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Our Five Basic Needs



This article contributes to the understanding of the function of behavior for our school-age population. The authors present a perspective that behavior is an attempt to satisfy five basic human needs. The perspective can provide a framework for understanding behavior that has application to completion of functional behavior assessments, development of positive behavior supports, and implementation of strength-based learning environments.
... Developmentally appropriate practice results in effective teaching and classroom management skills (Barbetta, Norona, & Bicard, 2005;Copple & Bredekamp, 2009;Walker, 2009). When teachers apply developmentally appropriate and child-centered practice, in contrast to adult-centered teaching, children's immediate needs are met (Frey & Wilhite, 2005), leading to fewer behavior challenges and increased learning (Burchinal et al., 2008;Burts et al., 1992). It is unclear to what extent ECMHC promotes this pedagogical approach, but it certainly poses an opportunity and warrants exploration. ...
... Other than being symptoms of unmet child needs (Frey & Wilhite, 2005), challenging behaviors are also symptoms of systemic challenges. Identifying and addressing these systemic challenges may strengthen the impact of consultation. ...
Early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) has been promoted by the federal government as a promising model for reducing early childhood expulsions and suspensions and is now implemented by numerous states. Despite growing ECMHC proliferation, this study is only the second randomized controlled trial of ECMHC, extending the methodologies of the first to include assessment of effects on random peers. Classrooms were assigned randomly to treatment or waitlist-control condition ( n = 51 classrooms, 57 preschool teachers, and 190 preschoolers). Evaluation measures were collected at both pretreatment and posttreatment, following approximately six consultation visits. Classroom and teacher outcomes were evaluated with ordinary least squares regressions, while hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate child-level outcomes, accounting for the nested study design. Treatment children (both the target children who prompted the referral for ECMHC and random peers) evidenced significant improvements in social and emotional skills. Promising trend findings were noted for child behavior problem reduction and teacher pedagogical approach and locus of control. No significant effects were found on likelihood of expulsion and classroom mental health climate. This is the first ECMHC to demonstrate effects on nontarget peers in a rigorous randomized controlled trial. Programmatic and methodologic limitations and implications are discussed.
... According to this view, a failure to ensure compliance might itself drive exclusion by failing to provide a safe environment. Thus, whilst some argue that "negative behaviour communicates an unmet need" [21,22] which is no doubt the case for many pupils, in other cases, poor behaviour may simply be a "normal" response to chaos and laissez-faire conditions. Tom Bennett, the government's "behaviour tsar" who has become a lead protagonist in an increasingly popular campaign against progressivism, therefore argues that young people are often marginalised by schools where behaviour is poor and standards are not robustly established [23]. ...
Our society leaves too many young people behind. More often than not, these are the most vulnerable young people, and it is through no fault of their own. Building a fair society and an equitable education system rests on bringing in and supporting them. By drawing together more than a decade of studies by the UK’s Centre for Education and Youth, this book provides a new way of understanding the many ways young people in England are pushed to the margins of the education system, and in turn, society. Each contributor shares the personal stories of the young people they have encountered over the course of their fieldwork and practice, combining this with accessible syntheses of previous studies, alongside extensive analysis of national datasets and key publications. By unpicking the many overlapping factors that contribute to different groups’ vulnerability, the book demonstrates the need to understand each young person’s life story and to respond quickly and collaboratively to the challenges they face. The chapters conclude with action points highlighting the steps individuals, institutions and policy makers can take to bring young people in from the margins. Young People on the Margins showcases first-hand examples of where these young people's needs are being addressed and trends bucked, drawing out what can and must be learned, for teachers, leaders, youth workers and policy makers.
... Participants appreciated and actively engaged in phone calls and text messaging with friends and family members. As quarantine goes against humans' basic needs of belongings or connectedness [24,25], alternative ful lment of such needs could strongly mitigate the psychological threat from being quarantined [26,27]. To extend this bene t of relational support, policymakers could consider creating an online community for quarantined people to come together to share their experiences, feelings, or tips during and after the quarantine. ...
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Background: In face of the COVID-19, South Korea has provided the ‘Global Golden Standard’ of containment effort. Mandatory quarantine, one of the core policies in place, has proven its efficacy in ensuring public health. Nonetheless, no previous study has examined the policy’s comprehensive impact on its subjects. In addition to providing an account of holistic subjective experience of quarantine, this study also examines the socioecological factors’ influence on the subjective experience by applying the Bronfenbrenner’s model. In order to gather unconstrained information in relation to the contextual background, Consensual Qualitative Research method was used. 17 adults of Korean nationality were interviewed about their experience. Results: 10 categories within four domains of Subjective experience were found: (a) changed life style because of quarantine, continued pre-quarantine life, lasting effect of quarantine in Lifestyle domain; (b) Physical health domain with no subcategory; (c) discomfort, infection anxiety, accepting, satisfying, and gratitude within Psychological Experience domain; and (d) suggestion and change of perspective within Reflection domain. Next, 13 categories of socioecological factors belonged to four different levels of domain: (a) personality and belief in Within-individual domain; (b) quarantine space, personal relationship, coresident, student status, and employment status in Microsystem; (c) Korea’s quarantine policy, maintenance, resources, and abroad’s preventive measure against COVID in Exosystem; and (d) stigma and social responsibility in Macrosystem. Conclusions: The reported subjective experiences of self-quarantine were not uniformly negative or positive, which is unlike previous research findings that were dominantly negative. Identifying socioecological factors that shape an individual’s quarantine experience shed light onto how the government can protect its people from the potential threats of quarantine. The examples include promoting sense of safety through clear and coherent communication about the disease and the measures that are being placed, maximizing opportunities for the subjects to exert control over their lives during quarantine, devising ways to make virtual social connection accessible, and etc.
... According to this view, a failure to ensure compliance might itself drive exclusion by failing to provide a safe environment. Thus, whilst some argue that "negative behaviour communicates an unmet need" [21,22] which is no doubt the case for many pupils, in other cases, poor behaviour may simply be a "normal" response to chaos and laissez-faire conditions. Tom Bennett, the government's "behaviour tsar" who has become a lead protagonist in an increasingly popular campaign against progressivism, therefore argues that young people are often marginalised by schools where behaviour is poor and standards are not robustly established [23]. ...
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In the late 2000s I worked in a school in North West London. It was a tiny site packed in behind tall fences and across the road were more fences. Behind those, on an old playground, lay some portacabins, and inside these sat a transient group of pupils. This was the school’s “inclusion unit”, where pupils on the fringe of exclusion were brought to learn, or at least be contained. Some of the time it “worked”, and pupils were successfully reintegrated; other times, it was a staging post on the way to more formal exclusion. This chapter explores the story of pupils like Francis who I taught there on my weekly trips across the road. Every week when I arrived at the unit, Francis had taken another step down the road towards exclusion. But why? Surely something could have stopped what felt like an inexorable slide away from the mainstream.This chapter sets out what I have learned since my days in the unit. It begins by outlining the implications of being “pushed out” of the mainstream, both for young people and society as a whole. We then explore how young people are pushed out, arguing that both formal and informal exclusion play a role. It is clear that formal and informal exclusion affect some young people more than others; I therefore highlight which young people are most likely to be excluded, but go beyond traditional analyses of excluded pupils’ demographics by investigating the underlying reasons why these young people are at greater risk of exclusion. I argue that this is crucial in order to understand how these young people’s life chances can be improved. Finally, I set out a number of changes that would ensure fewer pupils like Francis were pushed onto the margins. (PDF) Pushed out and left out. Available from: [accessed May 26 2021].
... Belonging is a basic human need-a psychological "need to love and care for others, and to believe we are loved and cared for in relationships" [1]. This need can be explained by a common human goal: to stay alive. ...
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Loneliness and social isolation have negative consequences on physical and mental health in both adult and pediatric populations. Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) are often excluded and experience more loneliness than their typically developing peers. This scoping review aims to identify the type of studies conducted in children with NDD to determine the effects of loneliness and/or social isolation. Three electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO) were searched from inception until 5 February 2019. Two independent reviewers screened the citations for inclusion and extracted data from the included articles. Quantitative (i.e., frequency analysis) and qualitative analyses (i.e., content analysis) were completed. From our search, 5768 citations were screened, 29 were read in full, and 12 were included. Ten were case-control comparisons with cross-sectional assessment of various outcomes, which limited inference. Autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and learning disorder were the most commonly studied NDD. This review showed that loneliness among children with NDD was associated with negative consequences on mental health, behaviour, and psychosocial/emotional development, with a likely long-term impact in adulthood. Lack of research in this area suggests that loneliness is not yet considered a problem in children with NDD. More studies are warranted using prospective designs and a larger sample size with a focus on the dynamic aspect of loneliness development.
The characteristics of social life are established by the perceptions of individuals regarding their position in society. In this respect, belonging or marginalization, which are effective in the construction of identity, are important parameters defining the perception of social positioning. The present study is a scale development study that aimed to uncover the perceptions of Euro-Turks about belonging and marginalization in Germany. The sampling of the study consisted of a total of 608 participants living in Germany, 354 of whom were women, 254 were men, and the mean age was 35.8. As a result of the factor analysis, it was found that the scale that had 11 items consisted of a two-factor structure, belonging and marginalization, and the total variance that was explained was 53.59%. As a result of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis that was made on a different sampling group, it was determined that the model established according to the goodness of fit indices was at a significant and acceptable level. Regarding the criterion validity, General Belongingness Scale and Social Exclusion Scale were applied, and as a result of the analyses, significant relations were found between scale scores. The Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient was found to be r= .71 for the belonging sub-dimension of the scale, and r= .76 for the marginalization sub-dimension. The test-retest reliability results were found to be .82 for belonging sub-dimension and .84 for marginalization sub-dimension. Also, all the values of item statistics were significant at the (p
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This article presents an evaluation of the contribution of the synthesis of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) with Time Geography to the Low Traffic Neighbourhood (LTN) design stages. In the LTN design scheme, the evaluation of the human factor has importance at all stages of the design. However, the LTN design is currently based on stakeholder meetings, verbal statements and maps created with stakeholders in general. Social psychology, which includes concepts and theories to understand complex human behaviour, has been used in many transportation studies. TPB, one of the most well-known theories on this subject, its contributions to transportation studies and its primary deficiencies were identified within the article. It has been evaluated that the lack of spatial and temporal scope, one of these primary deficiencies, can be eliminated by synthesizing the Time Geography approach. As a result, this synthesis has the potential to increase the effects of the LTN design by integrating TPB, which has the potential to provide a basis for guiding people's behaviour, and Time Geography, which can reflect its spatial and temporal projection, in each of the stages of LTN design namely street classification, determination of neighbourhood boundaries, prioritization of neighbourhoods and determination of measures.
Sketching the graph of mathematical functions using derivatives is a challenging task for undergraduate students who enrol for the first level of calculus course. Before graph plotting, students are required to perform a thorough function analysis using the concepts learned in differentiation. They are then expected to solicit the results obtained to sketch the graph. Nevertheless, the students face great difficulties in achieving this goal; and fail to relate the results obtained in the analysis and their representation in a graph. Their performance is thus negatively affected eventually. To overcome this cognitive gap, an innovative board game named Graph Puzzle (GP) is developed. It is intended to function as a manipulator to facilitate students in comprehending the inter-related algebraic, symbolic, and graphic representation of a function under the applications of derivatives, forming the corresponding procedural and conceptual knowledge. To measure the effectiveness of this board game, 84 undergraduate students who took this calculus course were given pre- and post-test before and after the learning session. An ANCOVA test conducted reveals a significant difference (F (1, 81) = 12.182, p = 0.001) between pre and post-test score in solving polynomial functions, whereas students’ performance in solving rational functions indicates no meaningful difference (F (1, 81) = 0.04, p = 0.841) of post-scores between control and treatment groups. From this standpoint, it is shown that GP has the potential to serve as a solution to the difficulties faced on graph sketching in calculus, particularly when dealing with polynomial functions. Keywords: Visualization, Calculus, Embodied learning, Game-Based Learning, Graph Sketching
This chapter provides an introduction to the world of children’s social care.
Noncoercive student management practices to promote quality school work are examined in this book, which is based on the assertion that student motivation to perform quality work should not be compromised by focusing on minimal goals, such as dropout reduction and discipline problems. Replacement of the traditional coercive, divisive management approach by a unifying system of management is suggested to alleviate the problem of few students working hard. Teaching in a way to meet student needs, rather than coercing students to perform well on achievement tests, will reduce discipline problems and increase student satisfaction. Chapters provide information on the following: effective teaching; noncoercive management roles and strategies; control theory and motivation; characteristics of a quality environment; motivating student self-evaluation; applications of control theory to quality schoolwork; grades and other basics of a quality school; building a friendly workplace; dealing with discipline problems; and creating the quality school. Primary features of the plan are to remove coercion and promote student self-evaluation. (28 references) (LMI)
Presents the ideas behind reality therapy. The book includes an interview the founder of reality therapy, W. Glasser, multicultural applications, and research-based studies. The book extends to practice of reality therapy and teaches it through R. E. Wubbolding's WDEP (wants, doing, evaluation, and planning) system. This includes 22 types of self-evaluation that counselors and therapists can use to shorten therapy time in the current managed care environment. Each component of the system is illustrated with dialogues that help the reader see exactly how the system is practical and immediately useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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