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Getting the Job Done: Alternative Policy Instruments

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Abstract

A major challenge for the next generation of policy research will be to apply the lessons of past implementation studies in building a more powerful conceptual framework and at the same time, in producing more useful information for policymakers. This article begins to build such a framework by focusing on the notion of alternative policy instruments, or the mechanisms that translate substantive policy goals into concrete actions. It examines four different types of instruments and attempts to specify key relationships among problem definition, instrument choice, organizational context, implementation, and effects.

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... Ghana's ECE as a distributive, redistributive and/or regulatory policy (Lowi & Ginsberg, 1994), recognises the invaluable role of parents (Ackah-Jnr, 2021). This paper analyses implementation of Ghana's ECE policy using McDonnell and Elmore's (1987) and McDonnell's (1994) framework. It assesses if implementation is succeeding and what challenges exists. ...
... These instruments are a useful framework for analysing education policy. The essential conditions enabling or inhibiting policy implementation are mandates, inducements, capacity building, system-changing, and persuasion (Anderson & Togneri, 2005;Fowler, 2014;McDonnell, 1994;McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). The framework is based on: (1) existing theories about the effects of governmental action, and (2) observed patterns in the choices of policymakers (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). ...
... The essential conditions enabling or inhibiting policy implementation are mandates, inducements, capacity building, system-changing, and persuasion (Anderson & Togneri, 2005;Fowler, 2014;McDonnell, 1994;McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). The framework is based on: (1) existing theories about the effects of governmental action, and (2) observed patterns in the choices of policymakers (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). Figure 1 shows the five policy instruments. ...
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Early childhood education (ECE) in Ghana has grown from a traditional approach to a more formalised and modernised system of care and education services for young children. As a valued practice, ECE reflects a distributive, regulatory or redistributive policy. The paper analyses Ghana’s ECE policy implementation using McDonnell and Elmore’s framework of five elemental instruments. We supported the analysis with ECE policy documents and research evidence in ECE. Enabling and inhibiting factors affecting ECE were identified and ways were devised to enhance the latter. We established that while ECE has somewhat addressed equity and access issues, concerns exist regarding implementation factors such as quality teacher training and parent involvement for promoting effective programs. The paper recommends the need to evaluate ECE and provide planned and ongoing opportunities to advance the professional development, capacity, and motivation of ECE implementers, especially early childhood teachers.
... Low coercion policy instruments, such as voluntary programs, have higher political feasibility yet lower levels of effectiveness and equity. Conversely, high coercion policy instruments are likely to have greater levels of effectiveness and equity as they utilize enforcement to produce compliance across all implementers (McDonnell and Elmore 1987). Likewise, attaching resources such as money or training builds capacity for implementation-particularly when it comes to policies targeting teaching practices (McDonnell and Elmore 1987; Tichnor-Wagner 2020). ...
... Likewise, attaching resources such as money or training builds capacity for implementation-particularly when it comes to policies targeting teaching practices (McDonnell and Elmore 1987; Tichnor-Wagner 2020). Finally, systems-changing policy instruments transfer or create new authority over a public service (McDonnell and Elmore 1987). The creation of the new agency or commission may signal a long-term focus or increased resources toward a particular policy area. ...
... The researchers then met to discuss new codes that emerged and any areas of disagreement, then repeated the process with a next set of policies until all policies had been coded. In a second round of focused coding (Charmaz 2014), we reexamined our initial policy tool codes through the lens of existing literature, classifying them as high coercion, low coercion, resources, and systems changing (Elliott and Salamon 2002;McDonnell and Elmore 1987). Another category of initial codes we classified as agenda setting, which signaled the importance of civics without outlining changes to education practices or governance, for example, task forces (e.g., GA HR634 creation of a "House Study Committee on Civics Education in Georgia"). ...
... Capacity building refers to transfer of money for material, human resource, or intellectual reasons. System changing involves transferring authority between individuals and organizations to modify the provision of goods and services (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). The authors suggest various policy instruments convey assumptions related to problems and solutions and the conditions needed for effective implementation. ...
... Capacity building assumes without the investment the needed benefits would not be realized. Consequences occur when individuals or organizations fail to perform or fail to realize future needs (McDonnell and Elmore, 1987). agrees that policies should reflect present principles and attitudes. ...
... System changing assumes existing conditions cannot produce the desired results. A consequence of this action may be unresponsiveness of existing systems and inability of new systems to develop fast enough (McDonnell and Elmore, 1987). McDonnel and Elmore (1987) conclude a focus on alternative policy instruments will build a more influential conceptual framework that is more useful for policymakers. ...
... Capacity building refers to transfer of money for material, human resource, or intellectual reasons. System changing involves transferring authority between individuals and organizations to modify the provision of goods and services (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). The authors suggest various policy instruments convey assumptions related to problems and solutions and the conditions needed for effective implementation. ...
... Capacity building assumes without the investment the needed benefits would not be realized. Consequences occur when individuals or organizations fail to perform or fail to realize future needs (McDonnell and Elmore, 1987). agrees that policies should reflect present principles and attitudes. ...
... System changing assumes existing conditions cannot produce the desired results. A consequence of this action may be unresponsiveness of existing systems and inability of new systems to develop fast enough (McDonnell and Elmore, 1987). McDonnel and Elmore (1987) conclude a focus on alternative policy instruments will build a more influential conceptual framework that is more useful for policymakers. ...
... Hood's famous "NATO" typology classified policy instruments into four categories, namely: nodality, authority, treasure, and organization (Hood and Margetts 2007). McDonnell and Elmore (1987) proposed a four-fold classification of policy instruments: mandates, inducements, capacitybuilding, and system-changing (McDonnell and Elmore 1987). In this study, the policy instruments are classified into three categories and 14 sub-categories according to the studies of Huang et al. (2018) and Xie et al. (2021) and the specific content of the SWRM policy. ...
... Hood's famous "NATO" typology classified policy instruments into four categories, namely: nodality, authority, treasure, and organization (Hood and Margetts 2007). McDonnell and Elmore (1987) proposed a four-fold classification of policy instruments: mandates, inducements, capacitybuilding, and system-changing (McDonnell and Elmore 1987). In this study, the policy instruments are classified into three categories and 14 sub-categories according to the studies of Huang et al. (2018) and Xie et al. (2021) and the specific content of the SWRM policy. ...
Article
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Policy intervention is a critical measure to address water resources challenges and improve water governance capacity. The strictest water resources management (SWRM) policy is an important water policy system that aims to deal with water shortage, water pollution, and institutional dysfunction in China. This study conducts a quantitative analysis for policy text characteristics of the SWRM through the methods of text mining and content analysis. First, we construct an analytical framework with the combination of policy instruments and policy targets, and then code and classify policy instruments in policy text and conduct statistical analysis. Finally, the research conclusions and policy suggestions are put forward. The results show that major policy instruments are structurally imbalanced in China’s SWRM policy. China’s government prefers to issue a mandatory, standardized, and restrictive policies in water resources management. Most of the policy instruments are focused on institutional management, followed by resources allocation, technological progress, and the ecological environment. This study contributes to the knowledge body of water policy evaluation and water governance, provides decision-making references for optimizing and promoting China’s water resources management policy, and offers a peer reference for water governance in other developing countries.
... In particular, because this article is attentive to the TDOE's design of RTI 2 , much of the analysis focuses on the aims that the TDOE set for the policy and the instruments that the TDOE developed to support RTI 2 in practice. Conceiving of policy design in relation to aims and instruments is well supported by the policy literature (May, 2003;McDonnell & Elmore, 1987;Weiss, 1998) and not unique to , but the other two actions and resources in their analytic frame, capability and the environment, as well as the gap that policy creates with practice, are important in fully understanding the design of RTI 2 and in anticipating what might come of these efforts. I return to issues of capability and the environment in the discussion and conclusion. ...
... And there was growing interest to define a set of policy instruments and consider how those instruments might "translate substantive policy goals into concrete actions" (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987, p. 133). McDonnell and Elmore (1987) suggested that the next generation of policy research should build on past lessons by "focusing on the instruments common to different polices and on the conditions under which these instruments are most likely to produce their intended effects" (p. 133). ...
Thesis
There have been significant achievements in the improvement of educational opportunities for students with disabilities over the last four decades. Nevertheless, concerns about the quality of special education persist and abound. How students are identified, the overidentification of poor and minority students, levels of inclusion, and disagreements about what constitutes appropriate instruction are long-standing issues in the field of special education. Today, we expect schools to support all students in meeting the same rigorous standards while also attending to the individual needs of students. This three-article dissertation explores two federal special education policy instruments that have helped to shape these expectations for schools and have also tried to provide a means by which schools might achieve these aims. In telling the story of these two policy instruments, the Individualized Education Program (IEP) and Response to Intervention (RTI), as well as the story of one state’s efforts to craft a statewide RTI policy, this dissertation illustrates a case of problem solving in which policymakers tried to address fundamental social problems while also contending with the consequences of past efforts. In the stories of the IEP nationally and Tennessee’s version of RTI, policymakers sought to manage the collision of ambitious aims and weak capabilities that were features of the environment in which these policy instruments were designed and that affected the solutions policymakers put forth. Both the IEP and Tennessee’s RTI reflected and tried to manage critical features of the environment in which they were produced. Most notably, this environment was defined by legal and structural features designed to limit the centralized control and power of government, a limited knowledge and practice base for educating all students, and strong ideological and philosophical beliefs about the equalizing effects of education and the responsibilities of schools. These features of the environment were reflected in the designs of the IEP and Tennessee’s RTI as policymakers attempted to support schools and districts in meeting their ambitious aims while having little leverage with which to do so. In trying to understand how policymakers managed this collision between ambitious aims and weak capability, this dissertation draws on the work of Cohen and Moffitt (2009), who argue that a gap exists between policy and practice that can be managed with four types of actions and resources: aims, instruments, capability, and the environment. In using this analytic frame, I illustrate the ways in which central features of the environment shaped these special education reform efforts and how policymakers, in turn, endeavored to manage the policy-practice gap that they created. Their efforts came in the form of 1) procedures (found in both the IEP and Tennessee’s RTI) and broad guiding principles, 2) a range of other instruments to support implementation, and 3) a process of designing and redesigning as policies are put into practice.
... The excluded typologies, however, generally overlap with or are encompassed by the included ones. This is the case, for example, for van der Doelen's (1998) typology of stimulatory and repressive instruments, which we consider to be encompassed by the more general Vedung classification, and for the McDonnell and Elmore (1987) typology based on governmental resources, which we consider to be a less general form of the Hood classification. Thus, our selection process is inductive and aims to cover all possible relevant criteria of classification used in the field of policy instruments. ...
... 3 Bardach (1979) proposed four behavioural-based instruments: prescription, enabling, positive incentives and deterrence. In addition, McDonnell and Elmore (1987) identified four types of behavioural instruments: mandates, inducements, capacity, and system-changing tools. 4 '[T]hey may believe the law does not direct them or authorize them to take action; they may lack incentives or the capacity to take the actions needed, they may disagree with the values implicit in the means or ends, or the situation may involve such high levels of uncertainty that the nature of the problem is not known, and it is unclear what people should do or how they might be motivated' (Schneider and Ingram 1990, p. 514). ...
Article
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This paper uses a systematic review of the main literature in the field to shed light on different operationalizations of the main classifications of policy instruments. Although the literature offers a large number of instrument taxonomies, many of them act as theoretical guidelines rather than operational concepts that can help to disentangle the different features of governing actions. This paper provides a review of the most frequently used policy instrument typologies and, through a meta‐analysis, analyses how instrument typologies have been differentially adopted to explain real‐world phenomena. The results are a high degree of heterogeneity in citation frequency, the polyhedral nature of the concept of policy instruments, a divide between typologies focused on governmental resources and those focused on drivers of expected behaviour, and “labellism”. Thus, what emerges is the urgency of a process of convergence towards a common framework. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... They are the "tools of governance", the mechanisms and techniques used to implement public policies [25]. Since public policy scholars have different understandings of policy issues, goals, and relevant means, there are various classification methods [6,[26][27][28][29][30][31]. Generally speaking, policy instruments research can be divided into two approaches: the resource approach and the choice approach. ...
... This classificatory branch illustrates that government can solve its problems by using the information at its disposal, its legal powers, its money, or its formal organizational capacity [33]. McDonnell and Elmore also used a four-fold classification of policy instruments: mandates, inducements, capacity-building, and system-changing [29]. Based on Amitai Etzioni's categorization of three powers, coercive, remunerative, and normative power, Bemelmans-Videc et al. put forward three relevant policy instruments: regulation refers to coercion, economic means the use of remuneration or deprivation of material resources, and information refers to intellectual and moral appeals [32]. ...
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Based on policy instrument theory and a case of low-carbon city development (Qihe County in Shandong), this study examined the policy instruments adopted for low-carbon city development in China and the effectiveness of these instruments. All the policies adopted by the piloted city from 2008 and 2014 were collected, coded, and analyzed. A two-dimensional analytical framework was developed based on a trichotomous policy instrument categorization and low-carbon city connotation. The results showed that the key goal of China’s low-carbon city construction is to develop low-carbon technology and low-carbon energy. Compulsory policy instruments are the most used and most effective, while voluntary policy instruments are rarely used. Further results indicated that when the ratio of compulsory instruments and mixed instruments comes to 2:1, the combination of policy instruments can lead to the optimal completion degree. It seems difficult to balance the stability of various policy instruments with the overall high completion degree. Chinese local governments are more accustomed to compulsory policy instruments. This reminds policymakers to pay more attention to the potential of voluntary instruments and mixed instruments in building low-carbon cities.
... He compiled 64 generalized instruments but did not classify them systematically. McDonell and Elmore classified the policy instruments into four categories according to the objectives that the policy is intended to obtain, namely, mandate instruments, inducement instruments, capacity-building instruments, and system-changing instruments [17]. Canadian scholars Howlett and Ramesh classified policy instruments into voluntary, mixed, and compulsory instruments based on the degree of government involvement in public services [18]. ...
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Teacher construction is a long-standing focus of global teacher governance. The construction of a highly qualified and professional higher education teaching force is a source of impetus for the sustainable development of higher education. In-depth systematic analysis of representative macro policies for Chinese university teachers is currently limited. Thus, this study employs the perspective of policy instruments and establishes a two-dimensional analytical framework to examine a key Chinese official teacher policy document to reveal the Chinese government’s policy intentions and instrument use preferences for current higher education teacher development. The aim is to explore the improvement of policy instruments for higher education teacher construction to promote sustainable development in China’s higher education institutions and to contribute Chinese experience to global teacher governance. The results indicate that the ratio of policy instrument use has structural disparities and insufficient appropriateness to the elements of the teacher management process. Environment-oriented policy instruments have been a critical thrust of the current Chinese government’s reform of university teacher development. It is recommended to pay attention to the systemic character of teacher growth and the optimal coordination of content elements and policy instruments to form a governance synergy for the high-quality and sustainable development of higher education.
... These policy windows are often created through the generation of a crisis (Tyack & Cuban, 1995) such as claiming that children were "falling behind" or a country was losing its economic power. Policymakers then use policy instruments or tools such as mandates and monetary compensation to generate compliance (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). Yet, policy implementation is not a straight line, and school systems change the reforms designed to change them (Cuban, 1998;. ...
Article
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The ethical teaching of science education is a complex challenge encompassing the ethics of teaching, the ethics of science, and the ethics of teaching science. Baradian agential realism provides us with theoretical tools to highlight ethical implications of policy, specifically standardized testing and science standards, in a narrative derived from the experience of a science teacher. The relational ontology of intra-action in Barad’s agential realism provides us with a way of seeing and navigating co-constitutive entanglements of political, economic, scientific, educational, human, and material forces, ultimately allowing us to reveal the possibility in science education—the what is and the what could be. We explore the narrative through the theoretical lenses of diffraction and affect, and the entanglement of these two approaches. Thinking through entanglement allows us to position science standards and classroom realities as diffracting rather than clashing. These more-than-human actors influence each other to produce emergent becomings rather than standard implementations. By employing affect, we can approach these entanglements to acknowledge the ways in which affective turns(that is, moves towards noticing the interplay of affect, emotion,and feeling)impact both the actors (human and non-human) as policy and science teaching intra-act in a becoming that produces new classroom practice. Keywords:Science education, policy, science ethics, affect, agential realism, diffraction
... The systems approach is meant to combat these issues by broadening the power between stakeholders at different levels in the system (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). Mutually beneficial school-STEM industry partnerships improve the student learning experience because more stakeholders have a voice in the system inducing structural changes. ...
Conference Paper
STEM industry partners should play a major role in improving the K-12 student experience. Industry engagement with schools takes on a variety of forms like providing career day speakers, philanthropic giving, or student mentoring. A key challenge in this work, however, is creating mutually beneficial partnerships which meet the needs of both school and industry partners. This research asked two questions: (1) What systems enable students to experience mutually beneficial STEM industry partnerships? (2) How do those systems vary across educational settings (urban, rural, and suburban)? This research study presents three cases selected because they have mutually beneficial, STEM-Industry partnerships in distinct settings.
... Previous research has shown that the implementation of any accountability system in the public sector can lead to a host of unintended consequences (Kelchen, 2018;McDonnell & Elmore, 1987;Thompson, 1999), such as restricting access to selective institutions and exacerbating funding disparities across institution types . However, Schneider and Ingram's (1993) theory of social construction of target populations contends that any outcome described in higher education literature as an unintended consequence of PBF adoption (e.g., exacerbating funding inequities between advantaged and disadvantaged institution types) may be an embedded feature of PBF policies rather than an unintended outcome. ...
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The study examines the impact of various types of performance-based funding (PBF) policies on institutional resources across postsecondary institution types. Although 41 states have implemented PBF over time, the design and dosage of PBF policies look very different across PBF-adopting states. We leverage multiple quasi-experimental approaches and find that high-dosage PBF policies had a negative impact on state funding for four-year historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and four-year institutions serving an above-average share of racially minoritized students. We also show that sporadic positive effects of PBF policies on state funding are concentrated primarily among non-minority serving institutions (non-MSIs) and institutions serving below-average shares of racially minoritized or low-income students. Taken together, our findings reveal the unequal impacts of PBF policies and suggest that PBF policy design is an important consideration with critical implications for under-resourced institutions and the underserved students they educate.
... At the bargaining table, all interests are given equal power in creating the policy outcome. All participants are equally expected to give up something, to alter their entrenched viewpoints (McDonnell and Elmore, 1987;Nakamura, Church and Cooper, 1991). ...
Article
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This article examines the use of regulation negotiation as an alternative to traditional rule making processes in state level bureaucracies. Direct observation of the Special Protection Water Program regulation negotiations at the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection from January, 1995 through August, 1996, shows that regulation negotiation can only be applied to issues with clearly defined policy alternatives, a limited number of affected parties and a distinct but not imminent deadline. All parties must be willing to bargain or negotiated agreement will not be reached. On a positive note, a survey of regulation negotiation participants revealed that agency administrators, environmental advocacy groups, and the regulated business community all perceive real benefits in the process.
... As an environmental governance policy, the tool of payment for grassland ecosystem services is the sum of the measures, means, and methods taken by government departments to solve the problem of grassland ecological degradation and achieve the goal of grassland environmental governance [11]. Based on compulsory policy instruments to be regulated, it has become the consensus that environmental policy instruments can be divided into command-and-control type, economic incentive type, and public participation type [11,[13][14][15]. The implementation of payment for grassland ecosystem services produces public goods; thus, the implementation of payment for grassland ecosystem services requires strong control and intervention from government actors, utilizing command-and-control policy instruments [16]. ...
Article
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The implementation of payment for grassland ecosystem services (PGES) is the result of cooperative games between farmers and the local government. However, there are currently many studies on the willingness behavior of farmers to participate in payment for grassland ecosystem services, although there is a lack of research on the impact of the willingness behavior of local governments on the implementation of payment for grassland ecosystem services. Based on the theory of planned behavior, in this study, the impact of government policy instruments on PGES implementation outcomes was taken as the primary research objective, and the following findings were derived from the three secondary objectives of constructing a model, using structural equations to measure and quantitatively decompose the policy instruments: (1) policy instruments have a significant impact on policy implementation; (2) policy instruments play an important guiding role in farmers’ participation in PGES; and (3) the amount of ecological compensation and the degree of policy implementation have a significant impact on policy instruments. Reasonable adjustments can effectively improve the effect of policy implementation. This study incorporated the implementation willingness and interaction of farmers and local governments into the analysis model of the implementation of payment for grassland ecosystem services, providing a theoretical basis for improving the performance of payment for grassland ecosystem services from the perspective of government policy instruments.
... For example, based on the degree of government coercion, Lowie, Dahl, and Lindblom, classified policy instruments into regulatory and non-regulatory instruments, while Michael Howlett and M. Ramesh divided them into voluntary, mandatory, and mixed categories [27]. Lorraine M. McDonnell and Richard F. Elmore classified policy instruments into imperative, incentive, capacity building, and system change tools, according to the purpose of their use [28]. Chinese scholars Gu Jianguang and Wu Minghua divided policy instruments into three categories: control, incentive, and information transmission policy instruments, based on the application method of the policy instruments [29]. ...
Article
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Online ride-hailing in China brings convenience for the public, but it has caused several problems, such as inadequate supervision, data security risks, and financial risks. This new industry has also disrupted the traditional taxi market. China’s government implemented some policies, which were initially disorderly tightening, and then formed the policy system responding to various needs for tackling these issues gradually. There were some policy fluctuations and regulatory effects during this period, therefore, it is imminent to evaluate the online ride-hailing policy text. In this paper, we took 43 online ride-hailing policies as samples, with the consideration of policy instruments and statistical inspection methods. In this paper, we also constructed an innovative three-dimensional analysis framework by combining content analysis, and further identify the ride-hailing policy development during different stages of development periods (2016–2022). Digging into the problems existing in the new online ride-hailing, policies were drawn by module division, unit coding, inductive statistics, the quantitative evaluation of policy text content, and TOE (technology-organization-environment) style analysis. Finally, we provide insightful policy recommendations for online ride-hailing policies, committed to providing theoretical support and a decision-making basis for governance policies in the transportation industry.
... Designing the schooling system according to the modern systems of production and manufacturing intends not only to produce uniform and standardized labor for the job market, but also leads to social stratifications and hierarchical control. The fact that the Kurdish educational system and the procedures of policy-making take the technicalrational route is in itself indicative of holding particular ideological and political assumptions about the social relationships in institutions and their effect on policy processes, as well as the relationship between theory and practice (Datnow & Park, 2009;McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation studies the condition of formal education in Kurdistan Region-Iraq by taking a critical theoretical approach to examine major educational policy documents in both K-12 and higher education. The critical examination of the documents reveals major policy frameworks, which are related to the Kurdish nationalist agenda of establishing a nation-state. These policy frameworks in education are: Kurdish nationalism, democratization and bureaucratization. Analyzing the documents reveals the intricate relationship among these policy frameworks in forming the overall national agenda of state building of Kurdistan Regional Government, as well as their relationship with developing and perpetuating various educational issues in Kurdistan Region. By analyzing the documents through a critical democratic lens, I elaborate on the ways in which Kurdish ethno-nationalism, a titular, rhetorical and institution-and market-friendly notion of democracy, and an overriding, top-down bureaucratization, all within the political context of establishing a Kurdish nation-state for the past 25 years, have rendered a non-democratic, socially unjust and oppressive educational system. The main argument in this dissertation concerns presenting a transformative democratic framework in education as an alternative to the current pervasive nationalist paradigm. Rather than framing education and society within the paradigm of Kurdish ethno-nationalism, which depends on the exercise of power, hegemony, violence and indoctrination within the parameters of a modern nation-state, the transformative democratic framework, which promotes democratic relationships based on substantive moral values, such as equity, inclusion, empathy and human relatedness, can become the basis for establishing a more equitable and just society in Kurdistan Region.
... well as how they perceive these lessons as meaningful to students' learning (Ball, 2012;Bartolome, 1994;Biesta, Priestley, & Robinson, 2015;Hargreaves, 1998;McDonnell & Elmore, 1987;Rogers, 2011;Stromquist & Monkman, 2014;Tetlock, 1985). While teachers appear to make decisions independently and professionally, other influences such as administrative directives and broader policy contexts (often situated far beyond the classroom walls) are also believed to play a role in their decisions (Au, 2007;Bartolome, 2004;Bien, 2013;Biesta et al., 2015;Mintrop & Sunderman, 2009;Spillane et al., 2011;Zeprun, 2014). ...
... For example, Rothwell & Zegveld (Rothwell & Zegveld) divide policy tools into three types: supply-type, environmental-type, and demand-type according to different levels of policy impact [5]. McDonnell (McDonnell) and others believe that policy tools should be divided into four types: command, incentive, capacity building, and system change [6]. According to the different resources used by the government, Woolthuis et al. divided the policy tools into four types: authoritative, information, fiscal and organizational [7]. ...
... Policy implementation involves the application of one or more of the basic tools of government, known as policy instruments or measures to solve policy problems in the form of a policy mix or blend of different instruments (Bressers & Klok, 1988;Elmore, 1978;Howlett et al., 2009;McDonnell & Elmore, 1987;Schneider & Ingram, 1990). The application of policy instruments is a very crucial step in the policy implementation process (Howlett, Ramesh, & Perl, 2009). ...
Book
Chinese cities have experienced unprecedented economic growth and urban population expansion in the last four decades. However, a variety of social and environmental problems is associated with urbanization. Cities try to grapple with these challenges but simultaneously find themselves locked in an intense competition with other cities. City branding is viewed as an essential strategy to remain competitive, improve their environmental performance, experience a sustainable urban transformation. However, very little is known about how cities actually implement city branding strategies. This study distinguishes the concepts in use and explores the evolution of research in place branding literature. A progressive relationship between city promotion, city marketing and city branding is proposed and empirically examined. Subsequently, a specific city brand is explored to study how different policy instruments are adopted and configured to realize urban transformation goals. Finally, a detailed investigation in a medium-sized Chinese city shows how stakeholders interact with city policymakers to create and implement city brands. The findings show that cities can apply promotion, marketing or branding strategies to achieve different urban development goals. The study concludes that to successfully implement city branding, extensive stakeholder participation, continuous political commitment and reasonable application of policy instruments are necessary.
... Researchers and policymakers often cite capacity and capacity-building as key factors influencing the implementation of education policy (Berman, 1977;Darling-Hammond & Ball, 1998;Elmore, 2002;Honig, 2003;McDonnell & Elmore, 1987;McLaughlin, 1987). Yet extant research on the transference of ideas from traditional professional development (PD) into actual changes to instructional practice and increases in student learning is extremely limited (Garet et al., 1999(Garet et al., , 2001Hawley & Valli, 1999;. ...
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Background/Context School leaders are central to state and district human-capital reforms (HCRs), yet they are rarely equipped with the skills to implement new evaluation, professional development, and personnel data systems. Although districts increasingly offer principals coaching and training, there has been limited empirical work on how these supports influence principals’ HCR-related practices. Purpose Drawing on a two-year, mixed-methods study in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), this article examines the role of principal supervisors in HCRs. We ask: What role did principal supervisors (Instructional Directors [IDs]) play in the implementation of human-capital reforms? What did high-quality coaching on the part of IDs look like in this context? Research Design Our two-part analysis draws upon survey and interview data. First, we conducted descriptive analyses and significance testing using principal and ID survey data to examine the correlations among principals’ ratings of ID coaching quality, ID coaching practices, and principals’ implementation of HCRs. Second, we conducted in-depth interviews, using a think-aloud protocol, with two sets of IDs—those consistently highly-rated and those with mixed ratings—who were identified using principals’ reports of coaching quality. Following interview coding, we created various case-ordered metamatrix displays to analyze our qualitative data in order to identify patterns in coaching strategy and approach across IDs, content, and contexts. Findings First, our survey data indicate that receiving high-quality coaching from IDs is correlated with stronger principal support for and implementation of HCRs. Our survey findings further illustrate that IDs support a wide range of principals’ HCR activities. Second, our think-aloud interviews with case IDs demonstrate that coaching strategy and approach vary between consistently highly-rated and mixed-rated coaches: Consistently highly-rated IDs emphasize the importance of engaging in, or defining HCR problems as, joint work alongside principals, while mixed-rated IDs often emphasize the use of tools to guide principal improvement. We find that, on the whole, the consistently highly-rated IDs in our sample employ a nondirective approach to coaching more often than mixed-rated coaches. Conclusions These findings contribute to a growing literature on the crucial role of principal supervisors as coaches to improve principals’ instructional leadership and policy implementation. While exploratory, this study offers the first steps toward building greater evidence of the connections between high-quality coaching and policy implementation, and it may have implications for the design and implementation of professional development for principal supervisors and the selection and placement of supervisors with principals.
... A bemutatott négy eszköz mind használható ugyanarra a policycélra; a döntéshozók ezekből választanak egyet, vagy ezek valamilyen kombinációját. A szerzők megítélése szerint két tényező alakítja a választásukat: hogy hogyan van a policy probléma definiálva, és milyen forrásokat és akadályokat látnak a dologgal kapcsolatban (McDonnel-Elmore 1987). ...
... Policy makers are the actors (e.g., national, regional, or Indigenous governments) that provide efficient and effective conditions for practitioners to carry out the ERP through policy, legislation, funding, authority, capacity, and guidelines. To reach stated policy objectives, governments implement various policy instruments that are broadly categorized as commands, incentives, capacity building, and system transformation instruments (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). It can be difficult to ascertain which policy instrument(s) will be most effective for various aspects of the ERP, but what is clear is that policy instruments need to be properly supported. ...
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Abstract Freshwater biodiversity loss is one of the greatest environmental threats in our changing world. Although declines have been reported extensively in the literature, much less attention has been devoted to solving the freshwater biodiversity crisis relative to other ecosystems. The recently proposed Emergency Recovery Plan for Freshwater Biodiversity (Tickner et al., 2020, BioScience, 70(4), 330–342) outlines an ambitious but necessary set of overarching actions that can help “bend the curve” for freshwater biodiversity declines. This plan is timely given the present opportunity to adjust freshwater biodiversity targets in international biodiversity agreements and to encourage meeting targets of relevant Sustainable Development Goals. Yet, relying solely on a trickle down from such agreements to national and local scales will likely take too long, given the immediate urgency of the situation. Here, we advocate for a broader, concerted effort from all actors to ensure the Emergency Recovery Plan meaningfully influences the actions of practitioners at a local scale. We outline the roles and responsibilities of actors involved with policy, research, professional bodies and societies, advocacy, and industry, as well as practitioners themselves, in achieving this goal. It is our hope that this overview facilitates the real‐world actions needed to execute the Emergency Recovery Plan so that we can indeed “bend the curve” for freshwater biodiversity.
... The verification requirement is an unfunded mandate that suffers from the general weakness of such policy instruments. Namely, the mandate's enforcement is costly to the entity responsible for complying with it (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). As colleges and universities are responsible for administrating verification, policymakers should be concerned with the compliance burdens that the requirement creates, especially as financial aid offices often have limited resources and have experienced budget declines in recent years (AlQaisi et al., 2020;Cochrane et al., 2010;Davidson, 2014; National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators [NASFAA], 2015[NASFAA], , 2020. ...
Article
Verification is a federally mandated process that requires selected students to further attest that the information reported on their Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is accurate and complete. In this brief, we estimate institutional costs of administrating the FAFSA verification mandate and consider variation in costs by institution type and sector. Using data from 2014, we estimate that compliance costs to institutions in that year totaled nearly US$500 million with the burden falling disproportionately on public institutions and community colleges, in particular. Specifically, we estimate that 22% of an average community college’s financial aid office operating budget is devoted to verification procedures, compared with 15% at public 4-year institutions. Our analysis is timely, given that rates of FAFSA verification have increased in recent years.
... Conceptualizing the policy capacity for CD in education CD forms part of the government's repertoire in improving the achievement of education outcomes (McDonnell and Elmore, 1987). However, many of the popular reform proposals over the last few decades, such as education decentralization and privatization, rarely recognize the need for CD in enabling those at the receiving end of greater autonomy and choice, including local governments, parents, and private schools, to perform additional educational functions. ...
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Capacity development is central to the study and practice of public policy and administration, but ensuring its effectiveness requires a substantial amount of policy capacity from government agencies tasked to design and implement it. Identifying the right mix of policy capacity that governments should possess has been made difficult due to conceptual and operational problems. This article addresses the gap by developing a framework that conceptualizes policy capacity as the ability of governments to perform analytical, operational, and political functions. Drawing on the results of an original teacher survey and complementary sources, the article shows that variations on different dimensions of policy capacity have led to significant differences in the effectiveness of capacity development initiatives, especially as perceived by teachers. Therefore, without understanding and catering to the needs of the targets whose capacity is supposedly being developed, capacity development initiatives meant to be supportive are likely to be dissatisfying and disappointing instead. Points for practitioners This article highlights the importance of policy capacity and further unpacks how its analytical, operational, and political dimensions are essential to the successful delivery of capacity development. Through a rich account of the comparative case of India and China, it illustrates that all these dimensions are important, without any one being a stand-alone panacea. Above all, it is important to pay attention to the recipients of capacity development programs; without doing so, top-down program delivery ignorant of their needs is likely to be poorly received despite the original intention of developing capacity.
... While it is nothing new to view education policy measures or accountability mechanisms as policy instruments (McDonnell andElmore 1987, Hannaway andWoodroffe 2003), categorizing them using the NATO framework and situating them in an instrument choice model help advance the argument that instead of viewing these instruments as substitutes, they should be treated as supplements suitable for different situations in terms of the nature of policy aims and severity of constraints faced by the state. To the knowledge of the author, this is also the first application that is able to highlight these complementarities in a highly structured manner. ...
Thesis
Lacking accountability has been widely blamed for poor performance of basic education around the world. However, reforms aiming to fix it have variously fallen short due to a lack of conceptual clarity. The dissertation advances a more comprehensive reconceptualization that re-emphasizes government role as providing stewardship and highlights supportive mechanisms such as teacher in-service training and career advancement arrangements as vital complements to existing accountability mechanisms. It then uses surveys and supplementary tools to explore how they are practiced in government middle schools in India and China. It is revealed that satisfaction level differs significantly between teachers who are included in such support and those excluded. Effectiveness of support can further be understood along its incentive compatibility and ability to advance professional capacity. As such, government should be more like an enabler that stimulates and supports local dynamism. Yet to do so, it is necessary to first understand what the local needs, incentive structures and capacity deficits are.
... These reforms are distinct from the typical curricular reforms or professional development interventions pervasive in the sector because they affect the distributional impact of education by shaping how education services are delivered rather than what is delivered (Egalite, Fusarelli, & Fusarelli, 2017;Wong, 1994). The types of education reform also vary by the measures implemented: rules, resources and incentives (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). Rules and mandates are important in establishing the scope of authority of central administration and their span of control in ensuring that all units adhere to similar standards. ...
... Lorraine McDonnell and Richard Elmore [8] divided policy tools into four types: command tools, incentive tools, capacity building tools and system change tools; Anne Schneider and Ingra Helen Ingram [9] divided policy tools into authoritative tools, incentive tools, capacity-building tools, symbolic and persuasive tools, and learning tools. Combining Macdonald's and Amore's and Schneider's and Ingram's classification criteria, this study divides government's policy tools for promoting national unity education in schools into command tools, incentive tools, capacity building tools, symbol and persuasive tools and systems 5 types of change tools. ...
... Usually, a state uses policy instruments to intervene and implement policy action. Scholars have discussed different types of policy instruments such as mandates, knowledge and information, incentives, symbolic and learning tools, treasure, authority, and organization [26][27][28][29]. In this article, we emphasise financial and legislative policy instruments, as they can demarcate the services rendered by disaster-related plans and policies [30]. ...
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This article aims to explain various disaster governance paradigms that have emerged and currently exists in Nepal. A disaster governance paradigm is a comprehensive set of prevailing and institutionalized ideas that shape disaster plans and policies that eventually are implemented on-the-ground. Nepal has prepared various disaster plans and policies at the national, provincial and local level, but there are major gaps in disaster risk preparedness , with annual floods and landslides continuing to be responsible for the loss of lives and heavy infrastructure damages. In this article, we show how disaster governance paradigms have evolved between 1982 and 2019, using policy document analysis and semi-structured interviews with key policy actors. The study found that four major disaster governance paradigms exist in Nepal-(1) response and recovery; (2) disaster risk reduction and management; (3) integrated climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction; and (4) federalized disaster risk reduction. The results of this study show that multiple state and non-state actors such as key government ministries, NGOs, INGOs and other civil society actors are competing over resources and there is an ongoing administrative struggle for promoting different disaster governance paradigms. There has been a push from various civil society actors to prioritize disaster risk reduction in Nepal. Finally, we conclude that it is too early to assert that the decentralization process will be able to reduce disaster risk for vulnerable communities , especially with the federalization of Nepal's disaster governance.
... A policy tool that is often used in top-down approaches are mandates, and this tool is appropriate. Mandates are intended to guarantee compliance of all parties involved, but their significant downside is that their enforcement and supervision may be expensive (McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). In most implementation cases, a task force or committee involving actors and stakeholders from both the top and operational levels is formed to implement policies (Brata, 2014). ...
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In the last decade, Indonesia has worked towards expanding access to higher education, but the enrolment of the poor remains negligible with the majority of students in the country's leading public universities still coming from Indonesia's wealthiest echelons. Concerned with the issue of equity and access, the government has formulated a new policy calling on all higher education institutions to ensure at least 20% of their newly admitted students are of a low socioeconomic status (SES). The principal challenge the government has faced is a discrepancy between its ambitious political agenda and the policy's implementation affected by inadequate budgeting, lacking implementation mechanisms, and limited award allocations. This challenge raises a question of whether the Equity and Access Policy can be effectively implemented and, if so, under what conditions can such success be achieved. We thus examine the country's Equity and Access Policy, education system with its leadership structure, broader institutional framework, and how these factors interact to obstruct the higher education access for the poor in Indonesia. The inadequate policy implementation can impede Indonesia's human capital development and the country's economic growth.
... There are many classifications of policy tools. For example, McDonnell and Elmore (1987) classified policy tools into four categories based on their purpose: imperative tools, incentive tools, building tools, and system tools. Based on policy focus, Rothwell and Zegveld (1985) divided policy instruments into supply-type, demand-type, and environment-type. ...
Article
Over the past decades, a series of policies and regulations have been formulated to encourage photovoltaic (PV) development in China. The phenomena of “subsidy deception” and “PV power curtailment and brownout” indicate the policies have encountered problems in implementation. A large gap between subsidies and renewable funds has compelled the Chinese government to gradually withdraw subsidy policy. As such, investors are focusing on assessing China's future policies for PV application. To determine the reasons for the implementation problems and to seek solutions, this study summarized existing PV power application policies and established a two-dimensional framework to analyze these policies, using a content analysis. We found the government relies too much on the state's macroeconomic control, and does not fully play the role of “invisible hand” in PV power applications. Supply-type and environment-type policies are widely used, making up almost 80% of the total. To fully enable the market's role, it is necessary to reinforce demand-type policies and improve green certification transactions. These are forms of incentive policies instead of subsidies.
... Policy objectives can be achieved through policy tools, which serves as a bridge between goals and outcomes, and the path and mechanism for translating policy objectives into concrete actions. With the policy tools categories proposed by McDonnell and Elmore (1987), the main measures taken by the Chinese government for Source: Own elaboration-based data from output of country co-authorship analysis in CiteSpace. the development of HSR research can be grouped into the following four types. ...
Article
With the rapid advancements of high-speed railway (HSR) in recent years, the results of HSR research are fruitful. This study aims to identify the research status quo and development trends of HSR using visualization analysis with CiteSpace. We retrieved published papers (1900–2019) from the Web of Science core collection with a topic search related to HSR. Next, we generated author, institution, and country co-authorship networks to identify the top productive authors, institutions, and countries, respectively, the journal co-citation network to determine the distribution of core journals, the document co-citation network to reveal the main research themes and explore the knowledge structure, the author co-citation network to identify the influential authors, and the keywords co-occurrence network to detect research hotspots and research frontiers. These analyses informed about the main contributing force of HSR research at three levels of authors, institutions, and countries, the knowledge sources and interdisciplinary characteristics of HSR, the major research domains and knowledge structures present status of HSR, and the orientations for further research. Furthermore, the case of China suggests that policy support is conducive to promote the development of HSR research.
... The conceptual framework of this study is guided by the concept of a theory of action (Argyris & Schon, 1996) rooted in a resource dependence perspective (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978). A theory of action is akin to a policy instrument to the extent that both mechanisms are designed to turn a policy goal into a concrete action (Dougherty & Reddy, 2013;McDonnell & Elmore, 1987). For states that implement PF, the policy goal is that colleges will improve their performance due to the provision of material incentives (Burke, 2002;Dougherty & Hong, 2006;Dougherty & Reddy, 2013). ...
... Theoretical Framework I framed my study through Structural Theory, which draws on the concept that action within organizations are taken based on economic, political, and social considerations (Giddens, 1979). Structural theory examines formal organizational policies, the influence of formal organizational structures (rules, roles, and responsibilities), and the allocation of resources (Mazmanian and Sabatier 1983;McDonnell and Elmore 1987). These structures define the ways in which actors understand how action should be done, practices are organized around those understandings, and capabilities that support those understandings. ...
Poster
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College is a critical time when changes in students' attitudes, knowledge, personality characteristics, and self-concepts are affected by their face-to-face and online interactions with educators, peers, and the campus climate (Astin, 1997). The growing use of big data and analytics in higher education has fostered research that supports human judgement in the analysis of information about learning and the application of interventions that can aid students in their development and improve retention rates (Siemens & Baker, 2012). This information is often displayed in the form of learning analytics dashboards (LADs), which are individual displays with multiple visualizations of indicators about learners, their learning activities, and/or features of the learning context both at the individual and group levels (Schwendimann et al., 2017). The information presented in LADs is intended to support students' learning competencies that include metacognitive, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional self-regulation (Jivet et al., 2018). We investigated the impact of a student-facing LAD on students' self-concepts and viewing preferences to address the following questions: What are students' viewing preferences (i.e., for individual vs. comparative performance feedback)? How does viewing performance information affect the development of students' metacognitive skills and self-concepts? And, what are students' perceptions about the usability of LADs? In an end-of-term survey, 111 students at a large research university responded to 10 Likert scale and three open-ended questions. Overall, the students reported understanding the information that was presented to them through the LAD and that it was useful, although some students expressed concerns about its accuracy and wanted more detailed information. Students also reported that they preferred to view comparisons to other students over just viewing their own performance information, and that LAD use increased positive affect about performance. Students also reported that dashboard use affected how much they believed they understood the course material, the time and effort they were willing to put into the course, and that it lessened their anxiety. We concluded that course-specific or program-specific related outcomes may require different LAD design and evaluation approaches, and the nonuse of the LAD may be linked to self-confidence, forgetfulness, and a lack of innovative dashboard features. Our study was limited by the analysis of survey data (without trace data), and the sample size. This research contributes to the literature on student-facing learning analytics dashboards (LADs) by investigating students' reasons for interacting with dashboards, their viewing preferences, and how their interactions affect their performance and tying these insights to educational concepts that were a part of the LAD design. Further research is needed to determine whether presenting students with the option to turn on the dashboard for any or all of their courses over the course of the semester is important,
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Résumé : La professionnalisation est devenue depuis trois décennies une des notions-clés encadrant les politiques en direction de l'école et des personnels d'éducation au niveau international. Nous analyserons ici les modalités et ressorts de promotion, de diffusion internationale de ce paradigme, ses variations, son évolution et ses effets, son renouvellement (comme la profession enseignante elle-même). Nous présentons des éléments de comparaison internationale concernant les politiques relatives aux conditions statutaires et aux modalités de formation ainsi que des modèles de professionnalisation des enseignants et proposerons des rapprochements et comparaisons par aires politiques et culturelles. Abstract : For three decades now professionnalization has become one of the key-notions that organize school and teaching policies at the global level. The research aims at studying the conditions and forms of the promotion and international dissemination of the paradigm, its variations in space and time, its evolution and implementation impacts, and finally its renewal and regeneration (as the teaching profession itself was regenerated). Various elements of international comparison regarding education, training and status policies of teachers will be put in perspective internationally and the models of professionnalization on different political and cultural areas will be discussed.
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Teachers, leaders, reformers, policymakers, and advocates all comprehend the weightiness of reading instruction, experiences, and outcomes for society, schools, and children. There have been numerous waves of reading reform, with federal, state, and local policies addressing numerous aspects of reading instruction. Currently, there are numerous policies reflecting the Science of Reading. In this article, we synthesize policy concepts and illustrate policies associated with the infrastructure for reading instructional improvement. We elevate how policy messages are repeatedly framed and interpreted by people positioned at different levels of the education system. We also explain the variability in responses to reading policy. The article concludes with considerations for designing and implementing policy instruments that support and sustain educators as they sail toward improving reading instruction and providing robust learning opportunities for every child.
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the long-term (defined as three years) effectiveness of turnaround interventions and identify characteristics of public schools and the systems in which they were embedded that facilitated or impeded their ability of school systems to sustain improved turnaround outcomes. A population of 93 chronically failing schools for which turnaround interventions were implemented in 2016 was extracted from the Texas Education Agency’s Multi-Year Rating List comprised of 7,761 schools. The performance of these 93 schools in the three-year period after the interventions was tracked. Four performance patterns emerged: High Performers, Late Bloomers, Popcorn, and Ongoing Failing. The variables analyzed were classified into two categories. The first category addressed administration, enrollment, and teacher turnover. Five major findings emerged: most school turnaround interventions in Texas improved failing schools, but approximately half failed to reach the standard of “acceptable performance”; there was no consistent relationship between size of schools’ enrollments and failing schools, but the percentage of students attending chronically failing schools was higher in school systems with lower total student enrollment; elementary schools were substantially overrepresented; the population of failing campuses were located in school systems that averaged higher expenditures per pupil than the Texas average, but within this population campuses achieving an A or B ranking three years after the turnaround expended $1,250 more per pupil than school systems with campuses receiving F grades; teacher turnover was higher than the Texas average and teachers had fewer years of experience, but among the 93 failing schools, teacher turnover rates were higher at the schools rated A or B three years after the intervention than the cohort of systems ranked CDF. The second category analyzed student data. There were two major findings. First, African American, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students were overrepresented in the chronically failing schools. Second, meaningful changes in the profiles between 2016 and 2019 were: an increase in per pupil expenditures by the systems with chronically failing schools; a decline in average enrollment; and an increase in the proportion of White students.
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Explicar el fenómeno del cambio de política es una pretensión frecuente en el campo de análisis de políticas públicas. Los instrumentos de política reciben creciente atención como unidad de análisis que ilustra los patrones de transformación en el proceso de diseño de las políticas. En este artículo se exploran los cambios en el uso de instrumentos de política en los procesos del policy making del orden nacional en Colombia. Para esto se identifican, sistematizan y clasifican 822 instrumentos de política en veinte documentos emitidos por el Consejo Nacional de Política Económica y Social (Conpes) entre 1993 y 2014 entendidas en el marco de planeación estatal en Colombia como políticas públicas. La evidencia revela que estos instrumentos tienden a dar prelación a intervenciones normativas y regulatorias en reemplazo de intervenciones monetarias. Los documentos Conpes, en algunos casos, trazan enunciados que no clarifican el alcance operativo de los instrumentos de política, pero con potencial para la definición de acuerdos entre distintos organismos gubernamentales.
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With the development of computer technology and Internet technology, people can get a large amount of data directly through the Internet. This paper builds a model of policy evaluation on text mining by using text mining techniques, and builds policy evaluation indicators through word breaker technology, word frequency statistics, construction thesaurus, subject analysis, and co-existing analysis. Using 10 logistics policy texts in Heilongjiang Province, 12 logistics policy texts in Jilin Province and 8 logistics policy articles in Liaoning Province between 2015 and 2020, a total of 30 logistics policy texts were used as the research objects of this paper, and then the PMC model was used to score the logistics policy text, the PMC surface was drawn to visualize the focus of logistics policy documents in different provinces, and the policy evaluation models constructed by experts were combined with the policy interpretation documents to verify that the policy evaluation models built by text mining technology were effective.
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Background Promise programs are a quickly spreading policy tool in the free college movement. Despite their rapid spread, promise programs remain generally untested and there is even less information about how they are implemented. Research Questions (1) In what ways were The Degree Project's (TDP) theory of change and intents represented in messaging materials to students and to school staff? 1(a) In what ways did these messages shape conditions (or not) for sensemaking? (2) In what ways did these messages support (or not) students and school staff in changing their practice? (2a) What changes in practice did we see (or not) for students and school staff? Intervention TDP, which was implemented in Milwaukee Public Schools between 2011–15, is the nation's first randomized control trial of a promise program. Freshmen in the treatment group were offered $12,000 for college if they met particular requirements (e.g., average 2.5 GPA, 90% attendance). TDP leaned heavily on marketing materials and personalized letters to students, families, and school staff to communicate its requirements and to provide college access tips. Research Design We analyze messaging materials, climate and exit survey data, and student and school staff interviews to understand how TDP's theory of change and intents were packaged into messaging materials and ultimately enacted among target students and staff. Findings TDP implementation was successful to a point. School staff handed out messaging materials; students understood the requirements and demonstrated an increase in motivation and desire to go to college. However, TDP failed to meet its goal of sending more students to college. Expectations for school staff (hand out flyers and speak to students) versus students were misaligned, contributing to a lack of substantive conversation and structures for students to convert their increased motivation to go to college into actionable practices over time. School staff were already stretched thin and, with no added structural support, were unable to interact more meaningfully with students. Conclusion TDP failed to send more students to college because it targeted change at the individual rather than organizational level. Students exhibited change in their motivation to attend college, but this was not met with the support needed to convert this motivation to meaningful action. To achieve their full potential, such programs will have to not only address financial barriers, but also leverage broader structural supports in schools to help channel increased student motivation in more productive directions.
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The United Arab Emirates’ education policy agenda is focused on a singular goal: to be one of the top 20 countries in PISA 2022. The focus on PISA has become so robust in the UAE that it is now a central component of teachers’ professional development. This article explores teachers’ sensemaking of dominant education policy discourses through their experience in an internationally sited professional development program in Vietnam – a country whose 2015 PISA performance inspired the education policy reform in the UAE. The findings presented in this article highlight teachers’ deficit framing of difference and their performative adoption of STREAM-focused practices to replicate Vietnam’s 2015 PISA scores. This article concludes with recommendations for future research to better understand the ways in which dominant discourses inform teachers’ professional development, and opportunities to expand teachers’ roles in the policymaking process.
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The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate the emerging role and significance of land tenure and land governance in the context of Korean unification by both reviewing empirical evidence and identifying the contextualized factors, relationship and priorities through the development of various methods, tools and techniques based on a responsible and smart land management framework.
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California policymakers passed the Student Equity Policy, requiring all community colleges to develop a “student equity plan” that identified outcome disparities for select student groups, including racial/ethnic students. Through an instrumental case study, I examined Huerta College because their equity plan stood out for its focus on addressing Latinx transfer inequity. I spent two years interviewing implementers, observing equity meetings, and collecting documents that served as artifacts of implementation. Key to equity planning was a critical mass of Latinx practitioners able to see the policy as an opportunity to tackle one of the greatest inequities on their campus, Latinx transfer. They used the implementation process to propose new projects that would support Latinx students in their journey to transfer from Huerta.
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This article analyzes the strategies used in subnational governments to implement an education policy aimed to increase high school coverage in marginalized communities of rural Mexico. Based on in-depth interviews with responsible for administering the telebachillerato model, findings display the implications of enacting a poorly designed policy failing to match the complex realities of the communities. We observe innovative yet insufficient ways to maneuver a policy that provides scarce funding and generates tensions between levels of government. The findings contribute to the literature about implications of poor policy design and provide evidence for education policy makers working on school coverage expansion.
Research
Over a century ago, American philosopher John Dewey (1897) observed in his conception of the school as family, that education is a social process. Yet, as Mitchell and colleagues (2012) note, in recent history the pursuit of educational equality has been largely overshadowed by relentless and seemingly antisocial demands for the production of standardized adequacy. In this paper, we draw upon the growing body of research indicating that improving Latino college access and completion rates will require a greater investment in the social dynamics of education across the P-16 spectrum if the United States is to achieve both equity and excellence in educational outcomes. Perhaps because that which is social about education is so much more difficult to standardize and quantify, those who have sought to reform the system have been reluctant to engage strategies aimed at ensuring that all students and families have access to, and are able to effectively utilize, intentionally designed social support systems in their schools and communities. We suggest that the costs of not doing so are mounting for Latino students, and for the nation.
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This qualitative case study examines how board members make sense of federal accountability policies and how their sensemaking shapes their use of assessment data as a policy instrument. Deviating from previous work on practitioner sensemaking, the participants’ interpretations of assessments did not align with their ensuing use of the data. Furthermore, board members’ use of assessment data diverged from both federal and state messaging, illustrating board members’ synthesis and adaptation of external messaging into a locally driven narrative. As the nation has shifted to state accountability systems under Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), the findings provide insights to policymakers and practitioners to support local implementation.
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Government–nonprofit relations in China have transformed over the past three decades. Building on policy instrument theory, this article explores which policy instruments have been used to steer nonprofits at the central level and how the use of policy instruments has changed over time. This article is based on a content analysis of 300 central-level policy documents for nonprofits using NVivo. The results show that 22 kinds of policy instruments have been used to steer nonprofits. A steep upward trend is evident in the use of four categories of policy instruments for nonprofits: authority, incentive, information, and organization. Policy instruments for nonprofits have advanced in diversity, emphasizing indirect control. The central government continues to show a significant predisposition toward regulatory instruments, which have evolved from ex ante regulation to process and ex post regulation. This article contributes to the public management literature by identifying which policy instruments governments use to shape government–nonprofit relations.
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Tekst poświęcony jest analizie instrumentów wykorzystywanych w fazie wdra‑żania (implementacji) polityki publicznej. Autor prezentuje dyskusje i zagadnieniana ten temat podejmowane w literaturze przedmiotu. Opisuje różnorodne typologieinstrumentów, a także czynniki wpływające na to, że decydenci wybierają określoneinstrumenty jako narzędzia działania spośród całej ich gamy. W drugiej częścitekstu wskazuje na zależności między zasadniczymi cechami architektury politykipublicznej (policy design) w Polsce a strukturą stosowanych instrumentów. Obecnaarchitektura silnie wpływa na to, że decydenci mają skłonność do posługiwania się„twardymi” instrumentami działań publicznych, przy jednoczesnym niedocenianiutak zwanych instrumentów katalizujących, adresowanych do ludzkich postaw i za‑chowań. Tymczasem mają one szczególne znaczenie w wypadku tworzenia wieluistotnych w ostatnich latach rodzajów polityki, które mają za zadanie rozwiązywanieproblemów uznawanych za złożone
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