Article

Explaining Suspect Resistance in Police-Citizen Encounters

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Abstract

The authors analyzed police records to explore why suspects resist arrest. The analysis was based on a sample of 400 police reports from a mid-size urban police department in Southern California. Two hundred cases involved suspects who were charged with resisting arrest. The remaining 200 cases involved arrested suspects who did not resist. The authors used logistic regression to explore the association between several demographic factors and a binary outcome measuring suspect resistance. They found that suspects arrested in police beats characterized by a disproportionate number of calls for service were more likely to resist. They further found that Black suspects were more likely to resist relative to their White and Hispanic counterparts. The authors also explored interaction effects.

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... Extant literature on resistance toward law enforcement officers has focused on offender, officer, organizational, structural, and spatial predictors. At the offender level, studies have found an association between Black race (Belvedere et al., 2005), prior criminal history (in particular violent offending), demeanor (Crawford & Burns, 2002;Kavanagh, 1997), arrestee drug or alcohol intoxication (Covington et al., 2014;Engel, 2003;Kavanagh, 1997;Reisig, McCluskey, Mastrofski, & Terrill, 2004), and an elevated likelihood of resistance. Research examining the link between gender and resistant behaviors is mixed, with some studies finding significant effects of female sex (Covington et al., 2014;Crawford & Burns, 2002;Engel, 2003) and others identifying an insignificant relationship (Kaminski & Sorenson, 1995;Kavanagh, 1997). ...
... High numbers of prison populations, absolute deprivation (e.g., economic conditions or percent in poverty), racial income inequality, and size of the African American population (Kent, 2010) are structural variables that increase the likelihood of resistance toward law enforcement officers (Kaminski & Marvell, 2002;Peterson & Bailey, 1988). Macrospatial variables consist of arrests occurring in police beats with a larger number of calls for service or arrests, (Belvedere et al., 2005;Kaminski et al., 2003), neighborhood violent crime rates, criminogenic conditions (Kaminski et al., 2003), and disadvantaged neighborhoods (Reisig et al., 2004). At the microspatial level, Caplan, Marotta, Piza, and Kennedy (2014) and Marotta and Caplan (2013) suggest that felonious assaults on law enforcement officers are more likely to occur in locations where multiple spatial risk factors colocate, namely foreclosures and problem buildings as well as locations that afford offenders with multiple opportunities for concealment and escape. ...
... One such theory, provided by Tedeschi and Felson's (1994) interactive theory of coercive action, explains resistant behaviors as a reaction to perceptions of directives from police officers as an insult to the citizen's social identity (Engel, 2003;Tedeschi & Felson, 1994). The likelihood of interpreting police directive as impolite and rude is enhanced by the presence of other officers or citizens (Belvedere et al., 2005;Engel, 2003). Another explanatory model put forth by Turk's (1966) theory of norm resistance suggests that resistance toward law enforcement officers embodies a conflict between social norms and is a product of structured inequalities (Weidner & Terrill, 2005). ...
Article
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An overwhelming body of literature points to a relationship between experiencing adversity during childhood and later violence in adulthood. This study addresses a gap in existing research by testing of the impact of four prior childhood adversities on resistant behaviors toward law enforcement officers. A four-level ordinal dependent variable measuring passive resistance, verbal resistance, police action resistance, and physical resistance was created using data from the nationally representative, 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. A generalized ordinal logistic regression model tested the effects of childhood adversities on resistant behaviors toward law enforcement officers. Physical victimization during childhood and adulthood predicted resistant behaviors toward law enforcement officers above and beyond the effects of prior victimization during only childhood and only adult-hood. This study found a strong association between prior physical victimization, foster care involvement, and resistant behaviors after adjusting for demographic, situational, and criminal background variables.
... Bystanders and witnesses may experience psychological or physical harm (especially when suspects use extreme forms of resistance such as high-speed vehicle pursuits or resisting with the use of a weapon) (Hill, 2002;Jacobs & Cherbonneau, 2014). Community unrest (such as those mentioned earlier) can result if the public perceives an event to involve inappropriate actions by the police (Belvedere et al., 2005;Hine et al., 2018a). Alternatively, Bierie (2017) suggests that suspects who resist may be viewed by the public as attacks against society norms and the rule of law, which in turn, may produce vigilante behavior. ...
... Despite there being a growing related field of research focusing on 'why people obey the law' (see McCluskey et al., 1999;Tyler, 2006), there have been comparatively fewer studies that focus on 'why people resist'. Typically, suspect resistant research focuses on comparisons between those who resist and those who do not (Belvedere et al., 2005;Bierie, 2017;Crawford & Burns, 2002;Johnson, 2019;Kavanagh, 1997) or the level of resistance (Whichard & Felson, 2016), while some researchers examine the different types of resistance. For example, Reisig et al. (2004) examined passive and active disrespect. ...
... Although this research originates almost exclusively from the US, and it remains unknown if these factors are consistent internationally with different social and cultural factors along with differing policing practices. Furthermore, samples tend to rely solely on one or a few geographical districts within the US and draw from a relatively small resisting-arrest data of less than 500 (Belvedere et al., 2005;Crawford & Burns, 2002;Engel, 2003;Johnson, 2019;Kavanagh, 1997). In an important exception, Whichard and Felson (2016) drew from a much larger sample (2,589 prisoners) and also utilized a broad definition of suspect resistance that incorporated verbal comments such as insults, resulting in more comprehensive and complete understanding of resistance. ...
Article
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Police use of force is one of the most critical issues in policing with research consistently finding that the best predictor of force is suspect resistance. Yet, resistance itself is relatively rarely researched. This study drew from the Drug Use Monitoring in Australian (DUMA) program – Australia’s longest running cross-sectional survey of offenders. Data was analyzed using multivariate and multi-level logistic regression to identify factors that predict suspect resistance in terms of whether the suspect was charged with resisting arrest or not. Results showed that while suspect resistance was relatively rare, it was more common under specific situations. Factors relating to offender demographics, crime, temporal/situational, and policing district all contributed to whether suspects were charged with resisting arrest. Moreover, the results showed that the policing region was the strongest predictor of whether a detainee was charged with suspect resistance. These findings highlight the complex and multifaceted nature of police-citizen encounters.
... First, incident-level studies of resistance have been based on small sample sizes. Belvedere, Worrall, and Tibbetts (2005) drew on 200 events of resistance, Craun et al. (2013) used below 300 events of firearm violence, Engel (2003) identified just over 400 cases of noncompliance or verbal resistance, and Kavanaugh (1997) had just fewer than 500 cases of resistance available for analysis. The largest study to date, Bierie et al. (2013), drew on 860 firearm-involved attacks against police. ...
... Second, samples in the literature have been based on a few and potentially select geographical areas. Most research to date used one jurisdiction (Belvedere et al., 2005;Engel, 2003;Mastrofski et al., 1996) or a handful of cities (e.g., McClusky et al., 1999). One problem implied by a lack of geographic diversity is the potential that findings from one area may not generalize well. ...
Article
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The assault of law enforcement officers is an important but understudied topic. To better understand this form of violence, this study drew on the National Incident–Based Reporting System—the nation's largest data set tracking assaults against police alongside detailed information on situations surrounding attacks. Risk factors were examined within a fixed-effects logistic regression framework via a case-control method in which all incidents involving assault against police (n = 20,140) were compared with a random sample of arrest encounters that did not involve this form of aggression (n = 20,118). The data showed that a number of victim, offender, and situational characteristics predicted violence against officers, and the models were able to explain a substantial portion of the variance. Implications for research are discussed.
... Two of three major studies found race of the offender to be an indicator of high levels of resistance. Belvedere, Worrall, and Tibbetts (2005) found that in southern California black suspects were more likely to resist when being arrested by white, black, or Hispanic officers and white suspects were less likely to resist when being arrested by black or Hispanic officers. Engel (2003) found that in Rochester, St. Louis, and Tampa/St. ...
... Beat areas commonly considered as dangerous by police were much more likely to breed suspect resistance than other geographical areas (Belvedere et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Violence against police officers is a major problem in America. Previous studies on violence and police officers have usually focused on violence by police officers, not violence against police officers. This study is the first of its kind as it examines violence against police officers from a comprehensive, criminal events perspective with detailed use of force/officer violence data collected by the Orlando Police Department. Individual officer characteristics, individual offender characteristics, situational variables, and geographical factors are considered. Logistic regression results indicate that use of force incidents are more likely to involve battery against one or more police officers when multiple officers are involved, when offenders are female, when offenders are of larger size (measured by weight), and when offenders are known to have recently consumed alcohol before the incident. Spatial analysis results indicate that there is significant clustering of batteries against police officers within the City of Orlando, and that the areas where police battery is predominant are very similar to areas where alcohol-related businesses are prevalent, and theoretically, more alcohol is consumed. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed.
... Scholars have examined Downloaded by [David M. Bierie] at 10:59 09 January 2013 compliance with police orders, which may refer to citizens or offenders obeying officer commands at a crime scene (Mastrofski, Snipes, & Supina, 1996;McClusky, Mastrofski, & Parks, 1999). Others have explored offender resistance, including verbal (Engel, 2003) and physical (Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005;Kavanaugh, 1997) altercations with officers during arrest. ...
... Kavanaugh (1997) found that resistance declined as body mass index rose, a finding mirrored when testing other proxies for physical shape. Moreover, no significant relationship to resistance was discovered for the age (Belvedere et al., 2005;Mastrofski et al., 1996) and gender of subjects (Engel, 2003;Johnson, 1999;Mastrofski et al., 1996). ...
Article
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Violence directed at law enforcement has remained a critical issue for police, the public, and policing scholars. Recent years have witnessed a growth in lethal violence directed at officers. While several studies have examined noncompliance or resisting arrest, limited individual-level research exists on firearm use during fugitive apprehensions. We addressed this limitation by examining all fugitive apprehensions at one federal law enforcement agency involving shots fired from January 2005 through July 2011. These incidents were compared to a random sample of physical arrests during the same time period where a firearm was not discharged. Drawing on a logistic regression framework, the data highlighted the importance of current and previous warrant types in relation to firearm incidents. Implications and limitations of the model are discussed.
... Past studies of police violence have indirectly tested explanations of citizens' resistance to and assaults on police officers. At the macrolevel, some prior studies have tested political or conflict-related theories (i.e., Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005;Engel, 2003;Jacobs & Carmichael, 2002;Kaminski & Stucky, 2009), and others have examined the impact of variables that align with subcultural explanations (i.e., Kaminski, Jefferis, & Chanhatasilpa, 2000). To date, most studies conducted on police violence have focused only on limited theoretical factors, if any, seriously limiting the explanatory power of current literature on this topic. ...
... It may be that the racial and ethnic diversity, which is characteristic of central Florida, offers both offenders and officers more interaction with racial and ethnic group members different from their own leading to less behavior based on group identification. This is a finding that needs to be investigated in future research, however, especially considering that some studies have found a link between race and level of violence against officers (Belvedere et al., 2005;Engel, 2003). Incidents with multiple offenders were not statistically more likely to involve officer battery than those with single offenders. ...
Article
Although we hear more about violence committed by the police, violence against police officers is also a major problem in the United States. Using data collected from the Orlando, Florida Police Department files, this study examines situational variables, offender characteristics, and officer demographics that may correlate with violence directed at law enforcement officers. Logistic regression results indicate that battery against one or more police officers is significantly more likely when multiple officers are involved, when offenders are women, when offenders are larger than average as measured by body mass index (BMI), and when offenders are known to have recently consumed alcohol. We close with a discussion of policy implications and directions for future research.
... Thus, an individual who has a negative perception of the police, or does not grant legitimacy to the law, is more likely to engage in delinquent behavior than an individual with a more positive view of the formal justice system. In fact, there is significant evidence suggesting that when an offender perceives the law or sanction to be unfair, they are less likely to accept the decisions of formal social control, comply with court-imposed sanctions, and obey the law in the future (Belvedere, Worrall and Tibbetts, 2005;Paternoster, Brame, Bachman and Sherman, 1997;Paternoster and Simpson, 1996;Paternoster and Piquero, 1995;Tyler and Huo 2002). ...
Article
Although labeling theory has been subjected to many empirical examinations, more often than not, studies present conflicting evidence or suffer from a variety of methodological limitations. In turn, the current analyses aim to contribute knowledge and clarity by evaluating the theory in a manner that addresses some of the limitations found in prior studies. Three key research questions will guide the current analyses. First, does the formal labeling process increase subsequent criminal behavior? Second, are there extra-legal factors that mediate or explain this effect? Finally, is the effect of formal labeling on future behavior moderated, or conditioned, by extra-legal factors? Taken together, an assessment of these research questions should allow for a more nuanced understanding of the harmful consequences associated with the formal labeling process.
... Criminal conduct is related to police force usage in that with higher levels of crime and with more serious crime, police officers are more likely, all else equal, to encounter suspects who are willing to resist their efforts to arrest them (Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005;Engel, 2003;Ferguson & Mindel, 2007;Sobol, 2010). Because crime varies across both space (Cohen & Felson, 1979;Klinger, 2004) and time (Cohen & Felson, 1979;Ratcliffe, 2004), it is possible that TASER usage could be influenced by both the geographical location that DPD officers worked and the timing of the observation periods. ...
Article
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The role that department policy plays in shaping how police officers exercise their discretionary powers to use physical force against citizens is a critical issue in the American justice system. Research has established that department policies regarding officers’ use of deadly force effected firearm use and led to reductions in incidents of officers discharging their weapon. There is a noticeable lack of similar evidence on the effects of policy changes regarding the use of non-lethal force. This study describes the results of an assessment of the effect that a change in policy governing a specific type of non-lethal force—TASERs—in one major police department had on officers’ use of the device. The results show that a move to a more restrictive TASER policy led to a reduction in TASER use. The study also reports on the role that factors besides policy play in officers’ TASER usage.
... Since 2011 alone, over 25 refereed journal articles have been published with 'police' and 'procedural justice' in the title. Much of this collective research has affirmed that, at least in the USA and the UK, and recently Slovenia, the primary factor shaping people's reactions to personal encounters with police is the procedural justice principles deployed by police when exercising their authority (Mastrofski et al. 1996, Reisig and Chandek 2001, Tyler and Huo 2002, Sunshine and Tyler 2003b, Belvedere et al. 2005, Tyler and Fagan 2008, Bradford et al. 2009a, Gau and Brunson 2010, Hinds 2009, Dirikx et al. 2012, Reisig et al. 2013). ...
Article
Indonesia's police force is the fifth largest in the world, and it is one of the most brutal, corrupt and ineffective. Since the forced resignation of authoritarian President Suharto in 1998, millions of dollars have been funnelled into police reform, with much of this funding coming from overseas donors such as the USA and Australia. Despite good intentions and some limited but notable success, police reform has failed to deliver tangible improvements in policing across the archipelago. There are many reasons for the failure of reform efforts, but a contributing factor is the lack of robust academic research on what kind of reform will work best for Indonesia. Without research-led reform, reform models have relied on the adaptation, or even wholesale adoption, of overseas models. As such, reforms have focused on delivering instrumental change primarily through improving the capacity of police to deter, investigate and solve crime. That reforms have been instrumentally focused presupposes that police legitimacy, fundamental to a well-functioning police service, rests on a public desire for outcome-based policing in preference to procedurally just policing. Until now there has been no research to contribute an empirical base to this assumption in Indonesia. To begin filling this void, long-term ethnographic fieldwork was conducted by the first author to examine public perceptions of police. In evaluating citizen narratives, our research shows that the procedural justice model of policing dominates assessments of police over and above instrumental concerns. Part of the reason for the importance of procedural justice vis-à-vis instrumentality relates to kinships of shame that configure respect as a foundation of social legitimacy. A large-scale quantitative study is needed to extend our findings beyond its ethnographic base, and if our findings are supported, reform efforts will do well to acknowledge that procedural justice policing will improve police legitimacy in Indonesia more substantively than instrumental policing.
... McDowall, & Xie, 2017;Shane, 2018;Shane, Lawton, & Swenson, 2017;Sherman, 2017;Sherman & Langworthy, 1979;Zimring, 2016Zimring, , 2017. What is known of police use of force largely center on limited officer and suspect demographics, or situational variables at lower levels of force (see, Alpert, Dunham, & MacDonald, 2004;Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005;Brandl & Stroshine, 2013;Crawford & Burns, 2002;Crotty, Crotty, & Fernandez, 2017;Friedrich, 1980;Garner et al., 2002;Miller, 2015;Riksheim & Chermak, 1993;Taylor et al., 2011;Terrill, Leinfelt, & Kwak, 2006;Terrill & Mastrofski, 2002). With respect to those studies, they are likely limited in the scope of the interpretations because they ignore that officers act on behalf of organizations. ...
Thesis
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Fatal police encounters in Ferguson, MO and subsequent events have raised concerns of who is being killed by police. This study focuses on police use of deadly force at the organizational level. This study hypothesized that specific organizational processes, such as CALEA accreditation, would lower an organization’s number of citizens killed. This study utilized FatalEncounters.org data from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2017, aggregated to the organizational level, as well as Annual Reports published by CALEA. This study found that CALEA accreditation neither significantly nor substantially lowered an organization’s number of citizens killed. This study proposes future research ideas involving state accreditation, consent decrees, use of force training, and court interpretations of police use of deadly force.
... In either perspective, this behavior is seen as the product of many personal, situational, and environmental factors that influence the decision-making process. 4 Building from this framework, researchers tend to group potential explanatory variables into the same three categories: environmental, situational, and personal (Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005;Brown & Langan, 2001;Engel, 2003;Johnson, 2001;Kavanaugh, 1997;Mastrofski et al., 1996;McClusky et al., 1999;Worden, Shepard, & Mastrofski, 1996). Environmental factors include the aggregate aspects of an area such as the poverty rate, density of population, and racial composition of the neighborhood. ...
Article
Full-text available
Firearm violence directed at law enforcement officers has become an increasingly prominent topic among policy makers, the press, and academics. This prominence is driven in part by recent growth in the number of officers killed or injured by gunfire. Although researchers have studied less serious forms of resisting arrest, little is known about risk factors for firearm violence directed at police. This study drew on the National Incident-Based Reporting System to compare all incidents in which police officers were the victim of firearm violence with a random sample of police encounters without this form of aggression. A variety of offender and situational factors identified in prior literature on resisting arrest, as well as new constructs introduced here, were compared between these two groups within a multivariate logistic regression framework. The data showed several important patterns regarding risk to officers, some of which reverse or refine earlier work produced from studies of less serious forms of resistance.
... Force has been found by some authors to be more likely in socially disorganized neighborhoods (Kane, 2002;Lee et al., 2010;Lersch et al., 2008;McCluskey et al., 2005;Sun, Payne, & Wu, 2008;Terrill & Reisig, 2003) and to be positively related to the level of crime in an area (Alpert & MacDonald, 2001;Eitle et al., 2014;Hickman & Piquero, 2009;Lawton, 2007;Lersch et al., 2008;Smith, 2003;Terrill & Reisig, 2003). Additionally, Belvedere, Worrall, and Tibbetts (2005) reported that resistance is more likely when officers intervene in high-crime neighborhoods. The available data did not allow satisfactory tests for these propositions due to imprecise geolocation of interventions and a concerning number of missing data. ...
Article
This study is one of the few to investigate correlates of force in the Canadian context. It also investigates the existence of protective factors that decrease the level of force used by the police. A total of 1,174 self-reported uses of force are analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify factors related to three possibilities: The force used by the police was lower than, equal to, or higher than the level of subject resistance. The analysis reveals that the impact of individual characteristics on the correspondence between officer force and subject resistance is negligible. Also, three general patterns of relationships are found. First, the presence of a weapon helps distinguish lower-than-expected force situations. Second, the presence of a single officer, resistance toward officer(s), conflict between the subject and another citizen, and subject intoxication have linear effects, that is, the effect increases or decreases consistently. Third, for every less severe level of force that was used, cases are more likely to be in the expected than the lower-than- and in the higher-than-expected group. The findings obtained in this study are consistent with the literature, suggesting that it is reasonable to apply most conclusions from previous studies on police use of force to the Canadian context. The analysis also suggests that police use of force could be better understood as a trichotomy where the force used by the police is depicted as lower than, equal to, or higher than the level of subject resistance.
... Paternoster, Brame, Bachman, and Sherman (1997) examined the effects of arrest on the likelihood of engaging in subsequent domestic assaults and found that the offender's perceptions of fair treatment by police were important determinants of future offending. Likewise, in a study of resisting arrest, Belvedere, Worrall, and Tibbetts (2005) interpreted their results in a defiance framework, suggesting that minority suspects may feel unfairly treated at the hands of White officers, which may then increase their likelihood of resistance. Mastrofski, Snipes, and Supina (1996) examined citizen compliance with police requests (the opposite of defiance) in Richmond, Virginia, and found only weak support for the impact of police officer's behavior (i.e., showing respect to the citizen) on whether the citizen complied with the officer's request. ...
Article
Criminologists have long grappled with the varying effect of sanctions. In an effort to clarify these divergent effects, Sherman (1993) delineated a general theory of sanction effects, termed defiance theory. Defiance theory anticipates that there are four necessary conditions for defiance to occur: (a) the sanction must be perceived as unfair; (b) the offender must be poorly bonded; (c) the sanction must be perceived as stigmatizing; and (d) the offender denies the shame produced by the sanction. This study provides one of the first empirical assessments of defiance theory. In addition, defiance theory is examined within the life-course perspective, and analyses address trajectories of offending. Using data from the 1945 Philadelphia Birth Cohort, the results yield promising support for the theory.
... Furthermore, the few studies that did examine such effects concentrated only on the sociodemographic factors of the police officers rather than their personality (e.g. Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005;Ellrich & Baier, 2016). A study conducted by Rabe-Hemp and Schuck (2007), for instance, found police officers' sex to be a relevant factor regarding arrests in family conflict situations. ...
Article
The current study aims to examine the influence of police officer characteristics, civilian characteristics and possible interactions between both on violent victimization of police officers. Based on literature distinguishing between “provocative” and “submissive” victims, focus is given on effects of police officers’ personality in terms of the five-factor model plus risk-taking. Patrol police officers (n = 1,813) from Lower Saxony, Germany completed a paper-and-pencil survey including personality assessments as well as questions about their last three police encounters. Binary logistic multilevel regression analyses demonstrate that police officers with higher scores on neuroticism and openness to experience were more likely to be violently attacked. Furthermore, agreeableness reduced police officers’ risk of violent victimization, while risk-taking and neuroticism increased their risk when confronted with a violent civilian. The study indicates that personality and especially traits that are assumed to provoke potential perpetrators were linked with violent victimization. It further stresses the need to include perpetrator attributes in victim studies in order to identify relevant interaction effects between both parties.
... Even residents who do not have first-hand experiences with negative police encounters learn about them vicariously based on the shared experiences of friends, neighbors, and family (Brunson, 2007;Weitzer and Tuch, 2005). Additionally, arrestees and suspects from distressed communities exhibit less deference to the police and engage in more frequent acts of overt resistance (Belvedere, Worrall, and Tibbetts, 2005;Weitzer and Brunson, 2009) than do arrestees and suspects from other types of communities. For example, Reisig and colleagues' (2004) multilevel study revealed that suspects from impoverished communities were more likely to act disrespectfully toward the police than were those from less impoverished communities. ...
Article
Studies have found that African Americans are more likely to perceive racial biases in the criminal justice system than are those from other racial groups. There is a limited understanding of how neighborhood social processes affect variation in these perceptions. This study formulates a series of hypotheses focused on whether perceived racial biases in the criminal justice system or perceptions of injustice vary as a function of levels of moral and legal cynicism as well as of adverse police–citizen encounters. These hypotheses are tested with multilevel regression models applied to data from a sample of 689 African Americans located in 39 neighborhoods. Findings from the regression models indicate that the positive association between structural disadvantage and perceptions of injustice is accounted for by moral and legal cynicism. Furthermore, adverse police encounters significantly increase perceptions of injustice; controlling for these encounters reduces the strength of the association between cynicism and injustice perceptions. Finally, the findings reveal that cynicism intensifies the association between adverse police encounters and perceptions of criminal injustice. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for research regarding perceived biases in the criminal justice system and neighborhood social processes.
... Since 2011 alone, over 25 refereed journal articles have been published with 'police' and 'procedural justice' in the title. Much of this collective research has affirmed that, at least in the USA and the UK, and recently Slovenia, the primary factor shaping people's reactions to personal encounters with police is the procedural justice principles deployed by police when exercising their authority (Mastrofski et al. 1996, Reisig and Chandek 2001, Tyler and Huo 2002, Sunshine and Tyler 2003b, Belvedere et al. 2005, Tyler and Fagan 2008, Bradford et al. 2009a, Gau and Brunson 2010, Hinds 2009, Dirikx et al. 2012, Reisig et al. 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores whether people in Indonesia would welcome a procedural justice model of policing. I take procedural justice to involve the quality of police decision-making, the quality of treatment extended by police to the public, and moral similitude between police and citizens. While a large volume of work has been published on procedural justice and policing since Tyler’s model was developed in 1990, this work has been predominantly quantitative (and largely grounded in psychology), and almost exclusively based in the US, the UK, and Australia. In exploring the applicability of procedural justice to policing in Indonesia, this paper extends the geographic scope of the procedural justice model, and provides a richly contextualised and nuanced account of people’s everyday experiences with police within a procedural justice framework. The article draws on data from nine months of ethnographic fieldwork on policing in Indonesia spread between 2011 and 2013. What this data suggests is that people in Indonesia would be receptive to a procedural justice model of policing. GANGNAM STYLE VERSUS EYE OF THE TIGER: PEOPLE, POLICE, AND PROCEDURAL JUSTICE IN INDONESIA
... Minority suspects have a greater likelihood of being subjected to force (Engel and Calnon, 2004;Robin, 1963;Terrill and Mastrofski, 2002), according to some researchers, whereas others have found no relationship between suspect race and use of force Sun and Payne, 2004), and still others have suggested that race effects wash away when accounting for other variables such as compliance (Garner, Maxwell, and Heraux, 2002). Further complicating matters, Black suspects seem more likely to resist arrest and/or be combative than White suspects (Belvedere, Worrall, and Tibbetts, 2005;Engel, 2003;Kaminski and Sorenson, 1995), which may explain any observed racial disparities in force applied by the police. Given the current state of affairs in the United States, it is imperative that researchers continue to consider whether suspect race significantly influences police use of force. ...
Article
We analyzed 990 police fatal shootings using data compiled by TheWashington Post in 2015. After first providing a basic descriptive analysis of these shootings, we then examined the data for evidence of implicit bias by using multivariate regression models that predict two indicators of threat perception failure: (1) whether the civilian was not attacking the officer(s) or other civilians just before being fatally shot and (2) whether the civilian was unarmed when fatally shot. The results indicated civilians from “other” minority groups were significantly more likely than Whites to have not been attacking the officer(s) or other civilians and that Black civilians were more than twice as likely as White civilians to have been unarmed.
... People focus on the fairness of the manner in which authorities exercise their authority (i.e. on procedural justice). Such procedural justice judgments are distinct from -and typically more important than -evaluations of the favorability or fairness of outcomes (Beloof, 2007;Belvedere, Worrall and Tibbetts, 2005;Engel 2005;Fischer, et al, 2008;Frazer, 2006;Gau and Brunson 2009;Lawsky, 2008;McCluskey, 2003;McNeil, 2008;Murphy, 2004;Murphy, Hinds and Fleming, 2008;O'Hear, 2007;Reisig, Bratton and Gertz, 2007;Shute, Hood and Seemungal, 2005;Winter and May, 2001;Wortley, Hagan, and Macmillan 1997). ...
Chapter
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Studies conducted over the last several decades have established that legitimacy shapes law-related behavior. They also make it clear that we should broaden our framework for understanding both how to conceptualize and measure legitimacy and for exploring its antecedents and consequences. In this chapter we review recent efforts to address these questions. We first document an impressive array of empirical evidence on the importance of procedural justice and legitimacy in criminal justice practice and policy. We then consider the idea that an authority has legitimacy when subordinates offer their willing consent to defer to power-holders, and when this consent is grounded on the authority’s conformity to standards of legality (acting according to the law) and moral validity (reflected in a sense of shared moral purpose with citizens). We finish with a value-based perspective on human motivation, in which people willingly abide by the law because they feel that legal authorities are legitimate and therefore ought to be obeyed.
... While at least one study found no significant race difference in citizens' resistance toward officers (Paoline, Gau, & Terrill, 2016), others have found that individual African Americans as well as residents of disadvantaged black neighborhoods were less likely than whites and Hispanics to be compliant or to show respect toward police officers (e.g. Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005;Engel, 2003;Reisig, McCluskey, Mastrofski, & Terrill, 2004;Sykes & Clark, 1975). ...
Article
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Drawing on two theses from the race relations literature, this article presents a foundational perspective on core relationships between the police and racial groups in the United States. The theses—group position and minority threat—are described and expanded upon, applied to long-standing group relations with the police, and further illustrated with material on the racial politics surrounding recent incidents of police misconduct. Findings from surveys and other research methods are presented in support of the theoretical framework.
... After controlling for concentrated disadvantage within neighborhoods, Reisig et al. (2004) concluded that minority citizens were not more disrespectful toward the police, but that areas of economic and social disadvantage were more likely to contain citizens who display disrespect. The importance of geographic location was reinforced by findings that police—citizen encounters conducted in areas deemed more dangerous by the police resulted in higher rates of suspect resistance (Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005). Most recently, Dunham and Alpert (2009) used observation data from Miami- Dade to qualitatively measure officers' and citizens' demeanor throughout the encounter. ...
Article
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Over the past 60 years, a substantial body of research has considered the influence of citizens’ demeanor on police behavior; and more recently, the correlates of citizens’ demeanor. This study advances our understanding of the demeanor construct by measuring officers’ perceptions of citizens’ disrespect, non‐compliance, and resistance during traffic stops. Using multilevel statistical models, we examine the correlates of citizens’ demeanor and assess the racial differences in these perceptions. The findings demonstrate that officers’ perceptions of citizens’ demeanor vary across racial/ethnic groups, after controlling for other relevant factors. Although White officers were significantly more likely than Black officers to classify drivers as disrespectful, Black and White officers were equally likely to report drivers as displaying behaviors that were non‐compliant and/or verbally resistant. Black drivers were significantly more likely to be reported as disrespectful, non‐compliant, and/or resistant, regardless of the officers’ race. The implications for future research and policy are discussed.
... While at least one study found no significant race difference in citizens' resistance toward officers ( Paoline, Gau, & Terrill, 2016), others have found that individual African Americans as well as residents of disadvantaged black neighborhoods were less likely than whites and Hispanics to be compliant or to show respect toward police officers (e.g. Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005;Engel, 2003;Reisig, McCluskey, Mastrofski, & Terrill, 2004;Sykes & Clark, 1975). For example, an analysis of 313 video recordings of police interactions with drivers in Cincinnati found that, compared to white drivers, black drivers were less courteous, less apologetic, less respectful, and more belligerent toward officers ( Dixon, Schell, Giles, & Drogos, 2008). ...
Article
Race-based conflict theory predicts substantial, institutionalized discrimination against minorities within criminal justice systems. This article examines the nature and extent of racial discrimination by police, courts, and correctional agencies in the United States. The body of research analyzed points to racial effects at certain points in the criminal justice system and in certain social contexts, but it also suggests that discrimination is less extensive than what is anticipated by conflict theory. In critically evaluating the literature, the article also points to a number of methodological and analytical deficiencies that require attention in future research—problems, which, if rectified, may lead to documentation of more subtle forms of discrimination and identification of important contextual factors.
... Research about police-citizen encounters recommends that police officers be well-acquainted with suspects' environmental conditions, personal characteristics, tactical locations, and venues of possible resistance (Belvedere, Worrall, & Tibbetts, 2005;Reiss, 1980). Failure to understand suspects' demeanor and personal characteristics has resulted in unnecessary deadly force. ...
Article
Police use of deadly force is a significant concern for municipal policymakers and law enforcement agencies. Following U.S. Supreme Court case law, police agencies and municipal entities may be held civilly liable under Section 1983 for force that is not objectively reasonable; for failure to train; and for policies, customs, and practices that cause constitutional injury. This article analyzes eighty-six cases from the U.S. District Courts and the U.S. Courts of Appeals on Section 1983 liability regarding police use of deadly force. The article focuses specifically on police firearm use in deadly force situations, highlighting how managerial disorganization and administrative breakdown impacts departmental decision making. Principles of management, such as division of labor, hierarchy of authority, span of control, unity of command, and communication are used to explain bad shootings that lead to potential police liability.
... Less than lethal displays of police coercion are so common in America that some politicians have openly supported police brutality to appeal to voters (Bean, 2017). Research by Belvedere, Worrall and Tibbetts (2005) indicates that use of force is not always misdirected or maleficent. Police sometimes must resort to abrasive language or aggressive physical posturing to get unruly crowds or uncooperative suspects under control. ...
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Recent high profile killings of civilians at the hands of law enforcement have drawn attention to questions about the determinants of these violent encounters. The literature is replete with studies focused on individual characteristics and situational exigencies. This paper takes a structural approach to assess alternative explanations. Results show that race, criminal violence, and general conditions of economic inequality are strong predictors of police killings of civilians across 3,081 US counties. The empirical findings from this research provide a broad foundation for conceptualizing a structural model of police lethal violence against citizens.
... Studies indicate that black officers and younger, more inexperienced officers deploy lethal force more often than their counterparts (Alpert 1989;Geller and Scott 1992;Hayden 1981;McElvain and Kposowa 2008;Sherman and Blumberg 1981;Terrill 2001), while female and unmarried officers are disproportionately victimized (Rabe-Hemp and Schuck 2007;Gibbs et al. 2014;Kachurik et al. 2013;Lott 2000). Regarding citizens, studies have consistently found that persons of color are overrepresented in fatal police-citizen encounters, both as victims (Binder and Scharf 1980;Nix et al. 2017;Ross 2015;Correll et al. 2007) and offenders (Belvedere et al. 2005). This finding may be confounded by neighborhood context, however, given that communities comprised predominantly of non-white citizens have disproportionately higher rates of disadvantage, crime, legal cynicism, and strained police-citizen relations (Goldkamp 1976;Kavanagh 1997). ...
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Objectives Use of lethal force by police officers has incited riots, inspired social movements, and engendered socio-political debate. Police officers also assume a high level of risk during police–citizen encounters. Yet, existing studies tend to center on these two phenomena independently. Additionally, the under-utilization of multilevel research in these areas of inquiry has hampered attempts to empirically disentangle the individual, agency, and contextual correlates of fatal police–citizen encounters. This study integrates the predominantly distinct research bases on these phenomena to examine the contexts in which police use lethal force, relative to the contexts in which officers are killed in the line of duty. Methods Data were compiled on 6416 citizen fatalities and 709 officer fatalities distributed across 1735 agencies and 1506 U.S. places from 2000 to 2016. A series of three-level logistic regression models examined the civilian and officer characteristics, organizational factors, and contextual features that impacted the odds of citizen fatalities by the police relative to police lethal victimization. Results Findings indicated that structural disadvantage increased the odds of police lethal victimization relative to citizen fatalities by the police. Moreover, this contextual effect was, in part, a product of increased firearm usage by citizens who killed police in more disadvantaged areas. Conclusions A more complete understanding of fatal police–citizen encounters requires considering police use of lethal force and police lethal victimization concurrently in their broader social contexts.
... May and Winter (1999) find that when these thresholds are surpassed, threatening with sanctions (i.e. a core component of the legal dimension) negatively affects obedience and, thus, backfires because it may be perceived as bullying by citizens (see also May and Winter, 2011). Citizens could, in turn, react by resisting with disobedient behaviour such as verbal aggression both offline and online (see Belvedere et al., 2005;Engel, 2003). To put it differently, it is expected that a solely legal enforcement style will have a boomerang-effect and, in turn, perverse effects will occur in the form of publicly shaming bureaucrats. ...
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This study studies the intended and unintended effects of street-level bureaucrats' enforcement style. More specifically, it answers to what extent street-level bureaucrats' enforcement style affects citizens' obedience (i.e. intended effect) during face-to-face encounters and willingness to publicly shame bureaucrats (i.e. unintended effect). Building on insights from street-level enforcement and the theory of social interactionist theory of coercive actions, a trade-off is theorized between the effect of enforcement style on citizens' on-the-spot obedience and on public shaming. Results of an experiment (n = 318) and replication (n = 311) in The Netherlands reveal that (1) neither the legal nor facilitation dimension has an effect on on-the-spot obedience; (2) the legal dimension does not affect public shaming but; (3) the facilitation decreases it. These findings are robust across both the experiment and replication.
... Relative to White officers and White citizens, citizen compliance with police requests were more likely in White Police/ Minority Citizen dyads and less likely in Minority Officer/White Citizen dyads. Similar officer-citizen interaction effect terms were used by Belvedere et al. (2005) to study a citizen's resistance to arrest. They reported that Hispanic citizens resisted arrest from Hispanic officers; none of the other race combinations were significant in their study. ...
Article
There has been a substantial body of research examining the reasons behind the police officers’ use of deadly force. Little research has been done to examine how race and ethnicity interact with other factors in the use of deadly force. With data collected in Dallas, Texas, the present study examines the influence of individual, situational, and neighborhood characteristics on officers’ decision to use deadly force. The present study also provides an alternative approach to logistic regression models by estimating predictive probabilities of officers shooting at citizens. The results show that when officers make decisions to shoot at citizens, situational factors are more important than demographic and neighborhood factors. Interactive effects constructed based on the race/ethnicity of the police officer and citizen showed almost no influence on the decision to shoot at a citizen. Finally, the present study concludes with a discussion of implications for policy development and future research.
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This paper argues for the value of new approaches to policing in the United States and Europe. These new approaches focus upon building police legitimacy among members of the public with the goal of encouraging widespread voluntary compliance with the law, acceptance of police authority and deference to police decisions, as well as a general willingness to cooperate with the police to fight crime.
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This review represents the sixth in an annual special feature in Police Practice and Research: An International Journal. It provides a cross‐sectional analysis of the police literature for 2005, with a focus on the substantive categories, publication medium, and methodological typology of such literature. This paper also comments on reviews of years past, using the findings of Beckman, Lum, Wyckoff, and Larsen‐Vanderwall (2003) as a basis for the discussion of the patterns of the aforementioned characteristics over time. A topically organized bibliography of the 2005 police literature reviewed is also provided.
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As victimization rates have fallen, public preoccupation with policing and its crime-control impact has receded. Terrorism has become the new focal point of concern. But satisfaction with ordinary police practices hides deep problems. The time is therefore ripe for rethinking the assumptions that have guided American police for most of the past two decades. This Article proposes an empirically-grounded shift to what we call a procedural justice model of policing. When law enforcement moves toward this approach, it can be more effective at lower cost and without the negative side effects that currently hamper responses to terrorism and conventional crime. This Article describes the procedural justice model, explains its theoretical and empirical foundations, and discusses its policy implications, both for ordinary policing and for efforts to combat international terrorism.
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An examination of the influence of street stops on the legal socialization of young men showed an association between the number of police stops they see or experience and a diminished sense of police legitimacy. This association was not primarily a consequence of the number of stops or of the degree of police intrusion during those stops. Rather, the impact of involuntary contact with the police was mediated by evaluations of the fairness of police actions and judgments about whether the police were acting lawfully. Whether the police were viewed as exercising their authority fairly and lawfully shaped the impact of stops on respondents' general judgments about police legitimacy. Fairness and lawfulness judgments, in turn, were influenced by the number of stops and the degree of police intrusion during those stops. Similarly, judgments of justice and lawfulness shaped the estimated influence of judgments of the general character of police behavior in the community on general perceptions of police legitimacy. These results suggest that the widespread use of street stops undermined legitimacy. Lowered legitimacy had an influence on both law abidingness and the willingness to cooperate with legal authorities. The findings show that people were influenced by perceptions of police injustice/illegality.
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The link between military service and crime has been a subject of investigation for several decades. Although research has examined the likelihood of arrest, incarceration, and recidivism across military cohorts, relatively little is known about the circumstances surrounding police contact and suspect behavior at the exact moment of arrest. This is a critical oversight given that what transpires during an arrest can have a marked impact on downstream criminal justice outcomes, including access to diversionary programming like veterans treatment courts. Using a nationally representative survey of prison inmates, this study analyzes veteran and nonveteran self-reports of their arrest controlling for a host of relevant demographic, mental health, and criminal history variables. Findings indicate that veterans are significantly less likely to resist the police at arrest. These results provide further support to the sentiment that military culture and training can have a lasting behavioral influence on those who experience it.
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The vast majority of prior work on officers’ sanctioning decisions involves municipal police. An open question is whether findings from that research are generalizable to campus police, as they operate in a somewhat different context. This study explores the effect of legal and extralegal factors on campus officers’ sanctioning decisions in encounters. Data were collected through observations of campus police at a large university in the Southeastern United States. Logistic regression is used to analyze 95 campus police-citizen encounters. Findings indicate that officers more severely sanction suspects when there are more bystanders present and suspects display a negative demeanor or are visibly intoxicated. The results suggest that some but not all of the same influences affect municipal and campus police sanctioning decisions. Paths for future research are discussed.
Article
Contact with the police impacts upon public judgements of the police. The experiences of those who contact the public police by telephone concerning non-emergency issues have received little attention in the existing literature. This article presents findings from a qualitative examination of a police Constabulary's non-emergency call-handling processes, exploring some of the factors which shaped the contact experienced through this channel. Interviews were conducted with 70 members of the public who contacted the Constabulary through its call centre, with the police call-handlers who answered some of these calls, and with call centre supervisors and senior managers. Police call-handlers were positive about their jobs, despite acknowledging the somewhat repetitive nature of the work, as they believed they were helping the public by providing a valuable, worthwhile service. Callers were primarily concerned with how they were treated and noted that the most memorable and helpful components of their calls to the police were the ways in which call-handlers conveyed empathy, understanding, interest, sensitivity and politeness. Having a call answered in under 40 seconds, one of the quantitative performance targets used to measure performance in the police call centre, appeared to be less important to callers. The article concludes by arguing that quantitative targets are ill-suited to measuring and supporting the kind of emotional labour that call-handlers undertake and the emotional engagement that callers value. Providing high-quality service should be the priority for police call centres, as this is likely to generate positive judgements of the police.
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The use of any kind of physical force is by far the exception in most police-citizen interactions, and deadly force encounters are rarer still. Police officers use deadly force when they believe they have no choice in order to protect human life – their own or that of other citizens. Any force, however mild or severe, that goes beyond the level necessary to preserve life, prevent injury, or safely control the scene constitutes excessive force. Police officers characteristically restrain their use of force with citizens, sometimes at the cost of their own safety. However, certain types of attitudes, personalities, and job experiences may render some officers more prone to use force in police-citizen encounters, and certain emotional and behavioral features of police-citizen confrontations may eventuate in a tipping point, where force is then deployed. Special circumstances may attend suicide by cop incidents, where disturbed citizens manipulate officers into killing them. Altered patterns of thought and perception often occur in the minds of officers during a deadly force encounter, and the aftermath of such an incident may include both administrative and psychological consequences. Certain racial and ethnic groups – of both police and citizens – may be disproportionately represented in use of force incidents. However, these are mainly related to the demographics of criminal behavior and officer assignment in various communities, and there is no evidence that police systematically target members of certain ethnic groups for more forceful confrontations, unless the situation itself requires it. Certain features of selection, education, training, discipline, and supervision of police officers can help weed out bad cops, improve police-citizen communication, and further reduce the incidence of use of force, including deadly force, encounters.
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Any organization's success depends upon the voluntary cooperation of its members. But what motivates people to cooperate? In Why People Cooperate, Tom Tyler challenges the decades-old notion that individuals within groups are primarily motivated by their self-interest. Instead, he demonstrates that human behaviors are influenced by shared attitudes, values, and identities that reflect social connections rather than material interests. Tyler examines employee cooperation in work organizations, resident cooperation with legal authorities responsible for social order in neighborhoods, and citizen cooperation with governmental authorities in political communities. He demonstrates that the main factors for achieving cooperation are socially driven, rather than instrumentally based on incentives or sanctions. Because of this, social motivations are critical when authorities attempt to secure voluntary cooperation from group members. Tyler also explains that two related aspects of group practices--the use of fair procedures when exercising authority and the belief by group members that authorities are benevolent and sincere--are crucial to the development of the attitudes, values, and identities that underlie cooperation. With widespread implications for the management of organizations, community regulation, and governance, Why People Cooperate illustrates the vital role that voluntary cooperation plays in the long-standing viability of groups.
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Examining the treatment of persons with mental disabilities in the criminal justice system, this book offers new perspectives that are crucial to an understanding of the ways in which society projects onto criminal defendants prejudices and attitudes about responsibility, free will, autonomy, choice, public safety, and the meaning and purpose of punishment, all with a focus on ways to enhance dignity in the criminal trial process. It is a detailed exploration of issues of adequacy of counsel; the impact of international human rights law, following the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD); the role of mental health courts; and the influence of therapeutic jurisprudence, procedural justice, and restorative justice on the legal process. It considers all of these perspectives in the context of criminal justice system issues such as competency findings, the insanity defense, and sentencing. Demonstrating how the question of treatment of persons with mental disabilities in the criminal justice system is not only a vital one for both scholars and practitioners, but also a central facet of international human rights law, this book suggests policy development, further scholarly inquiries, and newly invigorated thinking and action to place dignity at the core of the criminal justice system.
Chapter
Ideology includes a set of shared assumptions about "truths" which are widely perceived as self-evident. This chapter focuses upon a set of truths concerning human nature in relationship to the law and legal authority. Those truths are united by their exaggerated belief in the effectiveness of instrumental approaches to people. An instrumental approach is one that seeks to shape behavior by either providing people with incentives or threatening to (or actually) punishing them. In law, the focus is on the efficacy of threatening to (or actually) punishing people for rule breaking behavior. This chapter argues for several basic propositions. First, people within our society share the belief that instrumental mechanisms are effective ways of motivating people-that punishment "works." Second, empirical evidence consistently contradicts that belief. Third, there are alternative approaches that work better. Finally, the persistence of flawed beliefs despite contradictory evidence suggests that these beliefs are part of a culturally transmitted and supported ideology. This chapter concludes by discussing some of the reasons that this ideology persists.
Article
A little more than a century ago, the famous social scientist W.E.B. Du Bois asserted that a true understanding of African American offending must be grounded in the –real conditions— of what it means to be black living in a racial stratified society. Today and according to official statistics, African American men - about six percent of the population of the United States - account for nearly sixty percent of the robbery arrests in the United States. To the authors of this book, this and many other glaring racial disparities in offending centered on African Americans is clearly related to their unique history and to their past and present racial subordination. Inexplicably, however, no criminological theory exists that fully articulates the nuances of the African American experience and how they relate to their offending. In readable fashion for undergraduate students, the general public, and criminologists alike, this book for the first time presents the foundations for the development of an African American theory of offending.
Article
Objectives We examine three reasons why suspects resist arrest: (1) defiance of police authority by suspects from lower-status groups, (2) risky decisions resulting from aversion to sure losses, and (3) impairment due to mental illness and substance use. Methods We use nationally representative survey data from about 17,000 state and federal inmates who were asked whether they resisted arrest when they committed the crime that led to their incarceration. Results Suspects’ resistance is unrelated to their race/ethnicity, education, or unemployment. On the other hand, suspects are more resistant when they are carrying contraband (e.g., illegal weapons, drugs, stolen property) or are under community supervision (i.e., parolees, probationers, or escapees). Resistance is also positively related to mental illness, illicit drug use, and alcohol intoxication. Conclusions Our results do not support the idea that resistance is an expression of defiance from lower-status suspects. They are consistent with prospect theory, which argues that decision makers become risk-seeking, when the alternative is to accept a sure loss. Our results suggest that resistant suspects are best understood as either desperate or disoriented decision makers.
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Today, the majority of research has focused on legitimacy, while much less attention has been given to the sources of trust in the police (Nix et al., 2014). Limited attention has been also paid to the examination of legitimacy of the police services as viewed by those they serve (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2013), especially by the young people. Hence, the current study aims to add to this body of research in three ways. First, it examines the factors that influence peoples' beliefs about the police and their intentions to cooperate or exhibit confidence. Second, this study constitutes one of the first empirical analyses that highlight the importance of examining the relationship between police authority and legitimacy in Brazil. Aiming to understand the dynamics among those notions in relation to trust and obedience, the empirical part of the present study is conducted in the district of Jardim Ângela (Sao Paolo); once considered as the most violent urban region in the world. The final contribution lies in its focus on early adolescence as the particular age forms a crucial period in peoples' legal socialization (Dirikx & Van den Bulck, 2014). The statistical analysis shows significant relationships between the frequency of obedience in laws and trust in the police, and dimensions of perceived legitimacy.
Article
Early ethnographic studies suggested that police intervention should be understood within its larger context. Still, the number of studies focused on the ecology of force remains small compared to those of studies on individual and situational factors. Furthermore, Canada remains nearly absent from the academic literature on police use of force. Assuming that force does not occur in a spatially random manner, this article aims to test propositions for the main macrosociological perspectives in the use-of-force literature: social disorganization theory, the minority-threat hypothesis, and the theory of police rigour. Another purpose of this study is to investigate whether, at the level of the census tract (CT), visitor inflows are predictive of police action. Negative binomial regression modelling is used to predict the occurrence of 1,411 self-reported uses of force in 506 CTs. The findings show that social disorganization is the most predictive explanation for the frequency of use-of-force situations in an area. The analysis also supports the proposition that the frequency of use-of-force situations is positively related to the level of crime in the area. While the inclusion of visitor inflows significantly improves the analysis of spatial variations of police use of force, it contributes relatively little relative to other explanations. No support was found for the minoritythreat hypothesis, nor for Klinger’s theory of police vigour.
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Lawrence Sherman's defiance theory has provided a foundation with which to understand better the conditions under which punishment increases crime. Defiance theory suggests that fairness and legitimacy of experienced punishment are essential for the acknowledgement of shame, which conditions deterrence. When punishment is perceived as unjust by the offender, it can lead to unacknowledged shame and defiant pride that increase the chance of engaging in future crime. This remains especially true for young offenders who continue to be processed through the conventional juvenile justice system. Since defiance theory's emergence, a lot can be said concerning its contribution to the understanding of procedural legitimacy and youth justice. This entry outlines the basic tenants of defiance theory and how it has been used to explain procedural legitimacy in a juvenile justice setting.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine police shooting accuracy and the factors that influence whether officers hit, or miss, their intended target. Design/methodology/approach Descriptive statistics explore both incident-level and hit rate shooting accuracy in single officer/single suspect shooting incidents in the Dallas Police Department between 2003 and 2017. Multiple regression models analyze the predictive utility of officer, suspect and situational factors on the two accuracy outcomes. Findings Consistent with prior research, the results demonstrate that officers are often inaccurate in officer-involved shooting (OIS) incidents. Additionally, several factors emerged as significant predictors of shooting accuracy. Practical implications The results are discussed in terms of the practical implications for training and accountability. Originality/value It has been more than a decade since the last academic study investigated this important topic using actual OIS data. Acknowledging the general dearth of this literature, this study explores what factors contribute to shooting accuracy.
Chapter
Today, the majority of research has focused on legitimacy, while much less attention has been given to the sources of trust in the police (Nix et al., 2014). Limited attention has been also paid to the examination of legitimacy of the police services as viewed by those they serve (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2013), especially by the young people. Hence, the current study aims to add to this body of research in three ways. First, it examines the factors that influence peoples' beliefs about the police and their intentions to cooperate or exhibit confidence. Second, this study constitutes one of the first empirical analyses that highlight the importance of examining the relationship between police authority and legitimacy in Brazil. Aiming to understand the dynamics among those notions in relation to trust and obedience, the empirical part of the present study is conducted in the district of Jardim Ângela (Sao Paolo); once considered as the most violent urban region in the world. The final contribution lies in its focus on early adolescence as the particular age forms a crucial period in peoples' legal socialization (Dirikx & Van den Bulck, 2014). The statistical analysis shows significant relationships between the frequency of obedience in laws and trust in the police, and dimensions of perceived legitimacy.
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W artykule przeanalizowano koncepcje teoretyczne oraz badania dotyczące zagadnienia kontaktów nieletnich z funkcjonariuszami policji zwracając uwagę na ich konfliktowy charakter. Poruszaną problematykę przeanalizowano z trzech perspektyw: środowiskowej, jednostkowej oraz sytuacyjnej. Analizując rolę czynników środowiskowych, szczególną rolę przypisano rodzinie oraz grupom rówieśniczym. Charakteryzując perspektywę jednostkową zwrócono uwagę na rolę wieku, płci oraz pochodzenia jako czynników rzutujących na relacje z policją. W kontekście sytuacyjnym zwrócono uwagę na opór, poczucie krzywdy jako czynniki prowadzące do intensyfikacji przebiegu interwencji. Podkreślono, że konfliktowy charakter relacji może prowadzić do eskalacji napięć skutkujących stosowaniem sankcji, wzrostem dystansu i oporu oraz naznaczeniem.
Article
Bien que les règles de droits et des directives administratives dictent leur conduite, les policiers jouissent d’une latitude considérable dans la manière d’appliquer la loi et de dispenser des services. Puisque l’exercice efficient de toute forme d’autorité nécessite la reconnaissance de sa légitimité (Tyler, 2004), plus l’application de leurs pouvoirs discrétionnaires est jugée arbitraire ou excessive, plus les citoyens risquent d’utiliser des mécanismes normaux d’opposition ou de riposte. Dans cette optique, la présente étude cherche à départager les causes des 15 023 épisodes de voie de fait, menace, harcèlement, entrave et intimidation, qualifiés de défiance, dont les policiers du Service de police de la ville de Montréal (SPVM) ont été la cible entre 1998-2008 selon leur registre des événements (Module d’information policière – MIP). Elle présume qu’à interactions constantes entre la police et les citoyens, les comportements de défiance policière seront fonction du niveau de désordre du quartier et des caractéristiques des personnes impliquées. Plus les policiers interceptent de jeunes, de minorités ethniques et d’individus associés aux gangs de rue, plus ils risquent d’être défiés. Elle suppose également que la probabilité qu’une intervention soit défiée dépend de l’excessivité des activités policières menées dans le quartier. Plus un quartier est sur-contrôlé par rapport à son volume de crimes (overpoliced), plus le climat local est tendu, plus les policiers sont perçus comme étant illégitimes et plus ils risquent d’être défiés lorsqu’ils procèdent à une intervention. Enfin, les comportements de défiance sont peut-être simplement fonction du niveau d’interactions entre les policiers et les citoyens, à conditions sociales et criminogènes des quartiers tenues constantes. Une série d’analyses de corrélation tend à confirmer que les comportements de défiance varient en fonction de l’âge, de l’ethnicité et de l’appartenance à un gang de rue de l’auteur. Par contre, les conditions sociales et criminogènes des quartiers paraissent être des causes antécédentes à la défiance puisqu’elles encouragent un volume plus élevé d’interventions dans les quartiers désorganisés, lequel influe sur le nombre d’incidents de défiance. Contrairement à notre hypothèse, les résultats tendent à démontrer que les policiers risquent davantage d’être défiés dans les quartiers sous-contrôlés (underpoliced). Quant à elles, les analyses multiniveaux suggèrent que le nombre d’incidents de défiance augmente à chaque fois qu’une intervention policière est effectuée, mais que cette augmentation est influencée par les quartiers propices aux activités criminelles des gangs de rue. En ce sens, il est probable que l’approche policière dans les quartiers d’activités « gangs de rue » soit différente, par souci de protection ou par anticipation de problèmes, résultant plus fréquemment en des actes de défiance à l’égard des policiers. Although the rules of law and administrative directives dictate their conduct, police officers have considerable discretion in how to apply the law and provide services. Since the efficient conduct of all forms of authority requires the awareness of its legitimacy (Tyler, 2004), the more their discretionary powers is deemed arbitrary or excessive, the more citizens are likely to use normal objection or opposition mechanisms. In this context, this study seeks to disentangle the causes of the 15 023 cases of assaults, threats, harassment, obstruction and intimidation, described as defiance, which the police officers of the Service de police de la ville de Montréal (SPVM) were the target of between 1998-2008 according to their register of events (Module d’information policière - MIP). It presumes that with constant interactions level between police and citizens, behaviors of police mistrust will depend on the level of neighborhood disorder and the characteristics of the persons involved. The more the police intercept youths, ethnic minorities and individuals associated with street gangs, the more they are likely to be challenged. It also assumes that the probability that a police intervention be challenged depends on the excessiveness of police activities conducted in the district. The more the neighborhood is overpoliced versus the volume of crimes, the more the local climate is tense, the more the police officers are perceived as being unlawful and they are more likely to be challenged when making an intervention. Finally, defiant behavior may just depend on the level of interaction between police officers and citizens, social and criminogenic conditions of neighborhoods being consistent. A series of correlation analysis tends to confirm that defiant behavior vary according to age, ethnicity and belonging to a street gang of the author. However, the social and criminogenic conditions of neighborhoods appear to be caused by prior defiant behavior because they encourage a higher volume of interventions in the disorganized neighborhoods, which affects the number defiant behavior incidents. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results suggest that police officers are more likely to be challenged in underpoliced neighborhoods. In turn, the multilevel analysis suggests that the number of defiant behavior incidents increases each time a police intervention is performed, but this increase is influenced by neighborhoods conducive to street gang criminal activities. To this effort, it is likely that the police approach in the street gang’s neighborhood activities is different, for the sake of protection or in anticipation of problems, resulting more frequently in defiant behavior acts against police officers.
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Police officers are murdered in the United States at a rate of about 22 per 100,000 officers per year, a rate which is one of the highest in the world. No other occupational group in the country has such a high rate. On the other side of the coin, civilians are also killed by police officers at a high rate. Lester (1978) found that states which had a high rate of police officers killed by civilians also had high rates of civilians killed by police officers, and higher rates of murder in general. There seemed to be a violent culture in those states, primarily located in the South. The present study sought to examine whether characteristics of cities and their police departments were associated with these murder rates that stem from policing and whether these associations could provide information to be used in lowering the rates.
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Using a diversity of samples, sources of data, measures of force, analytical methods, and theoretical frameworks, prior research reported that the prevalence of police use of force ranges from 0.8% to 58.1% of police-suspect encounters. In addition, few characteristics of officers, suspects, police departments, or neighborhoods are associated consistently with the amount of force used by the police. Using self-report data by police from 7,512 adult custody arrests in six jurisdictions, this study found that the associations between encounter-level characteristics and police use of force are dependent on the incorporation of suspects' resistance and on the measure of force used.
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Uses data on 1,550 nonlethal assaults recorded by Baltimore County Police Department. Examines factors that are associated with the likelihood of officer injury after an assault. Notes that factors affecting the probability of assault do not necessarily correspond with the factors that affect the likelihood of injury. Analyzes a broader spectrum of contributory factors than those addressed by other research. Finds inter alia that greater officer proficiency in unarmed defensive tactics may reduce their assault-related injuries, since most incidents do not involve arms; that in-service training should be biased toward less experienced officers who are at greater risk; that officer height is a significant variable; that many officers suffer multiple attacks; that domestic disturbances do not rank higher than other dangers, but that this may reflect the possibility that officers anticipate potential violence and take better precautions before attending the scene.
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Increasing evidence shows great diversity in the effects of the criminal sanction. Legal punishment either reduces, increases, or has no effect on future crimes, depending on the type of offenders, offenses, social settings, and levels of analysis. A theory of “defiance” helps explain the conditions under which punishment increases crime. Procedural justice (fairness or legitimacy) of experienced punishment is essential for the acknowledgment of shame, which conditions deterrence; punishment perceived as unjust can lead to unacknowledged shame and defiant pride that increases future crime. Both “specific” defiance by individuals and “general” defiance by collectivities results from punishment perceived as unfair or excessive, unless deterrent effects counterbalance defiance and render the net effect of sanctions irrelevant. By implication, crime might be reduced more by police and courts treating all citizens with fairness and respect than by increasing punishments. A variety of research designs can be used to test, refine, or reject the theory.
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This study was designed to test, in a controlled setting, the effects of racial identity of the police on perceptions of police brutality. We produced three videotapes, each showing a black male suspect being arrested by two police officers whose racial identity was varied. One version of the tape then was viewed by each randomly assigned subject, 28 white and 33 black college students. Subjects' perceptions of violence and illegality were influenced by the officers' racial identity: Both black and white subjects were significantly more likely to see violence and illegality when both arresting officers were white. Implications for social policy and future research were discussed.
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The rates at which police officers were murdered in American cities were calculated. City characteristics and police department characteristics were correlated with these rates, and a number of significant correlates were identified. City characteristics were more often associated with the police officer murder rate than were police department characteristics. Various multiple correlational techniques accounted for between 32% and 74% of the variation in the rates at which police officers were murdered.
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During the past two decades there has been increasing interest in the attitudes of adults toward the police. There has only been limited interest in the attitudes of juveniles, even though they comprise a significant proportion of the population subject to police contact and arrests. The present study, using data collected through a survey administered to a sample of urban and suburban juveniles, examined the determinants of juveniles' attitudes toward the police. The findings generally suggest that the overall attitudes of juveniles are not quite as favorable as those reported previously for adults, that the overall level of support voiced by juveniles varied depending on the focus of the attitude question, that many juveniles selected the “neutral” response category and failed to voice positive or negative attitudes, and that many of the variables identified as being theoretically relevant in the literature on adult attitudes toward the police (e.g., contact with police, respondents' races and genders, extent of victimization) are also significant predictors of the attitudes of juveniles.
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This study examines the occurrence of resisting arrest in 1,108 police-citizen arrest encounters at the Port Authority Bus Terminal in midtown Manhattan between July 1, 1990, and June 30, 1991. The study utilizes the Logit regression procedure to identify factors related to resisting arrest. The most powerful of all the factors tested was arrestee disrespect towards the police officer. Other arrestee factors that were found to be positively related to resisting arrest were the presence of other arrestee violence (besides resisting arrest), arrestee intoxication, and the seriousness of the crime charged. Of more than 30 police officer factors tested, only two attitudinal factors were found to be related to resisting arrest: Desiring to remain a police officer was negatively related, and believing that the law governing the use of force is overly restrictive of the police was positively related. Among the situational factors tested, arrests initiated by police officers were found to be positively related to resisting arrest. The results suggest that police officers may play a smaller role in the occurrence of resisting arrest than had been thought. The implication of this finding is that future researchers should devote greater attention to the role of the arrestee in police-citizen violence.
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Evidence of an association between use of illicit substances and aggressive behavior is pervasive. But the precise causal mechanisms by which aggression is influenced by intoxicants are still not well understood. Research on intoxication and aggression often has overlooked the nonviolent behavior of most substance users, controlled use of substances, and the evidence from other cultures of a weak or nonexistent relation between substance use and aggression. There is only limited evidence that ingestion of substances is a direct, pharmacological cause of aggression. The temporal order of substance use and aggression does not indicate a causal role for intoxicants. Research on the nexus between substance use and aggression consistently has found a complex relation, mediated by the type of substance and its psychoactive effects, personality factors and the expected effects of substances, situational factors in the immediate settings where substances are used, and sociocultural factors that channel the arousa...
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The contribution of domestic violence calls to the danger of police work has been a matter of major concern to police, policy makers, and researchers for decades. Building on prior research, the authors examine three years of data on police calls for service, assault, and injury to determine the danger of domestic violence in relation to other types of calls. Of the 10 categories of police activity examined, domestic disturbance ranked fourth in the ratio of assaults to calls for service and fifth in the ratio of injuries to calls for service. No significant differences were observed in the background characteristics of victims and offenders in domestic disturbance and other incidents. Consequently it was recommended that policies to enhance officers' safety be directed mainly at handling incidents in general rather than being geared specifically to responding to domestic disturbances.
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Deterrence and labeling theories predict opposing effects of sanctions on criminal behavior, and this diversity in the expected effects of sanctions is also apparent in the empirical literature. Sherman's (1993) defiance theory has been proposed to explain the conditions under which punishment may either increase or decrease crime. In a reanalysis of the Police Services Study data, we examine how police behaviors may influence the likelihood that citizens will respond with defiant behavior in encounters with police officers. Consistent with defiance theory, we find that police actions that are likely to be perceived as unfair and stigmatizing increase the likelihood that citizens behave defiantly toward police officers. Directions for future research are also identified.
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How dangerous are domestic encounters to police officers? This question, posed by police, policymakers, and researchers, has been answered through anecdotes and assumptions, and more recently by empirical data. But the findings have been mixed. Police training manuals have focused on the danger of family disputes, citing high figures reported by the FBI of law enforcement officers killed. Researchers on family violence (Straus, et al., 1980), violent police-citizen encounters (Lester, 1980), and police response to spouse assaults (Parnas, 1967, and Buchanan and Perry 1986) agree that the domestic disturbance is the most dangerous police activity. Other researchers dispute this contention. Margarita (1980), Konstantin (1984), and Garner and Clemmer (1986) have found that robberies and burglaries are more dangerous than domestic disputes.
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The authors suggest an explanation of police-civilian behavior based on a normative and interpersonal construct rather than on a psychological construct. Police behavior must be explained in terms of the rules which order their relations with civilians and which are usually mutually acknowledged by both. Among these rules the authors posit that in a typical encounter relations are governed by asymmetrical status norm when deference exchange is involved. This norm effects various statuses in different ways. Data from an extensive study of police-civilian encounters in which the process of interaction was coded using a special interaction process analysis category system are used to test hypotheses derived from the theory.
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The adoption of community oriented policing (COP) is likely to have an impact on patterns of civil liability claims filed against police departments and officers. We hypothesize that COP practices may lead to an increase in civil liability claims by expanding the scope of police responsibilities and roles and by altering patterns of police citizen interactions which, in turn, could affect the clarity and uses of three legal standards which support civil liability claims: negligence in state tort claims, “color of law” under Section 1983, and the “legal duty” standard. We call for further research and suggest some managerial strategies to avoid the eventualities presented.
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Surveys attitudes to police (ATP) in Santa Ana, California by asking respondents what they most like or dislike about police. Finds inter alia that the primary indicator of ATP is how people feel about their location. Contrasts sharply with previous research in finding that ethnicity is not a very good predictor of ATP. Points out that unrealistic expectations for law enforcement may be ameliorated by community policing, which involves citizens in decision making and neighborhood improvement.
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A research review of police shootings indicates that (1) cities vary widely in the number of such events experienced; (2) minority-race civilians are shot disproportionately more often by police, and Black officers are disproportionately involved as both shooters and victims; (3) substantial numbers of civilians are shot while engaging in nonthreatening criminal acts; and (4) police are more likely to be shot by criminals attempting flight than by deranged individuals. Implications for policy implementation, personnel procedures, and training are discussed. (95 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In [this book, the authors] describe a provocative theory that focuses on social conflicts and the concepts of power, influence, social identity, and retributive justice. They begin with a thorough examination and critique of the traditional theories of aggression, including biological, physiological, and criminological perspectives. They go on to synthesize key findings of these and other theoretical perspectives to support and define their own social interactionist theory of aggression that explores face-to-face confrontations and the intent of the aggressor's particular actions. "Violence, Aggression, and Coercive Actions" offers a new interdisciplinary approach to the study of aggression that is rooted in social and psychological perspectives. [The authors] present a strong theoretical foundation for practical analysis and intervention. Particularly thought provoking are discussions surrounding pornography, television, and other media violence; sexual coercion; and parenting styles (contrasting the use of abusive discipline with normal deterrents). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents a 3-pronged research effort concerned with the development of (a) a sensitive, relevant, and reliable criterion measure for rating police officer performance; (b) a biographical data form to be used in police officer selection; and (c) a management information system (MIS) for police personnel. From this effort, the question of the correlation, if any, between education and performance was examined. Data are reported for 825 White, 60 Black, and 55 Spanish-surnamed officers. Correlations between the amount of formal education and 16 performance criteria are reported. In general, although correlations are low, there seemed to be a consistent pattern: (a) Higher levels of formal education tended to be associated with fewer injuries, disciplinary actions from accidents, preventable accidents, and sick days per year. (b) None of the behaviorally anchored performance ratings were related to formal education. (c) The major area of college studies was unrelated to any of the performance criteria. More highly educated officers were also likely to be more motivated. A path analysis indicated that intelligence and motivation were virtually unrelated to each other, but both were related (in different ways) to education. An expectancy chart is suggested as a practical tool in hiring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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It is a criminological axiom that displays of hostility by citizens towards police officers directly increase the odds of arrest in police-citizen encounters. This axiom rests on nearly three decades of observational research of interactions between police officers and citizens. Two features of this work, however, raise questions about the validity of findings that citizen demeanor independently affects police arrest decisions. First, although demeanor is conceptually defined as legally permissible behavior, measures of demeanor often include criminal conduct. Second, criminal conduct is not controlled adequately when the effects of demeanor on arrest are estimated. In an analysis employing a demeanor measure that does not confound crime and that controls for crime more comprehensively, it is found that displays of hostility which violate no laws do not increase the likelihood of arrest in and of themselves. The implications of this finding are discussed.
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Recent research has called into question the seemingly well-established conclusion that the likelihood of arrest by the police rises when suspects display a disrespectful or hostile demeanor toward the police. In this article we reanalyze data collected for the Police Services Study, on which a substantial body of supporting evidence for this conclusion is based, to determine whether previous analyses of these data have misestimated the effects of demeanor on police behavior. We find that, insofar as the data permit us to address the criticisms, the original findings hold.
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We use observations of police encounters with 3,130 suspects in Indianapolis and St. Petersburg to estimate three influences on police disrespect: how suspects behave, their personal characteristics, and the location of the encounter. Logistic regression models show that suspects' behaviors were the most powerful predictors, but the suspect's sex, age, income, and degree of neighborhood disadvantage were also significant. Minority suspects experienced disrespect less often than whites (statistically significant in the hierarchical analysis controlling for degree of neighborhood disadvantage). These effects are concentrated in St. Petersburg, where the chief had made the suppression of police abuses a visible priority. The findings offer partial confirmation of Donald Black's theory of law.
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The importance of suspects' resistance toward police officers has almost always been described in terms of its influence on police behavior. Given the centrality of citizens' resistance in the literature on police behavior, it is surprising that so little attention has been focused on explaining suspects' resistance independent of its influence on police behavior. This research examined the factors influencing multiple measures of suspects' resistance using systematic observation data collected in 1977 from twenty-four departments in three metropolitan areas. The findings show that non-White suspects were more likely to be noncompliant toward White officers but were not more likely to show more aggressive forms of resistance (e.g., verbal aggression, physical aggression, or disrespect). In addition, female suspects were more likely to be disrespectful toward officers compared to male suspects. The relevance of these findings for future research is discussed.
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Common in the literature are discussions of the dangerousness of the police occupation. In particular, numerous studies have examined the circumstances surrounding the murder and assault of police officers. Relatively little is known, however, about how these dramatic events fit into the larger context of police injury incidents. This article reports the results of analyses based on 2,073 officer injury incidents (reports) gathered from a large U.S. midwestern municipal police department. Findings and implications are discussed.