IMPLICATIONS OF MUSIC AND BRAIN RESEARCH
By: Donald A. Hodges
Hodges, D. (2002) Implications of music and brain research, Music Educators Journal Special Focus Issue:
Music and the Brain, 87:2, 17-22.
Made available courtesy of SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD: http://mej.sagepub.com/
***Note: Figures may be missing from this format of the document
In recent years, we have witnessed an explosion of information about the brain. New imaging techniques have
given neuroscientists the tools to peer into the brain in ways unimaginable just a few years ago. What they are
learning is revolutionizing our understanding of this incredible neural machinery, and now they are able to ask--
and answer--questions that will eventually unravel many mysteries of the mind.
Among these mysteries is music. Why are human beings musical? How does music processing take place in the
brain? Are there strategies we could uncover that would allow people to learn music more efficiently? Is there
an optimal time for learning music? How is it that some cognitively impaired individuals can be so musically
proficient? On and on go the questions we would like to have answered.
For many music educators, obtaining information about recent discoveries involving music and the brain may
be difficult. This is so because the reporting of neuromusical research is often polarized: either it appears in
scientific journals in language that is too difficult for nonscientists to easily read and understand, or it appears in
the popular press in such a watered-down fashion that actual facts may be distorted or obscured. The intent of
this special focus issue of the Music Educators Journal is to provide current neuromusical information in a way
that is at once accurate and accessible to music educators.
To that end, the articles in this issue provide a broad overview of many important topics, along with
considerable detail and many reference lists to guide the reader in further exploration. We begin with "Music
and the Baby's Brain: Early Music Experiences." In this article, Donna Brink Fox reviews the literature on
infant and early childhood music with respect to brain development. Perhaps surprising to some, but probably
not to those actively working with young children, is the idea that many adult-like responses to music are
already apparent in infants. Cross-cultural studies are confirming that even if music is not a universal language
(in the sense that we do not automatically understand the music of unfamiliar cultures), music (like singing
lullabies or responding affectively to music in the surrounding environment) is universal. Based on her review
of the neuroscientific literature, Fox offers support for several key ideas in early childhood music education,
such as the fact that active engagement, not passive listening, spurs brain development. She concludes by giving
examples of ways in which we can collaborate with others to create the healthiest, most effective climate for the
musical development of young children.
The next article, "EEG Studies with Young Children," continues by looking at brain activity in preschool and
elementary school children. Here, John Flohr, Dan Miller, and Roger deBeus explain electroencephalogram
(EEG) techniques and how they have been applied to the study of musical behaviors in children. Some of the
research supports the similarity of activation patterns in children and adults, but other studies identify ways in
which the developing brain is different from the adult brain. Though we don't yet know the precise
characteristics of the "window of opportunity" for learning music, research investigators are moving toward a
more complete understanding of them.
In "Does Music Make You Smarter?" Steven Demorest and Steven Morrison take up a very timely topic. The
notion that exposing children to music increases their brain power is perhaps the best example of how music
educators can get caught between what is reported in the popular press and what is actually reported in scientific
journals. Demorest and Morrison review the various aspects of this issue and present a balanced viewpoint
based on a careful reading of the literature. To serve our students well, we need to look at the research honestly
"A Virtual Panel of Expert Researchers" presents excerpts from interviews with four senior researchers--Andrea
Halpern, Larry Parsons, Ralph Spingte, and Sandra Trehub. Individually and collectively, they share important
ideas for music educators. Perhaps one of the most important ideas they communicate is that serious scientists
are taking music seriously. These researchers have devoted a major part of their careers to understanding
musical behavior. To them, music is not a frivolous sideline, but something that is at the core of what it means
to be a human being. We can take encouragement from their dedication to studying that which is so important to
Neuroscientists have studied sound production and processing in animals; they have studied fetal responses to
music, as well as responses among the elderly, including those having Alzheimer's disease or other cognitive
dementias. Neuroscientists have also examined special populations, such as prodigies or those with savant
syndrome or Williams Syndrome. Responses of naive listeners have been compared to those of expert
musicians. From all these approaches, a number of important concepts are emerging. While not all these
findings have direct applications to the daily practice of music education, collectively they do have much to
offer our profession.
An Overview of Neuromusical Research
Here is an introduction that provides a more detailed look at music and brain research than that provided by the
popular media. Highlights of recent neuromusical studies are presented, and basic premises derived from the
studies are articulated. The sidebar summarizes these premises.
The human brain has the ability to respond to and participate in music. Music, like language, is a species-
specific trait of humankind.[ 1] All human beings--and only human beings--have music. Neurologist Frank
Wilson says that he is "convinced that all of us have a biologic guarantee of musicianship."[ 2] Wilson does not
mean that all of us are guaranteed to become musicians on par with Mozart, but rather that we all have the
capacity to respond to and participate in the music of our environment. Music, then, is one of the hallmarks of
what it means to be a human being.
Much of the literature that supports this notion comes from anthropologists who tell us that "all people in all
times and in all places have engaged in musical behaviors."[ 3] Based on the neuroscientific literature cited
throughout this issue, we can say that mounting and incontrovertible evidence supports the ubiquity of human
musicality. Further, we can say that a musical brain is the birthright of all human beings.
Clearly, the idea that all human beings are musical has enormous implications for music education. A music
education should not be reserved for those "with talent," nor should it be restricted to those who can afford it or
whose parents deem it important. All members of our society, from cradle to grave, stand to benefit from being
It is true that many animals have sound-producing and processing capabilities. They process sound as it occurs
across time, ascribe "meaning" to this sound, and adjust their behavior accordingly. A cat responding to a
barking dog, for example, is an animal processing sound.
Although we tend to anthropomorphize animal behaviors--and to be sure, we can probably never know exactly
what is going on inside an animal's brain--it is safe to say that the vast majority, if not all, of animal sound-
making has to do with such things as territoriality, signaling, courtship, and mating.[ 4] In other words, although
we refer to birdsong; it is not likely that birds or other animals sing for musical or aesthetic pleasure.
Early research indicated some remarkable musical feats, such as certain birds being able to distinguish between
different composers. However, more careful investigation indicates that animals rely on absolute frequency
analysis[ 5] rather than on relative pitch as we do.[ 6] Thus, while various animals can be trained to choose
between two songs, they fail miserably if those songs are transposed. By contrast, even among those humans
with absolute pitch, our sophisticated musicality is possible, in large part, because we deal with pitch
relationships. "Yankee Doodle," for instance, is recognizable to us when begun in any key.
There are other cognitive limitations among animals as well. For example, musical forms ranging from simple
verse and chorus alternations to lengthy symphonic movements can be processed by humans because of their
ability to retain musical information for long periods of time. If any animals are musical, dolphins are the most
so. But they can recognize the second A section of a simple ABA form only if each section is no more than two
seconds long.[ 7]
One might reasonably ask whether giving animals human musical tasks is fair; after all, we can't understand
many of their vocalizations. However, the point of this line of research is really twofold. First, we can begin to
trace the development of auditory and cognitive mechanisms from an evolutionary standpoint. This type of
information can be used to offer a plausible explanation for the evolutionary basis of human musicality.[ 8]
Second, we can begin to look for the additional brain mechanisms unique to humans that make our musicality
The musical brain operates at birth and persists throughout life. The fact that babies respond to music at
birth (and, in fact, in the womb during the last three months before birth) gives strong evidence for the existence
of neural mechanisms that seem ideally suited for processing musical information.[ 9] This topic is covered
more fully in this issue's articles on "Music and the Baby's Brain" and "EEG Studies with Young Children."
At the other end of the life spectrum, a group of retired nuns has offered to donate their brains to science.[ 10]
They are being studied constantly as they age. The first outcomes of the project reveal that (a) the more learning
one has in childhood, the less likely one is to be debilitated by Alzheimer's disease or other forms of cognitive
dementia, and (b) the common adage "Use it or lose it" is sound advice. Even as they progress into their eighties
and nineties, these women are encouraged to learn new skills. Learning to play a musical instrument, or a
different one if they can already play one, is frequently advised by the neuroscientists.
The clear implication for music educators is that neuroscientific research supports an emphasis on lifelong
learning in music. Our profession needs to continue to expand beyond the confines of K-12 music education.
Indeed, it may be in this underexplored area that we will find the most opportunities for new growth.
Early and ongoing musical training affects the organization of the musical brain. There are growing
indications that those who study music, particularly beginning at an early age, show neurological differences
compared to those who have not had such training. Frederique Faita and Mireille Besson demonstrated that
musically trained subjects had stronger and faster brain responses to musical tasks than untrained subjects.[ 11]
(See this issue's article "EEG Studies with Young Children" for additional studies.) Brain imaging data
demonstrate that the primary auditory cortex in the left hemispheres of musically trained subjects is larger than
that of untrained subjects.[ 12] This difference was exaggerated for those with absolute pitch or those who
started their musical training before age seven.[ 13] Moreover, for the musically trained, the arrangement of the
auditory cortex is much like a piano keyboard, with equal distance between octaves.[ 14]
The area of the motor cortex controlling the fingers increased in response to piano exercises, both actual and
imagined.[ 15] The auditory cortex, which responds to piano tones, was 25 percent larger among experienced
musicians; the effect was greater for those who started studying music at an early age. [ 16] Finally, compared
to nonplayers, string players have greater neuronal activity and a larger area in the area of the right motor cortex
that controls the fingers of the left hand.[ 17] Again, these effects were greater for those who started playing at a
Although there are apparent implications for music education from these data, a note of caution must be
inserted. First, probably anything we do in early childhood has an effect on brain organization. It is likely that
comparisons between chess players and nonchess players, or between high level mathematicians and those who
can barely add and subtract, for example, would also show differences. Second, it is not at all clear whether
there are transfer effects. That is, it is not certain that music education necessarily improves performance in
other modes of cognition. This question is discussed in this issue's articles "A Virtual Panel of Expert
Researchers" and "Does Music Make You Smarter?"
The musical brain consists of extensive neural systems involving widely distributed, but locally
specialized regions of the brain. One of the more visible topics of research in the 1970s dealt with differences
between the left and right sides of the brain. Naive interpretations of research data led to such notions as
"musical knowledge is in the right side of the brain." We now know that it is not that simple. Reviews of
research literature indicate that results can be highly varied depending on subject variables (like how much and
what kind of training subjects have received), stimulus variables (like computer-generated tone pipes versus
"real" music), and task variables (like what the subjects are asked to listen for).[ 18] Furthermore, many would
contend that two-second sound bites (a requirement for much of this type of research) do not adequately
represent music and that using amusical fragments doesn't tell us much about what happens when people hear a
Mozart symphony, for example.
These considerations do not preclude the possibility that there are differences in the ways the two hemispheres
process music. For example, a portion of the right auditory cortex has been implicated in the retention of
rhythmic patterns. [ 19] (Interestingly enough, data from the same study did not support a link between left
hemisphere timing mechanisms and musical rhythm, something that had been previously proposed.)[ 20] The
right hemisphere was also more strongly implicated than the left hemisphere in music instrument timbre
Reviewing the bulk of neuromusical research literature leads to the conclusion that music is not just in the right
side of the brain, but is represented all over the brain. One of the major findings in a recent study was that
musical processing is spread throughout the brain--front/back, top/bottom, and left/right.[ 22] Furthermore,
selectively changing the focus of attention radically alters brain activation patterns.[ 23] Thus, rather than
focusing on a simplistic left-right dichotomy, it may be more accurate to think of musical processing as
involving widely diffuse areas of the brain.
It can be said that the musical brain is modularized. That is, musical experiences are multimodal, involving at
the least the auditory, visual, cognitive, affective, memory, and motor systems. Beyond that, each component of
music processing and responding is likely to be handled by different neural mechanisms. This idea is consistent
with what is known about language, but with language the linkage between function and location is more
clearly delineated than it is for music. Scientists using modern neuroscientific techniques are beginning to
identify specific structures in the brain that carry out specific musical tasks.
Cognitive Components. A number of studies have indicated that music processing involves functionally
independent modules. In a 1998 study, neural mechanisms for melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic error detection
were found to be independent from each other.[ 24] Also, music reading activated an area on the right side of
the brain parallel to an area on the left side activated during language reading. A 1997 study showed that
familiarity with music, timbre recognition, and rhythm perception activated different regions of the brain.[ 25]
In a 1988 study, it was found that the electrical activity of sophisticated music listeners is different from that of
naive listeners.[ 26] Based on a 1991 study, the brain appears to use working memory for music; working
memory refers to the process of comparing incoming musical information to stored information.[ 27]
Affective Components. Although emotional response to music is perhaps one of the most important topics of
research, it is also among the most difficult to study. There is a lack of knowledge about this central aspect of
the musical experience. A recent study indicated that different neural structures were activated in response to
positive and negative emotions.[ 28] Furthermore, these structures, located mostly in the right hemisphere, are
dissociated (that is, separate from) neural correlates of various emotions and function apart from other music
perceptual processes. Music medicine research is making effective use of music to reduce fear and anxiety in
surgical and pain patients.[ 29] Experiments show that hearing music affects the biochemistry of the blood,
which in turn may cause affective changes. For example, physicians are able to reduce drug dosages and speed
up recovery times by using music in certain medical procedures. In other words, music is not just a
psychological distractor; rather, it elicits actual physical changes in the system. (It should be noted that research
on emotional, mood, and feeling responses is much less developed in psychology and neuroscience than
research on topics such as learning and sensory perception.)
Motor Components. The connection between music and movement is fundamental to both expressive and
receptive modes. Music making (expressive mode) is clearly a bodily kinesthetic experience. Neurologist Frank
Wilson recognized this when he called musicians "small-muscle athletes."[ 30] In one study, professional
pianists underwent brain scans while performing Bach on the piano.[ 31] Among the results was a clear
demonstration that motor control systems were highly activated during performance. At the same time, other
regions of the brain were strongly deactivated--in effect, switched off--which is a hypothesized indicator of
Abundant research data indicate that there are both physiological and physical responses during music listening
(receptive mode). Physiological responses include changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and a host of other
systems.[ 32] All of us have experienced physical responses to music such as foot tapping or head nodding.
Researchers are using this natural response to music in a process called "Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation" to
enable Parkinsonian and stroke patients to regain walking and motor skills.[ 33]
These brief sections on cognitive, affective, and motor components only skim the surface. But perhaps the
discussion is sufficient to support the contention that music is modularized in the brain. The literature on
"amusia," loss of musical function due to destruction of brain tissue, gives further evidence of modularity. In
these cases, individuals who have suffered destruction of particular brain tissue correspondingly lose specific
musical abilities.[ 34]
The musical brain is highly resilient. Music persists in people who are blind, deaf, emotionally disturbed,
profoundly retarded, or affected by disabilities or diseases such as Alzheimer's disease or savant syndrome.
Regardless of the degree of disability or illness, it is possible for the individual to have a meaningful musical
experience. Any music therapist could easily testify to the residual power of music. The research literature on
amusia reveals that destruction of brain tissue may eliminate a particular musical function (e.g., ability to track
rhythms), but it does not eliminate music entirely. Another fascinating example concerns individuals with
Williams Syndrome. These cognitively impaired individuals have average IQs of 65-70, yet they often have
remarkable musical abilities.[ 35]
Ongoing and Future Research
Although hundreds of research studies fall under the category of neuromusical research, this is still a small
amount compared to the study of language, for example. In that sense, it is a little premature to make broad,
sweeping statements that have direct bearing on the daily teaching of music. Certainly, however, there is every
reason to believe that continued efforts along these lines will provide significant applicable benefits in the
There is one more idea that has profound implications for our profession: Neuromusical research supports the
notion that music is a unique mode of knowing. The literature clearly supports the notion that music is
dissociated from linguistic or other types of cognitive processes. Therefore, it provides a unique means of
processing and understanding a particular kind of nonverbal information. By studying the effects of music,
neuroscientists are able to discover things about the brain that they cannot know through other cognitive
processes. Likewise, through music we are able to discover, share, express, and know about aspects of the
human experience that we cannot know through any other means. Musical insights into the human condition are
uniquely powerful experiences that cannot be replaced by any other form of experience. It is to a deeper
understanding of this core value of music that neuromusical research will continue to make its most important
In this special focus issue, we are attempting to represent the current state of neuromusical knowledge. It is our
hope that music educators will find these articles readable and informative. Because the field is changing
rapidly, it is important for music educators to keep abreast of new findings. In time, the picture will become
clearer and clearer, and our profession will benefit greatly from what is learned in this emerging field.
Premises Derived from Neuromusical Research
The human brain has the ability to respond to and participate in music.
The musical brain operates at birth and persists throughout life.
Early and ongoing musical training affects the organization of the musical brain.
The musical brain consists of extensive neural systems involving widely distributed, but locally
specialized regions of the brain:
The musical brain is highly resilient.
1. John Blacking, How Musical Is Man? (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973).
2. Frank Wilson, Tone Deaf and All Thumbs? (New York: Viking, 1986), 2.
3. Donald Hodges and Paul Haack, "The Influence of Music on Human Behavior," in Handbook of Music
Psychology, 2nd ed., edited by D. Hodges (University of Texas at San Antonio: IMR Press, 1996), 473.
4. J. Brody, "Not Just Music, Bird Song Is a Means of Courtship and Defense," New York Times, 9 April 1991.
5. M. D'Amato, "A Search for Tonal Pattern Perception in Cebus Monkeys: Why Monkeys Can't Hum a Tune,"
Music Perception 5, no. 4 (1988): 453-80.
6. Sandra Trehub, Dale Bull, and Leigh Thorpe, "Infants' Perception of Melodies: The Role of Melodic
Contour," Child Development 55 (1984): 821-30.
7. Richard Warren, "Perception of Acoustic Sequences: Global Integration versus Temporal Resolution," in
Thinking in Sound, edited by Stephen McAdams and Emmanuel Bigand (New York: Oxford University Press,
8. Donald Hodges, "Why Are We Musical? Speculations on the Evolutionary Plausibility of Musical Behavior,"
Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, no. 99 (1989): 7-22; Donald Hodges, "Human
Musicality," in Handbook of Music Psychology, 2nd ed., edited by D. Hodges (University of Texas at San
Antonio: IMR Press, 1996), 29-68.
9. Jeane-Pierre Lecanuet, "Prenatal Auditory Experience," in Irene Deliege and John Sloboda, Musical
Beginnings: Origins and Development of Music Competence, edited by Irene Deliege and John Sloboda
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 3-34; and Hanus Papousek, "Musicality in Infancy Research:
Biological and Cultural Origins of Early Musicality," also in Musical Beginnings, 37-55.
10. Daniel Golden, "Building a Better Brain," Life, July 1994, 62-70.
11. Frederique Faita and Mireille Besson, "Electrophysiological Index of Musical Expectancy: Is There a
Repetition Effect on the Event-related Potentials Associated with Musical Incongruities?" in Proceedings of the
3rd International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, edited by Irene Deliege (Liege, Belgium:
n.p., 1994), 433-35.
12. Gottfried Schlaug, Lutz Jancke, Yanxiong Huang, and Helmuth Steinmetz, "In Vivo Morphometry of
Interhemispheric Asymmetry and Connectivity in Musicians," in Proceedings of the 3rd International
Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, edited by Irene Deliege (Liege, Belgium: n.p., 1994), 417-18.
13. Gottfried Schlaug, Lutz Jancke, Yanxiong Huang, and Helmuth Steinmetz, "In Vivo Evidence of Structural
Brain Asymmetry in Musicians," Science 267, no. 5198 (1995): 699-701.
14. Samuel Williamson and Lloyd Kaufman, "Auditory Evoked Magnetic Fields," in Physiology of the Ear,
edited by A. Jahn and J. Santos-Sacchi (New York: Raven Press, 1988), 497-505.
15. Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Nguyet Dang, Leonardo Cohen, Joaquin Brasil-Neto, Angel Cammarota, and Mark
Hallett, "Modulation of Muscle Responses Evoked by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation during the
Acquisition of New Fine Motor Skills," Journal of Neurophysiology 74, no. 3 (1995): 1037-45.
16. Christo Pantev, Robert Oostenveld, Almut Engelien, Bernhard Ross, Larry E. Roberts, and Manfried Hoke,
"Increased Auditory Cortical Representation," Nature 392, no. 6678 (April 23, 1998): 811-13.
17. Thomas Elbert, Christo Pantev, Christian Wienbruch, Brigitte Rockstrub, and Edward Taub, "Increased
Cortical Representation of the Fingers of the Left Hand in String Players," Science 270, no. 5234 (1995): 305-7.
18. Donald Hodges, "Neuromusical Research: A Review of the Literature," in Handbook of Music Psychology,
2nd ed., edited by D. Hodges (University of Texas at San Antonio: IMR Press, 1996), 203-90.
19. Virginia Penhune, Robert Zatorre, and W. Feindel, "The Role of the Auditory Cortex in Retention of
Rhythmic Patterns as Studied in Patients with Temporal Lobe Removals Including Heschl's Gyrus,"
Neuropsychologia 37, no. 3 (1999): 315-31.
20. Hans Borchgrevink, "Prosody and Musical Rhythm Are Controlled by the Speech Hemisphere," in Music,
Mind, and Brain: The Neuropsychology of Music, edited by Manfred Clynes (New York: Plenum Press, 1982),
21. K. Hugdahl, K. Bronnick, S. Kyllingsback, I. Law, A. Gade, and O. Paulson, "Brain Activation during
Dichotic Presentations of Consonant-Vowel and Musical Instrument Stimuli," Neuropsychologia, 37, no. 4
22. Lawrence Parsons, Peter Fox, and Donald Hodges, "Neural Basis of the Comprehension of Musical Melody,
Harmony, and Rhythm," paper presented at a meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Los Angeles, November
23. H. Platel, C. Price, J. C. Baron, R. Wise, J. Lambert, R. Frackowiak, B. Lechevalier, and F. Eustache, "The
Structural Components of Music Perception: A Functional Anatomical Study," Brain 20, no. 2 (1997): 229-43.
24. Parsons et al., "Neural Basis of Comprehension," 1998.
25. Platel et al., "Structural Components of Music Perception," 1997.
26. Helmuth Petsche, K. Linder, P. Rappelsberger, and G. Gruber, "The EEG: An Adequate Method to
Concretize Brain Processes Elicited by Music," Music Perception 6, no. 2 (1988): 133-59.
27. Dalia Cohen and Avner Erez, "Event-Related Potential Measurements of Cognitive Components in
Response to Pitch Patterns," Music Perception 8, no. 4 (1991): 405-30.
28. Anne Blood, Robert Zatorre, P. Bermudez, and A. Evans. "Emotional Responses to Pleasant and Unpleasant
Music Correlate with Activity in Paralimbic Brain Regions," Nature Neuroscience 2, no. 4 (1999): 382-87.
29. Rosalie Pratt and Ralph Spintge, MusicMedicine, vol. 2 (St. Louis, Missouri: MMB Music, 1996); also
Ralph Spintge and Roland Droh, MusicMedicine, vol. 1 (St. Louis, Missouri: MMB Music, 1992).
30. Wilson, Tone Deaf, 1986.
31. Peter Fox, Justine Sergent, Donald Hodges, Charles Martin, Paul Jerabek, Thomas Glass, Hunter Downs,
and Jack Lancaster, "Piano Performance from Memory: A PET Study," paper presented at the Human Brain
Mapping Conference, Paris, July 1995.
32. Dale Bartlett, "Physiological Responses to Music and Sound Stimuli," in Handbook of Music Psychology,
2nd ed., edited by D. Hodges (University of Texas at San Antonio: IMR Press, 1996), 343-85.
33. Gerald Mcintosh, Michael Thaut, and Ruth Rice, "Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation as an Entrainment and
Therapy Technique: Effects on Gait of Stroke and Parkinsonian's Patients," in MusicMedicine, vol. 2, edited by
Rosalie Pratt and Ralph Spintge (St. Louis, Missouri: MMB Music, 1996), 145-52. See also Michael Thaut,
Gerald Mcintosh, Spiros Prassas, and Ruth Rice, "Effect of Rhythmic Cuing on Temporal Stride Parameters and
EMG Patterns in Hemiparetic Gait of Stroke Patients," Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation 7, no. 1 (1993): 9-
34. Oscar Marin and David Perry, "Neurological Aspects of Music Perception and Performance," in The
Psychology of Music, 2nd ed., edited by Diana Deutsch (New York: Academic Press, 1999), 653-724; see also
Hodges, "Human Musicality," 1996.
35. Daniel Levitin and Ursula Bellugi, "Musical Abilities in Individuals with Williams Syndrome," Music
Perception 15, no. 4 (1998): 357-89.