Article

Systematic Phonics Instruction Helps Students Learn to Read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel's Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

A quantitative meta-analysis evaluating the effects of systematic phonics instruction compared to unsystematic or no-phonics instruction on learning to read was conducted using 66 treatment-control comparisons derived from 38 experiments. The overall effect of phonics instruction on reading was moderate, d = 0.41. Effects persisted after instruction ended. Effects were larger when phonics instruction began early (d = 0.55) than after first grade (d = 0.27). Phonics benefited decoding, word reading, text comprehension, and spelling in many readers. Phonics helped low and middle SES readers, younger students at risk for reading disability (RD), and older students with RD, but it did not help low achieving readers that included students with cognitive limitations. Synthetic phonics and larger-unit systematic phonics programs produced a similar advantage in reading. Delivering instruction to small groups and classes was not less effective than tutoring. Systematic phonics instruction helped children learn to read better than all forms of control group instruction, including whole language. In sum, systematic phonics instruction proved effective and should be implemented as part of literacy programs to teach beginning reading as well as to prevent and remediate reading difficulties.

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... Dignath et al., 2008;Lau & Chan, 2003;Mokhtari & Reichard, 2002;Thiede et al., 2003). Moreover, they are also prone to perform differently under the same pedagogical instruction or teaching method (Ehri et al., 2001;Hou & Wu, 2011;Rambo-Hernandez & McCoach, 2015) across a multitude of subjects, such as science (Grimberg & Hand, 2009), mathematics (Andersen & Cross, 2014) and history (Stoel et al., 2017). In the domain of reading, students at the top and the bottom levels differ in individual backgrounds, such as gender (Stoet & Geary, 2013), and regional and socioeconomic background (Matteucci & Mignani, 2014); differ in psychological aspects, such as attitude toward reading (Brozo et al., 2007) and learning ethos (Thorpe, 2006). ...
... Dignath et al., 2008;Lau & Chan, 2003;Mokhtari & Reichard, 2002;Thiede et al., 2003), and highly motivated (Retelsdorf & Moller, 2008;Vaknin-Nusbaum et al., 2018) and to have a higher level of self-efficacy (Retelsdorf & Moller, 2008) than their low-achieving counterparts. There is also a reoccurring finding that students at different language proficiency levels are prone to perform differently under the same pedagogical instruction or teaching method (Ehri et al., 2001;Hou & Wu, 2011;Hu et al., 2021a;Rambo-Hernandez & McCoach, 2015). Therefore, it is essential to discuss the outcome of students' academic performance together with the characteristics of language proficiency levels, because students at different levels might generate completely different results under the same conditions. ...
... Among the studies grouping students into different levels, most adopted one was dichotomous categorization that identified high-and low-achieving students (e.g. Ehri et al., 2001;Guthrie et al., 2009;Hou & Wu, 2011), whereas fewer studies used trichotomous stratification of high-, medium-, and low-achieving students (e.g. Retelsdorf & Moller, 2008). ...
... In the wake of the report from the NRP (2000), additional studies and multiple meta-analyses have further investigated the effectiveness of phonological awareness intervention (Al Otaiba et al., 2009;Ehri et al., 2001;Suggate, 2016). These studies have supported the NRP finding that phonological awareness intervention improves reading skills for children with typical development and children at risk for reading impairment (Al Otaiba et al., 2009;Ehri et al., 2001;Suggate, 2016;Thompson et al., 2015). ...
... In the wake of the report from the NRP (2000), additional studies and multiple meta-analyses have further investigated the effectiveness of phonological awareness intervention (Al Otaiba et al., 2009;Ehri et al., 2001;Suggate, 2016). These studies have supported the NRP finding that phonological awareness intervention improves reading skills for children with typical development and children at risk for reading impairment (Al Otaiba et al., 2009;Ehri et al., 2001;Suggate, 2016;Thompson et al., 2015). ...
... The findings from this study extend findings from previous research that phonological awareness intervention is effective for children with reading impairments (Al Otaiba et al., 2009;Ehri et al., 2001;Suggate, 2016). Furthermore, this study also extends findings specifically related to the IPAP (Schuele & Murphy, 2014). ...
Article
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Purpose This study evaluated the effects of utilizing a frequency modulation (FM) system during phonological awareness intervention for students at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting. Method Four first-grade students participated in an adapted-alternating single-case design study. Participants completed intervention targeting two phonological awareness skills and were assigned to wear an FM system during lessons targeting one skill and no FM system during lessons targeting the second skill. Performance was assessed using daily assessments on the skills targeted during intervention and one additional skill. Results Two participants demonstrated quicker and more pronounced improvement on the skill learned while wearing the FM system. The other two participants did not show improvement on any skill. Conclusions For children who made gains as a result of phonological awareness intervention, the FM system was associated with quicker and greater improvement. FM systems show promise as a tool to use during phonological awareness training for at least some children at risk for dyslexia. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.20540139
... A foundational meta-analysis on the area of phonics was conducted by Ehri et al. in 2001. Ehri et al. (2001 found phonics instruction had a moderate effect, but was more effective when instruction took place with younger students. ...
... A foundational meta-analysis on the area of phonics was conducted by Ehri et al. in 2001. Ehri et al. (2001 found phonics instruction had a moderate effect, but was more effective when instruction took place with younger students. This meta-analysis also concluded that phonics instruction was beneficial for at-risk students such as low socio-economic status populations and students identified with reading disabilities. The authors concluded t ...
... The authors concluded that phonics instruction was not particularly helpful for students with cognitive disabilities; as such, we found no studies with this particular population during our systematic literature search. Ehri et al. (2001) states the purpose of this previous review was to "determine whether there is evidence that phonics instruction improves readers' ability to read words in various ways" (p. 399). ...
Article
Stagnant standardized test scores keep literacy achievement at the forefront of national education discussions. Increased conversations about the science of reading have propelled investigations into different types of phonics instruction. However, questions still linger such as “Which strategies are most effective for which students?”, “How should interventions be structured for the best results?”, and “Which school personnel should deliver these interventions?” To begin answering these questions, we conducted the present systematic literature review to synthesize the research surrounding phonics instruction for the last ten years in grades kindergarten through third using the systematic review methodology. Three over- arching themes about phonics instruction emerged:(a) professional learning to foster a deep understanding of language; (b) instructional resources to support teachers with limited content or pedagogical knowledge; and (c) intervention intensity in relation to length and other factors. This review takes an in-depth look at what we, as scholars, know about phonics instruction and what we need to know to advance reading scores.
... These results demonstrate that the same phonemic awareness skills that have been shown to support reading acquisition (Ehri et al., 2001) and are weak in children with a reading disability (for review see Peterson & Pennington, 2012;Vellutino et al., 2004), also support math acquisition. ...
... Consistent with a large body of prior research showing relationships between phonological processing skills and reading (Ehri et al., 2001;Norton & Wolf, 2012;Peng et al., 2018) we found phonemic awareness and rapid serial naming were correlated with, and predictive of, reading ability in this sample of children with LDs. However, phonological memory did not emerge as a significant predictor of reading. ...
... Notably, our results showed that phonological processing measures accounted for 41% of the variance in children's reading ability (with phonemic awareness and rapid serial naming making significant unique contributions), while a similar model accounted for 18% of the variance in children's fact retrieval skills (with only phoneme elision making a significant unique contribution). While phonological processing skills are more strongly related to reading than fact retrieval, phonologicallybased interventions that are known to improve children's reading skills (Ehri et al., 2001) might have some effects on children's retrieval-based arithmetic skills, even if these gains in arithmetic are not likely to be on the same scale as those for reading. As noted above, the effect of phonological interventions on retrieval-based arithmetic will need to be tested in future research. ...
Article
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Phonological processing skills have not only been shown to be important for reading skills, but also for arithmetic skills. Specifically, previous research in typically developing children has suggested that phonological processing skills may be more closely related to arithmetic problems that are solved through fact retrieval (e.g., remembering the solution from memory) than procedural computation (e.g., counting). However, the relationship between phonological processing and arithmetic in children with learning disabilities (LDs) has not been investigated. Yet, understanding these relationships in children with LDs is especially important because it can help elucidate the cognitive underpinnings of math difficulties, explain why reading and math disabilities frequently co‐occur, and provide information on which cognitive skills to target for interventions. In 63 children with LDs, we examined the relationship between different phonological processing skills (phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and rapid serial naming) and arithmetic. We distinguished between arithmetic problems that tend to be solved with fact retrieval versus procedural computation to determine whether phonological processing skills are differentially related to these two arithmetic processes. We found that phonemic awareness, but not phonological memory or rapid serial naming, was related to arithmetic fact retrieval. We also found no association between any phonological processing skills and procedural computation. These results converge with prior research in typically developing children and suggest that phonemic awareness is also related to arithmetic fact retrieval in children with LD. These results raise the possibility that phonemic awareness training might improve both reading and arithmetic fact retrieval skills. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... La clé d'un enseignement phonétique efficace est l'enseignement des correspondances graphème-phonème selon une progression explicite et systématique qui commence par les associations les plus fréquentes et les plus cohérentes Ehri et al., 2001). Cependant, la découverte des règles pertinentes n'est pas une tâche facile et nécessite généralement une analyse subjective par un locuteur natif et/ou un linguiste expert. ...
... To the surprise of many English-speaking educationalists, phonics instruction was also the better reading method for less transparent languages, including English. Furthermore, a sub-committee of the panel demonstrated the importance of explicit systematic phonics instruction (Ehri et al., 2001). ...
... As engaging as it might seem to include tablets and computers in the classroom, it is not enough to induce learning. For example, researchers compared learning how to read with an application that offered explicit phonics lessons with a systematic progression (a methodology with a proven track record, see Ehri et al., 2001), versus non-systematic phonics. The non-systematic phonics was a popular software distributed in stores. ...
Thesis
This thesis focuses on the application, to French students, of advances in the understanding of how children learn to read, what methods best train literacy and how we can better assess reading deficits-so that these advances can fuel a virtuous circle between cognitive science and educational interventions.
... However, they did not disaggregate results for reading fluency or reading comprehension outcomes. In a meta-analysis of longterm effects of reading interventions, Suggate (2016) identified moderate impacts of phonics instruction on reading comprehension outcomes, which reinforce findings from the National Reading Panel that found phonics instruction to be effective for text comprehension (Ehri et al., 2001). These findings support the theory that impacts word reading skills on reading comprehension and fluency. ...
... We followed up our primary analyses with an examination of the impact on proximal word reading outcomes. Prior research indicates that word reading interventions have impacts on word reading outcomes (e.g., Ehri et al., 2001;Piasta & Wagner, 2010;Suggate, 2016;Wanzek et al., 2010). Therefore, impacts (or lack thereof) of the included interventions on proximal outcomes were examined to contextualize the findings on fluency and comprehension outcomes. ...
Article
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The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the overall effects of automaticity training of fundamental literacy component skills (i.e., letter names/sounds, individual words) on reading fluency and comprehension. Another purpose was to assess if the effects of automaticity training varied for reading fluency and comprehension. We identified 11 research studies involving students in Grades 1–6 that met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. A total of 83 effect sizes (Hedges g, corrected for sample size bias) were extracted from these studies. These studies were double-coded for specific features (e.g., student age, student grade, type of automaticity training). We meta-analyzed the effect sizes using a multi-level meta-analytic model and examined whether the outcome measure type (comprehension or fluency) moderated the effects of automaticity training. We also analyzed for publication bias. The overall effect size for automaticity training of fundamental literacy component skills on reading fluency and comprehension was 0.28, although it was not statistically significant. Shifting units of analysis approach indicated there was a statistically significant effect found for reading fluency outcomes [g = 0.48 (CI = .23, .72)] but not for reading comprehension (ES = 0.17 ns). Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.
... Die wenigen vorliegenden Studien zeigten heterogene Ergebnisse. Depping et al. (2021) verglichen die Leistungen von Hamburger SchülerInnen der Klassenstufen 4 und 5 nach dem ersten Lockdown (d.h. im September 2020) und vor der Pandemie. ...
... So boten mehr als ein Drittel der Schulen, v.a. in bildungsferneren Stadtteilen, Lerngruppen in den Sommerferien an (Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung 2020). Weiterhin zeigen die Ergebnisse einer Online-Umfrage, dass der Online-Distanzunterricht in Hamburg gut funktioniert habe (Depping et al 2021). Zentral organisierte Interventionen wie die genannten Lerngruppen in Hamburg oder funktionierende Online-Formate waren bzw. ...
Article
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Die pandemiebedingten Veränderungen der schulischen Lernsituation seit März 2020 mit Distanz- und Wechselunterricht und Quarantänebedingungen stellen auch die Diagnostik von umschriebenen Entwicklungsstörungen schulischen Lernens (Lese Rechtschreibstörung (LRS), Dyskalkulie) vor neue Herausforderungen. Dies betrifft insbesondere die Beurteilung, ob eine ausreichende Beschulung stattgefunden hat, und damit einhergehend, welche Bezugsnormen bei den unterschiedlichen psychometrischen Testverfahren herangezogen werden sollten. Anhand einiger ausgewählter Fallbeispiele wird verdeutlicht, dass man je nach verwendeten Klassennormen zu unterschiedlichen Einschätzungen der psychometrischen Testleistung kommt. Weitere Einflussfaktoren auf die individuelle Lernentwicklung umschriebener schulischer Fertigkeiten während der Pandemie werden diskutiert. Es wird geschlussfolgert, dass in der aktuellen Situation die Diagnostik einer LRS und/oder Dyskalkulie einer ausführlicheren schulbezogenen Anamnese bedarf, die neben den klassischen Anamnese-Fragen auch Aspekte wie Quantität von Präsenz- und Online- Unterricht, zusätzliche Ressourcen zur Unterstützung im häuslichen Lernumfeld sowie subjektives Zurechtkommen mit dem Distanzunterricht etc. erfasst. Abschließend werden wichtige Maßnahmen diskutiert, um zu verhindern, dass durch reduzierte Beobachtungsmöglichkeiten der Lehrkräfte, insbesondere im Primarbereich, umschriebene Entwicklungsstörungen schulischer Fertigkeiten unerkannt bleiben oder erst später einer spezifischen Diagnostik und Intervention zugeführt werden.
... The Importance of preventing and detecting reading difficulties in children fosters the interest of the scientific community to know the best moment for intervention, and how this should be undertaken. Our results are congruent with previous studies indicating that early remediation (6-8 years old) [24,42] and phonics instruction [3,30,43] yield a higher benefit for reading skills than later remediation, and the combination of both is the most effective approach for children with learning disabilities when learning to read and spell [15]. Our results also coincide with previous studies, indicating that remediation intervention should include bottom-up training at the early stages of the reading learning process [44]. ...
... These results are in keeping with the meta-analysis by Ehri and col. [43], who proposed an overall statistically significant positive effect size for phonics instruction of reading. The results obtained in our study are in line with studies carried out with more transparent spellings, which, apart from working on phonological skills, also affect the fluency of reading. ...
Article
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In the last years, there has been a big effort to identify risk factors for reading difficulties and to develop new methodologies to help struggling readers. It has been shown that early intervention is more successful than late intervention, and that intensive training programs can benefit children with reading difficulties. The aim of our study is to investigate the effectiveness of an intensive computerized phonological training program designed to improve reading performance in a sample of children with reading difficulties at the early stages of their reading learning process. Thirty-two children with reading difficulties were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention groups: RDIR (children with reading difficulties following a computerized intensive remediation strategy) (n = 20) (7.01 ± 0.69 years), focused on training phonemic awareness, decoding and reading fluency through the computational training; and RDOR (children with reading difficulties following an ordinary remediation strategy) (n = 12) (6.92 ± 0.82 years), which consisted of a reinforcement of reading with a traditional training approach at school. Normal readers (NR) were assigned to the control group (n = 24) (7.32 ± 0.66 years). Our results indicate that both the RDIR and RDOR groups showed an increased reading performance after the intervention. However, children in the RDIR group showed a stronger benefit than the children in the RDOR group, whose improvement was weaker. The control group did not show significant changes in reading performance during the same period. In conclusion, results suggest that intensive early intervention based on phonics training is an effective strategy to remediate reading difficulties, and that it can be used at school as the first approach to tackle such difficulties.
... We did not attempt in this study to address how systematically the words introduced letter sounds and correspondences (Ehri et al., 2001) that lead to effective orthographic mapping. Similarly, we did not include other possible aspects of readability and text complexity, such as student interest and motivation, sentence structure, and specific reading tasks, in this study's methodology. ...
Article
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Reading instruction for young Arabic speakers presents challenges for textbook publishers and teachers. In the present study, the authors conduct an analysis at the word level of four multidisciplinary textbooks for reading instruction in grades one and two in Egypt. The study sought to answer the following questions: What are the most common words in standard Arabic? How many of the most common words in standard Arabic are used in the textbooks? How dense is the use of common words? How many rare words are used in the textbooks studied? A word frequency analysis from existing corpora were used to create a most common word list. From that list, the researchers were able to determine frequency and dispersion of the most common words in Arabic that were also used in the textbooks. Frequency and dispersion were calculated by octile, as well. Analysis found that the texts did not make use of any of the rare words found in the corpus, but many words in the texts did not appear in either the reference corpus inclusive of the common words list. Recommendations for policymakers and textbook publishers follow discussion of results.
... Beginning readers often need to sound out printed words by articulating each letter to understand the word's meaning ("s-t-o-p"). Children's phonological awarenesstheir sensitivity to, or ability to manipulate small units of soundis a powerful predictor of early reading skill across languages (McBride-Chang & Kail, 2002), and phonics instruction in school is known to support literacy acquisition (Ehri et al., 2001). ...
Thesis
Learning to read transforms the mind and brain as children learn to recognize language in its printed form. This dissertation asks, how does spoken language processing support reading development? This inquiry is centered around theoretical frameworks that suggest that skilled reading depends on closely connected representations of sound, print, and meaning. In three separate studies, I explore the neurocognitive basis of reading development and its relation to spoken language processing, with a particular focus on children’s sensitivity to units of meaning in language. First, I examine the interrelation between spoken and written word processing in the brain of 133 5–6-year-old kindergarteners, 68 of whom participated in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). This first study reveals that children’s emerging neural architecture for a shared print-speech network is best explained by their spoken language proficiency, and that the extent of this shared network in kindergarten predicts reading skill one year later. Next, I examine the role of morphological awareness, or children’s sensitivity to units of meaning, in a large, linguistically diverse sample of 340 monolingual and bilingual children, ages 5–9. Using a novel behavioral measure of morphological awareness, as well as standardized behavioral language and literacy assessments, I reveal that morphological awareness makes a robust independent contribution to early literacy skill, and that this association varies as a function of children’s bilingual language backgrounds. Finally, I use functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging to investigate the brain basis of morphological awareness and its relation to successful reading comprehension in 97 6–11-year-olds, 25% of whom were reading impaired. I find that during a morphological awareness task, better readers demonstrate increased engagement of brain regions associated with integrating units of sound, meaning, and print, while impaired readers fail to show this association. Taken together, these dissertation findings suggest that children’s language ability is a core mechanism guiding the neural plasticity for learning to read, and inform theoretical perspectives on the role of morphology in the reading development of diverse learners.
... Osterholm (2006) states that during the reading process, a mental representation of the text is created by the reader and this describes how the reader understands the text. A number of authors have recognized that multiple levels of representation are involved in constructing meaning of texts (Ehri, 2005;Ehri, Nunes, Stahl & Willows, 2001). Liu and Stasko (2010) state that, that has some benefits in terms of improving model-based reasoning which, in this case, is the ability of humans to build models based on reality and draw meaningful conclusions about reality based on them. ...
... This finding is in line with previous research examining Kannada-English biliteracy among older children (Reddy & Koda, 2013). Ample studies have identified phonemic awareness as one of the most important predictors of reading in alphabetic languages such as English (e.g., Melby-Lervåg et al., 2012), and many studies have shown the benefits of phonemic awareness instruction in helping children read in English (Ehri et al., 2001). The findings of our study show that even for young English language learners with an akshara-based L1, English phoneme awareness is critical for English decoding. ...
Article
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This study examined within and cross-language relations, and specifically, the role of phonological awareness (PA) skills in reading among young Hindi-speaking children (L1) who were learning to read English (L2) in Delhi, India. Data was collected from 143 children in Grades 1 and 2 using measures validated for this population. The analyses examined the associations between L1 and L2 PA and decoding, both within and across the two languages. The results showed that PA skills within each language significantly predicted decoding in that language. Furthermore, there was evidence of cross-language transfer with Hindi PA significantly predicting English word reading even after controlling for English PA. English PA also significantly predicted Hindi decoding, however, these effects decreased once Hindi PA was added to the model. These findings emphasize the important role that both L1 and L2 PA plays in reading among emergent Hindi–English bilinguals. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings on literacy instruction in India are discussed.
... An extensive meta-analysis of research produced by the English National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD] (The National Reading Panel; NICHD, 2000; see also Ehri, Nunes, Stahl and Willows, 2001) found that systematic phonic instruction, as compared to non-phonic instructions (such as basal reader, whole word, and whole language programs) was the most effective teaching method for reading acquisition. This teaching method was also the most effective one for improving comprehension skills (Connelly, Johnston and Thompson, 2001). ...
Technical Report
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Visual and linguistic factors in literacy acquisition: Instructional Implications For Beginning Readers in Low-Income Countries. A literature review prepared for the Global Partnership for Education, c/o World Bank.
... The RSF situates phonology within the linguistic system, as a source of knowledge that contributes to other domains involved in reading. Metalinguistic awareness of sublexical phonology has been shown to be a strong predictor of reading (Bradley & Bryant, 1983;Ehri, Nunes, Stahl, & Willows, 2001). Recently, phonological research has broadened to include suprasegmental phonology, and how it relates to reading skill. ...
Article
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Referring to the “vital parts” of speech that do not appear in print, E. B. Huey (1908/1968) described prosody in reading as “the rise and fall of pitch and inflection, the hurrying here and slowing there, what we have called the melody of speech.” In this paper, we discuss the role prosody plays in reading, contextualized in the Reading Systems Framework, as a source of linguistic knowledge that impacts the orthographic system, the lexicon, and comprehension processes in tonal and non-tonal languages. Prosody at the word, phrase, and discourse levels is considered. We also review empirical evidence from experimental, longitudinal, and training studies to show the current state of knowledge about the role of prosodic competence in reading development. We conclude the paper with recommendations for future directions in research.
... Phonemic awareness instruction teaches children to analyse spoken words into their smallest sounds or phonemes (Ehri et al., 2001b;Scarborough & Brady, 2002). Phonics instruction teaches children how individual letters or graphemes represent sounds or phonemes in words (Ehri, 2020;Ehri et al. ,2001a). A scope and sequence plan ensures that the major grapheme-phoneme relations are taught. ...
Article
Reading Rescue (Reading Rescue), a research and evidence‐based programme for struggling readers (Ehri et al. 2007; Miles et al. 2018), was developed by an academic in response to the cost and lack of explicit letter, phonemic awareness and phonics instruction in Reading Recovery. Reading Rescue represents a pathway from research to practice. An academic advisor works closely with the nonacademic partner that trains school staff to deliver the programme in order to maintain alignment of the curriculum with research from the reading science field. In this study, the academic and nonacademic partner evaluated the effectiveness of small‐group delivery of Reading Rescue, which has previously only been evaluated in a one‐to‐one delivery mode. This study therefore provides an illustration of how academics and practitioners can work together to achieve practical outcomes. This study compared the performance of two cohorts (N = 146; 104) of randomly assigned first‐graders who received 50 sessions of Reading Rescue in a one‐to‐one or a small group setting compared with a control group. Results showed that intervention groups outperformed the control group (for most associations, p < .05) and performed similarly to each other (for most associations, p > .05), suggesting the small group protocol is as effective as one‐to‐one, enabling the programme to serve substantially more students. Discussion focuses on the importance of collaboration between academics and practitioners in expanding the reach of evidence‐based programmes. The collaboration in this study serves as a model for how academics, and practitioners can join forces and leverage their expertise to reach more students. What is already known about this topic A need for strong academic–nonacademic partnerships is essential for translating science of reading findings into effective and manageable instructional approaches (Seidenberg et al., 2020; Solari et al. ,2020) Ehri et al. (2007) demonstrated that students who received Reading Rescue outperformed students who received an alternative intervention, as well students in the control group. Also, Miles et al. (2018) found that Reading Rescue continued to be effective even after the programme had expanded substantially across a large metropolitan area. The National Reading Panel (2000) and other studies have demonstrated that depending on the format, small group instruction has the potential to be just as effective, if not more effective, for students learning certain foundational skills, but other reviews of the research (Neitzel et al., 2021) have suggested that small group instruction is either not as effective or less effective than individual instruction. More research is needed directly comparing two versions of the same programme. What this paper adds This paper examines whether the small group version of the programme, designed and implemented with strong academic oversight, is as effective as the one‐to‐one version of the programme. This paper demonstrates that a strong partnership between academics and nonacademics can be mutually beneficial, resulting in expanded reach of evidence‐based programmes. An explanation of the roles, traits and contributions that academics, non academics and stakeholders played in this study may serve to guide future partnerships. Implications for theory, policy or practice This collaboration serves as an illustration of how to best leverage academic and practitioner skills to create, adjust and evaluate programmes to reach more students. This study also serves as a guide for how policy makers and administrators can engage with academics and literacy programmes to provide resources, guidance and opportunities to do more with evidence‐based programmes.
... The phonics approach encourages students to use knowledge of letter-sound relationships to "sound out" unfamiliar words. The phonics approach has been shown to yield superior results to the three-cueing-systems approach, particularly for weak readers (Bond & Dykstra, 1967;Brady, 2011;Ehri, Nunes, Stahl, & Willows, 2001;National Reading Panel, 2000;Moats, in press;Share, 1995). ...
Chapter
This book chapter explores the implications of assessing word-level reading skills given the scientific findings regarding reading acquisition and reading disabilities.
... In particular, we noted the two groups starting furthest behind at kindergarten entry (i.e., Mixed Bilinguals and Limited English speakers) did close the gap somewhat during their first two years in school, that is, Mixed Bilinguals during kindergarten and Limited English speakers during first grade. Although Limited English-speaking children (i.e., whose families reported very often or always spoke a language other than English at home) made considerable gains during first grade, they did not sustain these gains from spring 1 st through spring 3 rd grade (see Ehri et al., 2001). ...
... Sometimes, literacy teaching methods are based on literacy studies in English and are less adapted to the specifics of different orthographies (e.g., Lipka et al., 2016). Children need adults' direction and support to learn to write and read (Ehri et al., 2001). Adults (parents and teachers) can use the fact that children use characteristics of unlicensed letters in their spelling to initiate conversations to support children's literacy development. ...
Article
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Before formal instruction, preschoolers represent words in print in various degrees of conventionality. Unlicensed letters are letters that have no connection to the word that the child is aiming to write; they are neither licensed by phoneme-grapheme rules nor by orthographical representations in the mental lexicon. In the current paper, we explore the characteristics of unlicensed letters in the written products of Hebrew-speaking children. Specifically, we examined the role of statistical learning in predicting specific categories of unlicensed letters in preschoolers’ spelling, focusing on letters that are present/absent in the child’s first name, letters that are more/less frequent in the Hebrew scripts, letters that can spell vowels/consonant, letters that are visually similar/dissimilar, and letters that are easy/difficult to produce graphically. We also evaluated the role of the children’s writing level and individual indices (age, gender, socioeconomic status, length of the first name) in predicting the use of these categories. The writing outputs (N=733 words), written by 152 preschoolers (M=63.9 months, SD=6.90), were analyzed and yielded 2109 unlicensed letters. Results indicated that the unlicensed letters in children’s early spellings contained significantly more letters with high frequency in Hebrew texts, consonant letters, letters that are visually similar to other letters, and letters that are easy to produce graphically. The child’s writing level, age, gender, and length of the first name, uniquely explained the use of each of the categories of unlicensed letters. Parents and teachers should learn about children's writing and spelling development to support their writing appropriately.
... Two of the most renowned ways are by either exposing the child to whole words or text while guiding them to discover the patterns between graphemes and phonemes intuitively, and the other is by teaching the alphabetic principle explicitly through systematic instruction (Byrne, 2013). These practices are not mutually exclusive; however, evidence from education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience recommends prioritizing the latter in early literacy acquisition (Ehri et al., 2001;Taylor et al., 2017). In other words, the teaching of the alphabetic principle should be progressive (from simpler to harder), systematic, and constant. ...
Article
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The attainment of the alphabetic principle is one of the earliest signs of successful literacy acquisition. Public school students from the Dominican Republic have low literacy skills, partly because of not being systematically exposed to the alphabetic principle while learning to read. This paper presents the results of an intervention to teach the alphabetic principle using a tablet-based game. Nineteen kindergarten students were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group during the last month of the 2017 school year. Students from the experimental group played with the game for ten sessions of 20 minutes each. Students from the experimental group outperformed the control group in syllable recognition after the intervention. The intervention did not influence other reading skills. Automatic syllable identification has been shown to boost early literacy acquisition, although it is not sufficient for students to become fluent readers.
... Therefore, the declarative learning and memory systems seem to play a compensatory role in dyslexia even when the same information is being learned. Some training interventions are designed to help people with dyslexia bebefit from explicit teaching of phonological rules (Alexander & Slinger-Constant, 2004;Ehri, Nunes, Stahl, & Willows, 2001), an approach that encourages reliance on the declarative rather than the procedural memory system. The current findings suggest that such approaches can benefit the learning abilities of people with dyslexia. ...
Article
A theoretical framework suggests that developmental dyslexia is characterized by abnormalities in brain structures underlying the procedural learning and memory systems while the declarative learning and memory systems are presumed to remain intact or even enhanced. This notion has been supported by a substantial body of research, which focused on each system independently. However, less attention has been paid to interactions between these memory systems which may provide insights as to learning situations and conditions in which learning in dyslexia can be improved. The current study was undertaken to examine these important but unresolved issues. To this end, probabilistic reinforcement learning and episodic memory tasks were examined in individuals with dyslexia and neurotypicals simultaneously within a single task. Feedback timing presentation was manipulated, building on prior research indicating that delaying feedback timing shifts striatal-based probabilistic learning, to become more hippocampal-dependent. It was hypothesized that if the procedural learning and memory systems are impaired in dyslexia, performance will be impaired under conditions that encourage procedural memory engagement (immediate feedback trials) but not under conditions that promote declarative memory processing (long delayed feedback trials). It was also predicted that the ability to incidentally acquire episodic information would be preserved in dyslexia. The results supported these predictions. People with dyslexia were impaired in probabilistic learning of cue-outcome associations compared to neurotypicals in an immediate feedback condition, but not when feedback on choices was presented after a long delay. Furthermore, participants with dyslexia demonstrated similar performance to neurotypicals in a task requiring incidental episodic memory formation. These findings attest to a dissociation between procedural-based and declarative-based learning in developmental dyslexia within a single task, a finding that adds discriminative validity to the procedural deficit hypothesis. Just as important, the present findings suggest that training conditions designed to shift the load from midbrain/striatal systems to declarative memory mechanisms have the potential to compensate for impaired learning in developmental dyslexia.
... This finding could be well interpreted within the dichotomy between code-based and meaning-based approaches to writing. While the former focuses on sound relationships in order to compose well-organized texts, the latter emphasizes developing the writing literacy by being immersed in texts and broadening the knowledge base of conveying coherent texts (Ehri et al., 2001). It thus follows that Turkish L2 teachers are more disposed toward heeding linguistic/formal aspects of writing, as also attested to by previous research (Golpour et al., 2019). ...
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Keywords: Mobile assisted language learning Lexical errors EFL writing Educational technology Google keyboard (Gboard) Teacher perceptions Despite the growth of research on mobile technologies in educational contexts, research on language teachers' perceptions of mobile technologies-particularly in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL)-remains sparse. Hence, the present study explored EFL teachers' perceptions of using Google keyboard (Gboard) for L2 writing instruction. The participants were two teachers who taught 47 intermediate Turkish EFL learners. Data were collected from the teachers. They were asked to keep a teaching journal and report their perceptions of Gboard implementation as well as the most distinctive lexical errors they deemed to emerge in the learners' writing. Data analyses indicated that the teachers perceived the integration of Gboard into instruction as an effective intervention that assisted with enhancing the spelling accuracy of the learners. The implications of the study have been discussed. Research Article
... Learners need to be able to blend, segment and place sounds in context within the process of learning oral language skills and in learning literacy skills (Ehri, Nunes, Stahl, & Willows, 2001;Nation & Snowling, 2004;Sayeski, Earle, Davis, & Calamari, 2018). The differences between the student's first language/dialect and SAE should guide learning (Toohill, McLeod, & McCormack, 2012) and the learning of consonants requires students to become aware of their pronunciation through sensory activities (Acton, 2015;Acton, Baker, Burri, & Teaman, 2013). ...
... 64 All frameworks start code-learning with some basic and personally relevant sight 59. Chall 1996;Ehri et al. 2001;Frith 1985;Juel 1991;Seymour et al. 2003; see also Share 1995. 60. ...
Book
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LASLLIAM is the new European reference guide on literacy and second language learning for the linguistic integration of adult migrants (LASLLIAM), published by the Council of Europe. It is built on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) and the Companion volume aiming at supporting language educators, curriculum designers and language policy makers in their endeavor to design, develop and implement curricula, syllabi and teaching materials targeted to non-literate or low-literate migrants.
... Des conclusions très similaires sont rapportées deux ans plus tard par la méta-analyse du National Reading Panel (Ehri et al., 2001a), qui inclut 52 études. Les résultats révèlent un impact important des interventions de conscience phonologique au niveau du phonème, ou conscience phonémique (que nous abrégerons CPé pour la distinguer de la CP plus générale), sur la CPé elle-même (d = 0.86, 72 comparaisons entre groupes), et des effets modérés sur l'identification (d = 0.53, 90 comparaisons) et sur la production de mots écrits (d = 0.59, 39 comparaisons). ...
Article
The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the effectiveness of interventions for difficulties and disorders related to the identification and production of written words on the one hand, and to the comprehension and production of texts on the other. Following the rationale of the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) approach, we limit ourselves here to examining the evidence that is considered to be at the highest level in the hierarchy, namely systematic reviews. In general, the results of these studies show a significant effect of explicit and structured interventions on theoretically motivated dimension(s). This phenomenon is found on all facets of written language, with effect sizes that are moderate to large, depending on certain modulating variables. Implications for practice are briefly discussed.
Article
This study describes the development of a special education teacher observation protocol detailing the elements of effective decoding instruction. The psychometric properties of the protocol were investigated through many-facet Rasch measurement (MFRM). Video observations of classroom decoding instruction from 20 special education teachers across three states were collected. Twelve external raters were trained to observe and evaluate instruction using the protocol and assigned scores of “implemented,” “partially implemented,” or “not implemented” for each of the items. Analyses showed that the item, teacher, lesson, and rater facets achieved high levels of reliability. Teacher performance was consistent with what is reported in the literature. Implications for practice are discussed.
Article
To better understand the effectiveness of Direct Instruction (DI), the empirical base related to DI’s instructional design components (explicit teaching, judicious selection and sequencing of examples) and principles (identifying big ideas, teaching generalizable strategies, providing mediated instruction, integrating skills and concepts, priming background knowledge, and providing ample review) are analyzed. Attention is given to the converging evidence supporting the design characteristics of DI, which has broad applicability across different disciplines, teaching methodologies, and perspectives.
Article
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The Literacy Research Association (LRA) is known for releasing research reports on essential topics in the field of literacy. An Examination of Dyslexia Research and Instruction, with Policy Implications is a recent LRA report with far-reaching impact in education and policy. The report claimed to be a summary of dyslexia research and instruction, however, much recent research on dyslexia definitions, diagnosis, interventions, neuroscience, and law was left out. This paper is a response to the LRA report with the intent to examine elements of the report that are particularly important and well explained, as well as those that are problematic.
Article
Oral language proficiency in kindergarten can facilitate the acquisition of reading and writing. However, in diglossic languages, like Arabic, the large gap between the spoken and the formal, modern standard (MSA) varieties of the language may restrict the benefits of oral language proficiency to subsequent literacy skills. Here, we tested, in a randomized controlled study, whether an intervention program, implemented in kindergarten, that familiarized the children with rhymes presented in MSA through recitation, facilitated reading and spelling in first grade. We also tested whether engaging the children in recitation affords an advantage over repeated listening by itself and whether rhymes directly referring to the alphabet impart additional advantages. The children were assigned to one of four intervention conditions (10 sessions, 2 months) wherein they either recited or repeatedly listened to nursery rhymes that were either related or unrelated to the alphabet, or engaged in nonlinguistic activities (control). A year later, all intervention groups read faster compared to a control group (nonlinguistic activity). The two recitation groups gained in reading accuracy, reading efficiency, and spelling; spelling gains were found also in children who only listened to alphabet-related rhymes. The reciting groups were superior to the listening groups in all study measures (reading and spelling). The results suggest long-term contributions from structured interventions based on oral rhyme repetition, in kindergarten, to reading and spelling in first grade. Vocal recitations in kindergarten can benefit the mastering of literacy skills even in a language that differs from the one spoken in the child's home. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
I artikeln studeras svenska förskoleklasslärare och lågstadielärares lärares användning av bedömningsinformation som underlag för att göra an-passningar i tidig läsundervisning med fokus på avkodning. Avsikten är att bidra med kunskap till två skilda forskningsfält, framåtsyftande bedömning och avkodningsundervisning. Vi har intervjuat 12 lärare och uppmuntrat dem att berätta om sitt arbete med att utveckla sina elevers avkodningsförmåga inom ramen för ett lokalt utvecklat läsprojekt inriktat på avkodningsträning. Genom narrativa analyser har vi studerat lärarnas berättelser om sitt arbete med bedömning och anpassning. I resultatdelen presenterar vi tre berättelser som illustrerar olika typer av bedömnings- och anpassningshandlingar samt hur dessa motiveras av lärarna. I diskussionen belyser vi tre olika perspektiv som framträder i lärarnas motiveringar och diskuteras betydelsen av att lärare anpassar sin undervisning på skilda sätt utifrån de bedömningar lärarna berättar att de gör samt hur de motiverar sina handlingar. Studiens resultat visar att såväl kognitiva som sociala bedömningsaspekter beaktas av lärarna när de anpassar avkodningsundervisningen. Det framgår också att lärarnas arbete med att bedöma och anpassa avkodningsundervisningen inom ramen för det stöd som läsprojektet utgör ställer höga krav på lärares professionella kompetens och kunskaper.
Article
This systematic review investigated small-group Tier 2 interventions to improve oral language or reading outcomes for children during preschool and early primary school years. Literature published from 2008 was searched and 152 papers selected for full-text review; 55 studies were included. Three strength of evidence assessment tools identified a shortlist of six interventions with relatively strong evidence: (a) Early Reading Intervention; (b) Lonigan and Philips (2016) Unnamed needs-aligned intervention; (c) PHAB+WIST (PHAST)/PHAB+RAVE-O; (d) Read Well-Aligned intervention; (e) Ryder and colleagues’ (2008) Unnamed Phonological Awareness and Phonics intervention; and (f) Story Friends. Investigation of intervention componentry found common characteristics included 3–5 students, 4–5 sessions per week, minimum 11-week duration, content covering a combination of skills, modelling and explicit instruction, and trained personnel. Shortlisted interventions provide a useful foundation to guide further interventions and inform educators and policymakers seeking to implement effective evidence-based interventions in the early years of schooling.
Thesis
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Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, 60-72 aylık çocukların erken okuryazarlık beceri düzeyinin SED, ev okuryazarlık uygulamaları, öğretmen okuryazarlık bilgi düzeyi ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamaları açısından incelenmesidir. Araştırmaya, devlet okulları bünyesinde bulunan anasınıflarında eğitim öğretimine devam eden ve tanılı herhangi bir yetersizliği olmayan 60-72 ay yaş aralığındaki 235 çocuk dâhil edilmiştir. Araştırmaya dâhil edilen çocukların erken okuryazarlık beceri düzeylerine ilişkin bilgiler ‘Erken Okuryazarlık Testi (EROT)’, ailelerin sosyo ekonomik düzeylerine ilişkin bilgiler ‘Aile Bilgi Formu’, ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarına ilişkin bilgiler araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen ‘Ev Okuryazarlık Uygulamaları Ölçeği (EVOKU)’, okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin erken okuryazarlık bilgi düzeyi ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarına ilişkin bilgiler ‘Öğretmen Görüşme Formu’ ile elde edilmiştir. Çocukların öncelikle EROT alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanların SED’e ve yaşa göre dağılımları belirlenmiştir. Dağılımların belirlenmesinin ardından EROT alt testlerinden elde edilen puanların SED’e ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarına göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğimi belirlemek için Kruskall Wallis- H testi, ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarına ve öğretmen bilgi düzeyine göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğini belirlemek için Mann Whitney-U testi kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara bakıldığında çocukların alıcı dilde sözcük bilgisi, ifade edici dilde sözcük bilgisi ve sesbilgisel farkındalık becerileri alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanların SED’e göre anlamlı farklılık gösterdiği görülmüştür. Anlamlı farklılığın ise üst SED’den gelen çocuklar ile alt SED’den gelen çocuklar arasında ve üst SED’den gelen çocukların lehine, orta SED’den gelen çocuklar ile alt SED’den gelen çocuklar arasında ve orta SED’den gelen çocukların lehine olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarının, çocukların alıcı dilde sözcük bilgisi, ifade edici dilde sözcük bilgisi, sesbilgisel farkındalık ve dinlediğini anlama alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanlar üzerinde anlamlı farklılıklar yarattığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Anlamlı farklığın ise erken okuryazarlık becerileri açısından risk grubunda olmayan çocukların lehine olduğu görülmüştür. Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin sahip olduğu erken okuryazarlık bilgi düzeyinin, çocukların EROT alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanlar üzerinde anlamlı farklılık yaratmadığı görülmüştür. Son olarak sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarının, çocukların alıcı ve ifade edici dilde sözcük bilgisi alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanlar üzerinde anlamlı farklılık yarattığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Anlamlı farklılığın ise iyi uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar ile zayıf uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar arasında ve iyi uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfındaki çocukların lehine, orta düzey uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar ile zayıf uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar arasında ve orta düzey uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfındaki çocukların lehine olduğu görülmüştür. Elde edilen bulgular alanyazın temelinde tartışılmış ve hem SED’in hem ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarının hem de sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarının erken okuryazarlık becerileri için önemli değişkenler olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, çocuğun erken okuryazarlık bilgi ve becerilerinin gelişimi üzerinde etkili olduğu belirlenen tüm değişkenler bütüncül bir bakış açısıyla ele alınmış ve çocuğun içinde bulunduğu SED’in, ev okuryazarlık ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarının niteliğinin ve niceliğinin çocukların erken okuryazarlık bilgi ve becerilerinin gelişimini destekleyen önemli değişkenler olduğu görülmüştür.
Thesis
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Bu araştırma kapsamında, ilkokul öğrencilerinden öğrenme güçlüğü (ÖG) açısından riskli olanlarını belirlemek üzere Öğrenme Güçlüğü Belirleme Aracı (ÖGBA)’nın geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ankara ili sekiz merkez ilçesinden görev yapan, 17’si ön deneme, 670’i deneme uygulaması ve 109’u kesme puanı belirleme olmak üzere toplam 796 sınıf öğretmeni araştırmaya gönüllü katılım sağlamıştır. Veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen Öğretmen Bilgi Formu ve ÖGBA kullanılmıştır. Temel araştırma türlerinden betimsel araştırma modeliyle yürütülen bu çalışma sonucunda 129 madde ve yedi temel bileşenden (Matematik, Okuma, Yazma, Sosyal-Duygusal, Bilişsel, Motor ve Dil) oluşan tek boyutlu geçerliği, güvenirliği ve kesme puanı olan bir kontrol listesi elde edilmiştir. Geçerlik çalışmaları için kapsam ve yapı geçerliği; güvenirlik çalışmaları için iç tutarlık katsayısı (KR-20), iki yarı güvenirliği ve madde toplam puan korelasyonu hesaplanmıştır. Yapı geçerliği kapsamında kategorik temel bileşenler analizi (CATPCA), açımlayıcı faktör analizi (AFA) ve elde edilen modeli doğrulamak için doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) yapılmıştır. CATPCA sonucu elde edilen nesne (standart) puanları ile ölçekten alınan ham puanlar arasında yüksek korelasyon (.98) olması nedeniyle ÖGBA ham puanları standart puanlara dönüştürülmeden yorumlanabilmektedir. Maddeleri “Hayır=1, Evet=2” olarak kodlanan ÖGBA’dan alınabilecek en düşük ve en yüksek puan sırasıyla 129 ve 258 ham puandır. Ölçekten alınan ham puanın yükselmesi ÖG riskinin artması anlamına gelmektedir. Kesme puanları, karşıt gruplar yöntemiyle elde edilen aracın güvenirlik katsayısı .76 olarak hesaplanmıştır.
Thesis
Dyslexia is the most prevalent learning disability and the lack of automaticity in word recognition is one of its main characteristics. This thesis is dedicated to the gamification of in-home dyslexia remediation by focusing on the development of automaticity for children aged from five to nine years old. An extensive research on the effective principles of automaticity training, led to the creation of a novel training model for automaticity acquisition. Training for automaticity requires countless repetitions, and adherence is crucial. Gamification concept was proposed to increase motivation, engagement, and adherence. Based on the automaticity-training model, a gamification model was developed for placing each game element at its appropriate phase of automaticity acquisition. The effectiveness of this gamification model was validated by a randomized controlled trial. Furthermore, an optimization model was developed to provide individualized training sessions based on the level of the learner. For estimating the difficulty level of the content, four lexical skills were modelled using artificial neural networks and linear regression. For each lexical skill, the top 10 lexical variables were identified through forward stepwise analysis. The accuracy of the models based on mean absolute error reached 90.58% for auditory word recognition, 92.08% for visual word recognition, 84.83% for spelling, and 86.98% for word decoding. Finally, based on these developments, four games were created and provided on multiple platforms. The evaluation of the usability study confirmed the viability of the intelligent system and the games scored 80% on the system usability scale.
Thesis
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İlk Okuma ve Yazma Öğretim Yöntemlerinin Prozodik Okuma ve Okuma Hataları Açısından İncelenmesi
Article
Educators have many questions about phonics instruction centering on topics including programs, approaches, assessment, transfer, and differentiation. We propose 8 principles to (1) help answer these common questions, (2) tackle current misconceptions, and (3) discuss research‐based practices about phonics instruction.
Article
Teachers are asked to use reading science to inform how they teach phonics and phonological awareness. As teachers look to the research base to guide their practice, some questions and concerns regarding what best practice looks like have come up. This article starts with a brief description of phonics and phonemic awareness and then discusses topics of issue in a developmental order, addressing phonemic awareness, phonics, and morphology. Current research is used to discuss 10 questions teachers are asking as they navigate applying reading research in the classroom.
Research
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Reading is a skill that indirectly determines the future of a young individual while literacy is the legacy of the teacher to their learners. This study employed the qualitative research design with the use of phenomenological approach and grounded theory as a tool. It was found out that family orientation and background played a big and important role in the reading ability of the learners. It was also identified that the multilingualism of the learners affects their ability to read. It also creates their word confusion among the mother tongue, the Filipino and English languages. The non-readers may be concluded as a result of public educational system which employs policy on mass promotion and a learning scenario with a challenging ratio between a teacher and numerous students in one class. The said situation produces the non-readers in the higher grades. The intervention of the teachers proved to be effective which uses reading materials that ranges from alphabet chart, words, phrases, short paragraphs to short stories. The frequency of session ranges from two, three and the most is five hours per week. This paper recommends providing exigency of service of the academicians, to help battle the phenomenal illiteracy of learners through an extension program for a more literate society.
Chapter
Reading is one of the most complicated and uniquely human activities. As such, learning to read requires the coordination of a complex set of skills, with demands changing markedly across the span of development. The study of individual differences in reading development, as it applies to children and adolescents, has a long and influential history in helping advance the science of reading. In this chapter, the authors begin by outlining analytical tools now available to examine individual differences, with an emphasis on exploratory item response models, before moving on to review child‐ and word‐level sources of variation that have been shown to predict variations in the development of word‐reading skill. They highlight child‐by‐word predictors that allow for new and more nuanced approaches to examining item‐level variance in word‐reading outcomes. A range of word‐level characteristics show promise in explaining individual differences in reading development.
Chapter
It is widely held that children implicitly learn the structure of their writing system through statistical learning of spelling-to-sound mappings. Yet an unresolved question is how to sequence reading experience so that children can ‘pick up’ the structure optimally. We tackle this question here using a computational model of encoding and decoding. The order of presentation of words was manipulated so that they exhibited two distinct progressions of granularity of spelling-to-sound mappings. We found that under a training regime that introduced written words progressively from small-to-large granularity, the network exhibited an early advantage in reading acquisition as compared to a regime introducing written words from large-to-small granularity. Our results thus provide support for the grain size theory (Ziegler and Goswami 2005) and demonstrate that the order of learning can influence learning trajectories of literacy skills.1
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This consideration of effective ways to educate low-income, educationally at-risk students in kindergarten documents an approach that has been effective in accelerating academic growth. Results of a longitudinal study of children who received Direct Instruction in primary school indicated benefits when participants were in the ninth grade. (RH)
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Fifty-four disabled readers were randomly assigned to one of two word recognition and spelling training programs or to a problem solving and study skills training program. One word-training program taught orthographically regular words by whole word methods alone; the other trained constituent grapheme-phoneme correspondences. The word-training groups made significant gains in word recognition accuracy and speed and in spelling. Significant transfer was observed on uninstructed spelling content but not on uninstructed reading vocabulary. In general, the word-training programs were equally effective for instructed content, but the whole-word group was superior on some transfer measures at posttest. Although the results demonstrate that dyslexic readers can be instructed successfully, the children did not profit differentially from letter-sound over whole-word training in the present context. We speculate that severely disabled readers may require either a more extended period of letter-sound instruction to reliably adopt an alphabetic decoding strategy or additional specific training in phonological awareness and subsyllabic segmentation.
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For poor readers, one roadblock to the construction of meaning from text may be the inability to decode words quickly and accurately. In most cases more phonics instruction, similar to what has not worked in the past, does not improve this situation. Based on an analysis of the research literature in decoding and linguistics and a 4-year cycle of program development, a new program was created for teaching decoding to poor readers of average or above intelligence in grades 1 through 8. The program guides students to become aware of patterns and consistencies in our language and to apply a decoding process of using what they have learned about words to decode words they do not know. It is a teacher directed, supplemental program to be taught to a whole class for approximately 15 to 20 minutes a day and is intended to be used in conjunction with a basal reader or trade book program. The program features a multisensory approach, strong emphasis on vocabulary and language development, and a direct teaching model. Goals of the program include teaching students to use known words to decode unknown words, to discriminate structural components of words, to see how our language is organized, to be flexible in pronouncing words, and to demonstrate automaticity in decoding---all as foundation blocks for the meaning-making process. Preliminary evidence suggests that the program has been successful in improving students' decoding skills.
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Two groups of primary-grade classrooms differing in their instructional approach to beginning reading were compared to assess the relationship between learning activities, cognitive abilities, and reading skill. Students' activities in 20 classrooms were observed, confirming that half of the classrooms followed an individualized language-experience approach and half a decoding-oriented basal reader approach. Year-end testing of the students revealed basic level reading skill to be less universally acquired in the language-experience group, but no difference in information processing and linguistic abilities between the two groups. In addition, while the various cognitive measures generally correlated positively with reading in the decoding-oriented group, significant negative correlations between linguistic ability and reading skill were observed in the language-experience group. It is argued that linguistic ability facilitates beginning reading only after a threshold of print-specific skills is acquired, and that the observed difference between the two groups stemmed primarily from their varying emphasis on systematic instruction, with corrective feedback, of these print-specific skills. /// [French] On a comparé deux groupes de classes primaires différant dans leur approche d'instruction face à la lecture de début afin d'évaluer le rapport entre les activités où l'on apprend, les capacités cognitives et la compétence de lecture. On a observé les activités d'élèves dans 20 salles de classes, confirmant que la moitié des classes suivait une approche de l'expérience de la langue individualisée et que l'autre moitié suivait une approche de lecteur de base orientée sur le déchiffrement. Les tests de fin d'année des élèves ont révélé que la compétence de lecture de niveau de base était moins universellement acquise dans le groupe expérience de la langue mais qu'il n'y avait aucune différence dans le développement d'informations et les capacités linguistiques entre les deux groupes. De plus, tandis que les diverses mesures cognitives correspondaient généralement de manière positive avec la lecture dans le groupe orienté sur le déchiffrement, on a observé des corrélations négatives significatives entre la capacité linguistique et la formation de lecture dans le groupe expérience de la langue. On discute le fait que la capacité linguistique facilite la lecture de début seulement après avoir franchi un seuil de compétences spécifiques de mots imprimés, et que la différence observée entre les deux groupes provient essentiellement de leur accent varié sur l'instruction systématique, avec un échange correctif, de ces compétences spécifiques de mots imprimés. /// [Spanish] Se compararon dos grupos de clases de grado primario con diferente metodología de instrucción inicial de lectura, para evaluar la relación entre actividades de aprendizaje, habilidades cognitivas y la habilidad de lectura. Se observaron las actividades de los alumnos en 20 clases, asegurando que la mitad de las clases seguían el método de experiencia de lenguaje individualizado y la otra mitad el método de énfasis de descifre del texto básico. La evaluación de fin de año escolar de los alumnos reveló que la habilidad básica de lectura menos universalmente adquirida fue por el grupo de experiencia de lenguaje, pero sin diferencia entre los dos grupos en el proceso de información y en las destrezas lingüísticas. Además, mientras que las varias medidas cognitivas generalmente mostraban correlación positiva con la lectura en el grupo de énfasis de descifre, se observaron correlaciones negativas significativas entre habilidad lingüística y habilidad de lectura en el grupo de experiencia de lenguaje. Se razona que la habilidad lingüística facilita los inicios de lectura sólo hasta después de haber adquirido una competencia mínima en destrezas relacionadas con la página impresa y que la diferencia observada entre los dos grupos fue causada primordialmente por el énfasis variado de instrucción sistemática con comprobación inmediata correctiva de estas destrezas relacionadas con la página impresa.
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The authors review basic principles underlying word learning and phonics instruction. These principles are applicable to many primary-grade classrooms. They then discuss approaches to teaching phonics. Finally, they draw some tentative conclusions on how an integrated language arts program that includes phonics might look in a first-grade classroom.
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The parents of 40 children (chronological age 5 yrs 3 mo to 6 yrs 4 mo) in 2 Grade 1 classrooms were randomly assigned to receive brief training in 1 of 4 instructional methods for helping their child to read or to hear their children read at home. The tutoring methods were Hearing Reading; Paired Reading; Pause, Prompt, Praise; and Direct Instruction. Results show that the use of the additional instructional strategies included in the Direct Instruction and Paired Reading tutoring methods led to faster progress by the Ss receiving them than by Ss whose parents simply heard them read. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The efficacy of a combination of phonological and strategy-based remedial approaches for reading disability (RD) was compared with that of each approach separately. Eighty-five children with severe RD were randomly assigned to 70 intervention hours in 1 of 5 sequences: PHAB/DI (Phonological Analysis and Blending/Direct Instruction) → WIST (Word Identification Strategy Training), WIST → PHAB/DI, PHAB/DI × 2, WIST × 2, or CSS → MATH (Classroom Survival Skills - Math, a control treatment). Performance was assessed before, 3 times during, and after intervention. Four orthogonal contrasts based on a linear trend analysis model were evaluated. There were generalized treatment effects on standardized measures of word identification, passage comprehension, and nonword reading. A combination of PHAB/DI and WIST proved superior to either program alone on nonword reading, letter-sound and keyword knowledge, and 3 word identification measures. Generalization of nonword decoding to real word identification was achieved with a combination of effective remedial components. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study reports afield test of six research-based teaching strategies with 37 special education resource teachers and 176 students with mild disabilities. The approaches included peer tutoring, reciprocal teaching, effective teaching principles, computer-aided instruction, and two direct instruction models, all used in reading instruction. Comparisons with a control group and between approaches produced inconsistent results. Students in all groups, including the controls, showed higher levels of engagement during all approaches than other researchers have reported for either mainstream or resource room students. Student achievement was highest in the computer-assisted group, in the reciprocal teaching group, and in one of the direct instruction groups.
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The aim of this study was to determine whether metacognitive strategy training in the use of rime spelling units would be an effective intervention strategy for children with reading disability. Thirty-six disabled readers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups, a rime analogy training group or an item-specific training group. Posttreatment measures were taken at the completion of the training, and 1-year follow-up data were obtained from the 2 training groups and a sample of 20 normally developing readers. Systematic strategy training in the use of rime spelling units produced generalized achievement gains and transfer to uninstructed materials and was more effective than training that focused on item-specific learning and sentence-level strategies. The superior posttreatment performance of the rime analogy group over the item-specific group was maintained.
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A lthough written English displays three types of units that make contact with readers' knowledge of language, letters, words, and sentences, read-ers' eyes come to favor words as the units that are most easily processed (Rayner & Pollatsek, 1989). The advantage of words over sentences is that words can be assimilated in one glance. The advantage of words over letters is that writ-ten words correspond more reliably to spoken words than letters correspond to phonemes. Many years ago, Cattell (1886) found that readers could recognize a whole word more readily than a single letter. More recent studies have verified the word-superiority effect (Reicher, 1969; Wheeler, 1970). Various ways to read words can be distinguished: by sight, by decoding (also called phonological recoding), 1 by analogizing, by processing spelling patterns, and by contextual guessing. When people read words by sight, they ac-cess information stored in their lexicons (mental dictionaries) from previous ex-periences reading those words. On seeing a familiar written word, readers access the word's identities, including its pronunciation, meaning, syntactic identity (its typical grammatical role in sentences), and orthographic identity (information about its spelling) (Ehri, 1978, 1980). Words appearing frequently in text are more apt to be read by sight than words appearing infrequently because some practice is needed to form access routes into lexical memory for specific words. Several behaviors indicate sight-word reading: when words are read as whole units without any pauses between phonemes or syllables; when words are read rapidly, faster than nonsense words having comparable spelling patterns; when irregularly spelled words are pronounced correctly rather than decoded phoneti-cally (reading recipe as /re ˘-s∂-pe -/ rather than /re --sı -p) 2 (Adams & Huggins, 1985); when correct spellings are distinguished from homophonous spellings (rain vs. rane; sword vs. sord; pear vs. pair; write vs. right) (Olson, 1985; Stanovich & West, 1989).
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The “whole language” movement is the most discussed trend in language arts education today. Most educators resonate with classroom practices proposed by whole language advocates. Some, however, believe that the position taken against the direct teaching of phonics skills by whole language enthusiasts is ill‐advised, especially for first‐grade children. A recent review of studies comparing whole language approaches with basal approaches suggests that whole language approaches may not be as effective as basals in helping students master the word recognition skills prerequisite to effective comprehension. A modified whole language approach, focusing more directly on word recognition skills, was developed, implemented, and tested in three first‐grade classrooms in Provo, Utah. Nine of ten characteristics generally associated with whole language approaches were kept intact in the modified program. However, a daily 15‐minute period of total class phonics instruction was added to the program, which is not characteristic of whole language approaches. The year‐long study compared the reading achievement effects of the “modified whole language” approach implemented in three classrooms in one school with those obtained from a popular basal approach implemented in three classrooms in a second school in the same school district. Both schools were matched according to student achievement, socio‐economic background, and student turnover. A posttest‐only control group with a pretest covariate research design was used. Vocabulary and comprehension were measured using the Gates‐MacGinitie Reading Test, Level A, Form 1. Phonics and reading attitudes were measured using author‐developed instruments. All tests were administered to all students in September and in May. Students involved in the modified whole language program made greater achievement gains in phonics, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and total reading achievement than students in the basal program. Attitudes toward reading were significantly better in the modified whole language program than in the basal program.
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This paper includes an overview of curriculum information and the basic techniques of a multisensory approach for teaching alphabet and dictionary skills, reading, spelling, and cursive handwriting. It also reports the results of a four-year study of reading and spelling in both remedial and nonremedial classes in a public school. The California Achievement Test (CAT) scores in reading and spelling for students in both remedial and nonremedial classes improved over baseline scores following this multisensory approach. Additionally, there was a tendency for the CAT mean scores to increase corresponding to the number of years students had been taught by the multisensory program.
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A longitudinal study followed the progress of a group of elementary SLD students as they were instructed using the Alphabetic Phonics (AP) curriculum. After a three year period, the AP curriculum produced positive results in reading comprehension for most SLD students, particularly those who began the program in first and second grade. Students in resource and self-contained settings made significant gains in reading comprehension, although the two types of students exhibited different patterns of progress. Students of different ability levels responded differently to the AP curriculum. Average and above average students made significant progress in reading comprehension, but below average students did not advance substantially in relation to their ability level. At the end of three years, classroom teachers had a significantly more positive view of students' word attack, oral reading, and silent reading comprehension skills.
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This study evaluated an intervention to enhance early phonological processing skills and reading. Early phonological processing skills are strongly related to progress in early literacy and phonological processing deficits are found related to specific reading disability. Thirty children aged 5.1–6.0 (15 in each of two schools) were assigned to an experimental or control group and compared before and after a 12-week intervention on measures of phonological processing skills and reading. There were no pretreatment differences between groups. The experimental intervention was based on findings of (a) early developmental phases in phonological recoding, (b) reciprocal development between phoneme awareness and phonological recoding, and (c) reciprocal development between phonological processing skills and early reading. The instruction was designed to facilitate the gradually expanding use of letter-phoneme relationships in early reading and spelling. The results indicated that, at posttest, the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group on the measures of phonological processing skills and in reading. Intervention that includes teaching the sounds of letters and phoneme awareness as part of using letter-phoneme relationships in recognizing printed words, in spelling, and in reading (pronouncing words) appears to be effective for enhancing early reading and may possibly reduce the probability of subsequent reading disability.
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University-based researchers consulted with first-grade teachers in a comparison of Integrated Reading-Writing (IR-W) and DISTAR programs in comparable urban schools with students “at risk” for literacy problems. Students in the two programs made comparable relative gains in achievement outcomes in word recognition from the beginning to the end of first grade. Level of orthographic and phonological awareness at the end of the first grade, but not instructional program, predicted level of reading achievement at the end of first grade. However, differences in processes underlying end-of-year achievement outcome were observed. Children in Integrated Reading-Writing tended to acquire orthographic-phonological connections at the whole word and subword levels, whereas children in DISTAR tended to acquire only subword connections. No differences were noted in developmental level of composition between the two instructional programs at the middle or end of first grade when coded compositions were available. The results are consistent with the notion that there is more than one way to learn to read and write.
Article
This article examines the component spelling skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia in an effort to identify some of the basic impairments associated with their spelling problems and to determine if these adults ever attain age- or level-appropriate competence. College students with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia were given a dictation task, a spelling-recognition task, and a nonword spelling task to assess their use and knowledge of sound-spelling, orthographic, morphologic, and visual information. Their performance on these tasks was compared to that of control groups of normal college students and of normal grade 6 (matched with the dyslexics on the basis of their standardized spelling and reading test scores). Dyslexics' spelling problems were primarily associated with their failure to acquire knowledge of the mappings between spelling and sounds of English. Their use and knowledge of morphological (higher level linguistic) information and of visual information for spelling, however, is predictable from their reading and spelling levels. This last set of results reflects the fact that the dyslexics in this study engaged in much reading and that exposure to written words plays an important role in the development of these specific component spelling skills.
Article
There are lessons to be learned from the rapid rise and descent of the whole language movement. This paper reviews three aspects of the whole language movement. First, it is unprecedented for a progressive education movement to be as accepted by mainstream educators as whole language was. Second, whole language filled a need for a shift in pedagogy, from word recognition and comprehension to motivation, and from Reading-to-Learn to Reading-to-Enjoy. Third, the whole language movement was political, both in the means used to promote itself and in its notions that whole language instruction can effect societal change.
Article
IN THIS study the authors examine issues related to selecting and evaluating early intervention programs for first graders at serious risk For failing in reading acquisition. The program evaluated is Early Steps, an intervention with one-to-one tutoring and with particular emphasis on story reading, writing, and phonological skills. Four neighborhood schools were selected to participate in the study-two experimental and two control schools. The 49 children came from lower- to middle-class Caucasian families with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. The design of the study includes pre-, post-, and retention assessments of an experimental and a control group. Various tests were used to assess spelling performance, word recognition, nonword reading, and reading comprehension. The results at the end of Grade 1 and at the beginning of Grade 2 indicate that the experimental group performed statistically significantly better than the control group on all variables assessed. In particular, the children with the lowest pretest levels, the very high-risk children, benefit most from the intervention. Their improvement approaches the average performance level after an intervention period of 8 months. We presume that the substantial progress among high-risk children reflects the importance of a balanced approach to beginning reading and the power of the Early Steps program to increase the phonological and word study skills among those children most at risk in this domain.
Article
This article summarizes a comprehensive synthesis of experimental intervention studies that have included students with learning disabilities. Effect sizes for 180 intervention studies were analyzed across instructional domains, sample characteristics, intervention parameters, methodological procedures, and article characteristics. The overall mean effect size of instructional intervention was positive and of high magnitude (M = 0.79). Effect sizes were more positive for a combined model that included components of direct and strategy instruction than for competing models. Interventions that included instructional components related to controlling task difficulty, small interactive groups, and directed responses and questioning of students were significant predictors of effect size, and interventions that varied from control conditions in terms of setting, teacher, and number of instructional steps yielded larger effect sizes than studies that failed to control for such variations. The results are supportive of the pervasive influence of cognitive strategy and direct instruction models for remediating the academic difficulties for children with learning disabilities.
Article
To examine the effects of whole language and language experience approaches on beginning reading achievement, a quantitative synthesis was performed on two data bases: the five projects conducted as part of the United States Office of Education (USOE) first grade studies and 46 additional studies comparing basal reading approaches to whole language or language experience approaches. The results of both analyses suggest that, overall, whole language/language experience approaches and basal reader approaches are approximately equal in their effects, with several exceptions. First, whole language/language experience approaches may be more effective in kindergarten than in first grade. Second, they may produce stronger effects on measures of word recognition than on measures of reading comprehension. Third, more recent studies show a trend toward stronger effects for the basal reading program relative to whole language/language experience methods. Fourth, whole language/language experience approaches produce weaker effects with populations labeled specifically as disadvantaged than they do with those not specifically labeled. Finally, studies with higher rated quality tend to produce lower effect sizes and the lowest effect sizes were found in studies that evaluated existing programs, as opposed to newly implemented experimental programs. These results are discussed within a stage model of reading that suggests that whole language/language experience approaches might be most effective for teaching functional aspects of reading, such as print concepts and expectations about reading, whereas more direct approaches might be better at helping students master word recognition skills prerequisite to effective comprehension.
Article
This article documents the evaluations of the New Primary Grades Reading System (NRS). NRS was implemented in a variety of settings, and the evaluations track the implementation from the early stages of pilot testing through large-scale adoption of the program. Accompanying contrasts were made within a single school, within a school district, and across districts. This approach to evaluation followed the naturally occurring process of implementation of the innovation and provides convergent evidence as to its effects. The accumulation of evidence regarding the success of an innovation across settings allows for greater confidence in the conclusions drawn.
Article
Four groups of third grade children were exposed to different remedial reading methods for one year. Although the usual spurt in tested reading score was observed at the conclusion of that experience, a six-month follow-up indi-cated that the improvement in tested reading was transitory. There was not sufficient evi-dence to believe that any one method tried had any greater long-term effect than did any other, or that any of the methods involved in this study had a demonstrable long-range practical impact on a child's reading level.
Article
In an earlier study (Tangel & Blachman, 1992), low-income, inner-city children who received 11 weeks of instruction in kindergarten in phoneme awareness produced invented spellings at the end of kindergarten that were rated developmentally superior to those of control children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the invented and standard spelling of these same children in February and May of first grade. During first grade, the treatment children participated in a reading program that continued to emphasize phoneme awareness and the alphabetic code. In February of first grade and May of first grade (the end of the second year of the study), treatment children significantly outperformed the control children on measures of invented and standard spelling. A reliable scoring system had been created to evaluate the invented spelling of the kindergarten children (Tangel & Blachman, 1992). For this study, the scoring system was expanded to evaluate later developing spelling patterns. As with the original scale, the expanded scale was found to be highly reliable using either correlation or percent of agreement. In addition, a reliable scoring system was developed to rate the developmental sophistication of responses (e.g., allowing partial credit for phonetically correct responses) on a measure of standard spelling.
Article
We examined the effectiveness of 3 different reading interventions in second and third graders with identified reading disabilities. Fourteen special education teachers taught 114 second and third graders either synthetic phonics, analytic phonics, or sight-word programs in the resource room 60 min a day for 1 school year. Growth in phonological and orthographic processing and word reading was compared for the 3 interventions. Facilitative effects of synthetic phonics were reduced when demo- graphic and Verbal IQ covariates were included in the growth-curve models. How- ever, the most significant mediator of intervention effects was initial differences in phonological and orthographic processing skills. Implications for service delivery and identification of children for special education are discussed.
Article
This study examined the acquisition of decoding and spelling skills and writing fluency of children with various levels of beginning-of-the-year phonemic awareness. First grade children who began school high and low in phonemic awareness received either whole language or traditional basal instruction. The whole language curriculum included the shared-book experience and extensive writing activities; the traditional basal curriculum included explicit phonics instruction, but very little writing. Beginning-of-the-year level of phonemic awareness was more important than method of instruction in literacy acquisition. High phonemic awareness children outperformed low phonemic awareness children on all of the literacy measures. The role that writing using invented spelling may play in helping low phonemic awareness children understand the alphabetic principle is discussed.
Article
Studies that demonstrate effective Chapter 1 programs have been few. This project examined the effects of focused Chapter 1 instruction on first-grade students' literacy. Three perspectives on students' end-of-the-year reading and writing performances showed that (a) the majority of project students could read a primer text or higher fluently; (b) students in the restructured Chapter 1 program had significantly higher performances than students in the district's regular Chapter 1 program; and (c) students in the restructured Chapter 1 who had begun first grade with significantly lower readiness scores than all groups of classmates were performing comparable to students in the middle of the class. The discussion raises questions about sustenance of student growth and teacher practices and proposes directions for Chapter 1.
Article
Participants in this study were 168 middle-class children who were screened, during kindergarten, by SEARCH as at risk for reading failure, on the basis of locally derived norms. These at-risk children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups: (a) TEACH, a perceptual remediation approach; (b) phonetic tutoring; or (c) no-contact control. The interventions were administered during first grade. Following the interventions, children were assessed with an individually administered test battery at the end of first and second grade. Group achievement data were also available for the at-risk sample and a randomly selected group of not-at-risk children matched to the at-risk controls. The only significant finding that emerged involved consistently higher word attack scores for children in the phonetic tutoring group over a 2-year period. When the effects of the intervention were examined within groups of vulnerable readers, marginally at-risk children in the phonetic group appeared to have profited the most from one-to-one tutoring, demonstrating significantly higher performance on word attack, phonetic analysis, and the test of written spelling. Finally, comparisons of at-risk and not-at-risk children indicted significantly lower academic performance for the at-risk group over a 2-year period. The results of the study call into question the effectiveness of the TEACH tutoring model. In addition, they indicate that one-to-one tutoring is not likely to result in comprehensive achievement gains if its focus is on narrow and isolated instructional activities.
Article
“Sing, Spell, Read, and Write” (SSRW) was designed for teaching reading, writing, spelling, and speaking in kindergarten through Grade 3. Throughout the program there is a strong phonics orientation. Given the growth of SSRW in schools across the United States, the present study was designed to evaluate its effectiveness in a large metropolitan school district. Eight randomly selected SSRW schools were divided into three strata (high, middle, and low) on the basis of socioeconomic status and were individually matched at the school and class level with nine comparison schools on the basis of socioeconomic status, racial makeup, and standardized achievement scores. Analysis of reading, writing, and spelling scores indicated that SSRW was somewhat more effective than the traditional (basal) curriculum for teaching word attack and letter‐word identification, especially for students in low‐stratum schools. For more complex language skills, such as writing and oral reading comprehension, SSRW was not more effective than the conventional curriculum.
Article
In an effort to determine differences between the reading scores of students taught by a traditional basal approach and a more structured direct instruction approach, 31 problem readers from two first grade classrooms in a low income Southeastern rural community were examined and tested over a year-long period. The two groups were found to be approximately equal in pretest measures prior to treatment. At the end of the treatment period, the experimental group, which used the SRA Reading Mastery Series, demonstrated significantly higher achievement scores compared with the students using the basal reading curriculum, with differences occurring in word-identification, word attack, and total reading. One major factor contributing to the higher scores appeared to be the direct instruction curriculum used, which required no background knowledge or entry skills, and utilized a synthetic phonics approach to break all skills into small steps to be practiced. The second factor was probably the training and supervision that teachers in the experimental group received. Based on the results of the study, several recommendations are given. (Tables of data showing posttest results are included.) (MM)
Article
Two groups of grade 2 students who differed in their teacher's instructional approach to reading were compared on various word recognition tasks. Fifty-four students participated in the study, 27 from whole language classrooms and 27 from phonics/skills-based classrooms. Reading level was assessed using the Gates MacGinitie reading comprehension subtest (MacGinitie & MacGinitie, 1992). From the Gates MacGinitie, a criterion at or above the 25th percentile was established for participation. At the end of grade 2, these tasks were administered to all the students: (a) word identification with words presented in isolation and in context, (b) a grapheme substitution passage, and (c) a cloze procedure. The cloze procedure was the only measure to show significant difference between the groups favoring whole language classrooms. There were no other significant findings between the two instructional groups suggesting that for these students instructional approach had little effect on word recognition strategies.
Article
Describes the evolution of a phonics-basal elementary reading program in a rural New Mexico school district and the resulting improvement in reading. Notes the conditions in which changes initiated by the district and the Follow Through sponsor occurred. Explains monitoring and evaluation advances. (SB)
Article
Sixteen second graders who participated in a Spelling Mastery (direct instruction) program made significantly greater gains than 20 Ss in the Spellng in Language Arts (traditional) program. Findings further suggested that acquired spelling skills generalized to reading. Results were interpreted within an arousal hypothesis framework. (Author/CL)
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of whole language instruction in first‐grade classrooms. Three whole language classrooms were compared with three traditional classrooms. Data were collected for end‐of‐the‐year achievement in reading comprehension, vocabulary, phonemic awareness, decoding, spelling, and writing. There were no significant differences between the two instructional programs on any of the variables. The study also examined whether there would be differences between whole language and traditional instruction in end‐of‐the‐year reading, writing, and spelling achievement for children with varying levels of incoming phonemic awareness, reading, and writing ability. Results suggested that neither program was more likely to close gaps between children high and low in these incoming abilities.
Article
Discusses the results of investigating the linguistic aspects of reading errors with 88 2nd, 3rd, and 4th graders to determine: (a) which constituents of words tend to be misread, (b) whether the same ones tend to be misheard, and (c) the position and linguistic status of constituent segments within the word, in order to produce a coherent account of the possible causes of reading error patterns. It is suggested that a comparative study of reading and speech will clarify the problem of how perceiving language by eye differs from aural perception. (54 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
how does the child mentally represent printed words at each point of reading development / how does the child access these representations during encounters with print / how do word representation and word access change with experience and instruction restricted-interactive model / acquiring functional lexical representations / acquiring an autonomous lexicon (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the hypothesized developmental relationship between early reading and spelling ability by comparing 1st graders' spelling at the beginning of the school year to their reading achievement at the end of the year. 75 Ss from 4 classes participated in the study; 3 of the classes were from a suburban school that served a heterogeneous socioeconomic population, while the 4th class consisted mostly of Ss from upper-middle-class families. In September, Ss were dictated an 18-word spelling test that measured alphabet production, teacher prediction of end-of-year reading achievement, and Metropolitan Readiness Test scores. In January, the same spelling test was readministered to all Ss. In May, 2 reading achievement tests—an informal word recognition test and the Word Knowledge and Comprehension subtests of the Metropolitan Achievement Test—were administered. Results show correlations of .68 and .61, respectively, between the September spelling and May reading achievement measures, supporting the proposed relationship. It is asserted that the September test actually measured conceptual word knowledge acquired by Ss before entry into the 1st grade and that this knowledge served as a predictor of future reading growth. It is concluded that a developmental spelling assessment enables teachers to discern patterns of growth in beginning word knowledge, helping to establish the type of instruction and pace appropriate for students. A purposeful writing program should be initiated early in the 1st grade, regardless of students' spelling ability. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Administered a parent questionnaire on home educational environment and measures of early literacy, oral language ability, motor skills, and individual abilities related to reading achievement for 543 Austrialian Ss (mean age 5 yrs 3 mo) when they began kindergarten. Reading achievement measures were administered individually to Ss during the final 6 wks of kindergarten and again at the end of Grade 1. Results show that the strongest predictors of reading achievement were tasks tapping phonological processing skills, interdigital dexterity, and familiarity with the alphabetic code of English script. Individual attributes accounted for 63% of the variance in reading achievement at the end of kindergarten and 59% at the end of Grade 1. A short-set of 5 predictors (phoneme segmentation, letter copying, sex, letter names, and sentence memory) is suggested as a screening test for the early identification of reading-disabled Ss. When the effect of ability composition of S's class and school was assessed, it accounted for 9% of kindergarten and 6% of Grade 1 reading achievement variance. Peer ability was as strong a predictor of individual reading achievement as was individual ability. (50 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Results show when reading an unfamiliar word children benefit from the context of the sentence. When words have irregular spelling–sound correspondences, pronunciation cues contained in spelling patterns are important. Variations in decoding skill are important to success in reading unfamiliar words than sensitivity to sentential contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)