton-Gillingham-based program. These teachers are currently teaching learning-disabled students in groups of 8–10 at the elementary level and 10–13 students at the secondary level. Learning-disabled students who qualify for Special Education, either in reading or spelling, or both, are receiving the instruction. The teachers took a Basic Introductory Class (90 hours of Advanced Academic Credit offered by the Texas Education Agency, or six hours of graduate credit at a local university) in order to teach the program in the resource setting. A two year Advanced Training included annual on-site observations, two half-day workshops each fall and spring, and a two-day advanced workshop in the second summer. First grade teachers, one selected from each of the 164 campuses, supervisors, and principals attended a 25-hour course on “Recognizing Dyslexia: Using Multisensory Teaching and Discovery Techniques.” The first grade teachers and special education resource teachers collaborated to provide inservice training for their colleagues. Research, conducted by the district’s Research Department, reveals statistically significant gains in reading and spelling ability for the learning-disabled resource students as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised, and the Test of Written Spelling.
Article
A longitudinal study followed the progress of a group of elementary SLD students as they were instructed using the Alphabetic Phonics (AP) curriculum. After a three year period, the AP curriculum produced positive results in reading comprehension for most SLD students, particularly those who began the program in first and second grade. Students in resource and self-contained settings made significant gains in reading comprehension, although the two types of students exhibited different patterns of progress. Students of different ability levels responded differently to the AP curriculum. Average and above average students made significant progress in reading comprehension, but below average students did not advance substantially in relation to their ability level. At the end of three years, classroom teachers had a significantly more positive view of students' word attack, oral reading, and silent reading comprehension skills.
Article
This article reviews 27 legal decisions published between 1989 and 1998 involving students with learning disabilities and parental requests for specific reading methods selected and used by the school district. These decisions were analyzed in an effort to look at specific parental requests for particular reading methods and the courts' response to this type of request. The review of these decisions indicated that parents of students with learning disabilities were of the opinion that the basic tenets of IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) were violated when their child did not receive reading instruction using a specific method. This premise was based primarily on the lack of academic progress made by the child in reading. Parents also expressed concern over the appropriateness of the reading programs offered by the school district and voiced the sentiment that their child would show academic progress if the school district used one of several multisensory methods for reading instruction. The legal issues are defined and interpreted through a careful examination of existing decisions at several judicial levels. Rationales employed by the state-level hearing officers, judges, and federal agencies in reaching decisions related to educational methods and children with learning disabilities are discussed in detail and implications are presented.
Article
We examined the effectiveness of 3 different reading interventions in second and third graders with identified reading disabilities. Fourteen special education teachers taught 114 second and third graders either synthetic phonics, analytic phonics, or sight-word programs in the resource room 60 min a day for 1 school year. Growth in phonological and orthographic processing and word reading was compared for the 3 interventions. Facilitative effects of synthetic phonics were reduced when demo- graphic and Verbal IQ covariates were included in the growth-curve models. How- ever, the most significant mediator of intervention effects was initial differences in phonological and orthographic processing skills. Implications for service delivery and identification of children for special education are discussed.
Article
In the last 100 years, research discoveries and new knowledge have transformed the lives of many around the world. Special education research has provided equally startling advances leading to improved practices that have dramatically improved the lives, learning, and competencies of persons with and without disabilities. Common to research in all disciplines is the gap between initial discoveries and their becoming a part of routine practices. However, unique to special and general education research are the separateness of the research and practice communities, the limited relevance of educational research, the failure to articulate manageable research-validated interventions, and the weak opportunities for professional development. These are among the primary reasons that explain the current gap between research and practice in special education. Implications and solutions are discussed.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of the multisensory teaching approach to improve reading skills at the first-grade level. The control group was taught by the Houghton-Mifflin Basal Reading Program while the treatment group was taught by the Language Basics: Elementary, which incorporates the Orton-Gillingham-based Alphabetic Phonics Method. The results showed that the treatment group made statistically significant gains in phonological awareness, decoding, and reading comprehension while the control group made gains only on reading comprehension.
Article
The reading achievement of at-risk first, second, and third grade students participating in a systematic, sequential, multi-sensory, synthetic, phonetically-based approach to reading (Project Read) was compared with that of control group students instructed through the use of traditional basal readers. Data were analyzed for both the full study and a sub-group in which the teacher variable was controlled. Significant differences were found at first grade for all subtests and the total reading achievement of treatment group students. First grade students reached achievement levels thought possible only through tutoring.
Article
We explored the effects of Fast ForWord (FFW) training on reading and spoken language skills in children with difficulties in phonemic awareness and word identification. Gains were examined both immediately after treatment and over a period of two years. In the short term, children who received FFW training were compared to children who received Orton Gillingham (OG) training. The FFW group was also compared to a matched longitudinal control group (LC); all participants in the FFW and LC groups received similar multisensory structured language instruction over two academic years. The FFW and OG groups made similar gains in phonemic awareness. However, the children who received FFW training did not show significant gains in word identification or word attack whereas the children who received OG training made significant gains in word attack. Immediately after treatment, the FFW group showed significant gains in speaking and syntax, but these gains were not maintained over two years. The FFW group did not differ significantly from the LC group in any areas over the two years. Children in both groups made significant progress in phonemic awareness and reading.
Article
Once we clear out the undergrowth so that the Jungle of Confusion becomes a Forest of Learning, the child with a unique learning style or specific language disability can be invited into it to succeed, to learn and to “become”. There are many ways this child can go through the forest—we can find a guide to take him through, and he will be likely to see only what the guide shows him; or we can allow him to go through alone and risk the chance of losing him; or we can put him in a plane and fly him over so he can see from a distance but never get involved; or we can put him in a car and drive him around the perimeter; or we can set him on a path which will limit his exposure to learning; OR we can teach him to use a compass so he can work his way through with an independent sense of direction and security. If we honestly accept responsibility for our role in the lives of these children, wemust clean up our forest; and, we must teach children how to use a compass (basic skills). As leading explorers of knowledge, rather than merely critics of the negative or headmasters in the function of memory, or prophets of doom, we should give these children basic tools to allow them to learn and successfully develop a capacity for independent living. As Mrs. de Hirsch stated last evening, “children need living models who are intelligent—who have integrity and character”. Yes, they need models to lead them—models who believe in them, who will equip them and then let them honestly“become”. Our challenge is clear—wemust go from materials-centered teaching vagueness to child-centered teaching excellence if this Jungle of Confusion is to become a Forest of Learning.
Article
The development of reading and spelling skills in students with dyslexia, by definition, is delayed and often remains delayed despite years of instruction. Three qualities are thought to facilitate reading development in these children: the provision of a highly structured phonetic-instruction training program with heavy emphasis on the alphabetic system, drill and repetition to compensate for short-term verbal memory deficits, and multisensory methods to promote nonlanguage mental representations. The Dyslexia Training Program, a remedial reading program derived from Orton-Gillingham methods, embodies these qualities. Following their 2-year program, students displaying dyslexia demonstrated significantly higher reading recognition and comprehension compared with a control group. The two groups did not differ in spelling. In addition, the degree of improvement in reading demonstrated by students who received the Dyslexia Training Program by videotape and by those who received it live from instructors did not differ.
Article
College students diagnosed as learning disabled were studied to determine whether they would make more progress in a summer program if taught by an adaptation of the Orton-Gillingham (O-G) approach. Progress of those exposed to this approach was compared to progress of those exposed to (a) a nonphonetic approach or (b) no educational activity. Pre- and posttest results are reported for the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests. The subjects were 30 college students aged 17 to 24, who were diagnosed as LD. They were divided into groups of 10 and exposed to the indicated educational intervention. The O-G group was found to achieve statistically significant improvement in reading when compared to the group using the nonphonetic approach or no educational activity. No statistically significant difference was noted between the latter two groups. This study indicates that a modified O-G approach is useful in the teaching of reading to college students who are LD.
The Test of Reading Comprehension
  • V Brown
  • D D Hammill
  • J Wiederholt
Brown, V., Hammill, D. D., & Wiederholt, J. (1978). The Test of Reading Comprehension. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Orton-Gillingham: A reading strategy revisited. Reading Improvement
  • C T Chandler
  • R Munday
  • J W Tunnell
  • R Windham
Chandler, C. T., Munday, R., Tunnell, J. W., & Windham, R. (1993). Orton-Gillingham: A reading strategy revisited. Reading Improvement. 30, 59-64.
Dyslexia: Theory and practice of reniedial instruction
  • D B Clark
  • J K Uhry
Clark, D. B., & Uhry, J. K. (1995). Dyslexia: Theory and practice of reniedial instruction. Baltimore: York Press.
Foundations for literacy: Structures and techniques for inultisensorv teaching of basic written language skills
  • A R Cox
Cox, A. R. (1992). Foundations for literacy: Structures and techniques for inultisensorv teaching of basic written language skills. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishers Service.
Multisensorially integrating reading and composition: Ef-fects on achievement of remedial readers in middle school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Denton: Texas Woman's University
  • B Dooley
Dooley, B. (1994). Multisensorially integrating reading and composition: Ef-fects on achievement of remedial readers in middle school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Denton: Texas Woman's University.. Edmark Reading Program. (1984). Redwood, WA: Edmark Corporation.
Project read. Bloomington, MN: Lan-guage Circle Enterprise
  • M L Enfield
  • V Greene
Enfield, M. L., & Greene, V. (1997). Project read. Bloomington, MN: Lan-guage Circle Enterprise. Fast ForWord. (1998). Berkely, CA: Scientific Learning Corporation.
Clinical studies of multi-sensory structured language education OR: International Mul-tisensory Structured Language Education Council. No Child Left Behind An evaluation of the Dyslexia Training Program: A multisen-sory method for promoting reading in students with reading disabilities
  • C W Mcintyre
  • T Pickering Oakland
  • J L Black
  • G Stanford
  • N L Nussbaum
  • R R Balise
McIntyre, C. W., & Pickering, J. S. (Eds.). (1995). Clinical studies of multi-sensory structured language education. Salem, OR: International Mul-tisensory Structured Language Education Council. No Child Left Behind. (2002). Retrieved September 27, 2004, from http:// www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02.html Oakland, T., Black, J. L., Stanford, G., Nussbaum, N. L., & Balise, R. R. (1998). An evaluation of the Dyslexia Training Program: A multisen-sory method for promoting reading in students with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 140–147.
Slingerland reading program
  • B H Slingerland
  • M Aho
Slingerland, B. H., & Aho, M. (1994–1996). Slingerland reading program. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
The test of phonological awareness
  • J K Torgesen
  • B R Bryant
Torgesen, J. K., & Bryant, B. R. (1994). The test of phonological awareness. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
The effect of direct instruction of a synthetic sequential phonics program on the decoding abilities of elementary school learning disabledstudents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation
  • A Westrich-Bond
Westrich-Bond, A. (1993). The effect of direct instruction of a synthetic sequential phonics program on the decoding abilities of elementary school learning disabledstudents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New Brunswick: The State University of New Jersey, Rutgers.
Wilson reading system
  • B A Wilson
Wilson, B. A. (1996). Wilson reading system. Millbury, MA: Wilson Language Training Corporation.
Woodcock reading mastery test–Revised. Circle Pines
  • R W Woodcock
Woodcock, R. W. (1989). Woodcock reading mastery test–Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.
Woodcock reading mastery test–Revised/Norma-tive Update
  • R W Woodcock
Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock reading mastery test–Revised/Norma-tive Update. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.
Clinical studies ofnmultiscasory structured language education. Salem, OR: International Multisensory Structured Language Education Council
  • C W Mclntyrc
  • Pickering
Mclntyrc, C. W., & Pickering, J. S. (Eds.). (1995). Clinical studies ofnmultiscasory structured language education. Salem, OR: International Multisensory Structured Language Education Council.
Woodcock-4ohnson psychoedtcational batters-Revised
  • R W Woodcock
  • M B Johnson
Woodcock, R. W., & Johnson, M. B. (1989). Woodcock-4ohnson psychoedtcational batters-Revised. Chicago: Riverside.
Stanford diagnostic reading test
  • B R Karlsen
  • E Gardner
Karlsen, B. R., & Gardner, E. (1985). Stanford diagnostic reading test. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.