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Abstract

In recent years, we have witnessed an explosion of information about the brain. New imaging techniques have given neuroscientists the tools to peer into the brain in ways unimaginable just a few years ago. What they are learning is revolutionizing our understanding of this incredible neural machinery, and now they are able to ask--and answer--questions that will eventually unravel many mysteries of the mind. Among these mysteries is music. Why are human beings musical? How does music processing take place in the brain? Are there strategies we could uncover that would allow people to learn music more efficiently? Is there an optimal time for learning music? How is it that some cognitively impaired individuals can be so musically proficient? On and on go the questions we would like to have answered. For many music educators, obtaining information about recent discoveries involving music and the brain may be difficult. This is so because the reporting of neuromusical research is often polarized: either it appears in scientific journals in language that is too difficult for nonscientists to easily read and understand, or it appears in the popular press in such a watered-down fashion that actual facts may be distorted or obscured. The intent of this special focus issue of the Music Educators Journal is to provide current neuromusical information in a way that is at once accurate and accessible to music educators.
IMPLICATIONS OF MUSIC AND BRAIN RESEARCH
By: Donald A. Hodges
Hodges, D. (2002) Implications of music and brain research, Music Educators Journal Special Focus Issue:
Music and the Brain, 87:2, 17-22.
Made available courtesy of SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD: http://mej.sagepub.com/
***Note: Figures may be missing from this format of the document
In recent years, we have witnessed an explosion of information about the brain. New imaging techniques have
given neuroscientists the tools to peer into the brain in ways unimaginable just a few years ago. What they are
learning is revolutionizing our understanding of this incredible neural machinery, and now they are able to ask--
and answer--questions that will eventually unravel many mysteries of the mind.
Among these mysteries is music. Why are human beings musical? How does music processing take place in the
brain? Are there strategies we could uncover that would allow people to learn music more efficiently? Is there
an optimal time for learning music? How is it that some cognitively impaired individuals can be so musically
proficient? On and on go the questions we would like to have answered.
For many music educators, obtaining information about recent discoveries involving music and the brain may
be difficult. This is so because the reporting of neuromusical research is often polarized: either it appears in
scientific journals in language that is too difficult for nonscientists to easily read and understand, or it appears in
the popular press in such a watered-down fashion that actual facts may be distorted or obscured. The intent of
this special focus issue of the Music Educators Journal is to provide current neuromusical information in a way
that is at once accurate and accessible to music educators.
To that end, the articles in this issue provide a broad overview of many important topics, along with
considerable detail and many reference lists to guide the reader in further exploration. We begin with "Music
and the Baby's Brain: Early Music Experiences." In this article, Donna Brink Fox reviews the literature on
infant and early childhood music with respect to brain development. Perhaps surprising to some, but probably
not to those actively working with young children, is the idea that many adult-like responses to music are
already apparent in infants. Cross-cultural studies are confirming that even if music is not a universal language
(in the sense that we do not automatically understand the music of unfamiliar cultures), music (like singing
lullabies or responding affectively to music in the surrounding environment) is universal. Based on her review
of the neuroscientific literature, Fox offers support for several key ideas in early childhood music education,
such as the fact that active engagement, not passive listening, spurs brain development. She concludes by giving
examples of ways in which we can collaborate with others to create the healthiest, most effective climate for the
musical development of young children.
The next article, "EEG Studies with Young Children," continues by looking at brain activity in preschool and
elementary school children. Here, John Flohr, Dan Miller, and Roger deBeus explain electroencephalogram
(EEG) techniques and how they have been applied to the study of musical behaviors in children. Some of the
research supports the similarity of activation patterns in children and adults, but other studies identify ways in
which the developing brain is different from the adult brain. Though we don't yet know the precise
characteristics of the "window of opportunity" for learning music, research investigators are moving toward a
more complete understanding of them.
In "Does Music Make You Smarter?" Steven Demorest and Steven Morrison take up a very timely topic. The
notion that exposing children to music increases their brain power is perhaps the best example of how music
educators can get caught between what is reported in the popular press and what is actually reported in scientific
journals. Demorest and Morrison review the various aspects of this issue and present a balanced viewpoint
based on a careful reading of the literature. To serve our students well, we need to look at the research honestly
and dispassionately.
"A Virtual Panel of Expert Researchers" presents excerpts from interviews with four senior researchers--Andrea
Halpern, Larry Parsons, Ralph Spingte, and Sandra Trehub. Individually and collectively, they share important
ideas for music educators. Perhaps one of the most important ideas they communicate is that serious scientists
are taking music seriously. These researchers have devoted a major part of their careers to understanding
musical behavior. To them, music is not a frivolous sideline, but something that is at the core of what it means
to be a human being. We can take encouragement from their dedication to studying that which is so important to
us.
Neuroscientists have studied sound production and processing in animals; they have studied fetal responses to
music, as well as responses among the elderly, including those having Alzheimer's disease or other cognitive
dementias. Neuroscientists have also examined special populations, such as prodigies or those with savant
syndrome or Williams Syndrome. Responses of naive listeners have been compared to those of expert
musicians. From all these approaches, a number of important concepts are emerging. While not all these
findings have direct applications to the daily practice of music education, collectively they do have much to
offer our profession.
An Overview of Neuromusical Research
Here is an introduction that provides a more detailed look at music and brain research than that provided by the
popular media. Highlights of recent neuromusical studies are presented, and basic premises derived from the
studies are articulated. The sidebar summarizes these premises.
The human brain has the ability to respond to and participate in music. Music, like language, is a species-
specific trait of humankind.[ 1] All human beings--and only human beings--have music. Neurologist Frank
Wilson says that he is "convinced that all of us have a biologic guarantee of musicianship."[ 2] Wilson does not
mean that all of us are guaranteed to become musicians on par with Mozart, but rather that we all have the
capacity to respond to and participate in the music of our environment. Music, then, is one of the hallmarks of
what it means to be a human being.
Much of the literature that supports this notion comes from anthropologists who tell us that "all people in all
times and in all places have engaged in musical behaviors."[ 3] Based on the neuroscientific literature cited
throughout this issue, we can say that mounting and incontrovertible evidence supports the ubiquity of human
musicality. Further, we can say that a musical brain is the birthright of all human beings.
Clearly, the idea that all human beings are musical has enormous implications for music education. A music
education should not be reserved for those "with talent," nor should it be restricted to those who can afford it or
whose parents deem it important. All members of our society, from cradle to grave, stand to benefit from being
musically involved.
It is true that many animals have sound-producing and processing capabilities. They process sound as it occurs
across time, ascribe "meaning" to this sound, and adjust their behavior accordingly. A cat responding to a
barking dog, for example, is an animal processing sound.
Although we tend to anthropomorphize animal behaviors--and to be sure, we can probably never know exactly
what is going on inside an animal's brain--it is safe to say that the vast majority, if not all, of animal sound-
making has to do with such things as territoriality, signaling, courtship, and mating.[ 4] In other words, although
we refer to birdsong; it is not likely that birds or other animals sing for musical or aesthetic pleasure.
Early research indicated some remarkable musical feats, such as certain birds being able to distinguish between
different composers. However, more careful investigation indicates that animals rely on absolute frequency
analysis[ 5] rather than on relative pitch as we do.[ 6] Thus, while various animals can be trained to choose
between two songs, they fail miserably if those songs are transposed. By contrast, even among those humans
with absolute pitch, our sophisticated musicality is possible, in large part, because we deal with pitch
relationships. "Yankee Doodle," for instance, is recognizable to us when begun in any key.
There are other cognitive limitations among animals as well. For example, musical forms ranging from simple
verse and chorus alternations to lengthy symphonic movements can be processed by humans because of their
ability to retain musical information for long periods of time. If any animals are musical, dolphins are the most
so. But they can recognize the second A section of a simple ABA form only if each section is no more than two
seconds long.[ 7]
One might reasonably ask whether giving animals human musical tasks is fair; after all, we can't understand
many of their vocalizations. However, the point of this line of research is really twofold. First, we can begin to
trace the development of auditory and cognitive mechanisms from an evolutionary standpoint. This type of
information can be used to offer a plausible explanation for the evolutionary basis of human musicality.[ 8]
Second, we can begin to look for the additional brain mechanisms unique to humans that make our musicality
possible.
The musical brain operates at birth and persists throughout life. The fact that babies respond to music at
birth (and, in fact, in the womb during the last three months before birth) gives strong evidence for the existence
of neural mechanisms that seem ideally suited for processing musical information.[ 9] This topic is covered
more fully in this issue's articles on "Music and the Baby's Brain" and "EEG Studies with Young Children."
At the other end of the life spectrum, a group of retired nuns has offered to donate their brains to science.[ 10]
They are being studied constantly as they age. The first outcomes of the project reveal that (a) the more learning
one has in childhood, the less likely one is to be debilitated by Alzheimer's disease or other forms of cognitive
dementia, and (b) the common adage "Use it or lose it" is sound advice. Even as they progress into their eighties
and nineties, these women are encouraged to learn new skills. Learning to play a musical instrument, or a
different one if they can already play one, is frequently advised by the neuroscientists.
The clear implication for music educators is that neuroscientific research supports an emphasis on lifelong
learning in music. Our profession needs to continue to expand beyond the confines of K-12 music education.
Indeed, it may be in this underexplored area that we will find the most opportunities for new growth.
Early and ongoing musical training affects the organization of the musical brain. There are growing
indications that those who study music, particularly beginning at an early age, show neurological differences
compared to those who have not had such training. Frederique Faita and Mireille Besson demonstrated that
musically trained subjects had stronger and faster brain responses to musical tasks than untrained subjects.[ 11]
(See this issue's article "EEG Studies with Young Children" for additional studies.) Brain imaging data
demonstrate that the primary auditory cortex in the left hemispheres of musically trained subjects is larger than
that of untrained subjects.[ 12] This difference was exaggerated for those with absolute pitch or those who
started their musical training before age seven.[ 13] Moreover, for the musically trained, the arrangement of the
auditory cortex is much like a piano keyboard, with equal distance between octaves.[ 14]
The area of the motor cortex controlling the fingers increased in response to piano exercises, both actual and
imagined.[ 15] The auditory cortex, which responds to piano tones, was 25 percent larger among experienced
musicians; the effect was greater for those who started studying music at an early age. [ 16] Finally, compared
to nonplayers, string players have greater neuronal activity and a larger area in the area of the right motor cortex
that controls the fingers of the left hand.[ 17] Again, these effects were greater for those who started playing at a
young age.
Although there are apparent implications for music education from these data, a note of caution must be
inserted. First, probably anything we do in early childhood has an effect on brain organization. It is likely that
comparisons between chess players and nonchess players, or between high level mathematicians and those who
can barely add and subtract, for example, would also show differences. Second, it is not at all clear whether
there are transfer effects. That is, it is not certain that music education necessarily improves performance in
other modes of cognition. This question is discussed in this issue's articles "A Virtual Panel of Expert
Researchers" and "Does Music Make You Smarter?"
The musical brain consists of extensive neural systems involving widely distributed, but locally
specialized regions of the brain. One of the more visible topics of research in the 1970s dealt with differences
between the left and right sides of the brain. Naive interpretations of research data led to such notions as
"musical knowledge is in the right side of the brain." We now know that it is not that simple. Reviews of
research literature indicate that results can be highly varied depending on subject variables (like how much and
what kind of training subjects have received), stimulus variables (like computer-generated tone pipes versus
"real" music), and task variables (like what the subjects are asked to listen for).[ 18] Furthermore, many would
contend that two-second sound bites (a requirement for much of this type of research) do not adequately
represent music and that using amusical fragments doesn't tell us much about what happens when people hear a
Mozart symphony, for example.
These considerations do not preclude the possibility that there are differences in the ways the two hemispheres
process music. For example, a portion of the right auditory cortex has been implicated in the retention of
rhythmic patterns. [ 19] (Interestingly enough, data from the same study did not support a link between left
hemisphere timing mechanisms and musical rhythm, something that had been previously proposed.)[ 20] The
right hemisphere was also more strongly implicated than the left hemisphere in music instrument timbre
recognition.[ 21]
Reviewing the bulk of neuromusical research literature leads to the conclusion that music is not just in the right
side of the brain, but is represented all over the brain. One of the major findings in a recent study was that
musical processing is spread throughout the brain--front/back, top/bottom, and left/right.[ 22] Furthermore,
selectively changing the focus of attention radically alters brain activation patterns.[ 23] Thus, rather than
focusing on a simplistic left-right dichotomy, it may be more accurate to think of musical processing as
involving widely diffuse areas of the brain.
It can be said that the musical brain is modularized. That is, musical experiences are multimodal, involving at
the least the auditory, visual, cognitive, affective, memory, and motor systems. Beyond that, each component of
music processing and responding is likely to be handled by different neural mechanisms. This idea is consistent
with what is known about language, but with language the linkage between function and location is more
clearly delineated than it is for music. Scientists using modern neuroscientific techniques are beginning to
identify specific structures in the brain that carry out specific musical tasks.
Cognitive Components. A number of studies have indicated that music processing involves functionally
independent modules. In a 1998 study, neural mechanisms for melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic error detection
were found to be independent from each other.[ 24] Also, music reading activated an area on the right side of
the brain parallel to an area on the left side activated during language reading. A 1997 study showed that
familiarity with music, timbre recognition, and rhythm perception activated different regions of the brain.[ 25]
In a 1988 study, it was found that the electrical activity of sophisticated music listeners is different from that of
naive listeners.[ 26] Based on a 1991 study, the brain appears to use working memory for music; working
memory refers to the process of comparing incoming musical information to stored information.[ 27]
Affective Components. Although emotional response to music is perhaps one of the most important topics of
research, it is also among the most difficult to study. There is a lack of knowledge about this central aspect of
the musical experience. A recent study indicated that different neural structures were activated in response to
positive and negative emotions.[ 28] Furthermore, these structures, located mostly in the right hemisphere, are
dissociated (that is, separate from) neural correlates of various emotions and function apart from other music
perceptual processes. Music medicine research is making effective use of music to reduce fear and anxiety in
surgical and pain patients.[ 29] Experiments show that hearing music affects the biochemistry of the blood,
which in turn may cause affective changes. For example, physicians are able to reduce drug dosages and speed
up recovery times by using music in certain medical procedures. In other words, music is not just a
psychological distractor; rather, it elicits actual physical changes in the system. (It should be noted that research
on emotional, mood, and feeling responses is much less developed in psychology and neuroscience than
research on topics such as learning and sensory perception.)
Motor Components. The connection between music and movement is fundamental to both expressive and
receptive modes. Music making (expressive mode) is clearly a bodily kinesthetic experience. Neurologist Frank
Wilson recognized this when he called musicians "small-muscle athletes."[ 30] In one study, professional
pianists underwent brain scans while performing Bach on the piano.[ 31] Among the results was a clear
demonstration that motor control systems were highly activated during performance. At the same time, other
regions of the brain were strongly deactivated--in effect, switched off--which is a hypothesized indicator of
focused concentration.
Abundant research data indicate that there are both physiological and physical responses during music listening
(receptive mode). Physiological responses include changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and a host of other
systems.[ 32] All of us have experienced physical responses to music such as foot tapping or head nodding.
Researchers are using this natural response to music in a process called "Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation" to
enable Parkinsonian and stroke patients to regain walking and motor skills.[ 33]
These brief sections on cognitive, affective, and motor components only skim the surface. But perhaps the
discussion is sufficient to support the contention that music is modularized in the brain. The literature on
"amusia," loss of musical function due to destruction of brain tissue, gives further evidence of modularity. In
these cases, individuals who have suffered destruction of particular brain tissue correspondingly lose specific
musical abilities.[ 34]
The musical brain is highly resilient. Music persists in people who are blind, deaf, emotionally disturbed,
profoundly retarded, or affected by disabilities or diseases such as Alzheimer's disease or savant syndrome.
Regardless of the degree of disability or illness, it is possible for the individual to have a meaningful musical
experience. Any music therapist could easily testify to the residual power of music. The research literature on
amusia reveals that destruction of brain tissue may eliminate a particular musical function (e.g., ability to track
rhythms), but it does not eliminate music entirely. Another fascinating example concerns individuals with
Williams Syndrome. These cognitively impaired individuals have average IQs of 65-70, yet they often have
remarkable musical abilities.[ 35]
Ongoing and Future Research
Although hundreds of research studies fall under the category of neuromusical research, this is still a small
amount compared to the study of language, for example. In that sense, it is a little premature to make broad,
sweeping statements that have direct bearing on the daily teaching of music. Certainly, however, there is every
reason to believe that continued efforts along these lines will provide significant applicable benefits in the
future.
There is one more idea that has profound implications for our profession: Neuromusical research supports the
notion that music is a unique mode of knowing. The literature clearly supports the notion that music is
dissociated from linguistic or other types of cognitive processes. Therefore, it provides a unique means of
processing and understanding a particular kind of nonverbal information. By studying the effects of music,
neuroscientists are able to discover things about the brain that they cannot know through other cognitive
processes. Likewise, through music we are able to discover, share, express, and know about aspects of the
human experience that we cannot know through any other means. Musical insights into the human condition are
uniquely powerful experiences that cannot be replaced by any other form of experience. It is to a deeper
understanding of this core value of music that neuromusical research will continue to make its most important
contributions.
In this special focus issue, we are attempting to represent the current state of neuromusical knowledge. It is our
hope that music educators will find these articles readable and informative. Because the field is changing
rapidly, it is important for music educators to keep abreast of new findings. In time, the picture will become
clearer and clearer, and our profession will benefit greatly from what is learned in this emerging field.
Premises Derived from Neuromusical Research
The human brain has the ability to respond to and participate in music.
The musical brain operates at birth and persists throughout life.
Early and ongoing musical training affects the organization of the musical brain.
The musical brain consists of extensive neural systems involving widely distributed, but locally
specialized regions of the brain:
Cognitive components
Affective components
Motor components.
The musical brain is highly resilient.
Notes
1. John Blacking, How Musical Is Man? (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973).
2. Frank Wilson, Tone Deaf and All Thumbs? (New York: Viking, 1986), 2.
3. Donald Hodges and Paul Haack, "The Influence of Music on Human Behavior," in Handbook of Music
Psychology, 2nd ed., edited by D. Hodges (University of Texas at San Antonio: IMR Press, 1996), 473.
4. J. Brody, "Not Just Music, Bird Song Is a Means of Courtship and Defense," New York Times, 9 April 1991.
5. M. D'Amato, "A Search for Tonal Pattern Perception in Cebus Monkeys: Why Monkeys Can't Hum a Tune,"
Music Perception 5, no. 4 (1988): 453-80.
6. Sandra Trehub, Dale Bull, and Leigh Thorpe, "Infants' Perception of Melodies: The Role of Melodic
Contour," Child Development 55 (1984): 821-30.
7. Richard Warren, "Perception of Acoustic Sequences: Global Integration versus Temporal Resolution," in
Thinking in Sound, edited by Stephen McAdams and Emmanuel Bigand (New York: Oxford University Press,
1993), 37-68.
8. Donald Hodges, "Why Are We Musical? Speculations on the Evolutionary Plausibility of Musical Behavior,"
Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, no. 99 (1989): 7-22; Donald Hodges, "Human
Musicality," in Handbook of Music Psychology, 2nd ed., edited by D. Hodges (University of Texas at San
Antonio: IMR Press, 1996), 29-68.
9. Jeane-Pierre Lecanuet, "Prenatal Auditory Experience," in Irene Deliege and John Sloboda, Musical
Beginnings: Origins and Development of Music Competence, edited by Irene Deliege and John Sloboda
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 3-34; and Hanus Papousek, "Musicality in Infancy Research:
Biological and Cultural Origins of Early Musicality," also in Musical Beginnings, 37-55.
10. Daniel Golden, "Building a Better Brain," Life, July 1994, 62-70.
11. Frederique Faita and Mireille Besson, "Electrophysiological Index of Musical Expectancy: Is There a
Repetition Effect on the Event-related Potentials Associated with Musical Incongruities?" in Proceedings of the
3rd International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, edited by Irene Deliege (Liege, Belgium:
n.p., 1994), 433-35.
12. Gottfried Schlaug, Lutz Jancke, Yanxiong Huang, and Helmuth Steinmetz, "In Vivo Morphometry of
Interhemispheric Asymmetry and Connectivity in Musicians," in Proceedings of the 3rd International
Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, edited by Irene Deliege (Liege, Belgium: n.p., 1994), 417-18.
13. Gottfried Schlaug, Lutz Jancke, Yanxiong Huang, and Helmuth Steinmetz, "In Vivo Evidence of Structural
Brain Asymmetry in Musicians," Science 267, no. 5198 (1995): 699-701.
14. Samuel Williamson and Lloyd Kaufman, "Auditory Evoked Magnetic Fields," in Physiology of the Ear,
edited by A. Jahn and J. Santos-Sacchi (New York: Raven Press, 1988), 497-505.
15. Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Nguyet Dang, Leonardo Cohen, Joaquin Brasil-Neto, Angel Cammarota, and Mark
Hallett, "Modulation of Muscle Responses Evoked by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation during the
Acquisition of New Fine Motor Skills," Journal of Neurophysiology 74, no. 3 (1995): 1037-45.
16. Christo Pantev, Robert Oostenveld, Almut Engelien, Bernhard Ross, Larry E. Roberts, and Manfried Hoke,
"Increased Auditory Cortical Representation," Nature 392, no. 6678 (April 23, 1998): 811-13.
17. Thomas Elbert, Christo Pantev, Christian Wienbruch, Brigitte Rockstrub, and Edward Taub, "Increased
Cortical Representation of the Fingers of the Left Hand in String Players," Science 270, no. 5234 (1995): 305-7.
18. Donald Hodges, "Neuromusical Research: A Review of the Literature," in Handbook of Music Psychology,
2nd ed., edited by D. Hodges (University of Texas at San Antonio: IMR Press, 1996), 203-90.
19. Virginia Penhune, Robert Zatorre, and W. Feindel, "The Role of the Auditory Cortex in Retention of
Rhythmic Patterns as Studied in Patients with Temporal Lobe Removals Including Heschl's Gyrus,"
Neuropsychologia 37, no. 3 (1999): 315-31.
20. Hans Borchgrevink, "Prosody and Musical Rhythm Are Controlled by the Speech Hemisphere," in Music,
Mind, and Brain: The Neuropsychology of Music, edited by Manfred Clynes (New York: Plenum Press, 1982),
151-58.
21. K. Hugdahl, K. Bronnick, S. Kyllingsback, I. Law, A. Gade, and O. Paulson, "Brain Activation during
Dichotic Presentations of Consonant-Vowel and Musical Instrument Stimuli," Neuropsychologia, 37, no. 4
(1999): 431-40.
22. Lawrence Parsons, Peter Fox, and Donald Hodges, "Neural Basis of the Comprehension of Musical Melody,
Harmony, and Rhythm," paper presented at a meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Los Angeles, November
1998.
23. H. Platel, C. Price, J. C. Baron, R. Wise, J. Lambert, R. Frackowiak, B. Lechevalier, and F. Eustache, "The
Structural Components of Music Perception: A Functional Anatomical Study," Brain 20, no. 2 (1997): 229-43.
24. Parsons et al., "Neural Basis of Comprehension," 1998.
25. Platel et al., "Structural Components of Music Perception," 1997.
26. Helmuth Petsche, K. Linder, P. Rappelsberger, and G. Gruber, "The EEG: An Adequate Method to
Concretize Brain Processes Elicited by Music," Music Perception 6, no. 2 (1988): 133-59.
27. Dalia Cohen and Avner Erez, "Event-Related Potential Measurements of Cognitive Components in
Response to Pitch Patterns," Music Perception 8, no. 4 (1991): 405-30.
28. Anne Blood, Robert Zatorre, P. Bermudez, and A. Evans. "Emotional Responses to Pleasant and Unpleasant
Music Correlate with Activity in Paralimbic Brain Regions," Nature Neuroscience 2, no. 4 (1999): 382-87.
29. Rosalie Pratt and Ralph Spintge, MusicMedicine, vol. 2 (St. Louis, Missouri: MMB Music, 1996); also
Ralph Spintge and Roland Droh, MusicMedicine, vol. 1 (St. Louis, Missouri: MMB Music, 1992).
30. Wilson, Tone Deaf, 1986.
31. Peter Fox, Justine Sergent, Donald Hodges, Charles Martin, Paul Jerabek, Thomas Glass, Hunter Downs,
and Jack Lancaster, "Piano Performance from Memory: A PET Study," paper presented at the Human Brain
Mapping Conference, Paris, July 1995.
32. Dale Bartlett, "Physiological Responses to Music and Sound Stimuli," in Handbook of Music Psychology,
2nd ed., edited by D. Hodges (University of Texas at San Antonio: IMR Press, 1996), 343-85.
33. Gerald Mcintosh, Michael Thaut, and Ruth Rice, "Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation as an Entrainment and
Therapy Technique: Effects on Gait of Stroke and Parkinsonian's Patients," in MusicMedicine, vol. 2, edited by
Rosalie Pratt and Ralph Spintge (St. Louis, Missouri: MMB Music, 1996), 145-52. See also Michael Thaut,
Gerald Mcintosh, Spiros Prassas, and Ruth Rice, "Effect of Rhythmic Cuing on Temporal Stride Parameters and
EMG Patterns in Hemiparetic Gait of Stroke Patients," Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation 7, no. 1 (1993): 9-
16.
34. Oscar Marin and David Perry, "Neurological Aspects of Music Perception and Performance," in The
Psychology of Music, 2nd ed., edited by Diana Deutsch (New York: Academic Press, 1999), 653-724; see also
Hodges, "Human Musicality," 1996.
35. Daniel Levitin and Ursula Bellugi, "Musical Abilities in Individuals with Williams Syndrome," Music
Perception 15, no. 4 (1998): 357-89.
... The "music brain" consists of complex and widespread neural systems, as well as locally specialized areas in the brain, and the results of initial studies were reduced to activities in the right hemisphere only. The most recent discoveries indicate hemisphere connecting as one of the characteristics specific to music processing and action (Hodges 2000). Musical potency does not stop at this point, since some studies have shown that engaging in music causes various changes in the human brain. ...
... Musical potency does not stop at this point, since some studies have shown that engaging in music causes various changes in the human brain. Donald A. Hodges (2000) summarizes important findings from the study of music and cerebral activity, and states the following premises: 1) the human brain responds to and participates in music; 2) the "music brain" starts performing at birth and lingers throughout one's life: 3) continuous music practice from birth affects the organization of the "music brain"; 4) the local specialized areas of the music brain are: cognitive components, affective components and motor components; 5) the "music brain" is extremely resilient. The last premise is genuinely interesting as it relates to the persistence of high musical functions in spite of mental, emotional or degenerative difficulties. ...
... Musical insights into the human condition are uniquely powerful experiences that cannot be replaced by any other form of experience. 645 The human brain may very well be hardwired for music. This is not surprising since sound is vibrational with different combinations of frequencies inciting reactions across the physical, mental, emotional T h e E x p a n d e d H u m a n | 237 spiritual dimensions. ...
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What does it mean to be human? Increasingly, we recognize that we are infinitely complex beings with immense emotional and spiritual, physical and mental capacities. Presiding over these human systems, our brain is a fully integrated, biological, and extraordinary organ that is preeminent in the known Universe. Its time has come. This book is grounded in the Intelligent Complex Adaptive Learning System (ICALS) theory based on over a decade of researching experiential learning through the expanding lens of neuroscience. REVIEWS "Unleashing the Human Mind is the most comprehensive and enlightening book written on learning for the future. This book will expand your mind and motivate you to learn in ways you never realized are possible." -Dr. Arthur Shelley, Founder, Intelligent Answers; Author of Becoming Adaptable, KNOWledge SUCCESSion and The Organizational Zoo, Australia "With the backdrop of current global societal turmoil, the authors capture the urgency for changing course, and the research that provides a new path forward, which is found in the love of learning." -John Lewis, Ed.D., CKO, Explanation Age LLC; Author of Story Thinking, USA "Every now and then a book comes along that compels your spirit. In these times of uncertainty and even great danger for humanity, this book reminds us of what it means to be human, our infinite potential and innate ability to learn and to love." -Milton deSousa, Associate Professor, Nova School of Business and Economics, Portugal "This publication is the brilliant sublimination of a life-long accumulation of knowledge about the potential of our brain to learn, adapt and evolve to the best version of ourselves." -Johan Cools, Higher Architecture Institute of Saint-Lucas Ghent, Belgium "In our time of fast societal, technological and environmental changes and disruption, experiential learning becomes one of the few solutions to quickly adapt and survive … Such a rich and insightful book that will make you discover individual learning in a completely new way." -Dr. Vincent Ribière, Managing Director of the Institute for Knowledge and Innovation Southeast Asia (IKI-SEA), Bangkok University, Thailand "Once in a while, I am exposed to a work so profound that it literally causes a massive shift in my own thinking and beliefs … I found myself riveted to each paragraph as I embarked on a journey that vastly deepened my understanding of the learning process." -Duane Nickull, Author, Technologist, and Seeker of Higher Truth, Canada "In Unleashing, David Bennet, Alex Bennet and Robert Turner expand our collective understanding of the Human Mind by embedding timeless wisdoms, transliterations, and their collective expansive knowledge and experiences that enrich our lives from cover to cover." -Bob Beringer, CEO of EOR, Intelligence Professional, Author of Linux Clustering with CSM and GPFS, USA "Very few people have the gift to integrate such complex ideas, especially those about learning … this work can be likened to the Webb Telescope, which gives us more clarity into our mysteries. Well worth the viewing!" -Michael Stankosky, DSc, Author, Philosopher, Professor, Editor-Emeritus, Member of the Academy of Scholars, USA "It is the mastery of the authors of this book to open the reader’s mind and soul, thus offering the opportunity for the content of this live transmission to be discovered and interpreted in the most appropriate way by each reader … so that only the reader’s desire is needed to let him/her Self be seduced by this wealth of wisdom, generously placed at the reader’s disposal." -Dr. Florin Gaiseanu, Research Professor, Science and Technology of Information Bucharest (Romania) and Barcelona (Spain), Hoor Member of NeuroQuanology (Europe) and International Journal of Neuropsychology and Behavioral Sciences (USA)
... Music processing involves the auditory, visual, cognitive, affective, memory, and motor areas of the brain (Hodges, 2000;Abbott, 2002). The findings are supportive to value music to be a vital part of the education of every child and its benefits become significant when its connection with the human brain is revealed. ...
Article
Instrumental music is one of the extra-curricular activities that students may join after school hours to acquire more music experience. There is limited number of studies in Hong Kong investigating the effect of group instrumental music training on primary school children. The impact of school-based music training on both academic and psychological issue is not well understood. This research aims at revealing the reasons that make students participate in these extra-curricular music activities, the benefits that students perceive in the music activities and how these music activities affect their aspiration in learning. This research focuses to investigate deeply in one context of a primary school in Hong Kong of the real life experience of students aged 9-12 about the above issue. This research indicates the factors motivating students to participate in music activities which are mainly parental, family and peer influence. Enjoying musical activities, listening to music, attending concerts, playing in music groups have demonstrated positive effects on the students. The support of parents, family, peers and self-beliefs are also important in sustaining students in their musical journey. In the research, students have reported their beliefs that music participation imparts some extra musical benefits. Interviews with parents and students indicate the benefits student perceived in the music participation include gaining love and enjoyment in music, developing social skills of teamwork, sense of belonging, communication, cooperation, confidence and satisfaction in their music playing with friends. Concentration, self-discipline, self-motivation, self-accomplishment, listening and memory skills are enhanced which help in other areas of learning. In addition, the research reveals that music makes students feel relaxed and releases their pressure from the heavy-loaded school work.
... Giriş Müzik, insanların, grupların ve toplumların hayatında çok işlevli bir araç olabilmektedir. Müzik bazen eğlence biçimi, bazen terapi etkisi olan bir ilaç, bazen de kişilerin derdini veya fikrini anlatması için bir araç olabilmektedir (Hodges, 2000;Bulut, 2001: s. 173-174;Briain, 2012: s. 3.). Müzik bazen propaganda bazen de protesto aracı olarak bir fikri veya ideolojiyi yayma, anlatma, kitleleri harekete geçirme, bir eylemden vazgeçirme, bilgi verme, eleştirme, destekleme gibi birçok amaçla kullanılabilmektedir. ...
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Conference Paper
Müzik yaşamın neredeyse her alanında kendini göstermektedir. Toplumsal yaşam içerisinde isteyerek ya da istemeyerek müzikle karşılaşmamız kaçınılmazdır denilebilir. Mağazaların fon müzikleri, toplu taşıma araçlarında müzik tertibatlarıyla, cep telefonlarında, kapı ve okul zilleriyle, ezanla, yolda yürürken etrafta ve sokak müzisyenleriyle ve birçok günlük yaşam faaliyeti esnasında müzik ile karşılaşmak kaçınılmaz olabilmektedir. Pazarlama teorisi ve müzik bir arada değerlendirildiğinde bir müzik parçasıyla bir fikri veya ideolojiyi aktarmak sosyal alış-veriş kuramı ve ürün yerleştirme fenomeni çerçevesinde değerlendirilebilir. Bu çalışmada, pazarlama iletişimi modeli ile sanat olayı modeli karşılaştırılarak oluşturulan yeni modelde müzik aracılığı ile gerçekleştirilen pazarlama iletişimi modeli ortaya konulmuştur. Sanat olayı modelinin genel iletişim modeliyle olan benzerliğinden yola çıkılarak müzik aracılığı ile fikir ve ideolojilerin pazarlaması durumu genel iletişim modeli üzerinde kurgulanmıştır. Modelde, her bir öğe müzik aracılığıyla iletişim çerçevesinde tanımlanmıştır.
... Music is a complex phenomenon, which stimulates the activation of not only emotional and cognitive cortex areas but also motor ones, in addition to increasing the release of specific neurotransmitters, promoting change in the central nervous system 5 . Furthermore, knowing that the notion of health comprises a state of physical, mental, and social wellbeing (not just the absence of diseases) 6 , MT seems to be beneficial for health, as it helps to develop positive changes in the individual's mental state. ...
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INTRODUCTION: The use of music therapy (MT) as an adjuvant treatment for different types of diseases is promising and valid, given the emotional and cognitive benefits that exposure to music (actively or passively) offers. This literature review aims to elucidate how MT can be used to complement the usual treatment of mental disorders, its best propaedeutics, and possible harms. METHOD: The guiding question for this review was “In people diagnosed with mental disorders, does MT as an adjuvant therapy offer better clinical results compared to traditional treatment?”. The descriptors used on the search were “mental disorders”, “music therapy” and “psychiatric rehabilitation”, in MEDLINE, SciELO, and LILACS. The study was conducted in April 2021. Rigid inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. RESULTS: The 15 studies selected for this review come from 9 countries. Most are controlled clinical trials from the United States. They present several benefits of using MT in mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, improving emotional control, cognitive ability, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life. DISCUSSION: MT shows strong positive results in the treatment of mental disorders in people of different ages, offers emotional relief, improved cognitive functions and interpersonal relationships, also reducing stress and depressive symptoms. In addition, it is a feasible therapy, with different applications, but it does not replace pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy. Few articles showed harmful effects of MT, observed only when it was associated with psychoactive drugs, generating unwelcome responses. CONCLUSION: Evidence suggests that MT is an excellent adjuvant therapy for the treatment of mental disorders with different clinical spectrums. Experiments with a larger sample size are required to elucidate the most effective technique and treatment duration for each mental disorder, considering individuality and the undeniable importance of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.
... He goes on to say that the insights we can learn about the human condition through music are so unique and such powerful experiences that they "cannot be replaced by any other form of experience." 135 Amen. ...
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Ah, life! What is it all about? Certainly, "love" is a good and wise answer. Only, in different situations we use the word love to mean so many different things. And while we like to think of ourselves living in a field of love--and indeed that may be the case--there is a driver in human emotions that, when coupled with love, gives us purpose and moves us beyond ourselves toward a greater good. that driver might be called passion. This is indeed a strange book circling around passion. Taking a consilience approach, you will discover research that crosses the fields of neuroscience, psychology, music, management, and spirituality, with poetry and prose punctuating that research. Then, there are stories and music capturing moments of passion. And, along the way, the authors share life bites of their selves ... perhaps reflective of some of your own experiences in life?
... Studies also show that art education plays a role in the social and societal context (Kokas, 1972;Bácskai et. al., 1972;Dombiné, 1992;Harris, 1996;Hodges, 2000). Classical pedagogy considered aesthetic education as "art which teaches" (Zrinszky, 2002: 195), while it intellectualised art education and transformed it to a knowledge-focused subject. ...
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Chapter
Concert pedagogy is a progressive pedagogical initiative of the 20 th-21 st century, which aims to present the values of art at the original location of artistic activity, in an experience-filled environment, just as other branches of experience pedagogy do. The educational activity of experience pedagogy takes place in an extracurricular framework to complement public education. Art education is based on going through and enjoying an experience, which, however, cannot be taught, only explored and reinforced. In the traditional approach, intellectual education comprises two tasks: intellectual informing and formation (Bábosik, 1997). Intellectual development occurs through the process of transferring and internalising scientific knowledge, which is presented in the form of subjects. Bábosik highlights that intellectual and cultural needs can evolve when it is achieved that children like to learn, which generates the desire for novel knowledge.
... While there are universal aspects of music much musical activity is specific to the surrounding culture. That music creates a reaction in the brain is accepted (Hodges 2000) but the reaction will be subjective to cultural influences (Skibba 2016). Cultural social institutions like family, home, school, church and other associations will provide particular experiences within specific communities. ...
Chapter
This chapter presents insights into a collaborative musical journey that a group of preschool children took with their two preschool teachers, in Belgrade (Serbia). These preschool teachers offer their views, thoughts, aspirations and observations about a music project that culminated in a performance. In this chapter we describe and reflect on this endeavour and the resulting multi-media end-of-year performance titled: Ruke oko Sveta, deca Majskog Cveta (Arms around the world: Children of the Majski Cvet; Majski Cvet is a name of the early childhood setting). We explore the motivations for the theme chosen for the concert, unpack the process of creating a concert and analyse the video recording of the performance using one child, Teodora, as a unit to evaluate the experience. A socio-cultural contextual view of children and their learning framed this story. The aim of the project was to exploit music as a language of childhood and its capacity to inspire intercultural dialogue within an educational setting. The teachers sought to help the young children to overcome anxiety about a nearby asylum seeker camp. This emphasis is discussed as well as the efficacy of using music as a socio-cultural tool.
Article
"In systematic musicology as a branch of music psychology we found an intriguing orientation called cognitive neuroscience of music, or neuromusicology. It studies the function of the brain in music processing, the way music perception and production manifests in brain. Compared to other analytical models of music cognition, the mapping of the brain’s functioning serves to examine the outcome of music rather than its process, and as the music therapy methods discussed reflect, most approaches follow this ontological direction. As recent scientific researches shows, the brain mapping technique differentiates moment of listening, playing classical music or improvising. In the light of the research findings, our main focus was to get to know and understand how our musical brains functions during classical music audition so we could argue from a scientific approach not only the existing therapeutic methods used in music therapy, but the perception of classical music in the present. In the master class “Dialogue of the Arts”, we explore with our students in all grades the possible links between music and other artistic and scientific disciplines. One of the most exciting aspects of this is music and brain research, an incredibly fast-developing field whose results could reinforce the place and role of classical music in contemporary society, reinforcing existing broad-based promotion of classical music education (Kodály, El sistema etc.) Keywords: music cognition, neuromusicology, sonic therapy, classical music, models of therapy. "
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We report evidence for relatively preserved musical rhythm processing in individuals with Williams syndrome, supporting the theory that musical ability constitutes an independent intelligence. Williams syndrome occurs in 1 out of 20,000 births and is associated with a defect in elastin production, impaired cognitive function, and poor spatial, quantitative, and reasoning abilities, coupled with excellent face processing and relatively strong language abilities in adolescents and adults. Previously, informal qualitative observations have revealed an unusual degree of musicality and engagement with musical stimuli in many individuals with Williams syndrome. In the present study, rhythm production was assessed for eight subjects with Williams syndrome and eight subjects in a comparison group by using an echo clapping task. Despite serious deficits in other cognitive domains and generally poor coordination, the subjects with Williams syndrome achieved accuracy scores equivalent to those of subjects in the comparison group and demonstrated equivalent abilities in meter change and beat maintenance. Most interestingly, when the subjects with Williams syndrome made errors in rhythm production, their errors were far more likely than comparison subjects' errors to form rhythmically compatible musical elaborations to the test items; that is, responses of subjects with Williams syndrome, when incorrect, tended to be creative extensions of the reference rhythm.
Chapter
Cerebral processing of both speech and music imply analysis and identification of 1. the spectral pattern of complex sound 2. the temporal sequence pattern of complex sound during a certain time period.
Article
Whether or not processing of music by the brain can be reflected in an ongoing EEG was studied in a group of 75 healthy students. The parameters considered were location, power, frequency, and coherence. By means of the Fisher permutation test, significant changes of these parameters with respect to control EEG periods were computed and represented as probability maps of brain electrical activity. In spite of the great individual differences in musical ability, education, and interest of the subjects, a number of specific group differences of the EEG parameters could be elucidated for different musical tasks. Significant differences were also seen between the groups of musically trained and untrained subjects, both during listening and even in their EEGs at rest. In addition, considerable sex differences were observed. Part of these differences, particularly those of the parameter power, are most likely caused by the different degrees of attention elicited by these tasks. The greater part of the observed changes, however, concerns coherence and thus conceivably reflects different degrees of the functional cooperation of two adjacent brain regions or the two hemispheres in several musical perception tasks.
Article
This study investigates the possibility of measuring cognitive responses to musical stimuli. The experiments were based on measurements of the event- related potential (ERP) of three electroencephalographic electrodes. The musical stimuli consisted of five-tone pitch patterns ( constant intensity, duration, and timbre), based on the Western tonal system. Subjects compared reference patterns with comparison patterns, which were either identical to the reference pattern or nonidentical because of predetermined changes in the comparison patterns. The patterns were presented in auditory or visual mode in a slow or a fast version. The results show a striking cognitive response to nonidentical tones in the comparison patterns and to a lesser extent to exceptional tones even in the reference patterns. Different levels of response were detected according to the type of pattern. We also found some evidence of factors contributing to "subjective equivalence" between different patterns. The correlation between results from this study and those from earlier studies based on the same measuring technique with different kinds of input data or using different methods and techniques is discussed.
Article
This article reviews a series of experiments aimed at assessing the capacity of cebus monkeys and rats for tonal pattern perception (sensitivity to frequency contour). The animals' ability to differentiate between two tunes (structured sequences of tones) that shared several component notes and were similar in their average frequency suggested tonal pattern perception in both species. Detailed analysis of the basis of their discriminative behavior revealed, however, that the latter was completely controlled by local cues. Additional studies confirmed this finding and showed that the cognitive limitation was not, in the case of the monkeys, due to a generally impoverished capacity for processing acoustic stimuli or to an unduly truncated auditory short- term store. Many species of songbirds also seem remarkably deficient in their ability to perceive the tonal patterns of non-species-specific acoustic stimuli, which may be widespread among animals. Some implications of this striking difference in the auditory processing capacities of animals and humans are briefly discussed.
Article
This study investigated the effect of auditory (musical) rhythm on temporal parameters of the stride cycle and electromyographic (EMG) activity in gait of stroke patients. Ten subjects were studied over three trials. Each trial consisted of a baseline walk without rhythm and a walk with rhythm as pacemaker, marched to the step cadence of the baseline walk. Surface EMG on the gastrocnemius muscle and a dual walkway, consisting of pressure-sensitive voltage coded switch mats, were used to record data. Percentage change scores from no-rhythm to rhythm conditions were calculated for statistical analysis. Results showed several significant (p < .05) changes: (a) weight-bearing stance time on the paretic side and stride symmetry improved with rhythmic cuing; (b) magnitude of muscle activation during midstance/pushoff increased on the affected side and decreased on the nonaffected side; (c) variability of integrated amplitude ratios decreased during the midstance/pushoff phase on the affected side; (d) EMG activity during the swing phase also decreased on the affected side; (e) decrease in EMG variability and decrease in muscle activity during the swing phase were positively correlated with improvement in stride symmetry. Specificity of changes in muscle activation and improvement in temporal gait parameters suggest a strong entrainment effect of auditory rhythmic cues on temporal gait control in stroke patients.