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School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence

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Abstract

The concept of school engagement has attracted increasing attention as representing a possible antidote to declining academic motivation and achievement. Engagement is presumed to be malleable, responsive to contextual features, and amenable to environmental change. Researchers describe behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement and recommend studying engagement as a multifaceted construct. This article reviews definitions, measures, precursors, and outcomes of engagement; discusses limitations in the existing research; and suggests improvements. The authors conclude that, although much has been learned, the potential contribution of the concept of school engagement to research on student experience has yet to be realized. They call for richer characterizations of how students behave, feel, and think—research that could aid in the development of finely tuned interventions

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... Student engagement is critical for effective learning because it is closely associated with lower student dropout rates and increased student motivation to learn (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Shernoff & Schmidt, 2008). Engagement can be generally conceptualised as a three-dimensional framework comprising behavioural engagement, emotional engagement, and cognitive engagement (e.g., Fredricks et al., 2004). ...
... Student engagement is critical for effective learning because it is closely associated with lower student dropout rates and increased student motivation to learn (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Shernoff & Schmidt, 2008). Engagement can be generally conceptualised as a three-dimensional framework comprising behavioural engagement, emotional engagement, and cognitive engagement (e.g., Fredricks et al., 2004). These three dimensions have been widely adopted by researchers in investigations of student engagement in online learning (e.g., Raes et al., 2020). ...
... Emotional engagement refers to students' affective reactions, such as their positive and negative responses to instructors and classmates (Fredricks et al., 2004). In investigations of emotional engagement in online learning, peer-to-peer interactions and student-to-instructor interactions have been found to influence students' sense of belonging, study progress (Meeuwisse, Severiens, & Born, 2010), and course engagement, regardless of the content of online activities (Dixson, 2010). ...
Article
The overarching goal of this design-based research is to develop and evaluate a set of design principles for a fully online flipped classroom to support students' learning outcomes, behavioural, emotional, and cognitive engagement. In a fully online flipped classroom, students are encouraged to complete online pre-class activities asynchronously. But unlike in the conventional flipped approach, students do not subsequently meet face-to-face in classrooms, but rather online synchronously. The testbed involved a conventional flipped class (Cycle 0), a fully online flipped class (Cycle 1), and a refined fully online flipped class (Cycle 2). The results showed that although all three groups of students performed equally well in learning, the refined online flipped model was more effective in supporting students' behavioural engagement in the synchronous online class sessions than the online flipped model. This study contributes to the extant literature by explicating the design principles that support student engagement in fully online flipped learning.
... Because these dimensions lack operationalisation in the literature of constructionism, the broader literature has been consulted to help conceptualise and validate these engagement dimensions, but many inconsistencies in the engagement constructs, classification, definitions, and measurements are found in the literature (Fredricks et al., 2003(Fredricks et al., , 2011. Firstly, learner engagement is theorised broadly in terms of discrete areas, such as cognitive, emotional, and behavioural (Connell, 1990;Fredricks, Blumenfeld & Paris, 2004) and academic, social, cognitive, and affective areas (Finn & Zimmer, 2012). Secondly, there is inconsistency concerning the discreteness of the engagement constructs and overlap among many constructs. ...
... For instance, there is variability among the instruments that measure motivation, where it is associated with behaviour (i.e., behavioural-self motivation), cognition (i.e., cognitive self-motivation), metacognition (i.e., motivational self-regulation), and affect (i.e., motivational attitudes and feelings) (Zimmerman, 2008). Thirdly, engagement is conceptualised according to contexts, such as engagement in activities, classroom environment, and institutional environment (Finn & Zimmer, 2012;Fredricks, Blumenfeld & Paris, 2004;Kuh et al., 2008;Newmann et al., 1992). Other engagement variables are also considered, including teacher-related factors and the influence of the surrounding environment (Finn & Zimmer, 2012;Kuh et al., 2008). ...
... • Part 1. AMA engagement (n=20 statements): literature on Papertian constructionism (Beynon, 2017;Papert, 1980Papert, , 1993Papert, , 1999Stager, 2005) and ICT-mediated learning (Forbes, 2015;Frydenberg, 2008;Huann & Thong, 2006;Lazzari, 2008;McLoughlin et al., 2006a;Nie et al, 2008) informed the focus of questionnaire items. All these areas are similarly emphasised in the engagement learning discourse (Connell, 1990;Finn & Zimmer, 2012;Fredricks et al., 2004;Winne & Hadwin, 1998;Zimmerman, 2000Zimmerman, , 2002Zimmerman, , 2008. ...
Thesis
Constructivist learning pedagogies are gaining attention and primacy in educational policy framings in Oman, which parallels a growing emphasis in the global pedagogical landscape and the changing sociocultural demands of the 21st century context towards nurturing suitable and adaptable learner competencies. However, the transition from mainstream to constructivist practice is a widely recognised challenge in literature, especially in light of heavily structured educational systems, prominence of teacher-centric pedagogies, the primacy of conceptual and abstract learning, and predispositions toward teaching-for-the-test. These concerns are most relevant to the Higher Education (HE) context in Oman. While this continues to be a rich area of research in the local context, evidence on utilising Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to nurture constructionist learning proved to be scarce in the Omani higher education, particularly in the context of Initial English Language Teacher Education (IELTE). To address this gap, this thesis explores Authoring Multimedia Artefacts (AMA) as a constructionist learning approach in the context of IELTE. The thesis is underpinned by Papertian constructionism as a theoretical and conceptual framework and draws on a qualitative case study design to explore Student-Generated Podcasting (SGP) as a case of AMA-based learning in relation to three areas of inquiry: (a) learner engagement in AMA-based learning, (b) key pedagogical design principles of AMA-based learning, and (c) key learning environment design principles of AMA-based learning. This research study focuses on students’ and academics’ perspectives regarding the three areas of inquiry in an Omani IELTE context and was conducted in four phases. The first phase included a quantitative investigation (using questionnaires) of students and academics’ experiences, views, and perspectives regarding AMA-based learning, drawing on key areas of inquiry from the wider relevant literature. The second phase included a qualitative investigation (using semi-structured interviews) with nineteen students and three teachers to explore their personal experiences, attitudes, insights, and perspectives regarding the three areas of inquiry and to reveal in-depth accounts that take into consideration the interplay of personal, institutional, contextual, and sociocultural factors that influence this area of practice. The third phase included a qualitative analysis of students’ reflective journal entries of their AMA authoring experiences to reveal their experiences and views concerning AMA engagement and AMA pedagogy. The fourth phase included a two-part validation of the research analysis, interpretations, and outcomes by study participants, which consisted of one-to-one interviews and a focus group discussion. This aimed at taking the research outcomes back to participants, involving them in validating the accuracy of the research report and outcomes, allowing them to revisit their views by refining and adding to them, and encouraging them to challenge the analysis by proposing alternate accounts. The study findings revealed a comprehensive attribution of AMA-based learning and challenges associated with the different areas of inquiry: AMA engagement, AMA pedagogical design principles, and AMA learning environment design principles. Both students and academics generally held positive views towards AMA-based learning and suggested valuable implications for sustaining constructionist learning in this context. However, a number of personal, technical, pedagogical, infrastructural, educational, and sociocultural challenges were also identified, suggesting these issues need to be considered to improve AMA-based learning and constructionist learning at large. While the quantitative findings corroborated findings from the wide theoretical and empirical literature, the qualitative findings were especially significant on grounds of their depth, scope, and relevance, especially considering this study of SGP presents pioneering evidence in the IELTE context and the Omani HE context at large. Based on this, the findings from qualitative analysis consequently fed into the development of an operational framework for AMA-based learning to help in the systematic design and implementation of this approach, and by doing so the study findings contribute to filling a current gap in research regarding conceptualising and empirically analysing AMA-based learning enablers and inhibitors. The outcomes of this research are particularly significant in the context of constructionist learning environments, pedagogies, as well as strategies. The most notable significance is attributed to the orienting model and framework for AMA-based learning, which is necessary to fill the relative gap in orienting frameworks grounded in Papert’s theory of constructionism. The findings of the study have significant implications for integrating AMA-based learning into pedagogical practice, facilitating constructivist-constructionist pedagogical approaches, promoting active and deep learning, and harnessing the constructivist-constructionist potentials of ICT-mediated learning. They also have implications for teacher-education programmes in Oman, especially where developing active, deep, and productive learning skills is concerned, all of which are areas highly emphasised in the goals and objectives of educational policy and reform. As such, the study underscores a need to promote constructionist learning in the IELTE programme by considering the key enabling factors of AMA-based learning and the potential challenges that could inhibit this endeavour.
... If the negative emotions of college students are not paid attention to and adjusted in time, it may bring more problems and obstacles to the psychological condition of college students. The existing literature has analyzed the factors influencing college students' learning engagement from different perspectives, and these factors include cognitive and behavioral elements (Fredricks et al., 2004). In terms of cognition, scholars have examined the influence of learning motivation and learning achievement on learning engagement, showing that the stronger the learning motivation, the higher the learning engagement; achievement goal orientation can directly predict college students' learning engagement (Karimi and Sotoodeh, 2019). ...
... In terms of cognition, scholars have examined the influence of learning motivation and learning achievement on learning engagement, showing that the stronger the learning motivation, the higher the learning engagement; achievement goal orientation can directly predict college students' learning engagement (Karimi and Sotoodeh, 2019). At the same time, college students' time insight can also promote college students' learning engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004). In terms of behavior, scholars have examined the effectiveness of individual physiological factors, learning persistence, and environmental factors in promoting learning engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004;Lu et al., 2022). ...
... At the same time, college students' time insight can also promote college students' learning engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004). In terms of behavior, scholars have examined the effectiveness of individual physiological factors, learning persistence, and environmental factors in promoting learning engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004;Lu et al., 2022). For college students, as mentioned earlier, while paying attention to the epidemic and academics, college students should also take the initiative to improve their emotion management ability and enhance their sense of self-efficacy, so as to relieve greater psychological stress, better engage in learning activities and reduce the emergence of other negative emotions. ...
Article
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During the COVID-19, the wanton spread of novel coronavirus had a huge negative effect on the emotions of college students, resulting in a serious impact on the daily learning behavior of many college students. In this context, college students’ emotion management ability is particularly important. Therefore, based on the results of a questionnaire survey of 580 college students, the present study conducts an in-depth analysis of the relationship between current college students’ emotion management ability and learning engagement, and explores the mediating role of psychological safety and self-efficacy in the relationship between emotion management ability and learning engagement. The results show that college students’ emotion management ability is significantly positive related to learning engagement, psychological safety and self-efficacy; Psychological safety and self-efficacy can play a partial mediating role between emotion management ability and college students’ learning engagement. The results reveal the importance of good emotion management ability of college students during the COVID-19, and enlighten colleges and universities to actively pacify students’ emotions to promote their normal learning.
... Engagement behaviours with the multimedia lectures was assessed in three domains [43]: 1) Affective engagement was assessed via the number of submissions and the median score on the single-item Likert survey that accompanied each multimedia lecture; 2) Behavioural engagement was quantified based audience retention (which indicates when viewers start or stop watching a multimedia lecture and for how long), a metric provided by YouTube studio [42]; 3) Cognitive engagement was assessed via the number of submissions and the average score in the MCQ included in each learning unit [26]. These experimental outcomes are defined in Table 1. ...
... The theory proposes 15 principles which can be manipulated to achieve these targets [13]; the current study used transaction log analyses to evaluate the effect of the segmenting, signalling and embodiment principles on student engagement, whilst holding the remaining 12 principles constant between multimedia lectures. Engagement behaviours were evaluated in three domains [43]: affective engagement was determined by students' responses on a Likert-style survey that accompanied each multimedia lecture; behavioural engagement was evaluated through Web log data provided YouTube analytics [42]; cognitive engagement was determined by students' submissions on a quiz that accompanied each multimedia lecture. Separate regression models for each domain of engagement revealed that embodiment, segmenting and signalling increased affective, behavioural and cognitive engagement with multimedia lectures, respectively, confirming our first and second experimental hypotheses. ...
... The third unique aspect of this study is in quantifying the relationship between the style of a piece of multimedia instruction (or the extent to which the above-listed techniques were implemented) on engagement in three domains congruently [43]. In the science of instruction, learning processes-including affective, behavioural and cognitive-are often assessed by subjective measures such as questionnaires, which are administered after or during a multimedia lesson [45]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this transaction log analysis was to evaluate university students’ engagement behaviours with a catalogue of multimedia lectures. These lectures incorporated selected instructional design principles from the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML). Specifically, thirty-two multimedia lectures which differentially employed the signalling, segmenting and embodiment principles from the CTML were delivered to a cohort of 92 students throughout an academic trimester. Engagement with each multimedia lecture was measured in three domains: affective engagement was measured using a Likert-style survey that accompanied each multimedia lecture; behavioural engagement was measured using the web logs provided by YouTube Studio analytics (average watch time); cognitive engagement was measured using students’ average score on a quiz that accompanied each multimedia lecture. Separate multiple linear regression analyses for measures of affective, behavioural and cognitive engagement revealed that multimedia lectures that ‘stacked’ the instructional design principles of embodiment (whereby the lecture was interspersed with clips of an enthusiastic onscreen instructor), segmenting (where lectures were divided into shorter, user-paced segments) and signalling (where onscreen labels highlighted important material) increased measures of engagement, including overall watch time, number of survey submission and number of quiz attempts ( P < 0.05). There was no association between any of the tested principles and students’ quiz scores or their responses on the Likert-style survey. This study adds to the available literature demonstrating the effectiveness of the signalling, segmenting and embodiment principles for increasing learner engagement with multimedia lectures.
... Student engagement is considered a critical contributor to students' academic development in postsecondary settings (Junco et al., 2011;Fredricks et al., 2019). Although there is still no consensus on the definitions and measures of student engagement, most researchers conceptualize engagement as a meta-construct, consisting of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral engagements (Fredricks et al., 2004). The concept of student engagement reflects a constructivist perspective of learning, as it highlights students' focused effort and psychological investments in learning. ...
... The participants critically reflected upon their learning experience with the DQB and contributed various ideas to improve the implementation, which indicated cognitive engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004). For instance, some students suggested in the reflections leaving more time to post questions before Q&A sessions. ...
... With the DQB, many participants acknowledged the increased interactivity, which was considered an indicator of emotional engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004). They regarded it as an "effective way of communication between teachers and students for large classes" and "helpful for classroom interactive learning." ...
Article
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Large classroom configurations and lecture-centered pedagogy discourage student engagement. The advances in educational technology have empowered instructors to fill the gap. This study designed a digital question board (DQB) on digital canvas to facilitate student engagement in large lecture classes. A mixed-methods study with a quasi-experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of such intervention. The study was situated in an introductory research methodology course in a large comprehensive university in eastern China (n = 253). The quasi-experiment lasted for six weeks. The data from surveys, interviews, observations, and online posts were collected and analyzed. This study mainly presented qualitative analysis results from the exploratory approach. Eight themes emerged from 12 interviews, 161 survey responses and 457 student posts were discussed. It was found that following the proposed design principles, the presence of a DQB effectively facilitated students’ cognitive and emotional engagement. The enhanced self-regulation and co-construction of knowledge all led to the improved cognitive engagement. The reduced social pressure of questioning and increased interactivity contributed most to their emotional engagement.
... In education, student engagement refers to the degree of attention, interest, curiosity, and involvement in the learning environment [90]. The study of student engagement has attracted growing interests as a way to address the problems of low academic achievement, high levels of student boredom, disaffection, and high dropout rates in urban areas [91,92]. Previous research showed that student engagement declines as students progress from elementary to middle school, reaching its lowest levels in high school [93,94]. ...
... Generally, student engagement is defined as a meta-construct that includes three dimensions [91,92]: (1)behavioural engagement focuses on participation and involvement in academic, social, and co-curricular activities. Some researchers define behavioural engagement with regards to positive conduct, e.g., following the rules, obeying the classroom norms, and the absence of disruptive behavior such as skipping school [92,96,97]; (2) emotional engagement focuses on the extent of positive and negative reactions to teachers, classmates, academics, and school, which includes a sense of belonging or connectedness to the school [92,98]; (3) participants if they need to complete the survey for each class. ...
... Table 3.4 displays MAE and RMSE scores of n-Gage's engagement regression in different dimensions. In particular, the overall engagement is calculated by the average of engagement scores from all questions related to the engagement, which is commonly used in previous engagement studies [45,6,91]. From Table 3.4, we can see that in terms of MAE and RMSE, n-Gage achieves higher prediction performance for all dimensions of engagement than all baselines, demonstrating its potential for multidimensional engagement prediction. ...
... Student engagement has three dimensions: behavior, cognition, and emotion (Christenson, Reschly, & Wylie, 2012;Cooper, 2014;Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Hollingshead, 2013;Hollingshead, Carnahan, Lowrey, & Snyder, under review). Thus, engaging instruction will elicit behaviors of (a) being prepared, orientating toward the speaker, following directions, participating, and working toward completion of assignments (i.e., behavioral aspect of engagement; Cooper 2014); (b) asking and responding to questions and processing information (i.e., cognitive component of engagement); and (c) demonstration of motivation and positive emotions related to learning (i.e., emotional aspect of engagement). ...
... Thus, engaging instruction will elicit behaviors of (a) being prepared, orientating toward the speaker, following directions, participating, and working toward completion of assignments (i.e., behavioral aspect of engagement; Cooper 2014); (b) asking and responding to questions and processing information (i.e., cognitive component of engagement); and (c) demonstration of motivation and positive emotions related to learning (i.e., emotional aspect of engagement). Research supports the link between increased engagement and academic achievement (Appleton, Christenson, & Furlong, 2008;Fredricks et al., 2004;Skinner & Belmont, 1993;Skinner & Pitzer, 2012). For example, academic engagement results in higher grades and higher standardized test scores (Cooper, 2014;Klem, & Connell, 2004). ...
... For example, academic engagement results in higher grades and higher standardized test scores (Cooper, 2014;Klem, & Connell, 2004). Academic engagement is not only a facilitator of learning, but also as a potential solution to high drop-out rates, students' boredom, and lack of respect for authority and rules (Finn & Zimmer, 2012;Fredricks et al., 2004;Fredricks & McColskey, 2012;National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, 2004). ...
Conference Paper
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A sample of 42 transition-age, young adults with Level 1 ASD completed a scenario-based instrument designed to measure Social Evaluative Reasoning Ability (SER) in the workplace. For the purposes of this analysis, SER was modeled as a unidimensional construct. A Rasch, Partial Credit Model was utilized to examine the psychometric properties of the instrument. The mathematics underpinning the Rasch model are discussed and visual and statistical indicators of fit at the instrument and item levels are presented and considered. Next, an argument for the validity of the instrument is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations and potential educational implications of the SER instrument.
... It not only reduces adolescents' social anxiety, shapes their moral cognition and behaviors, but also enhances their engagement, which contributes to their academic successes (Fredricks, 2011;Tillfors et al., 2012;Zulfiqar, 2020;Chiu et al., 2021). Student engagement, as a key element in learning, can be defined from three perspectives, namely, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004;Reeve and Tseng, 2011;Yazzie-Mintz and McCormick, 2012). Behavioral engagement refers to students' participation and involvement in academic activities that reflect on-task attention, effort, and persistence (Fredricks et al., 2004). ...
... Student engagement, as a key element in learning, can be defined from three perspectives, namely, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004;Reeve and Tseng, 2011;Yazzie-Mintz and McCormick, 2012). Behavioral engagement refers to students' participation and involvement in academic activities that reflect on-task attention, effort, and persistence (Fredricks et al., 2004). Emotional engagement refers to student's positive feeling, attitude, and perception toward learning activities (Park and Yun, 2017;Tvedt et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Previous studies have shown that peer relationship affects learning engagement. And learning engagement plays a vital role in promoting knowledge acquisition and production, enhancing adolescents’ academic success. However, few studies have focused on the mechanism between peer relationship and learning engagement. As such, based on Social Cognitive Theory, this study attempts to explore how peer relationship of adolescents is linked to learning engagement through the chain mediating roles of self-efficacy and academic resilience. The participants were 250 students who were selected via random sampling in a public middle school, in Eastern China, in June 2021. All the participants filled in the structured self-report questionnaires on peer relationship, self-efficacy, academic resilience, and learning engagement. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling (SEM) in SPSS 24.0 and AMOS 24.0. Results indicated that peer relationship was directly and positively associated with learning engagement. Results also indicated that peer relationship was indirectly and positively associated with learning engagement via self-efficacy and academic resilience, respectively, and sequentially. More importantly, it was found that the direct effect was much lower than the indirect effects of which self-efficacy was the greatest. It is suggested that appropriate interventions and support should be provided to facilitate adolescents’ peer relationship, self-efficacy, and academic resilience, thus promoting their learning engagement and academic success.
... However, students' engagement, and in particular, students' agentic engagement, can also influence teachers' practice (e.g., Jang et al., 2016;Patall et al., 2018a;Reeve, 2013;Skinner & Belmont, 1993). Students' engagement is broadly defined as involvement in tasks or activities (Fredricks et al., 2004). However, it is a multidimensional construct that includes behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and agentic components (Fredricks et al., 2004;Reeve, 2013;Reeve & Tseng, 2011;Sinatra et al., 2015). ...
... Students' engagement is broadly defined as involvement in tasks or activities (Fredricks et al., 2004). However, it is a multidimensional construct that includes behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and agentic components (Fredricks et al., 2004;Reeve, 2013;Reeve & Tseng, 2011;Sinatra et al., 2015). The behavioral component describes students' involvement in terms of their attention, effort, and participation in the classroom. ...
Article
Students’ agentic engagement and teachers’ autonomy support represent powerful reciprocal factors that can influence academic outcomes. However, little is known about the extent to which students’ agentic mindset reciprocally relates to agentic engagement and teachers’ practice or the parallel role of teacher control, particularly among ethnically diverse urban students. The current investigation examined reciprocal relations between urban U.S. high school science students’ agentic mindset, agentic engagement, and perceived teacher autonomy support and control over time. Cross-lagged structural equation models indicated that agentic mindset, agentic engagement, and perceived teacher practice reciprocally relate. Agentic engagement predicted increases in agentic mindset. Perceived teacher autonomy support predicted increases in agentic mindset and agentic engagement. Agentic mindset predicted decreases in perceived teacher control and vice versa. Moderator analyses suggested that relations varied depending on prior achievement and stereotype vulnerability, but not gender. Specifically, perceived support increased the agentic engagement more for low versus high stereotype vulnerable students. Predicted relations were also stronger and more adaptive for higher achieving compared to lower achieving students, with adaptive relationships from mindset to engagement and from engagement to perceived teacher practice emerging only for high achieving students. Implications for theory, future research, and practice are discussed.
... The role that subcomponents of metacognitive skills in project design for attending an invention competition play has not been extensively studied; thus, the present study focused on vocational students' project design. Fredricks et al., (2004) identified three different aspects of engagement: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive. Of these three, emotional and cognitive engagement at school are less easily observed internal indicators. ...
... Emotional engagement encompasses attitudes toward and feelings about learning, such as a sense of belonging (Willms, 2003). Behavioral engagement involves students' actions and practices related to learning activities (Fredricks et al., 2004), and cognitive engagement involves learners' effort to master a certain skill or concept (Archambault et al., 2022). A previous study identified engagement in relation to students monitoring a project design process and learning by themselves (Shernoff et al., 2003). ...
Article
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Drawing on Dweck and Leggett’s (1988) implicit beliefs of intelligence framework, the present study explored the incremental belief of intelligence (IBI) and how it correlated to metacognitive skills that reflected vocational students’ project design engagement. Data were collected from students from 2 vocational high schools involved in project design for a national invention exhibition. In all, 196 useful returns were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling. Study results indicated that there was a positive relationship between IBI and the three types of metacognitive skills: planning and thinking strategies, being aware and monitoring, and evaluating and revising. Moreover, planning and thinking strategies as well as being aware and monitoring were positively related to project design engagement, but no significant relationship could be found between evaluating and revising and project design engagement. Vocational school teachers may refer to this study to encourage their students to practice metacognitive skills in device design so as to reach a high level of behavioral engagement in finding and solving problems during the invention process.
... Engagement is the amount of time the child spends interacting with the environment (adults, peers, and materials) in a developmentally and contextually appropriate manner, at different levels of competence (McWilliam, 1991;McWilliam and Bailey, 1995;McWilliam and Casey, 2008). This definition embeds both the quantity and quality of children's behaviors and acknowledges the multidimensionality of the construct in terms of behavioral (positive efforts and involvement with academic activities), cognitive (self-regulations of one's investment or commitment in the learning process), and social-emotional engagement (affective reactions to teachers or peers and activities in the classroom; Newmann, 1992;Skinner and Belmont, 1993;Fredricks et al., 2004). Studies in preschool settings have focused on the behavioral components of engagement (McWilliam et al., 2003), while studies with school-aged children have on the most part addressed the cognitive and emotional aspects of engagement (Finn, 1989;Neumann et al., 1992;Martin and Rimm-Kaufman, 2015). ...
... Since researchers generally view children's classroom engagement as flexible to change (Fredricks et al., 2004), an important step in designing improvements in the quality of children's participation, particularly those with disabilities, in learning activities is the identification of classroom contexts and features associated with active child engagement, such as the classroom emotional climate and the quality of teacherchild interactions. ...
Article
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Positive teacher-child relationships promote children’s engagement, as children feel more secure to explore and participate in free or oriented activities. For children with disabilities, a context wherein they can receive the support to maintain a positive engagement in different activities is even more relevant. A scarcity of research exists on how to promote ECEC quality, namely, how to facilitate teacher-child interactions in inclusive environments. This study aims to evaluate preschool teachers’ opinions about the desirability and feasibility of a set of empirically validated strategies to improve teacher-child interactions in ECEC classrooms, for the group and children with disabilities. The participants were 89 Portuguese preschool teachers. Based on a non-systematic literature review, a questionnaire composed of 22 strategies to facilitate teacher-child interactions (in 4 dimensions: emotionally responsive interactions, classroom management, attend to children’s perspectives, and scaffolding learning) was developed. Along with the questionnaire, a set of socio-demographic variables was also collected. ECEC teachers scored significantly higher in the desirability subscale compared with the feasibility subscale in all dimensions and at both the child and the group level. This gap between teachers’ perceived desirability and feasibility provides important insights regarding the dimensions which are important to reinforce in ECEC teachers’ education and professional development. The mean difference between the desirability and feasibility subscales registered a higher effect size at the child’s level than at the group’s level, confirming that the inclusion of children with disabilities in preschool settings remains a challenge. Moreover, the effect size was small to moderate in the Emotionally Responsive Interactions dimension for both child and group levels. These results are aligned with previous studies stating that among different self-identified dimensions for improvement, emotional support is the less evoked by ECEC teachers. Across all dimensions, the main reason teachers give for difficulty in feasibility, both at the group and child’s level, is lack of knowledge. Overall, understanding the reasons teachers attribute to the difference between the strategies’ desirability and feasibility informs the assessment of teacher education needs and might be operationalized as a new observation instrument.
... In defining school engagement, first Skinner and Belmont [23], then Fredricks et al. [24], and later Reschly and Christenson [25] found that academic engagement is a meta-construct that includes emotional, behavioral, and cognitive engagement. Regarding emotional engagement, the affective, positive, or negative responses that students manifest in the development of academic tasks are evident [24]. ...
... In defining school engagement, first Skinner and Belmont [23], then Fredricks et al. [24], and later Reschly and Christenson [25] found that academic engagement is a meta-construct that includes emotional, behavioral, and cognitive engagement. Regarding emotional engagement, the affective, positive, or negative responses that students manifest in the development of academic tasks are evident [24]. The opposite behavior to engagement is the lack of interest, disaffection, or detachment that students may have towards academic work. ...
Article
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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, classes in schools acquired a hybrid learning model. Students took their classes both in person and, at other times, remotely. However, students are currently facing situations that they are not familiar with after a period of two years of confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This emerging model of learning, to which the students had to adapt, not only impacted on their emotions during learning but also influenced their perceptions of their abilities and skills in being able to perform adequately in a situation of uncertainty, which also influenced the degree of academic engagement that they had. This study applied the structural equation modeling technique, using PLS-SEM software, to a sample of 194 students. The results show that their self-efficacy to act in a situation of vulnerability was affected, which is why their negative emotions increased and their positive emotions decreased. This in turn influenced the degree of engagement and effort they invested in developing a school activity.
... This construct, which is conceptualized as students' active involvement in their learning activities and their commitment to learning goals (Christenson et al., 2012;Aparicio et al., 2021), can help learners achieve their learning outcomes and sustain educational improvement. Engaged students have some degree of participation and persistency in the learning process, exert efforts in classroom tasks, and exhibit different levels of interest, motivation, and enjoyment to learn (Fredricks et al., 2004;Derakhshan et al., 2022a). Conversely, non-engaged learners are bored learners who feel apprehension or sometimes angry about participating in the classroom and perform poorly in a variety of subjects (Kelly, 2008;Mantzios and Egan, 2019). ...
... It is widely agreed that student engagement is a multidimensional and complex construct. One view is that student engagement comprises three core dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive (Fredricks et al., 2004). In this framework, the first dimension refers to how consistent the student is in terms of effort, participation, attention, homework, and other desired behaviors in the class contexts. ...
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With the advent of positive psychology in second language (L2) learning, some researchers have undertaken empirical studies to explore emotional variables affecting L2 learning and how positive emotions can enhance the engagement of L2 learners. As an attempt to contribute to this research domain, this project sought to test a model of student engagement based on classroom social climate (CSC) and foreign language enjoyment (FLE) among English language learners in Iran. A sample of 386 intermediate English as a foreign language (EFL) learners took part in this survey by completing the online battery of questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed for the analysis of the gathered data. The results showed that both CSC and FLE were significant predictors of student engagement, with FLE acting as a stronger predictor. Furthermore, CSC exerted a slight influence on FLE. The findings of the present study verify the contributions of positive psychology to L2 pedagogy, implying that pleasant perceptions of learning context and positive emotions can lead to further student engagement.
... A Desejabilidade refere-se a atratividade e o engajamento com a tecnologia educacional ou percepção agradável de professores e estudantes sobre o uso das tecnologias em sala de aula [Huang et al. 2019]. Neste sentido, o engajamento pode ser percebido da seguinte forma: a) Comportamento: participação nas atividades como o número de vezes que os estudantes interagem com as tecnologias educacionais); b, Cognitivo-Motivacional: influência de motivos que influenciam o pensamento, como memória, processamento de informações, raciocínio, julgamento e tomada de decisão; e c) emoções: interesse, curiosidade, senso de pertencimento e afeto [Fredricks et al. 2004]. Além disso, o engajamento pode depender dos métodos adotados para apresentação de conteúdo, recursos tecnológicos, dentre outros [Huang et al. 2019] . ...
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A Experiência do Aprendiz (Learner eXperience - LX) representa as interações dos estudantes nos ambientes educacionais físicos ou virtuais. Neste contexto, este artigo relata as experiências dos estudantes nas aulas de Interação Humano-Computador (IHC) Experimental no formato de Ensino Remoto Emergencial (ERE). Participaram deste estudo exploratório 36 estudantes, incluindo estudantes de graduação e pós-graduação. Este estudo buscou verificar os elementos da LX que podem ter influenciado na aprendizagem dos estudantes, como Valor, Usabilidade, Desejabilidade, Confortabilidade e Adaptabilidade. As atividades consistiram de aulas síncronas e assíncronas. Os resultados podem direcionar e apoiar futuras disciplinas no formato ERE.
... Student engagement and equity describe processes and outcomes for learning in a PBL classroom. Student engagement is a multidimensional, dynamic interplay among individuals' academic, cognitive, and social involvement in specific activities (Fredricks, et al., 2004). Chi and colleagues' (2018) ICAP framework describes engagement as "pragmatically based on the absence or presence of overt, observable behaviors, as well as whether the products contain information that went beyond the instructional materials (p.1791)." ...
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Teachers adapt science curriculum materials in planned and unplanned ways to address a variety of goals. This professional learning design seeks to support 18 elementary science teachers in biweekly professional learning (PL) sessions during COVID 19. They discuss and share their own adaptations for enhancing opportunities for productive disciplinary engagement and equity by collaboratively analyzing one another’s teaching artifacts. Findings from transcribed interviews, PLs, and video of teaching are synthesized toward five adaptation principles.
... Student engagement and equity describe processes and outcomes for learning in a PBL classroom. Student engagement is a multidimensional, dynamic interplay among individuals' academic, cognitive, and social involvement in specific activities (Fredricks, et al., 2004). Chi and colleagues' (2018) ICAP framework describes engagement as "pragmatically based on the absence or presence of overt, observable behaviors, as well as whether the products contain information that went beyond the instructional materials (p.1791)." ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Teachers adapt science curriculum materials in planned and unplanned ways to address a variety of goals. This professional learning design seeks to support 18 elementary science teachers in biweekly professional learning (PL) sessions during COVID 19. They discuss and share their own adaptations for enhancing opportunities for productive disciplinary engagement and equity by collaboratively analyzing one another’s teaching artifacts. Findings from transcribed interviews, PLs, and video of teaching are synthesized toward five adaptation principles.
... The hybrid classroom can offer a solution for HE services, solving many of the limitations highlighted in the literature, especially referring to social dimension issues and behavioral and cognitive engagement of HBSs [36]. ...
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Homebound Education in Italy is based on one-to-one teaching conducted by teachers who visit the sick student at home. This modality does not include interactions between homebound students and classmates, thus inhibiting the educational aspect of peer relationships. With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent dispositions of the Ministry of Education regarding remote education and integrated digital didactic (DID), new opportunities became available for homebound students. In this research, we applied and tested in the context of homebound education a model of hybrid inclusive classroom developed in a previous project ((TRIS), addressing homebound students that could not permanently attend school and followed lessons remotely. The present study involved two homebound students affected by chronic and acute diseases. During the 2020/21 school year, the model was proposed to the two school councils (22 teachers in all) and the trial monitored; at the end of the school year, semi-structured interviews were conducted with teachers and transcriptions analyzed using a deductive approach based on the model. Results confirm some findings of the TRIS project, while new aspects emerged linked to the specific context. Overall, the implemented hybrid classroom seems to have positively affected both the learnings and students’ inclusion.
... This study is framed by the theory of instrumental genesis (Verillon and Rabardel, 1995), integrated into the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework (TPCK), showing how the didactic contents delivered in the presence have taken on a new aspect with distance learning (Mishra and Koehler, 2007). Some theories on motivation (Skinner, 1935;Fredricks et al., 2004) were used to analyze the students' motivation to follow lessons at a distance, to be virtually present in the classes (Shonfeld et al., 2020), and to use the teaching tools made available by the teachers. It is not rare to find many students who leave the online learning course shortly after the beginning; such a phenomenon, called dropout, is always more frequent among the students who are not sufficiently engaged and motivated with the learning experience. ...
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This work focuses on Distance Learning during the COVID-19 pandemic to improve undergraduate students' motivation, participation, and engagement. Experimentation in a Mathematics STEM class evaluated the impact of Distance Learning on students' motivation, participation, and engagement levels, computed through a Fuzzy Cognitive Map. It was performed on some affective and interaction parameters derived from using an adaptive e-learning platform and from the answers of a semistructured questionnaire. The results have been analyzed through Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Instrumental Genesis theories.
... Student engagement and equity describe processes and outcomes for learning in a PBL classroom. Student engagement is a multidimensional, dynamic interplay among individuals' academic, cognitive, and social involvement in specific activities (Fredricks, et al., 2004). Chi and colleagues' (2018) ICAP framework describes engagement as "pragmatically based on the absence or presence of overt, observable behaviors, as well as whether the products contain information that went beyond the instructional materials (p.1791)." ...
... H7: Flow experience positively influences behavioral engagement. Fredricks et al., (2004) conducted an extensive literature review and proposed a theoretical framework of learning engagement that includes three unique and interrelated dimensions: cognitive, behavioral, and emotional engagement. This study thus adopted this framework to investigate students' learning engagement in blended instruction. ...
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The rapid development and extensive application of information and communication technologies has facilitated blended instruction, which is regarded as the “new normal” in the field of modern education and has become the focus of academic research. This study thus explored the influencing mechanism of blended instruction on students’ learning effectiveness from the perspective of complementarity and conflict with the support of flow. This study collected 349 survey data from universities in Southwest China that adopted a blended instruction mode and analyzed them using the structural equation model. The results demonstrated that complementary advantages and practical conflicts in blended instruction influenced students’ flow experience during the learning process. Flow experience plays an important role in blended instruction and influences positively students’ cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement. Learning engagement impacted positively students’ learning effectiveness. In addition, self-efficacy positively moderated the relationship between students’ learning engagement and learning effectiveness in blended instruction. These findings contribute to related research on blended instruction. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
... In this study, we will examine academic behavioral engagement and procrastination as the two mediators. Academic behavioral engagement refers to the extent and manner in which students are involved in academic activities (Fredricks et al., 2004). Among these, a persistent effort has been recognized as one of the core elements (Miller et al., 1996). ...
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The question of how the pursuit of happiness affects an individual’s actual well-being has received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, few studies have investigated the associations of happiness orientation with people’s subjective experience and objective functioning simultaneously. The current research examines the possibility that hedonic and eudaimonic orientations have different relationships with college students’ affective well-being and academic achievement, while taking into consideration the behavioral mechanism that underlies the process. We conducted online surveys to collect data including hedonic and eudaimonic orientations at the beginning of the semester and academic behavioral engagement, procrastination, and affective well-being at the end of the semester with a final sample of 566 Chinese undergraduate students. Their official grade point average for the semester was extracted from the university records system. The results confirmed that overall hedonic orientation was negatively associated with affective well-being and academic achievement, whereas eudaimonic orientation was positively associated with these outcomes. The study further found that both academic behavioral engagement and procrastination played mediating roles in the associations of happiness orientation with positive affect and academic achievement. However, only procrastination mediated the relationship between happiness orientation and negative affect. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
... The peers approved the final designs. This teaching strategy of involving students in the decision-making supports autonomy which enhances engagement (Ames 1990(Ames , 1992Maehr and Midgley 1991), and engagement is presumed to positively influence achievement (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, and Paris 2004). Finally, each group was assigned a cupboard in the laboratory in which they stored their materials. ...
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Students have several misconceptions about thermodynamics. However, an understanding of basic concepts in this branch of physics remains fundamental to explain thermal phenomena. The purpose of this activity was to extend students' conceptual understanding of heat, temperature, energy, and thermal insulators and conductors. Two groups of students in grade seven created insulation boxes to keep sheep organs in a hypothermic state for the longest time possible. The activity incorporated connections to real life, autonomy, and scientific investigations to motivate the students. The data indicated that the activity was sufficiently challenging for the students and that they were able to apply their understanding of both the corresponding concepts and scientific and engineering practices.
... e final reason that may be suggested for the findings of the study is that since the e-portfolios included collection, selection, and reflection on the learning tasks, it might have engaged the learners cognitively, emotionally, and bodily. As stressed by Fredricks et al. [46], it may be argued that the behavioral engagement made the learners actively participate in terms of engagement in on-task behavior and social activities. is, accordingly, might have caused promising outcomes for the learners. ...
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A great deal of studies have explored the effects of electronic-portfolios (e - portfolios) on various measures of language learning, including writing and speaking in English. However, the effects of e-portfolios on vocabulary, motivation, and attitudes of EFL learners have remained unexplored. Thus, this study aimed at disclosing the effects of e-portfolios on Afghani EFL learners’ vocabulary, motivation, and attitudes. For this purpose, after homogenizing, a total of 100 EFL male learners were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 50) and a control group (n = 50). Afterward, they went through pretest, interventions, and posttest procedures. The interventions lasted 18 one-hour sessions held twice a week where the experimental group was trained through e-portfolios (Mahara: the electronic portfolio software) and the control group was trained using conventional methods. The collected data were analyzed through running an independent-sample t-test and calculating mean and percent. Results evidenced that the experimental group outperformed the control group concerning their gains of vocabulary knowledge on the posttest. Additionally, the findings documented that there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of motivation at the end of the interventions. Furthermore, the findings indicated that the participants had very positive attitudes toward the e-portfolios. The study concludes by offering some implications for relevant stakeholders and opening some windows for further research.
... Learner engagement refers to the learner's psychological investment and effort toward learning (Martin & Bolliger, 2018). Although engagement is differently defined by scholars (Appleton et al., 2006;Fredericks et al., 2004;Gunuc & Kuzu, 2015), it is typically seen as having three components (cognitive, behavioral, and emotional). A cognitive subtype covers self-regulation, learning goals, and investment in learning, while a behavioral component comprises class participation, effort, and positive conduct. ...
... Moreover, for at-risk youth, higher levels of SE seem to be even more relevant (Ungar et al., 2014). For instance, the school can offer a space and time of protection from peer, family, and community risk factors (Fredricks et al., 2004). The school can also provide experiences that might contribute to the development of hope, self-regulation, self-efficacy (Dixson & Stevens, 2018) and positive relationships with peers and teachers (Ungar et al., 2014;Virtanen et al., 2018), which are associated with SE. ...
Article
Background School absenteeism is associated with multiple negative short and long-term impacts, such as school grade retention and mental health difficulties. Objective The present study aimed to understand the role of resilience-related internal assets, student engagement, and perception of school success as protective factors for truancy. Additionally, we investigated whether there were differences in these variables between students living in residential care and students living with their parents. Methods This study included 118 participants aged 11 to 23 years old (M = 17.16, SE = 0.26). The majority were female (n = 61, 51.7 %) and Portuguese (n = 98, 83.1 %), with half living in residential care. In this cross-sectional study, participants responded to self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to understand the factors associated with truancy. Results There were no group differences in resilience-related internal assets and their perception of school success. On the contrary, participants in residential care reported more unexcused school absences, more grade retentions, higher levels of depression, and lower levels of student engagement. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression controlling for key variables (i.e., living in residential care or with parents, school grade retention, and depression) showed that perception of school success and resilience-related internal assets significantly contributed to truancy. Conclusions Results are discussed in the context of universal and selective interventions. These interventions can foster individual strengths and provide opportunities for every student to experience success. Consequently, they promote engagement and reduce the likelihood of school absences, especially for those in more vulnerable situations such as youth in residential care.
... These findings led positive psychologists to propose that interventions to promote happiness in schools might benefit students (Adler et al., 2016) by reducing depression and increasing engagement (Seligman et al., 2009a, b). Since engagement decreases the likelihood of dropout and improves achievement (Fredricks et al., 2004), unraveling the mechanisms that lead to increased involvement can benefit many students. ...
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Providing a valid and reliable measure of conscientiousness constitutes a worthwhile endeavor to allow research and intervention in Brazil. This study aimed to adapt the Chernyshenko Conscientiousness Scales (CCS) into Brazilian Portuguese, evaluate their psychometric properties, and investigate the relationship between conscientiousness and academic involvement, taking into account the possible confound effect of subjective well-being (SWB). Two samples were studied to cross-validate the CCS's internal structure. Participants were university students (N1 = 332, N2 = 684) who answered the CCS and measures of SWB and academic involvement. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the CCS presented a five-factor solution corresponding to the previously replicated facets of industriousness, orderliness, self-control, traditionalism, and virtue. Most facets related positively to life satisfaction, positive affect, and involvement in academic activities, and negatively to negative affect. A structural model indicated strong associations of conscientiousness with SWB and academic engagement, suggesting more conscious students are happier and engage more in academic tasks. These results support the use of the CCS in Brazil. Trial registration number and date of registration 32732820.6.0000.5334, July 8th, 2020.
... In this study, student engagement in class is considered a stimulus component that affects teachers' psychological characteristics and behaviors for continuous learning of TPACK. More specifically, student engagement was divided into behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004). Behavioral engagement explains students' observable participating behaviors, such as listening carefully, preparing in advance, and following instructions in class; emotional engagement describes students' positive feelings, including enthusiasm, happiness, and satisfaction; cognitive engagement indicates students' psychological efforts to gain new knowledge and new skills, including persist in challenges and self-regulate their learning (Ritoša et al., 2020). ...
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The importance and dynamic development of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) has been well recognized. In order to keep up with the development of the ever-changing society and variety of teaching technologies, teachers need to continue to learn TPACK. Previous studies indicated the importance of student engagement in promoting teachers’ learning. However, how student engagement affects teachers’ continuous learning of TPACK remains unclear. To bridge the research gap, our study constructed a model based on the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) framework and integrative model of behavior prediction (IMBP). It examined how student engagement affects teachers’ psychological state and behavioral performance for continuous learning of TPACK. The model was then validated by structural equation modeling with 395 questionnaire data. The results demonstrated the positive relationships between student engagement (behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement), teachers’ psychological states (attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and behavioral intention), and continuous learning of TPACK. These findings inform how to promote teachers to keep learning TPACK.
... In educational psychology, engagement can be defined as a state of active involvement and heightened attention to a task (Philp & Duchesne, 2016;Zhou et al., 2021), in which learners' participation is reflected in their action (behavioral engagement), thinking (cognitive engagement), feeling (affective engagement), and social interaction (social engagement). The first three dimensions have been addressed in many models of engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004;Mercer, 2019). Behavioral engagement includes effort, persistence, and instrumental help-seeking, and describes the quantity and quality of participation in the task (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2003;Reschly & Christenson, 2012); cognitive engagement involves the ability to use strategy and metacognition, and is defined as the willingness to invest the intellectual effort to a task (Helme & Clarke, 2001;Mercer, 2015); and affective engagement comprises personal interest, value, and emotion, and describes whether learners are feeling positive and enjoying the task (Mercer, 2015;Skinner & Pitzer, 2012). ...
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Little is known about the impact of teachers’ questions on child bilingual’s heritage language reading process and outcomes. This study examined the role of adults’ questions in English-Mandarin bilingual preschoolers’ Mandarin word learning, story comprehension, and reading engagement. Ninety-nine 4- to 5-year-old preschoolers in Singapore were assigned to one of the three reading conditions: (a) reading with contextualized questions (e.g., labelling), (b) reading with decontextualized questions (e.g., inference), and (c) reading without questions. The experimenters read three storybooks to the children three times over 2 weeks. Children’s general Mandarin proficiency was tested before the intervention, and their target words knowledge and story comprehension were tested before and after the intervention. Children’s reading engagement in each reading was assessed with a modified Child Behavior Rating Scale. The results demonstrate that not all aspects of Mandarin performance and reading engagement have benefitted from the experimenter’s questions. Contextualized questions were found to significantly enhance children’s word meaning explanation and story retelling. Contextualized and decontextualized questions lead to higher increase in social-cognitive engagement but resulted in faster decrease in behavioral and affective engagement over repetitive readings. Furthermore, children’s initial Mandarin proficiency influences their reading process and outcomes. Generally, the better their Mandarin vocabulary knowledge was, the more they could enjoy and benefit from the reading, whether they were asked questions or not.
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The most popular media of content delivery in online learning and education in the post-pandemic time has been learning management systems (LMS) or virtual learning environments (VLEs). Since few studies comprehensively presented the impact of gamification in the VLEs/LMS (GVLEs/GLMS) on learning outcomes, satisfaction, engagement, and motivation, this review aims to identify the effects of gamification in the contexts of VLEs/LMS. The authors adopted a systematic review method based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). The results showed that the GLMS had positive influences on learning motivation, engagement, and satisfaction while it did not necessarily improve learning outcomes due to various factors. Implications and suggestions were given to researchers, developers, educators, and institutions based on our findings.
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Accumulating evidence underscores the imperative role of family discourse in supporting children's engagement with science and, in turn, children's science learning. However, little research explores children's roles and agency in everyday family discourse in various unstructured settings. This study explores discourse genres, which are routine ways of using language for particular purposes. I examined what discourse genres one family employed to engage with science and how these genres supported or hindered the children's agentic engagement. By analyzing audio recordings obtained over a year of self-ethnography and employing linguistics ethnography methods, I characterized seven discourse genres: (1) scientific exploration; (2) classroom; (3) ask-the-expert; (4) wildlife viewing; (5) guided reading; (6) sports broadcasting; and (7) magic trick. The analysis demonstrates how the enactment of genres allowed family members to recruit resources from science and other domains to support science engagement for themselves and others. The findings illustrate how children exercised epistemic agency by introducing certain genres, taking agentic roles within genres (navigating the inquiry process, regulating the focus of conversation, creating shared object of attention), and undermining genres parents introduce. The study suggests more attention should be paid to genres in everyday family science discourse and children's roles and agency in them.
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Geringe akademische und soziale Integration sind Risikofaktoren für den Studienerfolg, die u. a. von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen der Studierenden beeinflusst werden. Diesen wird in Situationen hoher Unsicherheit, wie einem Studium im Ausland, eine besondere Bedeutung zugemessen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurden in der vorliegenden Studie Zusammenhänge zwischen Big-Five-Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen und Indikatoren sozialer und akademischer Integration an mehr als 2000 internationalen Studierenden im Längsschnitt mittels autoregressiver Mediationsmodelle untersucht. Die Big-Five-Persönlichkeitsdimensionen sagten mit Ausnahme von Offenheit für Erfahrungen und Gewissenhaftigkeit akademische und soziale Integration vorher, während sich die Integrationsmaße über die Zeit nicht wechselseitig beeinflussten. Daraus abzuleitende Implikationen für Hochschulen zur Steigerung der sozialen und akademischen Integration internationaler Studierender werden abschließend diskutiert.
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Virtual Reality (VR) has proven to be a flexible tool used to simulate unusual scenarios, with the purpose of improving the training of future engineering professionals. Currently, a large number of articles referring to VR in education are published, so this review is necessary to give guidance to those researchers interested in the subject. In this review, 3 unknowns were resolved: 1) focusing areas of VR in engineering education 2) leading nations and 3) funding importance. 74 articles downloaded from the Web of Science database were reviewed using the PRISMA guide. It was found that VR is applied in a wide range of subjects focused on engineering in general. Taking a deeper look, Computer Science is the area that is receiving the most attention from VR. In addition, the United States is the country leading these investigations and the importance of financing is also seen in the present research. Finally, the lack of a common evaluative methodology was analyzed, as well as the problems of massification of VR and the impact of this technology on student´s motivation
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The closure of schools and colleges worldwide, as a result of the COVID-19 lockdown and stay-at-home protocols, were timely actions given the surge in infection rates. It became immediately necessary for innovative strategies to be put in place to engage students while they remained at home. In Ghana, many traditional universities adopted the use of online learning tools to promote learning amongst their students during this period of uncertainty. In this exploratory case study, I explore the experiences of final year undergraduate students ( N = 18) in the University of Ghana with the intention of examining: (1) the various strategies adopted by lecturers to engage students in online learning during this time when they were at home; (2) the challenges the students experienced; and (3) the students’ views on ways of promoting effective student online learning engagement during future emergencies. Three strategies were identified by the students as being used by the lecturers for online learning engagement, namely videoconferencing, use of discussion boards, and use of regular assignments. It was found that the students experienced manifold engagement challenges in online learning including data and network problems, technical difficulties, assessment overload, as well as administrative issues. In order to ensure effective student online learning engagement in future national emergencies, it was suggested that resources such as internet facilities should be made available to students; assessment load should be reduced while interactive and active online learning engagement strategies are prioritized; and administrative support should be offered to students. The study’s findings have significant implications for the planning, design and the implementation of online learning programmes in higher education.
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In this study, the effects of remote learning attitude, extrinsic and intrinsic goal orientation on the dimensions of online engagement were examined. 293 teacher candidates at a state university in Turkey participated in the research. PLS-SEM was used to analyze the data. In all models, relationships related to online collaboration with peers, online communication with instructor, participation in online classes, and completing assignments and tasks were confirmed. The relationships between the attitude towards attending online courses and the skills and emotional dimensions of engagement were confirmed. The relationships between intrinsic goal orientation (IGO) and skills and emotional dimensions of engagement are significant. Extrinsic goal orientation (EGO) is only related to the performance dimension of engagement.
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This paper takes a North American University’s summer immersion Chinese language program in China as a case to discuss how to engage intermediate-level Chinese language learners in an immersion language learning environment. The study grounds student engagement principles as the theoretical framework for designing and evaluating the course and learning activities. Sixteen Chinese language teachers and fifty-six Chinese language learners participated in the study. The qualitative survey was employed to understand Chinese language learners’ experience of engagement in an immersion program from the perspectives of both teachers and their students. The result shows that students can be deeply engaged in an immersion Chinese language program when the program creates a dynamic environment. In the dynamic environment, the opportunities for diverse interactions (i.e., the interactions among the students, between teachers and students, and between students and the local people) are offered. Students are engaged in developing language skills and abilities when they have the chance to obtain individualized feedback on their language performance and instant assistance when they encounter difficulties. The results also highlight the importance of learning Chinese in authentic communicative contexts, especially for grammar drill activities. At last, implications are generated for future instructional design and practice for Chinese study abroad programs.
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Engagement plays an essential role in the learning process. Recognition of learning engagement in the classroom helps us understand the student’s learning state and optimize the teaching and study processes. Traditional recognition methods such as self-report and teacher observation are time-consuming and obtrusive to satisfy the needs of large-scale classrooms. With the development of big data analysis and artificial intelligence, applying intelligent methods such as deep learning to recognize learning engagement has become the research hotspot in education. In this paper, based on non-invasive classroom videos, first, a multi-cues classroom learning engagement database was constructed. Then, we introduced the power IoU loss function to You Only Look Once version 5 (YOLOv5) to detect the students and obtained a precision of 95.4%. Finally, we designed a bimodal learning engagement recognition method based on ResNet50 and CoAtNet. Our proposed bimodal learning engagement method obtained an accuracy of 93.94% using the KNN classifier. The experimental results confirmed that the proposed method outperforms most state-of-the-art techniques.
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The present research was an endeavor to examine and compare the effects of digitally self-regulated and guided discovery learning instructions on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary acquisition. To this end, by conducting the Oxford Placement Test, 60 out of 140 Iranian EFL male and female learners from three language institutes in Isfahan, Iran, were randomly selected, and divided into three equal groups (i.e. two experimental groups and one control group). Prior to the instructions, a vocabulary pretest, designed and validated by the researchers, was conducted. Then, the experimental groups received two types of instruction, separately. The first experimental group was taught via digitally self-regulated learning (SRL) instruction based on Santangelo, Harris, and Graham's (2008) six-stage model. The second experimental group was instructed via guided discovery learning instruction based on Brown and Campione's (2011) stages. In contrast, the control group received the traditional method of teaching vocabulary such as word lists, dictionary use, and word translation. After conducting eight-session instructions, a posttest was administered. The data were analyzed via ANOVAs and post hoc analysis using the Tukey test. The findings of the study revealed that both digitally self-regulated and guided discovery promoted Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the findings indicated that digitally self-regulated instruction was more effective than guided discovery instruction regarding vocabulary acquisition. Eventually, the theoretical and pedagogical implications regarding language learners, teachers, and curriculum designs are also provided.
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This study investigated developmental trajectories of observationally coded engagement across the early elementary years and whether these trajectories were associated with children's academic achievement. Furthermore, we evaluated if these relations varied as a function of children's family socio-economic status and early reading and math skills. Data were collected from 301 children who were studied from kindergarten (Mage = 65.74 months; 49% boys) to 2nd grade. Children's behavioral engagement was observed in kindergarten, 1st, and 2nd grade. Reading and math skills were assessed via standardized tests in kindergarten and 2nd grade. Growth mixture models identified two classes of behavioral engagement: most children (87.0%) displayed relatively high behavioral engagement in the fall of kindergarten and decreased significantly across time (referred to below as high-decreasing class), and other children (13.0%) exhibited moderate behavioral engagement in the fall of kindergarten that was stable across time (referred to below as moderate-stable class). After controlling for academic skills in kindergarten and demographic variables (i.e., child age, sex, ethnicity, and family socio-economic status), children in the high-decreasing class displayed higher reading skills, but not math skills, than children in the moderate-stable class. Additional analyses revealed that differences in reading skills between the two classes were present only for children from low socio-economic status families or for children low in kindergarten reading skills. The findings suggest that economically or academically at-risk students might benefit more than their peers from high behavioral engagement.
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Although studies on teacher written feedback have proliferated in recent years, much remains to be discovered about L2 learners' engagement with this practice. To bridge this gap, the study examined how low-proficiency and high-proficiency students engaged with teacher written feedback affectively, cognitively, and behaviorally in a Chinese EFL context. The study collected data from multiple sources including students' first drafts of their writing, teacher written feedback, revised drafts, students' verbal reports, and semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that for this important pedagogical practice, students' engagement with teacher written feedback was mediated by their language proficiency and feedback focus. Specifically, while LP and HP students' engagement with local feedback was quite different, they shared similarities in their engagement with global feedback. The study further found a complex and nonlinear relationship across the three perspectives of engagement (i.e., affective/cognitive/behavioral), which was evidenced in the consistencies and inconsistencies of the students’ engagement. The important pedagogical implications from this study are discussed.
Chapter
In Canada, food insecurity is characterized by the consumption of low quantity or low-quality foods, worrying about food supply and/or acquiring foods in socially unacceptable ways, such as begging or scavenging. As of 2012, approximately 15.2% of Ontario, Canada, children are living in food insecure households, a prevalence which has remained steady since 2005. This is particularly concerning when considering that school-aged children are a population whose growth and developing is sensitive to nutritional stress, and the experience of childhood food insecurity is highly associated with the development of adverse physical, mental and learning outcomes. This study aims at establishing the relationship between food insecurity and Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO) standardized test scores in order to highlight the incompatibility of the EQAO's reliance on test outcomes in determining Ontarian school's accountability, specifically for those with a high prevalence of food insecurity.
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Research on game-based learning (GBL) methods shows that they may increase students' motivation and learning in the context of higher education. However, there is still unclarity regarding whether and how GBL methods can be utilized in project management education. Our quasi-experimental study analyzes project management students' experiences of a GBL method applied in six European higher education institutes during late 2021 and early 2022. Data about students' experiences were collected using a post-game survey in which students were asked to evaluate how the applied GBL method affected their motivation and learning. The data were analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Our findings include students' positive and negative perceptions related to the applied GBL method, which influenced students’ motivation to study and learn project management phenomena. Our findings indicate that game-based learning solutions can be used to motivate students and to prepare learners to deal with uncertainty, as in real-life projects.
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Developmental theorists emphasize the existence of reciprocal influences between children's peer experiences and their early classroom behavioral engagement. For school practitioners who must identify relevant intervention targets to design educational activities, estimating precisely how aspects of peer experiences and behavioral engagement jointly unfold over time is of key interest. In addition, it is important to differentiate between intraindividual and interindividual effects. Nevertheless, evidence of these reciprocal links or intra- and interindividual effects during the early stages of schooling is scarce. This study (N = 638 children) used a Latent Curve Model with Structured Residuals (LCM-SR) to disentangle interindividual differences (stable trait-like) from intraindividual changes (dynamic state-like) in the associations between peer experiences (social acceptance and friendship involvement) and children's classroom behavioral engagement from the beginning of kindergarten through Grade 2. Results indicated that the links between children's peer experiences and their behavioral engagement reflect their steady tendency to be well adjusted in the classroom as well as with peers, rather than highlighting reciprocal associations between these factors over time. However, results also underscored that children who showed high engagement tended to be concurrently more accepted by peers in the same school year in Grade 1 or Grade 2, beyond stable aspects of engagement and social acceptance. These findings support the need to develop educational practices to improve social acceptance as a way to foster behavioral engagement. They also indicate that behavioral engagement should be considered a concrete intervention target for school practitioners seeking to improve children's social acceptance during the school year.
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Although most individuals pass through adolescence without excessively high levels of "storm and stress," many do experience difficulty. Why? Is there something unique about this developmental period that puts adolescents at risk for difficulty? This article focuses on this question and advances the hypothesis that some of the negative psychological changes associated with adolescent development result from a mismatch between the needs of developing adolescents and the opportunities afforded them by their social environments. It provides examples of how this mismatch develops in the school and in the home and how it is linked to negative age-related changes in early adolescents' motivation and self-perceptions. Ways in which more developmentally appropriate social environments can be created are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This study used ethnographic methodology to explore the academic world of regular and learning disabled high school students to determine what aspects of that world might relate to potential dropout behavior. It was conducted in a high school that was discovered to have a lower dropout rate than anticipated in view of national or local trends. We describe the accommodating nature of this high school that may enhance the ability of students to become and remain academically engaged and hence accounts for the comparatively low dropout rate. This accommodation is described in terms of institutional, classroom, and interpersonal processes that reflect the school’s responsiveness to the needs of students as those needs are perceived by various institutional actors. The effect of these accommodation processes results in a modification of demands made of students and the provision of support for students to enhance their ability to meet those demands.
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