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Linguistic Interdependence and the Educational Development of Bilingual Children

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The central thesis of this paper is that a cognitively and academically beneficial form of bilingualism can be achieved only on the basis of adequately developed first language (L1) skills. Two hypotheses are formulated and combined to arrive at this position. The “developmental interdependence” hypothesis proposes that the development of competence in a second language (L2) is partially a function of the type of competence already developed in L1 at the time when intensive exposure to L2 begins. The “threshold” hypothesis proposes that there may be threshold levels of linguistic competence which a bilingual child must attain both in order to avoid cognitive disadvantages and allow the potentially beneficial aspects of bilingualism to influence his cognitive and academic functioning. These hypotheses are integrated into a model of bilingual education in which educational outcomes are explained as a function of the interaction between background, child input and educational treatment factors. It is suggested that many evaluations of bilingual education programs have produced uninterpretable data because they have failed to incorporate the possibility of these interactions into their research designs.

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... As reception education focusses strongly on language acquisition, I will present three findings from research on the process of language acquisition that create a critical background when studying the education of NAMS in Flanders. Cummins (1979Cummins ( , 1981Cummins ( , 2021 introduced several highly influential theoretical concepts, which have been validated over the course of forty years of empirical research. In this dissertation I will present three concepts, namely the distinction between conversational fluency and academic language proficiency, the interdependence hypothesis, and the threshold hypothesis. ...
... Second, academic proficiencies in both L1 (first language) and L2 (second language) are interdependent insofar as they are manifestations of a common underlying cognitive/academic language proficiency (Cummins, 1979(Cummins, , 1981. The 'common underlying proficiency' concept explains why students in bilingual and second language immersion programmes experience no adverse effects in literacy and academic language development in the majority language, despite spending much less instructional time through that language. ...
... The third theoretical concept by Cummins (1979Cummins ( , 1981Cummins ( , 2021 I discuss is the 'threshold hypothesis'. Drawing on the fact that language mediates much of our interaction within the world, and specifically within the context of schooling, Cummins (1976) suggested that the level of proficiency attained by bilingual students in their two languages mediates the effects of bilingual learning experiences on cognitive and academic growth. ...
... They did think that Chavacano and English are both difficult languages. Moreover, this supported Ellis (1997) andCummins (1979) Threshold Hypohesis that learners construct their own interim rules in learning a target language using their L1 knowledge if they believe that this L1 would help them in learning the task at hand or when they have become sufficiently proficient in the L2 for transfer to be possible. This also supported the findings that some problems in the mother tongue instruction were Teachers' Guide and Learners' Manual inconsistency, limited number of LM's, lack of time in the preparation of localized instructional material, limited vocabulary. ...
... As Berowa and Regala-Flores argue, following the conventions of the native tongue to arrive at second language production is a natural occurrence among Filipino learners [2]. Cummins in his Threshold Hypothesis states that the level of competency that L2 learners reach in their two languages serves as intervening variables that facilitate the effect of their bilingual understandings in cognition [5]. ...
... This study is anchored on the belief that in learning a target language, learners have their own perception of what is transferable and by their level of development. This supports the Threshold Hypothesis of Cummins that learners have to become sufficiently proficient in the L2 for transfer to be achievable from L1 [5]. After the 5 questions/statements above, the respondents were required to answer essay questions composed of 5 queries. ...
... We begin the literature review with an overview of the value of bilingualism to educational attainment, including mathematical competence, given the still prevalent view in Northern Ireland that education in the Irish language is disadvantageous, especially to children from monolingual homes. Early attempts to explain low academic achievement of many minority language children tended to attribute a role to linguistic factors (Cummins 1979). There was an intuitive belief that if bilingual children were weak in one language, the development of their mathematical abilities (and other academic subjects) would be hindered, particularly with word-solving problems. ...
... Absolute and relative levels of proficiency: threshold levels of proficiency Do children who maintain and develop their L1 (English) in school develop higher or lower L2 (Irish) levels of skills than those whose L1 (English) is replaced by their L2 (Irish) as in immersion programmes ? Cummins' (1979) seminal research strongly suggested that cognitively and academically beneficial forms of bilingualism can be achieved only if the child has adequately developed first language, or L1, skills. ...
... Three general aspects of children's knowledge of language which have been hypothesised as important for the acquisition of fluent reading are, first, Vocabulary concept knowledge (Cummins 1979). Vocabulary acquisition and comprehension play a strong role in how well a child can read in either L1 or L2. ...
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Despite the growth and popularity of Irish-medium Education (IME) in Northern Ireland, the sector has not received the same levels of state support and funding as has heritage language education in the rest of the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Educating children in an immersive language setting, particularly in a minority or endangered language, is still regarded as disadvantageous to the learner, and that bilingual language education will hinder academic attainment, including maths. We present findings from thematic interviews with 11 primary teachers’ perceptions on the challenges of teaching maths in Irish, and how to help the sector develop language skills in, and resources for, teaching maths in the primary curriculum in Northern Ireland. The challenges that emerged from the thematic interviews, include finding teachers with the requisite language skills to teach maths, training and support for Irish-speaking maths teachers, and how children can acquire the right kind of fluency to engage in maths learning.
... Il avance également que les interactions jouent un rôle fondamental dans l'appropriation de la langue seconde et que cette dernière exercera une influence sur la langue maternelle au fur et à mesure de son développement. Dans cet ordre d'idées, les travaux phares de Jim Cummins ont apporté un éclairage remarquable sur les liens existants entre la langue première et la langue seconde, en plus d'introduire de nouvelles façons de comprendre le développement cognitif de la personne bilingue (Cummins, 1979b(Cummins, , 2000b. ...
... L'hypothèse de l'interdépendance de Cummins (1979b) repose sur le postulat que la langue maternelle est le fondement de l'acquisition d'une langue seconde. Ainsi, cette hypothèse illustre le transfert (Jarvis et Pavlenko, 2008;Odlin, 2003Odlin, , 2013 57 de la langue première vers la langue seconde : plus le niveau en langue maternelle est élevé, plus les conditions sont 57 Pour Odlin (2003), le transfert est associé à « l'influence qui résulte des similitudes et des différences entre la langue cible et tout autre langue acquise (possiblement de manière imparfaite) précédemment » (p. ...
... (Hamers et Blanc, 1983). En contexte canadien, l'imposition des langues officielles, les politiques éducatives et les tentatives d'assimilation des peuples autochtones ont largement contribué au développement de ce type de bilinguisme (Battiste, 2013), qui « a des effets négatifs sur les compétences en langue autochtone » (Drapeau, 2013, p. 204 Ces travaux nous amènent enfin à présenter le modèle explicatif des niveaux-seuils de Cummins (1979b), selon lequel un accès fluide aux deux langues se produit lorsqu'un seuil minimal de compétence linguistique est atteint en langue première (et en langue seconde). ...
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Cette étude exploratoire menée au Québec dans une école située dans une communauté anicinape porte sur le développement des capacités métaphonologiques d'élèves anicinapek (n=9) scolarisés en français au premier cycle du primaire. Son principal objectif était de concevoir et de mettre à l'essai un programme de métaphonologie en français et en anicinapemowin fondé sur la typologie de Yopp (1988), en exploitant une littérature de jeunesse culturellement pertinente au vécu des élèves. D'une part, les sous-objectifs de la recherche étaient de 1) décrire les connaissances initiales des élèves dans les deux langues (conscience phonologique, décodage, compréhension en lecture); 2) documenter leurs représentations des langues et 3) documenter les changements potentiels quant à ces connaissances et représentations des langues à la suite du programme de métaphonologie. De l'autre, nous voulions 4) décrire les pratiques pédagogiques initiales des enseignants; 5) dresser un portrait de leurs représentations des langues et 6) documenter les changements potentiels quant à leurs pratiques pédagogiques et représentations des langues à la suite de nos interventions en classe. Pour décrire le développement des aspects examinés, nous avons convoqué un cadre théorique fondé sur les travaux traitant de l'apprentissage de la lecture en langue première et seconde et fait appel à différents instruments. Pour les élèves, nous avons retenu trois sous-épreuves standardisées (dont deux ont fait l'objet d'une adaptation dans leur version française avant d'être traduites en anicinapemowin) et utilisé un questionnaire sur les représentations des langues. Pour les enseignants, nous avons recouru au questionnaire et à l'entretien semi-dirigé. Nos activités en métaphonologie, conçues en fonction du contexte sociolinguistique de la recherche, ont ciblé des activités litéraciques propices à la création d'un environnement linguistique sécurisant, qui se sont tenues sur une période de 10 semaines. En concomitance avec ces interventions, la prise des données a été ponctuée par trois moments stratégiques, soit avant, pendant et après la mise à l'essai de notre dispositif d'enseignement. En vue de mieux appréhender ce développement, nous avons mis en relation les facteurs cognitivo-langagiers et socioaffectifs avec certains aspects de notre programme de métaphonologie. Pour compléter cette analyse, nous avons porté notre regard sur les pratiques des enseignants (les facteurs socioéducatifs), en mettant en relation leurs représentations des langues et leurs pratiques pédagogiques. Les résultats montrent que les élèves, davantage familiers avec des pratiques discursives orales, ont progressé sur le plan de leurs habiletés métaphonologiques dans les deux langues, cette progression étant plus rapide chez certains. De plus, la prise en compte de leur répertoire langagier a contribué à soutenir ce développement. Malgré la fragilité de leurs connaissances sur le plan du décodage, la compréhension en lecture des élèves s’édifie progressivement. Les interventions en classe ont également eu des bénéfices tangibles sur les représentations des langues de quelques élèves. Enfin, notre étude montre que les deux enseignants participants à notre recherche, qui ont recours à des pratiques pédagogiques centrées sur les attentes ministérielles, reconnaissent d'emblée la légitimité des langues des élèves dans leur enseignement. Si cette recherche n'a pas amené de changement marquant dans les pratiques enseignantes, elle a toutefois le mérite d'avoir suscité certaines prises de conscience qui ont eu une incidence sur leurs représentations des langues. Les conclusions invitent les acteurs de la scène éducative à cibler des actions afin de mieux soutenir la formation professionnelle initiale et continue des futurs enseignants et à reconsidérer la place des langues autochtones dans l'éducation des élèves des Premières Nations.
... To the best of our knowledge, Uccelli and colleagues are the first researchers who have attempted to both theorize and operationalize academic language. The CALS construct derives from an interdisciplinary perspective on academic language that convenes second language acquisition (Cummins, 1979(Cummins, , 1991, systemic functional linguistics (Brisk & Zhang-Wu, 2017;Halliday, Matthiessen, & Matthiessen, 2014), and theories of reading comprehension (Hoover & Gough, 1990;Perfetti & Strafura, 2014). ...
... From a second language perspective, Cummins (1979Cummins ( , 1991 hypothesized that cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) is necessary for success in schools, with particular focus on second language learners. A justified criticism of this view of language arises when it is compared with basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS), a comparison which sets up a binary that has been problematized for implying that CALP is somehow superior to BICS, and thus promotes unequal, diglossic contexts in school (e.g., Flores, 2015;Poza, 2015;Valdés, 2004). ...
... Yet as far as theoretical definitions of academic language are concerned, Cummins' (1979) early description of CALP was noteworthy. The framework included three major components: 1) vocabulary-concept knowledge; 2) metalinguistic insights; and 3) decontextualized language. ...
... La théorie de l'interdépendance linguistique (Cummins, 1979(Cummins, , 1981 Grâce à ces processus, une partie des compétences de L1 peut être transférée aux contextes d'apprentissage d'une autre langue, de même qu'une partie des compétences de L2 peut également être transférée à la L1. Figure 9. Métaphore de l'iceberg issue de la théorie de l'interdépendance linguistique (Cummins, 1979(Cummins, , 1981 La première version de cette théorie (Cummins, 1979) suggérait que, si l'environnement de l'apprenant fournissait suffisamment de stimuli pour que la L1 soit maintenue, l'exposition intensive à la L2 dans des contextes académiques produirait un développement rapide de la L2, sans causer d'effets néfastes à la L1. Cependant, si la L1 n'est pas suffisamment développée en dehors des contextes d'enseignement formel, une exposition prolongée à la L2 entravera le développement de la L1 et, à son tour, entravera le développement bilingue. ...
... La théorie de l'interdépendance linguistique (Cummins, 1979(Cummins, , 1981 Grâce à ces processus, une partie des compétences de L1 peut être transférée aux contextes d'apprentissage d'une autre langue, de même qu'une partie des compétences de L2 peut également être transférée à la L1. Figure 9. Métaphore de l'iceberg issue de la théorie de l'interdépendance linguistique (Cummins, 1979(Cummins, , 1981 La première version de cette théorie (Cummins, 1979) suggérait que, si l'environnement de l'apprenant fournissait suffisamment de stimuli pour que la L1 soit maintenue, l'exposition intensive à la L2 dans des contextes académiques produirait un développement rapide de la L2, sans causer d'effets néfastes à la L1. Cependant, si la L1 n'est pas suffisamment développée en dehors des contextes d'enseignement formel, une exposition prolongée à la L2 entravera le développement de la L1 et, à son tour, entravera le développement bilingue. ...
... La théorie de l'interdépendance linguistique (Cummins, 1979(Cummins, , 1981 Grâce à ces processus, une partie des compétences de L1 peut être transférée aux contextes d'apprentissage d'une autre langue, de même qu'une partie des compétences de L2 peut également être transférée à la L1. Figure 9. Métaphore de l'iceberg issue de la théorie de l'interdépendance linguistique (Cummins, 1979(Cummins, , 1981 La première version de cette théorie (Cummins, 1979) suggérait que, si l'environnement de l'apprenant fournissait suffisamment de stimuli pour que la L1 soit maintenue, l'exposition intensive à la L2 dans des contextes académiques produirait un développement rapide de la L2, sans causer d'effets néfastes à la L1. Cependant, si la L1 n'est pas suffisamment développée en dehors des contextes d'enseignement formel, une exposition prolongée à la L2 entravera le développement de la L1 et, à son tour, entravera le développement bilingue. ...
Thesis
Cette thèse vise comparer la conscience morphologique (CM) et la lecture de bilingues français-portugais et monolingues francophones, déterminer la contribution de la CM à la lecture et préciser si cette contribution est modérée par le bilinguisme et/ou médiatise l’impact du bilinguisme sur la lecture. L’étude longitudinale a montré une supériorité bilingue en conscience morpho-dérivationnelle en GSM et en 1ère année, ainsi qu’une contribution de cette dernière à la lecture de pseudo-mots et de texte chez les monolingues et les bilingues. L’impact du bilinguisme sur la lecture de pseudo-mots serait médiatisé par la CM. L’étude transversale a montré une supériorité bilingue en CM à tous les niveaux scolaires (1ère, 3ème et 5ème année de l’école élémentaire) et une contribution de cette dernière à la lecture de mots et de texte en 1ère année et à la lecture de texte en 3ème année chez les monolingues et à la lecture de texte, chez les bilingues et les monolingues, ainsi qu’à la compréhension de phrases chez les bilingues en 5ème année. L’impact du bilinguisme sur la lecture de mots irréguliers serait également médiatisé par la CM en 1ère année, mais pas ultérieurement.
... The realization of the efforts on this vision of using to connect with the world, the national language to connect with our country, and the native languages to connect with our heritage calls for the need of capable teachers equipped with the competencies to implement the MTB-MLE curriculum. Moreover, Cummins (1979) propose the interdependence theory to explain the positive transfer of literacy skills from L1 to L2. He argues that the level of literacy competence in L2 that a child attains is partially a function of the level of competence the child has in L1 at the time L2 teaching begins intensively. ...
... When parents and other caregivers are able to spend time with their children and tell stories or discuss issues with them in a way that develops their mother tongue vocabulary and concepts, children come to school well-prepared to learn the school language and succeed educationally. Children's knowledge and skills transfer across languages from the mother tongue they have learned in the home to the school language (Cummins, 1979). Further, Cummins (2016) stressed that bilingual children's mother tongue has greater access, as the world ventures on globalization, to multilingual and multicultural resources is advantaged in its ability to play an important social and economic role on the world stage. ...
... One of the standards is principles and framework of mother tongue based-multilingual education (MTB-MLE) which starts from where the learners are and from what they already knew proceeding from the known to the unknown. Moreover, Cummins (1979) propose the interdependence theory to explain the positive transfer of literacy skills from L1 to L2. He argues that the level of literacy competence in L2 that a child attains is partially a function of the level of competence the child has in L1 at the time L2 teaching begins intensively. ...
... When parents and other caregivers are able to spend time with their children and tell stories or discuss issues with them in a way that develops their mother tongue vocabulary and concepts, children come to school well-prepared to learn the school language and succeed educationally. Children's knowledge and skills transfer across languages from the mother tongue they have learned in the home to the school language (Cummins, 1979). Further, Cummins (2016) stressed that bilingual children's mother tongue has greater access, as the world ventures on globalization, to multilingual and multicultural resources is advantaged in its ability to play an important social and economic role on the world stage. ...
... 2 Nous partons du principe que les discours propres aux disciplines sont censés être développés avec le soutien de l'enseignant des dites disciplines, tel que le recommandent les textes institutionnels, au niveau national 2 et européen (voir par exemple Graveleau, 2021, pour une recension). De plus, en nous basant notamment sur les travaux de Jim Cummins (1979), nous considérons que l'appropriation de ces discours prend du temps et que ce processus profite de la mise en relation des langues connues par les élèves qui s'appuient sur leurs langues pour mieux apprendre une langue seconde, en l'occurrence ici le français. Dès lors, le plurilinguisme est au moins une composante de cet apprentissage, si ce n'est un levier. ...
... Nous rencontrons les problématiques du temps et des transferts de compétences dans nos travaux : lors d'une recherche précédente, il est apparu que des élèves primo-arrivants éprouvaient des difficultés à transférer leurs compétences mathématiques du fait du changement de langue scolaire et ce qu'ils savaient faire en mathématiques dans leur langue en novembre, ils n'y parvenaient plus quand les mêmes exercices leur avaient été soumis en français quelques mois plus tard, en mai (Mendonça Dias et Millon-Fauré, 2018 ;Millon-Fauré, 2020). Les travaux de Jim Cummins sont éclairants à ce propos : d'une part, il a mis en évidence qu'il fallait environ 7 ans pour que des élèves acquièrent des compétences langagières académiques analogues à celles d'un natif et d'autre part, il a insisté sur l'importance du processus de l' « interdépendance des langues 8 » selon laquelle on apprend une nouvelle langue en s'appuyant sur ses compétences dans les autres langues connues (Cummins, 1979). Ce postulat théorique perdure et implique « l'objectif de prendre en compte et de soutenir le développement d'une compétence plurilingue et pluriculturelle chez l'élève » (Auger et Le Pichon-Vortsmann, 2021 : 64). ...
... However, these gaps could be filled if given adequate time and educational opportunities. Cummins (1979) proposed a distinction between BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills), which are acquired earlier and mastered faster, and CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency), which might require up to 5-7 years to reach monolinguallike levels of performance. Therefore, it is very important to understand developmental trajectories in LMBC in specific academic tasks to understand what might be considered an index of disorder or a peculiar characteristic of a bilingual trajectory. ...
... The first concerns the developmental trajectory of L2 acquisition. In fact, the bilingual gap in written tasks may be related to the BICS/CALP distinction (Cummins 1979). Writing can be considered a CALP component and involves more than phonological-based correspondence, possibly taking longer to develop, even if most children were born in the host country and have an acceptable level of spoken language skills. ...
Many studies have explored how Language-Minority Bilingual Children (LMBC) read and comprehend, while the way they learn to spell and write has received less attention. This study aimed to assess a comprehensive profile of spelling and writing skills in LMBC, comparing performances of 4th and 5th grade bilingual (n = 74) and monolingual (n = 131) children in word and nonword reading and multilevel spelling and writing tasks (word, nonword and passage dictation, and written narrative production). Furthermore, we explored the role of linguistic and cognitive predictors (nonverbal Intellectual Quotient, verbal knowledge, morphosyntactic comprehension, nonword repetition) in spelling and writing outcomes. Our findings showed that, overall, LMBC did not reach a monolingual-like proficiency in spelling by the end of primary school, while they were similar to monolinguals in reading tasks and were able to produce written narratives with adequate macrostructure, syntactic complexity, and lexical variety. Moreover, morphosyntactic comprehension predicted spelling in both groups. Nonverbal intelligence and verbal knowledge predicted spelling skills only for the bilingual group. With regards to writing skills, morphosyntactic comprehension emerged as a predictor exclusively in the bilingual group. These results are discussed with reference to educational and clinical implications. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Even though the role of the L1 in language education and bilingualism has long been recognized and discussed (e.g., Cummins, 1979), the topic itself has been ...
... Even though the role of the L1 in language education and bilingualism has long been recognized and discussed (e.g., Cummins, 1979), the topic itself has been Exploring L1-L2 Relationships: The Impact of Individual Differences By Richard L. Sparks, 2023, Multilingual Matters ii marginalized in the SLA literature, with only occasional studies investigating this issue. In contrast to this, the topic has never been so thoroughly and systematically investigated and discussed as Richard has done over the years, as demonstrated in the many empirical chapters included in this volume (see Parts III and IV). ...
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It is a privilege for the two of us to have this opportunity to read this book, written by our colleague and collaborator Prof Richard Sparks, and to have the honour to write a foreword. Richard has had a distinguished career and is now Professor Emeritus of Special Education in the Mount St. Joseph University's Department of Graduate Education. His broad research interests straddle foreign language learning, L1 and L2 reading, language aptitude, and learning disabilities. Richard has published extensively in all these areas, producing important papers in applied linguistics, foreign language study, educational psychology, and learning disability journals. We have both read and cited his many influential publications on language, education, psychology, dyslexia or hyperlexia, and in particular language aptitude for many years, and enjoyed many stimulating conversations with him in person. The book is a wonderful collection of Richard's most influential articles and book chapters, showcasing his insightful thoughts on many central and interlinked theoretical and methodological issues in current research across the disciplines of language, education, and psychology... The link to the book can be found: https://www.multilingual-matters.com/page/detail/Exploring-L1L2-Relationships/?k=9781800411791
... The threshold hypothesis (Cummins, 1979) further claims that children with low levels of proficiency in the first language are likely to experience academic disadvantages in schools, while those above the threshold level can benefit cognitively from bilingualism. Furthermore, it is well documented that LM students with significant exposure to their native language outperform their peers who have a weak foundation in their native language (e.g., Cobo-Lewis, Eilers, Pearson, & Umbel, 2002;Hakuta & Garcia, 1989;Thomas & Collier, 1997). ...
... Third, although seemingly contradictory, our finding also support the threshold hypothesis (Cummins, 1979) by documenting the cognitive benefits of exposure to language other than English (native language) at home in English-proficient LM students. For the LM-iFEP students, when parents used non-English more frequently, they made faster growth in complex reading comprehension process. ...
... Languages have traditionally been thought of as existing in separate compartments, or as "two solitudes" (Cummins, 1979), within bi/multilingual learners' minds. In his theory of Linguistic Interdependence, Cummins posited that linguistic or metalinguistic practices learnt in one language could be transferred to another (Cummins, 1979). ...
... Languages have traditionally been thought of as existing in separate compartments, or as "two solitudes" (Cummins, 1979), within bi/multilingual learners' minds. In his theory of Linguistic Interdependence, Cummins posited that linguistic or metalinguistic practices learnt in one language could be transferred to another (Cummins, 1979). For example, if a child is familiar with finding the main idea of a text in one language, that child will be able to transfer that competency to a new language. ...
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Debatably, in South Africa, there is an absence of a consensus about a teaching method that can inform multilanguage usage for English first additional language learners in the Further Education and Training phase. This study argues that translanguaging can be the latest all-embracing approach in language policy and assessment needed to substitute previous linguistic practices that treated languages as separate entities in a globalised world. The study aims to determine how group work promotes learners’ different multilingual capabilities among learners in an English first additional language context in the Further Education and Training phase. It took place in a multilingual Grade 11 classroom. For this qualitative study, only 24 Grade 11 learners were used as participants in 4 focus groups for data collection. The results indicate that engaging in group work increases the time English first additional language learners spend actively using their home languages with their peers. Learning English within mixed linguistic groups, learners often draw on their existing languages to learn and to communicate with their teachers and peers. Therefore, distinguishing language upbringings as a reserve might produce positive results in the classroom when teaching English to English first additional language learners as learners showcase their identities in collaboration with their contemporaries. Group work creates a space where translanguaging can easily take place and it is a good exemplification of the power processes that underlie the classroom as learning becomes learner-centric. It was concluded that group work can serve as an enabler for translanguaging, harnessing learners’ different multilingual capabilities for a better understanding of their work.
... While some teachers worry that these students will not learn the school language if it is not used all the time (Alisaari et al., 2019a;Cummins, 2001;Lee & Oxelson, 2006;Rodríguez-Izquierdo et al., 2020;Shestunova, 2019), there is substantial evidence that using home languages during learning does not prevent learning the language of instruction, rather a strong knowledge of one's home language supports learning both other languages and school subjects (Cummins, 1979(Cummins, , 2007Ganuza & Hedman, 2018;Goldenberg, 2008;Ovando & Combs, 2011;Ramirez, 1992;Slavin & Cheung, 2005;Thomas & Collier, 1997). For example, the studies of Thomas and Collier (1997) and Ramirez (1992) showed that students who mainly used their home language, Spanish, for learning at school learned English better than those who studied in English. ...
... When planning instruction, in particular collaborative tasks, the role of language must be considered; teachers can advocate for social interaction to support learning the language of instruction and/or enable learning content through peer support from students of the same home language (de Jong, 2011). It is essential that teachers make intentional pedagogic decisions that include ways to actively advocate for the use of home languages to promote the best academic outcomes for students with immigration background (see Cummins, 1979Cummins, , 2007Ganuza & Hedman, 2018;Goldenberg, 2008;Ovando & Combs, 2011;Ramirez, 1992;Slavin & Cheung, 2005). Thus, while the teachers surveyed tolerated translanguaging during collaborative learning situations, they did not intentionally plan or encourage it (see also Cenoz, 2017a;2017b). ...
... Secondly, this section reviews the academic outcomes of EB students and characteristics that affect those outcomes. Cummins (1979) pointed to the importance of English proficiency for EB students for academic achievement when proposing his threshold hypothesis, which …assumes that those aspects of bilingualism which might positively influence cognitive growth are unlikely to come into effect until the child has attained a certain minimum or threshold competence in a second language. (p. ...
... This conclusion supports Cummins (1979Cummins ( , 1981 findings that students who focus on L2 learning at the cost of L1 may perform well in earlier grades, but as the linguistic demand increases, competency in both L1 and L2 yields greater cognitive and academic advantages. ...
... Secondly, this section reviews the academic outcomes of EB students and characteristics that affect those outcomes. Cummins (1979) pointed to the importance of English proficiency for EB students for academic achievement when proposing his threshold hypothesis, which …assumes that those aspects of bilingualism which might positively influence cognitive growth are unlikely to come into effect until the child has attained a certain minimum or threshold competence in a second language. (p. ...
... This conclusion supports Cummins (1979Cummins ( , 1981 findings that students who focus on L2 learning at the cost of L1 may perform well in earlier grades, but as the linguistic demand increases, competency in both L1 and L2 yields greater cognitive and academic advantages. ...
... The integrated PA intervention in the current study is mapped onto the pedagogical and theoretical frameworks of Muñoz et al. (2018) and the L1-L2 Interdependence Theory by Cummins (1979). Muñoz et al.'s pedagogical features of PA intervention were adopted to include complementary approaches in PA intervention such as attention to scope and sequence, immediate feedback, and language experience through storytelling. ...
... Muñoz et al.'s pedagogical features of PA intervention were adopted to include complementary approaches in PA intervention such as attention to scope and sequence, immediate feedback, and language experience through storytelling. Cummins' (1979) Linguistic Interdependence Theory, which explains that skills learned in L1 are transferable to L2, provides the theoretical anchor for the use of the mother tongue in PA intervention. These frameworks and theories were considered in the current enhanced PA intervention designed for Filipino kindergarten children who are studying in a public school. ...
Article
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Developing strong reading skills in children is crucial to overcoming language and academic barriers and ensuring future success in education. The extent of phonological awareness (PA) substantially affects children's reading ability (Hoff, 2014). Thus, the goal of the study was to document the success rate of ten Filipino kindergarten pupils enrolled in one public school in Calaca who underwent twenty sessions of 30-minute integrated PA intervention. The study employed mixed methods research utilizing intervention design. The quantitative results were taken from a single-group pretest-posttest, and the qualitative results were taken from a thematic analysis of interviews of educational assistants and kindergarten teachers at three-time points. Muñoz et al.’s (2018) pedagogical framework and Cummins’ (1979) Linguistic Interdependence Theory provided foundational support in analyzing how PA intervention in the mother tongue assists children in gradually promoting their reading outcomes in the mother tongue and English. Results show significant differences in PA and letter knowledge in Batangas Tagalog and English before and after the intervention. Batangas Tagalog scores show a very high significant positive correlation. Additionally, observations reveal positive changes among the pupils after undergoing the intervention. The study demonstrates that PA intervention in the mother tongue potentially provides a promising and sustainable way to improve the early reading skills of Filipino kindergarten pupils.
... Η πρώιμη παιδική εκπαίδευση βελτιώνει σημαντικά την εκμάθηση γλωσσών των παιδιών μεταναστών και (εάν είναι καλά σχεδιασμένη) μπορεί να βελτιώσει την ετοιμότητα της ανάγνωσης.. Η μεθοδική και συνεχής γλωσσική υποστήριξη είναι απαραίτητη σε όλα τα επίπεδα εκπαίδευσης (Cummins 1979). ...
Research
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Πολλές έρευνες έχουν ασχοληθεί με το θέμα της διγλωσσίας των μαθητών και τα εμπόδια που προκύπτουν κατά την μαθησιακή διαδικασία. Επίσης μεγάλος αριθμός ερευνών διερευνά τις πρακτικές που αξιοποιούν οι εκπαιδευτικοί για την διδασκαλία δίγλωσσων μαθητών. Σκοπός της παρούσας έρευνας είναι η αποτύπωση των απόψεων των εκπαιδευτικών δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης σχετικά με τα εμπόδια και τα προβλήματα που προκύπτουν κατά την διδασκαλία της γλώσσας σε μαθητές μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας στο σύγχρονο σχολικό συγκείμενο, και με τις προοπτικές επίλυσης τους. Για το σκοπό αυτό πραγματοποιήθηκε ποσοτική έρευνα σε δείγμα 107 εκπαιδευτικών δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης με χρήση κατάλληλου ερωτηματολογίου. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας έδειξαν ότι τα σημαντικότερα εμπόδια που εμφανίζονται κατά τη διδασκαλία μαθητών μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας είναι η μη επαρκής υποστήριξη από τις κρατικές δομές, η ελλιπής συνεργασίας εκπαιδευτικών-γονέων και η ελλιπής κατάρτιση εκπαιδευτικών. Επιπρόσθετα, παρατηρήθηκε πως οι σημαντικότεροι παράγοντες που προκαλούν τα εμπόδια αυτά είναι η ετοιμότητα του εκπαιδευτικού συστήματος να ενσωματώσει οικογένειες με μεταναστευτικό υπόβαθρο, η υποστήριξη από τους αρμόδιους φορείς, η δομή των αναλυτικών προγραμμάτων και η ετοιμότητα της ελληνικής κοινωνίας να ενσωματώσει οικογένειες με μεταναστευτικό υπόβαθρο. . Τα ευρήματα της έρευνας για τις πρακτικές διδασκαλίας και τις διδακτικές μεθόδοι που αξιοποιούν οι εκπαιδευτικοί κατά την διδασκαλία της γλώσσας σε μαθητές μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας έδειξαν πως οι εκπαιδευτικοί προτρέπουν τους μαθητές να συνεργάζονται με τα παιδιά με μεταναστευτικό υπόβαθρο, παροτρύνουν όλους τους γονείς, ανεξαρτήτως χώρας προέλευσης, να συνεργάζονται μαζί τους και τροποποιούν τη διδασκαλία λαμβάνοντας υπόψη τις ανάγκες των μεταναστών μαθητών προσφέροντας ίσες ευκαιρίες μάθησης. Οι εκπαιδευτικοί δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης θεωρούν ότι η διδασκαλία των μαθητών μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας θα μπορούσε να βελτιωθεί μέσα από δράσεις ενημέρωσης των μαθητών και γονέων και μέσα από δράσεις κατάρτισης των εκπαιδευτικών. Λέξεις κλειδιά: Μαθητές μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας, εμπόδια, προοπτικές, απόψεις εκπαιδευτικών
... Some researchers (Alderson, 1984;Renandya, 2012;Skehan, 1989) suggested that L2 listeners needed to reach a certain threshold of proficiency before they could benefit from strategy training. This threshold of proficiency is explained as a level of linguistic proficiency (Clarke, 1980;Cummins, 1979), including the knowledge of vocabulary, grammar, phonology, and pragmatics as well as the speed of accessing them (Canale & Swain, 1980;Hulstijn, 2015). It forms the foundation of listening comprehension and can determine to the extent listeners can use the acquired strategies successfully (Mendelsohn, 2006;Vandergrift & Baker, 2015). ...
Article
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The metacognitive approach to listening is drawing increasing attention in the field of second language learning (Vandergrift & Goh, 2012). Nevertheless, the findings of the effects of the metacognitive approach on metacognitive knowledge and listening comprehension are inconclusive, and the impact of language proficiency on how much metacognition intervenes is not certain yet (Vandergrift & Baker, 2018). This study investigates the impact of language proficiency on metacognition in implementing the metacognitive approach and examines whether language proficiency has the same impact on different aspects of metacognition as measured by the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ) (Vandergrift, Goh, Tafaghodtari & Mareschal, 2006). One hundred twelve non-English majors in a university in China participated in this study. Results showed that the listening performance of the experimental group improved significantly compared with that of the control group. This might be attributed to the holistic nature of the metacognitive approach. However, the lower language proficiency may have constrained learners’ engagement in metacognitive activities as the participants had trouble in using some real-time strategies successfully due to their lower language proficiency. Overall, the findings provide support for and shed light on implementing the metacognitive approach.
... As we analyzed the teacher focus group interviews using the lens of SFL, we began to distinguish between what we considered to be "first generation sheltered instruction," those instructional approaches informed by prior theories about the supports that ELs need to engage in content area learning, and "next generation sheltered instruction," informed by newer theories of disciplinary language development supporting disciplinary meaning making. We view first generation sheltered instruction as being informed by the earlier work in second language acquisition (e.g., Cummins, 1979) and in content area literacy (e.g., Chamot & O'Malley, 1994) that highlighted strategies for making abstract academic concepts more concrete so that they would be accessible to ELs. Practices that are representative of these older perspectives on supporting ELs in content area instruction are listed in the left column of table 1. ...
... Η πρώιμη παιδική εκπαίδευση βελτιώνει σημαντικά την εκμάθηση γλωσσών των παιδιών μεταναστών και (εάν είναι καλά σχεδιασμένη) μπορεί να βελτιώσει την ετοιμότητα της ανάγνωσης.. Η μεθοδική και συνεχής γλωσσική υποστήριξη είναι απαραίτητη σε όλα τα επίπεδα εκπαίδευσης (Cummins 1979). ...
Research Proposal
Πολλές έρευνες έχουν ασχοληθεί με το θέμα της διγλωσσίας των μαθητών και τα εμπόδια που προκύπτουν κατά την μαθησιακή διαδικασία. Επίσης μεγάλος αριθμός ερευνών διερευνά τις πρακτικές που αξιοποιούν οι εκπαιδευτικοί για την διδασκαλία δίγλωσσων μαθητών. Σκοπός της παρούσας έρευνας είναι η αποτύπωση των απόψεων των εκπαιδευτικών δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης σχετικά με τα εμπόδια και τα προβλήματα που προκύπτουν κατά την διδασκαλία της γλώσσας σε μαθητές μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας στο σύγχρονο σχολικό συγκείμενο, και με τις προοπτικές επίλυσης τους. Για το σκοπό αυτό πραγματοποιήθηκε ποσοτική έρευνα σε δείγμα 107 εκπαιδευτικών δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης με χρήση κατάλληλου ερωτηματολογίου. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας έδειξαν ότι τα σημαντικότερα εμπόδια που εμφανίζονται κατά τη διδασκαλία μαθητών μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας είναι η μη επαρκής υποστήριξη από τις κρατικές δομές, η ελλιπής συνεργασίας εκπαιδευτικών-γονέων και η ελλιπής κατάρτιση εκπαιδευτικών. Επιπρόσθετα, παρατηρήθηκε πως οι σημαντικότεροι παράγοντες που προκαλούν τα εμπόδια αυτά είναι η ετοιμότητα του εκπαιδευτικού συστήματος να ενσωματώσει οικογένειες με μεταναστευτικό υπόβαθρο, η υποστήριξη απο τους αρμόδιους φορείς, η δομή των αναλυτικών προγραμμάτων και η ετοιμότητα της ελληνικής κοινωνίας να ενσωματώσει οικογένειες με μεταναστευτικό υπόβαθρο. . Τα ευρήματα της έρευνας για τις πρακτικές διδασκαλίας και τις διδακτικές μεθόδοι που αξιοποιούν οι εκπαιδευτικοί κατά την διδασκαλία της γλώσσας σε μαθητές μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας έδειξαν πως οι εκπαιδευτικοί προτρέπουν τους μαθητές να συνεργάζονται με τα παιδιά με μεταναστευτικό υπόβαθρο, παροτρύνουν όλους τους γονείς, ανεξαρτήτως χώρας προέλευσης, να συνεργάζονται μαζί τους και τροποποιούν τη διδασκαλία λαμβάνοντας υπόψη τις ανάγκες των μεταναστών μαθητών προσφέροντας ίσες ευκαιρίες μάθησης. Οι εκπαιδευτικοί δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης θεωρούν ότι η διδασκαλία των μαθητών μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας θα μπορούσε να βελτιωθεί μέσα από δράσεις ενημέρωσης των μαθητών και γονέων και μέσα από δράσεις κατάρτισης των εκπαιδευτικών. Λέξεις κλειδιά: Μαθητές μεταναστευτικής βιογραφίας, εμπόδια, προοπτικές, απόψεις εκπαιδευτικών
... As such, it is possible that the transfer of PA to writing can occur among other language learners, given it occurs even among L2 learners with limited exposures to phonology instruction. Our findings showed that, even among students in early stages of writing development, PA skills are transferrable across languages, which supports the idea that PA is a language-general skill in literacy development (Goswami et al., 2001) and that there is a common underlying proficiency across languages (Cummins, 1979;Genesee et al., 2006). For Chinese learners, the role of PA skills in Cantonese word reading might be diminishing as children grow older, when other metalinguistic skills such as morphological awareness or orthographic awareness become more important (X. ...
Article
The longitudinal study investigated the directionality and transfer mechanism of cross‐linguistic transfer of phonological awareness between L1 and L2 in predicting early writing (word dictation) in Chinese children learning English as L2. Ninety primary school Grade 1 (P1) students were assessed on phonological awareness in Cantonese (syllable deletion, onset deletion, rime deletion, and tone awareness), phonological awareness in English (syllable deletion, rime detection, and phoneme deletion), Cantonese word writing, and English word writing at Time 1. These students were assessed on the same measures 1 year later at Time 2 when they were in Grade 2. The results demonstrated bidirectional cross‐linguistic transfer of phonological awareness and early writing between Cantonese and English. It also showed that the transfers were achieved through same time writing skills (bidirectional) and future phonological awareness (from L1 to L2 only). No direct effect of earlier phonological awareness to later writing skill was found. Metalinguistic awareness is thought to be transferred as a facilitative resource from one language to reading skills in the other languages, but how is the cross‐linguistic transfer of metalinguistic skill in writing? What is the directionality in the transfer? Whether the transfer occurs at the construct or outcome level? This article examines the directionality and transfer mechanism of cross‐linguistic transfer of phonological awareness between L1 and L2 in predicting early writing in Chinese children learning English as L2.
... Particularmente, a través del cuestionario sociodemográfico se evidenció un predominio del idioma español en primer lugar y en un segundo, el inglés, a pesar de que los sujetos de este estudio dominaran múltiples lenguas y enseñaran primordialmente el francés. Este hecho influyó en su discurso oral, en el cual se logró observar una interdependencia lingüística dado que las habilidades alcanzadas en una lengua fueron transferidas a otra Cummins (1979); en este caso, se dio una transferencia de conocimiento léxico del inglés y español a la lengua francesa, esto se evidenció en expresiones como "la persona misma" y "elle est partie de la tripulation" 47 . ...
Chapter
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Human beings create mental representations of their reality and conceptualize them in their minds; they can carry out perceptual and cognitive processes that can be influenced when using a foreign language (Costa et al. 2014), which is consequently reflected in their moral decision-making. This study applied a linguistic-cognitive approach to the understanding of the influence of the foreign language (French) on the moral reasoning of bilingual professors (L1 Spanish), based on Gosselin's Modular Theory of Modalities (2010) and Greene et al.,’s (2001) Model of Alternative Dual Process. It was thanks to these theoretical postulates that a utilitarian reasoning was evidenced, for the most part, when employing the French language, thus being consistent with the fact that a judgment tends to be utilitarian in a foreign language (Miozzo, et al., 2020). The concluding remarks of this study indicate that odds are high to think that the way in which such an influence occurs is via several linguistic-cognitive aspects, such as time values (T) and the degree of engagement of the speaker (E), among others. These results contribute to the discussion on language processing and its role in moral reasoning, as well as to the conceptual approach to the classical dichotomy between internal and external cognition in human beings.
... In particular, we investigate whether and under which conditions bilingual children's metalinguistic representations are shared across their two languages. In this sense, metalinguistic awareness can be considered as a component of a common underlying proficiency, which is "the cognitive/academic proficiency that underlies academic performance in both languages" (Cummins, 2000, p. 38; see also Cummins, 1979Cummins, , 1981. ...
Preprint
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Most studies on bilingual children’s metalinguistic awareness (MA) assess MA using monolingual tasks. This may not reflect how a bilingual’s languages dynamically interact with each other in the formation of metalinguistic representations. We tested 33 Greek-Italian bilingual children (8-11 years) in their MA using acceptability-rating tasks in which they had to judge and explain grammatical errors. The tasks were in a monolingual and bilingual mode, in order to show how far MA in Italian benefited from the activation of Greek. Participants exhibited better MA abilities in Italian in the bilingual acceptability-rating task, in which Greek was activated. The benefits of the bilingual mode were visible in the judgement and explanation of errors and were modulated by syntactic processing abilities in Italian, length of exposure to Italian, type of structure and age. The results show that MA can be shared across languages. The pedagogical implications of the study are discussed.
... De esta manera, no solamente el aprendizaje informal del castellano cuajaba en variedades de naturaleza «interlingual», sino que también la escuela propiciaba, cuando no expulsaba, legiones de hablantes de entrelengua, y hasta de «semilingües» (Cummins 1979). Ello, porque los mismos agentes castellaniza.dores, ...
Book
El documento presenta una selección de trabajos de los últimos treinta años sobre los efectos de los fenómenos de contacto y conflicto idiomáticos desde los años iniciales de la conquista hasta la actualidad, con énfasis en la influencia de las lenguas mayores del antiguo Perú, sobre todo el quechua y el aimara, en la configuración de lo que hoy se denomina castellano andino. Los cinco primeros capítulos abordan temas sociolingüísticos pedagógicos, donde están presentes la preocupación por caracterizar las formas que adquiere el castellano debido a un aprendizaje imperfecto por parte de los hablantes de quechua y aimara, así como la inquietud por el problema de la enseñanza del castellano a las poblaciones cuya habla constituye precisamente el objeto de reflexión. Los siete ensayos restantes, rastrean los antecedentes de los fenómenos del contacto lingüístico en la documentación escrita y en sus manifestaciones observables en la actualidad. Agencia de Cooperación Técnica Alemana - GTZ
... Canadian researchers who studied children in immersion programs in the late 1960s to the 1990s (e.g., Cummins, 1979;Swain & Lapkin, 1982;Genesee, 1987) documented extensively that the transfer of abilities and skills across languages is an integral part of the language learning process and is beneficial to students' overall academic and cognitive development. This research challenged and countered the belief in education that students' ...
Thesis
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This study examines Continuing Education (ContEd) administrators’ understanding of the notion of plurilingualism (PL) and its application in the context of Grade 9 to 12 International Languages (IL) classrooms in Ontario. Through cross-case analysis and a phenomenological lens, the perspectives of 17 administrators from across Ontario were analyzed in reference to PL as it is elaborated in the CEFR and the 2016 IL curriculum. Participants expressed a need for administrators to learn about PL-inspired classroom practices in order to guide and train IL teachers, to foster innovation in the immersion context of IL classrooms, and to advocate for IL and PL in the broader school system. The implications are far-reaching and touch on professional development for IL administrators and teachers, student motivation, and discursive practices in IL and the broader school system. The study contributes to theory on PL, SLE research about PL in the IL context, and administrators in the ContEd context.
... Council of the European Union 2014), ist einer der Gründe, die Fähigkeiten der Schüler*innen in weiteren Sprachen per se als Bereicherung zu wertenauch wenn dies gerade den oben thematisierten ‚Migrationssprachen' oft abgesprochen wird. Zudem hebt bereits Cummins (1979) die Wichtigkeit der Erstsprache sowohl für den Zweitspracherwerb als auch für den allgemeinen fachlichen Kompetenzerwerb hervor. Gleichzeitig betonen sowohl Mehrsprachigkeitsdidaktik als auch Soziolinguistik die enge Verknüpfung von Sprache(n) und Selbstkonzept. ...
Article
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Während im wissenschaftlichen Diskurs einerseits Mehrsprachigkeit als Ressource betont, andererseits aber auch das Fortbestehen von Sprachideologien und monolingualem Habitus an deutschen Schulen beschrieben wird, ist wenig darüber bekannt, wie die betroffenen Lernenden selbst den Umgang mit Mehrsprachigkeit wahrnehmen. Um ihre Perspektive genauer herauszuarbeiten, wurden 14 migrationsbedingt mehrsprachige Jugendliche mittels leitfadengestützter Interviews befragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sie selbst ihre Mehrsprachigkeit zwar wertschätzen, diese Wertschätzung aber nur selten von außen erfahren und Mehrsprachigkeit im Unterricht kaum als Ressource anerkannt wird. Die erfahrenen gesellschaftlichen Hierarchisierungen von Sprachen lehnen die Jugendlichen weitgehend ab und bewerten sprachliche Kompetenzen eher unter pragmatischen sowie persönlichkeitsbildenden Aspekten. Current academic discourse describes multilingualism as a resource for language learning. Still, language ideologies and a monolingual habitus usually predominate in German schools. Little is known about how multilingual students themselves rate multilingualism in schools and society. In order to emphasize their perspective on multilingualism, guideline-based interviews were conducted with a total of 14 multilingual migrant students (2nd generation). The results show that the students value their multilingualism in a rather pragmatic way and mostly reject linguistic hierarchies. At the same time, they rarely experience appreciation and their competence is hardly perceived as a resource.
... According to Cummins' (1979) hypothesis of linguistic interdependence, it is assumed that once reading ability has been acquired in the first language, it would be available for use in the second or subsequent languages as well. In other words, no instruction in second language reading is necessary. ...
... With regard to background, it would be important to consider students' home languages and their writing and reading proficiency in these languages. These factors might potentially influence students' performance in an academic literacy intervention (see, for example, Yamashita, 2002;Cummins, 2001) reading and writing proficiency in their first languages, and might thus be unable to transfer certain abilities from one language to the other; this could of course also be true of students who only speak English. The needs of such students might differ from those of students who are fully proficient in another language. ...
Thesis
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Responsibly designing academic literacy interventions is becoming increasingly important in a higher education environment where resources for student development are scarce. Providing proof of the effectiveness of such interventions is equally important – academic literacy specialists must show that what they are doing has a significant and meaningful impact on student success. If certain aspects of an intervention were shown not to work optimally, these should be addressed. This cycle of providing evidence of an intervention’s successes and shortcomings, and addressing any such shortcomings, is the goal of impact measurement. However, very few studies have attempted to comprehensively measure the impact of academic literacy interventions, probably because measuring impact in the social sciences is a challenging undertaking. The goal of this study was to develop an evaluation design that could be used to effectively and responsibly measure the impact of a wide range of academic literacy interventions. The first step in developing this evaluation design was to survey the available literature on impact measurement, specifically in the field of academic literacy, so as to propose a theoretically sound design and accompanying research instruments. Through a process of inquiry, piloting and critical reflection, several of these research instruments were adapted to make them applicable to the wide variety of academic literacy interventions that are presented in the South African context. After having proposed an initial evaluation design, this design was verified and validated by i) implementing it in measuring the impact of an academic literacy course in the South African context and ii) obtaining feedback from academic literacy specialists from across the country on how the design could be further improved to suit their respective contexts. After having critically reflected on the implementation process, and after having analysed responses from academic literacy specialists, a revised evaluation design and accompanying research instruments were proposed. These should assist researchers in comprehensively and responsibly measuring the impact of a wide range of academic literacy interventions, and consequently benefit the field of academic literacy as a whole.
... LTH maintains that L2 learners must first gain a certain amount of linguistic control over L2 so that they can apply their L1 reading skills to L2 reading. Clark (1979) and Cummins (1979) call this certain amount a "language ceiling", and a "threshold level of linguistic competence" respectively. Below this level of linguistic competence, it is unlikely that L1 reading strategies can transfer to L2 reading tasks. ...
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ونرغب في بحثنا أن نقدِّم جانبًا مُهِمًّا من توظيف النحو لم يُعْطَ حقَّه من العناية والتدريس في الكتب المعاصرة المعنية بتوظيف النحو، فحين نتصفح جملة من الكتب المعاصرة المهتمة المصنفة في النحو الوظيفي نجد أنها لا تعدو أن تكون كتبًا تميل إلى اللغة المعاصرة والعناية بتكثيف الأنشطة والبعد عن القواعد الشاذة، وهذه الأمور -وإن كانت محسوبة من الملامح الوظيفية- فإنها لا تمثّل جوهر النحو الوظيفي وغايته الأسمى التي تقوم على الأركان التالية: 1) تجاوز فكرة استعراض القواعد النحوية وأمثلتها إلى فكرة الفروق الدلالية بين الأدوات والتراكيب، فالطالب طالما تعلم أن (حتى) قد تدل على انتهاء الغاية كما تدل عليه (إلى)؛ لكنه محتاج إلى أن يعرف الفرق بين الأداتين في هذه الدلالة. 2) إدخال البعد الحجاجي إلى التحليل النحوي مثل فكرة العوامل والروابط التي يمكن أن نختبر بها مدى مناسبة التركيب للمقام الذي قيل فيه. 3) تفتيق ذهن الطالب بممارسة نشاط الإحلال الأفقي (التفاعل الوظيفي بين عناصر التركيب) مثل استبدال الشمس بالسماء، والإحلال العمودي (استبدال باب صرفي بباب صرفي آخر أو استبدال كلمة بكلمة أخرى من بابها) مثل استبدال الفعل بالمصدر؛ لكي يقابل بين الأبواب النحوية والصرفية ويرى نقاط الالتقاء والافتراق فيما بينها عند إحلال بعضهما محل بعض. 4) ربط القواعد النحوية بحكايات تاريخية واجتماعية وسياسية وعلمية جرت في كتب المناظرات والمحاورات والمجالس والأمالي والظرائف والنقائض؛ ليلمس الطالب بنفسه هذا التوظيف الواقعي وأثره في المتخاطبين. 5) إضفاء البعد السيميائي بتدارك العناية بالعلامات غير اللغوية وأثرها في التحليل النحوي؛ لأن التركيب لا ينفصل عن واقع الإنسان المبني على استعمال نوعين من العلامات: العلامات اللغوية (المنطوقة والمكتوبة) والعلامات غير اللغوية (مثل الأيقونات). 6) العناية بالجانب النفسي للمتكلم والمتلقي، وبيان أثره في التحليل عند النحوي والتأويل عند المتلقي. فالإرادة (النية) والمشاعر (ردة الفعل) والتفكير (التصور الذهني) هي عناصر السلوك الفردي، ولها تأثيرها في المتحدث والمخاطب. ولأجل تحقيق هذه الجوانب الوظيفية رأينا أن كتب أصول الفقه قد قطعت في هذا المضمار شوطًا طويلًا لا تجاريها فيه كتب النحو التقليدية القديمة والحديثة، فانصب اهتمامنا في هذه الدراسة على الكشف عن هذا المنجز التراثي الإسلامي
... Over the years, although the role of L1 has been recognized and discussed in language education and bilingualism (e.g., Cummins, 1979), the research topic has been marginalized in most SLA literature, particularly under the influence of communicative language teaching (CLT) which contends that the use of L1 mother tongue should be reduced or avoided. Such an assumption, as argued by Richard (Sparks, 2022), should be revamped (this issue) because an increasing number of studies have demonstrated its positive role in predicting, facilitating, and boosting L2 learning in the long run. ...
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Richard Sparks is currently Professor Emeritus of Special Education in Mount St. Joseph University's Department of Graduate Education in Cincinnati, USA. For over 40 years, Richard has had a celebratory career in teaching, researching, and servicing language education. His broad research interests and academic influence span various sub-domains of individual differences in L1 and L2 reading and writing, language learning difficulties, and language aptitude. Richard has published extensively in top journals of language and education, producing an impressive list of empirical studies and thought-provoking theoretical position papers related to key topics and issues in foreign language education, educational psychology, and learning disability. Scholars and practitioners in both language and psychology have read his works with interest and cited frequently many of his influential works on language, education, psychology, dyslexia, hyperlexia, and in particular language aptitude. Having received professional training in educational psychology and special education, Richard has conducted and published numerous programmatic papers in L1 reading, language learning disabilities, and in L2 education, among which over 95 items are indexed in the Scopus
... Mother language education is vital for students' further academic and personal success. If students learn their home language in an efficient way, it enables them to learn other languages effectively, in addition to ensuring academic achievement (Cummins, 1979). ...
... (e.g. Linck, Osthus, Koeth, & Bunting, 2014 ;Sparks, Patton, Ganschow, & Humbach, 2009 ;Ye & Zhou, 2009;Cummins, 1979, Chen Pichler & Koulidobrova, 2016. Fundamentally, language learning is the responsibility of the person learning the language. ...
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Although previous research shows that the use of rhyme in early language stimulation has a positive impact on children’s sign language development, this area of sign language acquisition has not been adequately researched. 90% of deaf children are born to hearing parents who barely know sign language before their child is born, and yet they are the primary language role models in their child’s life. As L2 sign language users, hearing parents of deaf children teach language skills in their L2 to their deaf child who acquires sign language as one of their L1s. In this article, we focus on the potential application of the Icelandic Sign Language (ÍTM) handshape inventory in both early language intervention with signing children and in teaching ÍTM as an L2. We argue that the handshape inventory can be used as a teaching tool when teaching sign language as M2L2 to hearing adults and as a visual language stimulation tool for signing children (M1L1 or M2L1). The main purpose of using the handshape inventory is to raise phonological awareness of signing children and adults learning sign language. This can be done by explicitly teaching handshapes to adult learners and using signed rhymes in early language stimulation.
... In this contribution, we focus exclusively on extralinguistic variables, though it needs to be borne in mind that intra-linguistic differences need to be taken into account, too. For instance, it matters whether cross-linguistic influence is conceptualized as interdependence in the sense of Cummins (1979), which is generally associated with enhancement, or whether the research focus is on phonological or morphosyntactic features like phoneme inventories, final devoicing, article usage, or subject-verb agreement. The latter areas are likely to attract inhibition given specific language constellations. ...
Book
This volume presents interdisciplinary findings on the relevance of multilingualism for the educational biographies of students in Germany. The focus is on linguistic, personal, and contextual factors that can influence learners' language development. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used.
... Plurilingualism, on the other hand, views all languages spoken by an individual "as a whole, a unique and global set of competencies available to an individual for use in different communicative needs and situations" (Coste & Simon, 2009, p. 170). This view is in consistence with Cummins's (1979Cummins's ( , see also 2007 interdependence hypothesis, which holds that all of an individual's languages are interconnected and stored in the same "box." ...
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This article is a pedagogical response to the theoretical and ideological stance which suggests that not all languages are worthy of inclusion in the school curriculum. It argues that, like any other resource, languages can be developed, conserved, and promoted through education. Very often, languages and cultures in contemporary socio-political discourses are referred to as valuable resources of a nation. However, citing a lack of resources and practical relevance, scholars contest the ways and the extent to which these languages should be developed and preserved. This article challenges such a politico-economic stance and recommends that a plurilingual education policy, based on the ground realities of a nation and a linguistic ecology needs to be considered for the development and promotion of languages. Presenting Nepal as a case, the article claims that in its complex linguistic context, plurilingual education is more relevant than bi- and tri-lingual education, and therefore, there is a need for a pedagogical shift in language education. Nepal, a small, multilingual Himalayan nation has embarked upon seeking a new political will and a fresh mandate for developing an inclusive language education policy in the federal system of governance. The federal states are seeking to adopt the three-language education policy with Nepali, English, and one locally chosen language. In a context where there are scores of languages, this policy is flawed for more than one reason. The paper analyses the proposed policy and offers a language education framework with a view to re-engineering plurilingualism at the grassroots level. Based on the relevance of fostering individual as well as societal plurilingualism, and an analysis of related literature, it argues that in the developing socio-political scenario and existing linguistic landscape, the much-hyped three-language education formula will damage the existing linguistic fabric and create further divisions in the Nepalese population.
... Las repercusiones negativas en el rendimiento escolar de los alumnos que se enfrentan a la enseñanza en una lengua que desconocen, o bien que aprenden a leer y a escribir en una lengua que no es la suya, son mucho mayores que en los niños que no padecen lo mismo en su proceso de aprendizaje (Cummins, 1979;Hamel, 1983). Esto explica, en parte, por qué quienes hablan una lengua indígena tienen rendimientos inferiores en las pruebas estandarizadas de secundaria que miden el cumplimiento de los objetivos curriculares de lenguaje y comunicación (español), así como de matemáticas. ...
... Expectations of the implementation of a foreign language program for most parents 89 (88.1%) were met and described through the perspective of observed changes in children in the following areas: speech and language development (active use of a foreign language), socio-emotional development, cognitive development, foundation for further foreign language acquisition and situational learning. The overall results indicate a satisfactory level of compliance of parents' expectations with the observed positive changes that are related mainly to the integrated all-day foreign language acquisition program, which is in line with scientific studies (Cummins, 1979;Prebeg-Vilke, 1991;Stančić and Ljubešić, 1994;Gopnik, 2003;Silić, 2007;Voss, 2008 Ključne riječi: odgojne vrijednosti, kvaliteta odgojno-obrazovnog procesa, kompetencije odgojitelja, nacionalni kurikulum ...
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Education reform brings challenges to teachers / educators that they must respond to in a valid way. Teachers 'professional competencies directly affect students' achievements, and therefore the professional responsibility of teachers is called into question. In order for teachers / educators to achieve the quality of the educational process, it is necessary to provide them with systematic support that is reflected in professional development that is in line with the needs of children and the needs of the culture of kindergarten. The extent to which teachers / educators are motivated for professional development is primarily influenced by their implicit pedagogy, institution management and systematic support in professional development. The analysis and transcription results of a structured interview conducted on a sample of 7 educators in Brod-Posavina County, indicate the need to define the factors that result in the synergy of participants in the educational process. By considering a broader perspective of the system of support for the professional development of educators and axial coding, the leading factors are defined; forms of professional development, autonomy in professional development, support of the institution in professional development and motivation for professional development. The results of the research points to the necessity of achieving a quality relationship of professional development factors, mutual synergy that would lead to motivation and professional self-actualization of educators.
Thesis
Il s’agit de déterminer de quelles manières les difficultés langagières des élèves migrants modifient l’activité de la classe durant un cours de mathématiques. Pour cela, nous nous appuyons sur la théorie de l’Action Conjointe. Nous analysons tout d’abord des séances d’évaluation en classe ordinaire et en classe d’accueil. Nous montrons ainsi la profondeur du procès de négociation du contrat didactique. Grâce à des questionnaires, nous avons décelé certaines lacunes dans les compétences langagières des élèves migrants, susceptibles de nuire à leur activité mathématique et nous avons montré l’indépendance relative de ces difficultés avec le temps de résidence dans le pays d’accueil. La comparaison des classes ordinaires et des classes d’accueil nous a aussi permis de mettre en évidence des spécificités de la classe d’accueil, notamment des phénomènes de refoulement didactique du professeur (l’enseignant ne présente pas certains termes ou notions mathématiques utilisés dans les autres classes) et de jeux alternatifs conjoints (enseignant et élèves tendent à simplifier le travail mathématique attendu chez les élèves). Ces adaptations altèrent les possibilités d’action des élèves migrants et fragilisent leurs apprentissages disciplinaires mais la négociation du contrat sur l’évaluation rend ce phénomène invisible. Nous avons alors conçu un module d’enseignement destiné à accélérer l’entrée dans les mathématiques pour les élèves migrants, en organisant des activités du type enseignement en situation (activités ayant un réel intérêt sur le plan mathématique mais dont l’enjeu tacite réside dans l’apprentissage de compétences langagières indispensables à la discipline).
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En la década de los 90 del siglo pasado se produjo, al menos a nivel teórico, un cambio importarte en la concepción del componente léxico en el ámbito de la enseñanza de las segundas lenguas. Bogaards, entre otros, rompió con la distinción tradicional entre la enseñanza de la gramática y el léxico al señalar que los dos componentes son interdependientes y que la lengua debe contemplarse como un conjunto de elementos léxicos que requieren estructuras sintácticas. Es decir, se puso el foco en el vocabulario como pieza nuclear de la enseñanza aprendizaje en las segundas lenguas. Esta concepción, en mi opinión, debería también servir de punto de partida en la enseñanza de la lengua materna, aunque, claro está, con su adaptación a las peculiaridades propias y a las diferencias que esta tiene con la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. En ambos casos se ha dejado que sean los propios alumnos los que aprendan por su cuenta el léxico, mientras los docentes nos dedicamos a enseñarles las reglas gramaticales y otros aspectos de los distintos niveles lingüísticos. No quiero con esto afirmar que el léxico haya estado ausente de los libros y de las clases, pero no lo ha estado de manera sistematizada, organizada. Y cuando la falta de tiempo obliga a seleccionar ejercicios o contenidos, es el nivel léxico el que queda postergado. Hay dos preguntas a mi modo de entender la enseñanza del léxico que son claves. Por un lado, ¿qué léxico enseñar?, pregunta que nos lleva irremediablemente al concepto de selección léxica. Selección léxica por etapas educativas, por materias. También nos lleva a otra pregunta ¿qué vocabulario deben conocer nuestros alumnos al final de tal o cual etapa educativa? Responder a estas preguntas resulta imprescindible para que el profesor se implique en la tarea de aprendizaje de los alumnos y pueda, para ello, programar convenientemente la enseñanza. Las respuestas no son nunca sencillas y en este caso tampoco, pero merece la pena intentarlo. La otra gran pregunta que debemos hacernos es ¿cómo enseñar el léxico? En las respuestas a esta pregunta se ha avanzado más. Desde hace tiempo en los libros dedicados a la enseñanza de la lengua española hay ejercicios sobre léxico, pero como señalé antes, estos ejercicios no están organizados en torno a un objetivo final. Y además se olvida en muchos casos una cuestión fundamental: la competencia léxica no solo es conocer palabras, sino también y principalmente, saber usarlas. La enseñanza del léxico, además, debe implicar coordinadamente a todos los profesores, no es una tarea exclusiva de los profesores de lengua. Se echa cada vez más en falta la práctica, los ejercicios en los que el alumno debe usar aquellas palabras que ha aprendido, la redacción de textos. Se olvida también que para que una palabra pase a la memoria permanente necesita, según los casos, de entre 6 y 10 exposiciones de media. Es decir, no vale con que el alumno lea una palabra y anote su significado. También se observa con preocupación el uso cada vez menor de los diccionarios en las aulas. Y eso que hoy con los medios tecnológicos que tenemos su uso cada vez es más sencillo. Los diccionarios, los buenos diccionarios, son una fuente inagotable de información sobre las palabras. No solo nos dicen su significado, también sus características morfológicas y sus posibilidades combinatorias; además de contar con ejemplos de uso. Debemos enseñar a los alumnos a utilizar los diccionarios, y no solo en su función decodificadora (para entender un texto), sino también en su función codificadora (para construir textos). El léxico debe ocupar un lugar nuclear en la enseñanza de una lengua y, por eso, libros como el que contiene esta presentación deben ser debidamente valorados. Dividido en cuatro grandes apartados, Léxico y disponibilidad léxica, Léxico y estudios del discurso, Léxico, comunicación y redes sociales y Léxico y didáctica de la lengua y la literatura aborda diferentes temas y desde diferentes enfoques, lo que lo hace mucho más valioso. José Antonio Bartol Hernández UNIVERSIDAD DE SALAMANCA, ESPAÑA
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This article (in Norwegian) is about biliteracy education in Nynorsk and Bokmål in Norway, and discus­ses the relationship between biliteracy and in-depth learning in the context of current education policy. In recent years, the concept of in-depth or deeper learning has been highlighted as one of the most central goals for education policy in Norway. A significant feature of in-depth-learning is that knowledge and competence is transferable to problem solving in other situations and fields of knowledge. This artic!e discusses whether biliteracy edu­cation of Nynorsk and Bokmål has the potential for promoting pupil's deeper learning, i.e. it contributes to strengthening other areas of knowledge. To discuss this issue, principles and theoretical insights from two scientific areas of research are considered: studies in bilingualism and curriculum studies. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing whet­her or not biliteracy of Nynorsk and Bokmål may confer the same cognitive, cultural and linguistic advantages connected to bi!ingualism. Furthermore, some implications for educational practice are suggested. Even if the relationship between Nynorsk and Bokmål is the focus, the objective of the article is also to contribute to the general discussion of in-depth learning and curriculum development in Norway.
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En accord avec le modèle simple de lecture (SVR), nous avons exploré le rôle du décodage-D et de la compréhension orale-CO dans la compréhension de la lecture-CL chez des enfants bilingues et monolingues apprenant à lire en français. Des enfants de CE2, CM1 ou CM2 ont reçu une batterie complète pour l'évaluation de D, CO, CL. Les résultats ont montré que D était corrélé avec CL dans les deux groupes, tandis que la CO prédisait particulièrement la CL des bilingues. Ces résultats suggèrent que le modèle SVR s'applique aux bilingues apprenant à lire en français, avec un rôle plus important de la CO. Mots clés : lecture, modèle simple de lecture, bilinguisme, prédicteurs concurrents xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx According to the “Simple View of Reading” (SVR), we explored the role of decoding-D and listening comprehension-LC in reading comprehension-RC in bilingual and monolingual children learning to read in French. Children attending Grade 3, 4 or 5 were administered a comprehensive battery for the assessment of D, LC, RC. Results showed that D correlated with RC in both groups, while LC particularly predicted bilinguals’ RC. These results suggest that SVR applies to bilinguals learning to read in French, with a stronger role of LC. Key words : reading, simple view of reading, bilingualism, concurrent predictors xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Teniendo en cuenta la "Visión simple de la lectura" (SVR), exploramos el papel de la decodificación (D) y de la comprensión auditiva (CA) en la comprensión de lectura - CL en niños bilingües y monolingües que aprenden a leer en francés. Se les administró a los alumnos de 3°, 4° o 5° grado una batería integral para evaluar la D, la CA, la CL. Los resultados muestran que D se correlaciona con CL en ambos grupos, mientras que CA predice el nivél de CL en los niños bilingües. Estos resultados sugieren que SVR se aplica a los bilingües que aprenden a leer en francés, con un papel más importante de la CA. Palabras clave : lectura, visión simple de la lectura, bilingüismo, predictores concurrentes
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The four case studies offer insights into how non-state actors in these contrasting country contexts have influenced adult literacy and learning, not only within education but across sectors. Whilst several key non-state actors reviewed here were initially invited by governments to fill the gaps in adult literacy or learning provision through contributing technical expertise or finance, they began to play a strong role in expanding the curriculum, working with different community-level organisations and/or new approaches to learning (including online). Their impact ranged from introducing innovative learning spaces and adult literacy approaches, to developing systems for quality assurance and accreditation and finding new ways to engage with previously marginalised groups. Exploring the complexity of relationships between state and non-state actors, this overview argues that changing social values that lie beyond formal development and educational institutions are influencing the kind of adult education provided by the state. There is an urgent need for strong state leadership and dedicated funding to ensure that high quality and inclusive adult literacy and learning programmes can operate successfully on a national scale and non-state actors could play a greater role in advocating for such changes.
Article
The number of Chinese-speaking students in Canadian schools is increasing dramatically. This article discusses a study in which we explored reading processes in Chinese and English through examining children’s reading in both languages. Based in a socio-psycholinguistic framework (K. Goodman, Wang, Iventosch, & Y. Goodman,2012; Kabuto, 2017) and through using miscue analysis, we examined how children apply their knowledge of language to Mandarin and English reading. This qualitative research included interviews with four Chinese-English bilingual children between grades 3 and 5 in an urban center as well as the analysis of their reading performance in both languages. From a comparative perspective, we discuss some of the similarities and differences between these two different orthographic language systems by offering syntactic comparisons of the two languages through psycholinguistic language cueing systems. We believe that knowing about how Chinese and English readers construct meaning in both languages will help English as an Additional Language (EAL) teachers, in fact all classroom teachers, to teach reading to bilingual and biliterate children.
Article
In past literature authors raised a significant issue of role of intelligence in learning different languages. Whether an intelligent individual learns two or more languages easily or an individual who has learnt two or more languages perform better on tests of intelligence. In learning a second language, intelligence has been considered as an effective factor. Acknowledging the above issue, a heterogeneous sample of 38 bilinguals (17 boys and 21 girls) and 44 monolinguals (19 boys and 25 girls) was selected. The scores on intelligence test ranged from 34-41. Monolinguals and Bilinguals were then compared on problem solving ability, concept formation (wrong responses), verbal and figural creativity. To find out the significance of differences between the two groups t-test was applied. The results specified that Bilinguals performed significantly better on problem solving ability as compared to monolinguals, they show an edge on figural fluency and even flexibility and elaboration on both verbal and figural tests of creativity in comparison to monolinguals. Whereas no significant differences were found between the two groups on verbal fluency, concept formation which was measured by wrong responses committed by both the groups. Therefore in nutshell we can argue that bilinguals performed better than monolinguals on various cognitive abilities and language has a profound and nurturing role in overall development of intelligence.
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Multicomponent views of reading constitute a contemporary standard platform toward a more comprehensive understanding of reading and its development. Based on component approaches to L2 reading comprehension, this chapter first outlines linguistic and general cognitive processing necessary for understanding text meaning, and then synthesizes current research insights into components of L2 reading comprehension covering differences between L1 and L2 reading and the cross-linguistic nature of L2 reading. In so doing, the chapter discusses influential theories in the relevant research areas. The chapter closes with discussions on theories and methodologies of L2 reading research.
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Cet article s'intéresse aux difficultés que les élèves allophones peuvent rencontrer durant le cours de mathématiques en système scolaire français. Des solutions sur le plan des pratiques inclusives qui peuvent faciliter leur apprentissages dans cette discipline sont également proposées, en appuyant sur des études menés par les trois auteurs.
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This book explores crosslinguistic influence in third language acquisition, drawing insights from a study of young bilingual secondary school students in Germany to unpack the importance of different variables in the acquisition and use of English as an additional language. Lorenz draws on data from a learner corpus of written and spoken picture descriptions toward analyzing sources of crosslinguistic influence in L3 acquisition in bilingual heritage speakers with unbalanced proficiency in heritage versus majority languages as compared with their monolingual German peers. This unique approach allows for a clearer understanding of the extent of influence of access to heritage languages, the impact of being a "balanced" vs "unbalanced" bilingual speaker, and the importance of extra-linguistic variables, such as age, gender, socio-economic status, and type of school. The final two chapters highlight practical considerations for the English language classroom and the implications of the study for future directions for research on third language acquisition. With its detailed overview of L2 and L3 acquisition and contribution toward ongoing debates on the advantages of being bilingual and multilingual, this book will be of interest to students and scholars in applied linguistics, foreign language acquisition, foreign language teaching, and learner corpus research.
Thesis
Early childhood language experiences influence how a child’s mind and brain process language and acquire literacy. For children growing up bilingual, their two languages interact in their minds, and these cross-linguistic influences can lead to unique neurocognitive mechanisms for language and reading compared to monolinguals. In this dissertation, I asked: how does early bilingualism impact children’s cognitive and neural organization for learning to read? To address this question, this dissertation includes three inter-related studies of behavioral and functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging assessments with young Chinese-English bilingual, Spanish-English bilingual, and English monolingual children (N = 283, ages 5-11). Children completed language and literacy tasks in each of their respective languages while their parents completed questionnaires on children’s language use. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that bilingual children processed English words in a way that reflected their proficiency with the characteristics of their heritage language – in particular, Chinese bilinguals relied more on meaning-based skills, whereas Spanish bilinguals on sound-based skills, to read English words (Study 1); and in both groups, higher heritage language proficiency is associated with stronger activations in the left temporal brain region when processing English words (Study 2). Study 3 further revealed that bilinguals with stronger dual language proficiency formed more widespread neural connections within the neural network for language processing. Taken together, the findings suggest that heritage language influences children’s literacy development and emerging neural organization for learning to read and these bilingual influences reflect children’s experiences and proficiency with both of their languages. These findings thus inform theories of bilingualism and literacy instruction for children from diverse socio-linguistic backgrounds.
Article
Folk song is a true gift of culture. It is one of the traditional, intangible and indigenous pieces of the art of performing the melodious expression with the help of soft pipes that are forever invaluable cultural assets and musical property as well. In view of making a brief survey of the use of multiple languages in folk songs, different folk melodies have been selected randomly from seven provinces of Nepal where the folk melodies are more fertile. This paper aims at exploring the use of multiple languages in folk songs I, myself as a researcher in the field, encountered with in written and audio- or video-recorded form. Therefore, the main source of relevant data includes me and other written and audio or video documents of folk songs I found. As a multicultural country, Nepal is rich in terms of its folk songs. In this paper, I analyze how folk song can be a creative space where linguistic boundaries are challenged and new language practices are invented. Taking of folk songs as a social and cultural identity, I examine how folk song embraces local diversity and redefines the use of language a creative tool for public.
Article
To examine the relationship of bilingualism to the creative thinking abilities of Mexican youth, four subtests from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking were administered to Spanish-English coordinate bilingual and Spanish monolingual subjects from two private high schools in Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico. It was hypothesized that the Spanish-English coordinate bilinguals would score significantly higher on the dependent measures of figural fluency, figural flexibility, figural originality, verbal fluency, verbal flexibility, and verbal originality than the Spanish monolinguals. A multivariate analysis indicated that the main effect of language group was significant in favor of the bilinguals. Neither the main effect of sex nor the interaction effect was significant. Univariate analysis indicated that the dependent measures of verbal flexibility, verbal originality, and figural originality were significant at the .05 level in favor of the bilinguals, and the dependent measure of figural fluency was significant at the .01 level in favor of the bilinguals.