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Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences, and Reform

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Abstract

High levels of corruption limit investment and growth and lead to ineffective government. Developing countries and those making a transition from socialism are particularly at risk, but corruption is a worldwide phenomenon. Corruption creates inefficiencies and inequities, but reforms are possible to reduce the material benefits from payoffs. Corruption is not just an economic problem, however; it is also intertwined with politics. Reform may require changes in both constitutional structure and the underlying relationship of the market and the state. No single "blueprint" is possible, but the primary goal should be to reduce the gains from paying and receiving bribes, not simply to remove "bad apples."

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... General definitions of corrupt conduct are common. Most well-known is the definition by Transparency International (2017) as "the use of public office for private gain," expanded in 2000 to include corporate or business corruption with the wording change, "the abuse of entrusted power for private gain" (Rose-Ackerman & Palikfa, 2016;White, 2013;World Bank, 2017). ...
... Therefore, private sector corruption affects some people (engaged in commercial transactions), whereas public corruption affects all people in their role as citizens. Controlling public sector corruption is a prerequisite for controlling private sector corruption, because corrupted government operations make it impossible to regulate the private sector properly (see Andvig et al., 2001;Ndikumana, 2013;Rose-Ackerman & Palikfa, 2016). ...
... Of course, different types of corrupt behaviors are likely to be generated by different types of government structures, and the opportunities and incentives that are present (Gupta et al., 2017;Heywood, 1997;Khan et al., 2021;Rose-Ackerman & Palikfa, 2016;Vargas-Hernandez, 2012). Therefore, any typology requires empirical validation on new samples to capture these similarities and differences. ...
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International expert groups have identified the largest problems in the world. This address will connect these disparate global problems, showing how corruption either created them or made them much worse. The world has turned to structural reforms to institutions, laws, and policies to control corruption, but success has been uneven, as unethical people continue to exploit both corrupt and non-corrupt environments, aggravating the world’s largest problems and creating new ones. A commitment to ethics education and training can generate more ethical choices and principled responses that would increase individual accountability. It is argued that the largest problems in the world can be reduced in size only through more ethical decisionmaking, which is a precursor to reducing corruption, as the common feature of the world’s largest problems.
... La literatura es pródiga en las causas y efectos de la corrupción en general y en los efectos del soborno Myint, 2000;Pellegrini, 2011;Rose-Ackerman & Palifka, 2016;Shahabuddin, 2002), pero las causas del soborno quedan más bien como una reiteración de lo que se dice de la corrupción y salvo unos pocas investigaciones lo hacen de forma explícita y específica (David-Barrett, 2014;Gao, 2011;Martin et al., 2007;Moore Jr, 2007;Peiffer & Rose, 2018;Sanyal & Samanta, 2004;Shahabuddin, 2002). ...
... En cuanto a las posibles fuentes de información sobre la corrupción se encuentran bases de datos como International Country Risk Guide (ICRG) Index, Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) Index, World Development Report (WDR) Index, o el Control of Corruption Index, todas ellas basadas en la percepción de "expertos" (Wei, 2000). En el caso de TI la información de base para el Global Corruption Barometer es la sociedad civil que como dicen sus críticos Rose-Ackerman & Palifka (2016) puede estar sesgada por condiciones del ambiente mismo, donde los individuos se desenvuelven y más bien apuntar a la pequeña corrupción que de todas formas puede verse sesgada por la percepción de la gran corrupción. Asimismo, TI también produce el Corruption Perception Index que combina año a año datos de varias fuentes y en diferentes modalidades incluyendo evaluación de expertos y datos cuantitativos. ...
Article
El soborno como temática se ha centrado en análisis de causalidad e impacto y en muchos de los casos supeditado como una tipología más de la corrupción. A partir de los microdatos del Barómetro de Corrupción Global de Transparency International se busca determinar para un conjunto de países seleccionados de América Latina y el Caribe, las variables dependientes para predecir la probabilidad de pagar soborno al tener contacto con las personas, empresas o entidades que le prestan servicio. Se utilizan técnicas de estadística inferencial, como la regresión logística aplicando el método de máxima verosimilitud y proceso iterativo hasta encontrar el mejor modelo. De una encuesta inicial con 117 variables, resultaron 11 que explican mejor la probabilidad de pagar un soborno. Variables como el grado de escolaridad y la influencia de funcionarios y políticos afectan la disposición de las personas a pagar un soborno. Tópicos significativos de este estudio como la retaliación para favorecer votaciones y los favores sexuales para recibir beneficios, aunque incipientes en su estudio, valen su profundización investigativa. Este trabajo sirve de base para motivar estudios con microdatos que ayuden a entender mejor y de manera específica las tipologías de corrupción a través de modelos que predicen comportamientos del ciudadano del común.
... Corruption as endemic has embedded deep into many countries (Rose-Ackerman & Palifka, 2016). Corruption as widely perceived has become one of the major challenges facing African economy, and the rate at which the cankerworm spreads in Nigeria is alarming that has eaten deeply into the country's economy. ...
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Abstract: As widely perceived by many that corruption and other unethical conducts have become a destructive cankerworm that has eaten deep in every nation’s economy. Although, the scenario is not common only to Nigeria but the manner at which the ill-gotten wealth individuals were being celebrated in country is highly alarming. Nigeria is known for its series of anti-corruption mechanisms put in place by the government in order to curtail the menace in the society. Upon the establishment of the Military Legislations to curb the menace in 1975 under Generals Murtala Ramatu Muhammed and Olusegun Obasanjo down to 1999 under the administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo where two separate anti-corruption bodies were formed (ICPC and EFCC), and to the present Administration under President Muhammadu Buhari where whistleblowing mechanism is introduced, the level of corruption is more pronounced and rampant both in public and private sectors of the Nigeria’s economy. One will be wondering why Nigeria is yet to put total remedies to the scourge of corruption in the country. The study proffers some hints, if it can be adopted by the government to strengthen the anti-corruption tools put in place. Some of the measures include, the inclusion of individuals, all and sundry in the fight against corruption. As opined by the collective action theory employed by the study, corruption cannot be fought and won in isolation but requires collective efforts and change of masses’ orientation on the need to return sanity back to Nigeria. Similarly, our religious and traditional leaders have numerous roles to play in reducing unethical conducts in the society. Conferment of religious or traditional titles to those that do not deserve it in the society should be corrected and discouraged in its totality. When these and many more are done, there is every possibility that Nigeria will be a lesser corrupt country and great again. Keywords: Nigeria, EFCC, whistle-blowing, corruption, unethical conducts
... Moreover, it is worth highlighting that the score of the IEC3 was only 3.51, the lowest ranking of all items, which means corruption is still a critical factor affecting the GC in PPP. Rose-Ackerman and Palifka (2016); and Chan et al. (2011) all suggested corruption created economic inefficiencies and inequities [11,79], more specifically, corruption of local government officials prevented some projects from reaching their expected performance levels. Obviously, although the "anticorruption" work has been advancing in China, it still needs to be further implemented. ...
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To alleviate project financial pressure and improve performance, the public-private partnership (PPP) arrangement was introduced by the central government of China to facilitate the sustainable development of infrastructure. However, arising government credit crisis from the PPP project may damage both the private’s and public’s interests, and affect the government performance of PPP projects consequently. In order to understand the influence between government credit and performance, we constructed a government credit evaluation index system by using the Wuli-Shili-Renli system theory, and conducted a questionnaire survey among people related to PPP based on 359 valid questionnaires. The results firstly indicated that government credit and performance of PPP projects are optimistic in China. Secondly, the institutional environment, financial situation, management technology and internal and external communication of government credit all have a positive impact on the government performance of PPP. Thirdly, the government credit and performance of PPP projects can be increased by the improvement of regional economic and social development. These findings enrich the knowledge system of the relationship between government credit and performance of PPP projects and contribute to clarifying the influence of government credit and performance, thus provide the basis for the government to guide PPP practice effectively.
... Quizás la ecuación más conocida basada en esta teoría es la planteada por Robert Klitgaard respecto a que la corrupción se puede entender como C = D + M -A; donde C es corrupción, D es discreción, M es el monopolio de una acción y A es rendición de cuentas (accountability). Para más información sobre sus planteamientos teóricos, consultar Klitgaard (1988) o Rose-Ackermann (1999). Para ver su uso en México para analizar la vigilancia al gasto gubernamental, ver Ruíz Porras & García Vázquez (2016). ...
Chapter
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This chapter assesses the relationship between the use of new technologies to bring transparency and execute public procurement procedures and the reduction in the risks of corruption of these. Apart from showing the international trends in this topic both at a national and a subnational level, this chapter looks at the efforts that have been developed at a subnational level in Mexico in two of its states; namely, Mexico City and Jalisco. For doing so, this work uses the information of the public procurement procedures conducted both in Mexico City and Jalisco in 2019 to assess their risks of corruption and see if there is a relation with the transparency of their e-procurement portals. The article finds that the information still lacks a quality that allows to conduct a thorough research. However, the existing data reveal that where there is less transparency in the information there is a greater use of procedures with a higher risk of corruption, although it is not possible to prove causality at this moment.
... Although, there are in developing countries corruption available at all levels of the branch including either private or public bodies. 40 As far as, if countries have the stronger democratic institutions and functioning with honesty for people's welfare and development. It means that is reflected in regression method analysis with a negative correlation between sears of democracy and corruption. ...
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Normative theorists of corruption have developed an institutional conception that is distinct from both individualistic. The quid pro quo approaches and other institutional approaches are found in the literature on developing and developed countries. These theorists describe the close link between patterns of corruption and the legitimate functions of institutions. The aim of this chapter is to examine the nature of corruption in developed and developing countries. Data applies for developed and developing countries to describe the use of qualitative study approaches. Further research seeks the results to assess the comparative outcome of institutional corruption in developed and developing countries. This study investigates the whereabouts of government officials who fails to blockade the initial level of corruption. The principal objective of the study is the comparative analysis of corruption in the countries. Further research searches the results evaluate the comparative output of institutional corruption in developed and developing countries. The study links the corruption level in public institutional bodies in the countries and institutional corruption does not require that its perpetrators have corrupt motives, and it is not limited to political institutions. The empirical results confirm that public institutional bodies have a limited government effect on controlling the level of corruption.
... The evolution of the TAIs began with the U.S Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 which prohibited questionable or illegal payments made by U.S citizens or corporations to foreign government officials, politicians or political parties. While this law was useful in reducing American involvement in foreign bribery, it did nothing to address illegal payments made by non-Americans; furthermore, U.S corporations felt that the law put them at a competitive disadvantage as compared to corporations based in other countries which even allowed tax deductions for bribes (Keblusek, 2010;Rose-Ackerman, 1999). ...
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Sustained economic growth in resource rich countries is achieved with successful industrialization, normally braced with natural resource revenues. Natural resource revenues, to the extent they are appropriated by states, can relax common resource constraints to growth and pave way for rapid development. Despite the historically positive association of natural resource revenues to industrial growth in many advanced countries, the experience of less developed countries (LDCs) since the 1950s has largely shown prevalence of the resource curse phenomenon. NEITI was established as a voluntary multi-stakeholder initiative for the extractive industries to address problems of the resource curse in Nigeria. The study aims to assess how NEITI oil and gas audits (OGAs) serve as instruments for transformation of resource rents to riches by ensuring that oil and gas revenues enhance financial sustainability in Nigeria. The institutional theory was adopted as the theoretical underpinning for the study. The study used a documentary research design. Data for the research was obtained from secondary sources, mainly publications of NEITI & other government agencies. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and content analysis. The study revealed that NEITI OGAs are potent instruments in Nigeria's public financial management. It established that NEITI OGAs have enhanced transparency but failed to enhance accountability. The study also showed that NEITI OGAs have not ensured financial sustainability in Nigeria. The study recommends the need for improved synergy between multi-stakeholder groups, civil society empowerment and prioritization of domestic economy over international accreditations, as new strategies for NEITI to enhance resource governance and financial sustainability in Nigeria.
... In emerging democracies, or those that are in transition, corruption is a transitional phenomenon given that procedural practices have yet to be founded on firm liberal culture and effective institutions vol. 3 | no. 1 | June 2022 (Harris-White and White, 1996;Rose-Ackerman, 1999). Among intermediate democracies, the eventual consolidation of democratic institutions would reduce corruption (Sung, 2004). ...
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While corruption studies abound, there is a dearth of scholarship that deals with corruption from the perspective of set relations. A configurational analysis of corruption is helpful in understanding the complexity of such phenomenon. For one, given the complex nature of corruption, democratic governments and civil society are prompted to address it via holistic and integrative anti-corruption strategies. This complexity seems to resonate with what qualitative comparative analysts hold regarding the import of contexts and with the configurational character of much of social life. From the perspective of set-theoretic, configurational analysis, in particular qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), corruption should also thus be seen as a conjunctural, equifinal, asymmetrical, and multifinal phenomenon.
... As can be seen from the results of this study, accountability, transparency, and corruption are defined and approached differently within each IO. This is in alignment with Rose-Ackerman's findings that definitions of transparency and accountability are often overlapping and enmeshed in good governance agendas, which can obscure the intent of initiatives [106]. Further, IOs do not act in isolation, rather they are part of a global architecture that includes civil society organizations and governments. ...
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Corruption is a global wicked problem that threatens the achievement of health, social and economic development goals, including Sustainable Development Goal # 3: Ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all. The COVID-19 pandemic and its resulting strain on health systems has heightened risks of corruption both generally and specifically within health systems. Over the past years, international organizations, including those instrumental to the global COVID-19 response, have increased efforts to address corruption within their operations and related programs. However, as attention to anti-corruption efforts is relatively recent within international organizations, there is a lack of literature examining how these organizations address corruption and the impact of their anti-corruption efforts. This study addresses this gap by examining how accountability, transparency, and anti-corruption are taken up by international organizations within their own operations and the reported outcomes of such efforts. The following international organizations were selected as the focus of this document analysis: the World Health Organization, the Global Fund, the United Nations Development Programme, and the World Bank Group. Documents were identified through a targeted search of each organization’s website. Documents were then analyzed combining elements of content analysis and thematic analysis. The findings demonstrate that accountability and transparency mechanisms have been employed by each of the four international organizations to address corruption. Further, these organizations commonly employed oversight mechanisms, including risk assessments, investigations, and audits to monitor their internal and external operations for fraud and corruption. All organizations used sanction strategies meant to reprimand identified transgressors and deter future corruption. Findings also demonstrate a marked increase in anti-corruption efforts by these international organizations in recent years. Though this is promising, there remains a distinct absence of evidence demonstrating the impact of such efforts on the prevalence and severity of corruption in international organizations.
... Our results suggest that government size has a significant positive impact on corruption in both the years. This finding is in line with the conclusions in earlier studies that higher corruption is significantly associated with higher public expenditures particularly on education, health and defence purchases (Rose-Ackerman, 1999;Alesina & Angeletos, 2005;Goel & Nelson, 1998;Mauro, 1998;Gupta et al., 2001). Our results show that the opportunity for corruption might increase as the size of the government becomes larger because the coefficient is positive and significant. ...
Article
: Corruption is a widespread phenomenon and is hard to measure and quantify. Ever since the publication perception of corruption indices by Transparency International (TI) and University of Gottingen for various countries in 1994 attempts have been made to investigate the sources and impact of corruption on the economy. Considering an economic approach to corruption, in this paper we examine the sources of corruption using the data on cross-section of countries at different stages of economic development at two points of time 2003 and 2013.Further we investigate regional differences in the causes of corruption. Using corruption perception index, we find that economic growth, size of the public sector and the human development are significant individually in both the years. There are statistically significant regional differences in the sources of corruption. The growth impact on corruption is not significant at the regional level. Similarly, the size of the public sector is significant in Asia Pacific, EU and in American continent countries. Finally, literacy is significant in every region except in the Middle East. The results have interesting policy implications for economic growth, especially in low-income countries with high rates of corruption
... The impact of corruption on governments and countries is a critical issue. For example, it makes it extremely difficult to change a corrupt government or judicial system [19]. Corruption also causes a loss of confidence between a government and its population, making anti-corruption initiatives practically impossible [20]. ...
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Many developing countries suffer high levels of corruption, which contributes to the divergence in economic development between more developed and developing countries. Corruption perceptions play a key role in forming a culture that is more or less tolerant of corruption, which contributes to its persistence. Individuals who have high perception of corruption believe that bribes must be paid. Customers will be more likely to accept a bribe if they believe many people pay bribes. The importance of this research is that it contributes to the micro-level research tradition by providing a deeper understanding of the factors that influence corruption perception. What factors influence the perception of corruption? I conducted an empirical analysis using 2017 Afrobarometer survey data, fo-cusing on 34 democratic African countries. The study finds that those who are relatively poor are more likely to have a high perception of corruption and develop an unfavorable view of corruption than those with high income. The study also provides the potential mechanisms involved in the perception of corruption, finding that individuals with high access to information through the media, and higher education have a higher perception of corruption.
... One of the most used definitions of corruption is: "the misuse of public office for private gain" (Rose-Ackerman, 1978) or the "abuse of entrusted power for private gain". Leading international anticorruption institutions such as Transparency International to employ this definition4. ...
Book
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The report provides a detailed estimation of costs of corruption in Uganda for 2019. It considers both direct costs all those attributed to corrupt acts, and indirect costs all those that result from corrupt acts through a series of interactions in the longer term. The report also attributes the costs of corruption to different actors bearing the costs, such as citizens, firms, public budget, or society at large. The cost of corruption estimates is based on a variety of methods and data sources and considers the cost of bribery, loss of public services through absenteeism, or broader welfare costs among others. Overall, the estimates on the cost of corruption are considered to be lower bound and conservative estimate of the true cost of corruption in Uganda since some costs are in kind while others are non-measurable due to lack of data.
... However, in terms of its impact on the allocation of public investments, the spread of corruption leads to encouraging officials to invest public funds in sectors that yield greater returns for private investors. Which means the possibility to obtain a big part of bribes (Rose-Ackerman, 1999;Hessami, 2013). This is at the expense of investments of large public interest such as the education and health sector (Mauro, 1998). ...
Article
The study aimed to analyze the impact of corruption on economic growth, for a sample of 131 countries, during the year 2018. Three indicators of corruption were used. The economic growth variable was an ordered variable that arranges the country's income into four categories of income. A set of control variables was also used. The relationship between the variables was analyzed using Ordered Probit and Ordered Logit Models. Three model parameters were estimated using STATA software. The results of the study showed that the three indicators of corruption had a negative and significant impact on the income levels of the studied countries. The results also showed that each income level has specific threshold values for corruption indicators. The higher the level of corruption in a country than that threshold. The greater the need for an effective anti-corruption policy. And allocate more funding for its success .
... In the first place, there are lower-level positions that, due to the nature of the work, provide greater corruption opportunities than might be supposed. Thus, for example, those who work directly in purchasing and procurement, even at a low level, would likely have greater demand and opportunity (Campos & Pradhan, 2007;Rose-Ackerman, 1999). Perhaps even more important, corruption demand and opportunity are, to some extent, a function of the laws and administrative procedures in place in different sites. ...
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The paper seeks to develop some preliminary ideas about the relation of corruption and incompetence, two different but perhaps related instances of political and administrative failure. We pose a corruption-competence nexus and suggest that corruption and incompetence are related in predictable ways. Indeed, in extreme cases of incompetence, incompetence often enables corruption due to a variety of factors including the inability to monitor corruption or to select quality advisors. We further suggest that a variety of factors mitigate the relation of incompetence and corruption, including level of political authority and impact, size of political and business networks, and availability of professionalized and empowered public service. To further examine the corruption-incompetence nexus, we use simple typology (e.g., corrupt-competent or corrupt-incompetent) to help organize and, to some extent, explain the forms of relationship between incompetence and corruption in the organizational setting. Four cases of U.S. mayors’ performance are evaluated to better understand the propositions.
... Numerous studies underscore that institutions shape corruption-the abuse of public office for private gain (see, among many, Rose-Ackerman & Palifka, 2016). One such institutionbureaucracy-is central in empirical works, with a recent literature review counting 260 studies assessing the determinants of bureaucratic corruption (Gans-Morse et al., 2018). ...
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Why do some bureaucrats engage in corruption for personal gain, yet others for political gain? We show that these forms of corruption frequently do not coincide and offer an explanation: bureaucrats hired based on political and personal connections have different identities and incentives which compel them to engage in corruption for political and personal gain respectively. List experiments with a unique sample of 6400 bureaucrats in five countries in Africa and Asia support our argument. As theoretically expected, effects are strongest for bureaucrats whose political patrons remain in power (for corruption for political gain) and who do not need corruption gains to sustain their households (for corruption for personal gain). We also find that personal connections matter more than political connections for bureaucratic recruitment across surveyed countries. Our findings underscore the importance of studying varieties of bureaucratic corruption and of supplementing the politicization literature with studies of personal connections in bureaucracy.
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Regional economics in Mexico is concerned with the spatial allocation of economic activity. It is centered along the analysis within regions and states or metropolitan areas of a country. Mexico as a country is now one of the fastest-growing economies in Latin America and a model of financial and commercial integration. But formidable development and economic growth challenges lie ahead for Mexico in the next quarter century, as it observed the deep contrasts between Mexico's rich and poor states, growing urban centers and destitute rural areas, and between Mexicans rich enough to be considered between the richest men in the world and owning companies that are able to compete with industrialized countries, and those Mexicans for whom the benefits of globalization have not yet materialized. In the coming years, Mexico faces many challenges in order to support economic growth. The economic reforms, including the financial sector reform, labor reform, energy and decentralization, promises to give the country a greater legitimacy, stronger sustainability and a higher rate of economic growth. The present book covers the effects of human capital and research and development on growth and regional convergence in Mexico. It also takes a closer look at institutions and economic growth in Mexico; and also covers trade, economic growth and convergence.
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This paper examines the relationship between the political system and corruption from a novel perspective. The main idea is that the electoral system and competition among political parties have an impact on grand corruption, but not on petty corruption. Using Italian regional data on regional elections and corruption, the paper shows how an increase in the disproportionality outcome of an election, or an increase in the level of competition between parties, reduces grand corruption, while it has no effect on petty corruption. Yet the combined effects of the extent of proportionality in the electoral outcome and political competition may yield different final effects on grand corruption. The paper suggests major policy implications to fight corruption by fostering less distorting political systems.
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O artigo é parte de uma pesquisa em andamento e discute a reforma anticorrupção brasilera com foco na Controladoria-Geral da União (CGU). A origem e desenvolvimento da instituição vêm acontecendo em meio ao presidencialismo de coalizão caracterizado por relações distorcidas entre as instituições políticas e por práticas que prejudicam os controles entre os poderes. Neste cenário, torna-se intrigante a persistência de uma instituição anticorrupção como a CGU. O histórico de estruturas de controle deficientes e escândalos de corrupção levaram os governos do período democrático a reorganizar o controle da administração pública. Por outro lado, essa organização vem sofrendo críticas devido a um suposto excesso de controle. O embate conduz o estudo às seguintes questões: É a CGU uma modernização/inovação em direção a um Estado mais accountable? Até que medida é a CGU vulnerável às influências políticas? O artigo revela que não há simples respostas, uma vez que a CGU não está inteiramente consolidada e as dimensões políticas e técnicas das medidas anticorrupção não estão claramente dissociadas entre si. Porém, os aspectos de inovação e persistência da CGU indicam que uma política anticorrupção consistente é possível no Brasil.
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Plain English Summary The level of corruption among firms is underestimated, although it distorts competition. We apply transaction cost theory and examine the choice between two forms of corrupt exchange in situations of inter-firm proximity. Starting from the assumption that the main objective of a rational agent is to minimize costs, we adopt the following key concepts to examine how firms choose between these forms of exchange. First, corrupt exchanges are assumed to have specific transaction costs, that can be detection or enforcement costs. Second, these costs have an impact on the choice between the two forms of exchange as they can reduce their effect to different degrees. Third, proximity can further minimize the remaining costs, regardless of the choices made. Our results show that technological and geographical proximity can mitigate the costs of corrupt transactions, both in negotiated and productive exchanges and thus have an effect similar to those of legal activities. However, in contrast with legal exchanges, social proximity does not appear to be a reliable governance mechanism for corrupt exchanges, particularly in the case of productive exchanges. Our study has implications for judicial and investigative bodies. The types of proximity draw a map on which corrupt exchanges can be traced, enabling the advantages to be identified.
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Studi ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi potensi kerentanan korupsi dan imple-mentasi skema akuntabilitas pada sejumlah lembaga yang terlibat dalam penan-ganan program Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional (PEN). Cakupan aspek risiko korupsi dalam studi ini meliputi aspek kerentanan dan potensi bahaya (hazard) korupsi dalam beberapa intervensi PEN antara lain: (1) Jaminan Pengaman Sosial;(2) Bantuan UMKM; dan (3) Pengalokasian Dana PEN. Identifikasi im-plementasi akuntabilitas pengelolaan dana PEN dilakukan terhadap sejumlah lembaga pemerintah yang terlibat secara teknis sesuai dengan UU No.2/2020. Secara teknis lembaga yang terlibat adalah pemerintah (sebagai representasi sisi fiskal), Bank Indonesia (sisi moneter) dan Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) serta Lembaga Penjamin Simpanan (LPS) di sisi sektor keuangan. Temuan studi ini menunjukkan bahwa terdepatan kerentanan korupsi dan hazard (kasus) korupsi di tiga intervensi program PEN di atas. Kerentanan diidentifikasi berbasis atas potensi terjadi tindakan korupsi sesuai dengan UU No.31/1999 Tentang Tindak Pidana Korupsi. Khusus hazard identifikasi dilakukan terhadap potensi kerugian korupsi berdasarkan kasus korupsi yang ditangani oleh Aparat Penegak Hukum (APH). Studi ini menemukan bahwa akuntabilitas publik selama penangangan Pandemi tahun 2020 dan 2021 bervariasi. Bank Indonesia dan pemerintah yang diwakili oleh Kementerian Keuangan merupakan institusi yang menyampaikan akuntabilitas kinerja dengan baik. Hasil studi ini dapat digunakan sebagai acuan dalam pencegahan korupsi melalui pengelolaan risiko korupsi dengan cara memperkecil peluang kerentanan korupsi dan meminimumkan hazard korupsi. Pengaturan yang mewajibkan akuntabilitas oleh seluruh pihak yang memiliki diskresi dalam pengelolaan situasi darurat perlu dilakukan untuk memastikan efektifitas kebijakan.
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the level of corruption in the local government and the composition of functional expenditure. As a result of cross-lagged panel analysis, in the case of municipal-level local governments, the decrease of corruption in 2015 was found to have an effect on the decrease in economic development expenditure in 2016. On the other hand, in the case of county-level local governments, it was found that the increase in the proportion of economic development expenditure in 2016 had a positive effect on the corruption level in 2017. Although there was a difference in the unit of analysis and time, it was possible to confirm the existence of mutual causality between the economic development expenditure and the degree of corruption. However, relationship between the level of corruption and fiscal expenditure differed according to the type and time of the local government means that temporal and contextual factors exist in this relationship. In the future, it is necessary to check the relationship between corruption and local financial expenditure for each local government through more specific policy audit cases in the field of local financial expenditure.
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Is corruption good or bad for entrepreneurship? Prior research has presented mixed results when exploring this question. This article takes a micro-foundational approach by focussing on how foreign entrepreneurs cognitively deal with corruption in the host environment. We argue that the entrepreneur’s motivational antecedent to engaging in corruption, or corruption propensity, represents a cognitive belief in the legitimacy and effectiveness of corruption. We find that higher corruption propensity leads to lower firm growth. In addition, the effects of corruption propensity are conditioned by the corruption difference between home and host countries. Finally, we discuss implications for research, practice and public policy.
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This is the first part of a three part series about accountability in the NGO sector. Here I examine NGO accountability globally. In Part II, I trace the history of NGO accountability in Haiti. And in Part III, I provide recommended actions to increase accountability among NGOs in Haiti and make them more effective.
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What motivates front-line officials to curtail corruption? We contend that performance management can reinforce top-down accountability in authoritarian governments and help contain corruption at the local level. Drawing on a nationally representative panel data of approximately 120 villages in China, we find that when anticorruption is prescribed as a salient policy goal in the township-to-village performance evaluation, village officials are incentivized to curb corruption. We further present evidence that the mandate for maintaining social stability propels township-level governments to prioritize the anticorruption work in the performance evaluation of village officials given that corruption constitutes a crucial trigger for social unrest. Our study sheds light on the understanding of performance management, bureaucratic accountability, and anticorruption policies in authoritarian countries.
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