Article

Competition and dissensus: Two types of conflict and of conflict resolution

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Differences within the teams on values can reduce the between-team conflict, as moderates on both sides bring their more extremist members closer together (Evan and MacDougall 1967;Jacobson 1981). Over time, these interactions wax and wane between increasing and decreasing polarization, as cleavages within teams are sharpened or diminished (Marwell 1966;Aubert 1963). Competitive pressures to reduce within-team differences are offset by crosscutting interests. ...
... Summary. Aubert's (1963) article continued an earlier tradition of theorizing on the sociology of conflict. Emphasizing the differences and interactions between conflicting values and interests, he set the stage for several JCR empirical studies. ...
... Prior to 1972, the objective of scholars contributing articles to JCR on mediation was to describe and analyze the mediation process. Douglas (1957), focusing principally (Aubert 1963) Concession-making (Douglas 1957) Prominence (Schelling 1957) Interests (Ikle and Leites 1962) Trust (Deutsch 1958) Integrative (joint payoffs) (Carnevale and Lawler 1986) Cognitions (Summers 1968) Threats (Kelley 1965) Equal and proportional distributions Issue salience (Bonham 1971) Context ...
Article
Full-text available
Six decades of JCR research on negotiation and mediation are celebrated in this article. Starting with the earliest articles on these topics, we trace the development of recurring themes. The themes serve to organize a review of findings reported in the journal. The research on negotiation covers processes and conditions that occur prior to, during, and at the end of negotiation. The work on mediation provides insights into mediator approaches and impacts. This article concludes with suggestions for integrating and better understanding of the negotiation and mediation processes.
... In sociology, social conflicts theory has identified three crucial elements that must be present in order to determine whether a relationship is conflictual (Aubert, 1963;Hirschman, 1994). These are: the presence of conflicting parties, a conflict object, and interactive behavior, where conflict objects refer to incompatible resource allocation, values, and attitudes based on the underlying goals of the conflicting parties (Wade-Benzoni et al., 2002). ...
Article
Social media can be used proactively to disseminate accurate corporate information and address undesirable consumer behaviors online in order to help counteract negativity in the business environment in the wake of a financial crisis. Social media thus has become a popular open forum for financial institutions such as retail banks to engage in corporate dialogue with consumers. We recommend that financial services firms preemptively use their social media‐based online communities in order to disseminate accurate corporate information in times of a financial crisis. Particularly, firms can choose between a range of reactive and proactive strategies to manage social conflict in the wake of a financial crisis.
... 8 Norwegian professor Wilhelm Aubert (1922Aubert ( -1988 has developed conflict theory in Nordic countries in the 1960s and 1970s. He made a distinction of two types of conflict and conflict resolution: competition and dissensus (Aubert 1963;Aubert 1967) Another Norwegian professor, Torstein Eckhoff (1916Eckhoff ( -1993 has also had significant influence on Nordic conflict resolution research. He has analysed the roles of judges, mediators and administrators in conflict resolution. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this article, I argue that it is useful to make a distinction between theoretical models of mediation, practical systems of mediation in context, and mediation in action. Using this distinction makes it possible to examine the relationship of the model of mediation, the context in which mediation is practiced and mediator behaviour, and to analyse the field of mediation and obtain a better understanding of mediation, as such, as a result. First, I offer a brief historical overview of how mediation has developed in the Nordic countries on a theoretical, institutional and practical level. Then, I unfold and examine which theoretical models are at play, what the different areas of practice are and how mediators interpret and implement theoretical models in their practice. One main problem is that mediators in their everyday work sometimes act in a different way than they think themselves or what theory of mediation postulates. In conclusion, I point to the need for further empirical and theoretical studies, as well as the development of mediation training in Nordic countries.
... When there is reason to believe that a researcher's judgement may be compromised by certain interests related to their ties with other parties, we commonly speak of a conflict of interest (see Davis 2001). Some authors, such a Aubert (1963), and more recently Bero and Grundy (2016) and Wiersma et al. (2017), have suggested that we distinguish 'conflicts of interest proper' (having to do with financial motives only) from 'conflicts of values' (having to do with morality and belief systems), which are both structured in fundamentally different ways and require divergent strategies to resolve. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
After Reading This Chapter, You Will Have an understanding of how modern scientific research is influenced by economic interests Be able to identify conflicts of interest and conflicts of values Be capable of recognizing competing interests Understand conflicts of ownership Know how various conflicts are resolved
... There is no doubt that the role of natural resources in fueling conflict could be attributed not only to its economic treatise but more significantly, it tends to play a seemingly strong emblematic role on the accounts of ethnonational narratives (Green, 2010). Such account of the ethnonational view of resource conflict has been and is deeply entrenched in social relations at the local levels and thus framed based on an ethnic identity that would, in turn, assist premeditated political interests of actors (Aubert, 1963). 8 Ineluctably, natural resources accessible in abundance could be seen as an incentive to the belligerents and thereby augment the probability of competition over resource rheostat (Keen, 1998). ...
... A particular article in this tradition caught my attention. Aubert (1963) analyzed conflict as an interplay between values and interests. In addition to contrasting these sources of conflict, he showed how different values, referred as a dissensus, interfered with attempts to resolve conflicting interests. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, I look back primarily at the research accomplishments made by my various collaborative teams to date and look forward toward the gaps that remain to be filled. Key insights and gaps are discussed on five research topics: group attachments and representation, turning points, social justice, values and interests, and conceptual learning. A concluding section highlights key discoveries that provide fertile ground for new research. Examples include the pulls and pushes of stakeholders, the role played by crises in producing turning points, connecting micro- to macro-level processes, the link between values and identities, and the thought processes that are encouraged by design activities. Further, advances in methodologies contribute to the next generation of studies on negotiation and conflict.
... When examining the term "conflict," typologically, the resource utilization conflict described by the "The Nigerian Working Group on Peace Building and Governance" appears shortsighted because it reflects an economy-based type of conflict, because conflict, too, could be based on values where belief and ideological preferences exist between individuals and groups. Conflict also arises where hostilities and antagonisms emanate from the struggle for power (Aubert, 1963). It is not too difficult to see that the suggested conflict between the nomadic herdsmen and the landowning farmers may be an amalgam of all the three forms of conflict. ...
Article
Full-text available
Within a changing global consciousness for international guardianship of the targets of terrorism, this article explores the broad narratives, strengths, and limitations of adopting community policing for the control of herdsmen terrorism in West Africa. It follows the search by social engineering and criminal justice practitioners for a relational and experiential agent for social change against destructive terrorist tendencies and its eroding influence on the sensibilities of human civilization. The article frames an approach for creating a social policing environment in rural and poor communities along pastoral transhumance routes in West and Central Africa. The mass murder of indigenous communities by the migratory and transborder terror groups in this region is a crime against humanity. The adoption of the concept of “connected communities” is suggested to create a multilayered and all-involving intelligence community policing shield in individual communities under siege of the pastoralists.
... Organization is a place where conflict can occur because individuals are interacting together for the performance of task and are dependent on each other within the scarce resources of the structure. Conflict may arise for the distribution of the resources or due to the structure of the organizations and may be because of the way of interaction among the workers and supervisors (Aubert, 1963). (Rico, 1964) has stated that organization destitute of conflict, "may indicate autocracy, uniformity, stagnation, and mental fixity". ...
Article
Full-text available
The growth of the cultural diversity has been increasing both internationally and domestically which as a result has affected the performance and the behaviour of the individuals in the workplace.Employees’performance and attitudes are affected due to working with people who have different background;their values, norms, attitudes, etc. are completely change. The research, therefore, has established on the relationship between cultural diversity, interpersonal conflict, perceived social distance and psychological distress in the public banking sector of Quetta.The psychological distress was measured with the effect of the conflict and social distance among the bankers. Quantitative research method was applied, in which a sample size of 300 employees of public banks were selected. Data was collected through convenience sampling technique. For the analysis of the data IBM SPSS21was used. The study was supported by three hypotheses where all of them were accepted. The study was concluded that cultural diversity has an affirmative effect on interpersonal conflict. Likewise cultural diversity positively affectsperceived social distance.Furthermore,it was concluded that interpersonal conflict and perceived socialdistance will have a positive affect on psychological distress. The study postulates that employees working in the diverse environment have to go through conflict and create social distance thatgivesrise to distress in the workplace.
... In terms of the socio-psychological analysis, the possible conflict communications in the field of management can be of the following types: aspect (trait or set of traits) of personality -aspect of the personality, person -person, person -group, and group -group. In the first case, we usually deal with the conflict impulse of individual characteristics of a person and people's behavior; in the second, with their open confrontation about their needs, motives, values, and attitudes; in the third and fourth, an open clash of an individual with a group or a group with a group [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the nature of conflict communications between the executive and the subordinates in the sphere of production management is investigated, as well as possible strategies and patterns of behavior for both parties are determined. Also, the causes, mechanisms, and solutions for conflict communications are analyzed. This article presents the results of the practical research carried out at Volgograd's two enterprises. In this research, the way the executive's style of behavior in a conflict situation influenced the relationship with subordinates was studied.
... Thus, based on empirical criteria, issues that concern values are larger than those concerning interests: for example, the difference between framing issues in terms of larger morality questions or smaller matters of returns on investments. But types of issues may be better understood as an interplay where values and interests are intertwined rather than in opposition (Aubert 1963;Druckman and Zechmeister 1973). When interests are derived from values (versus independent of values) they are more difficult to resolve as shown in an experimental simulation by Druckman, Broome, and Korper (1988). ...
Article
Full-text available
Three aspects of negotiation issues are framing (types of issues), linking (relationships among the issues), and ordering (procedures for discussing them). In this essay, we review the relevant experimental and case study literatures on each of these aspects and consider interactions among them. Framing includes distinctions among abstract and concrete issues, values and interests, and broad formulas and the details needed to implement them. Linking can be either substantive or tactical, involves adding or subtracting issues, and includes issues imported from other domains or those previously discussed separately within a negotiation. Ordering refers to the distinction between sequential (one issue at a time) and simultaneous (building packages of issues) strategies. These distinctions are choices that may influence the course of negotiation depending on various contingencies within and outside of the negotiation. They are also understood in terms of interactions in a more dynamic conception of negotiating issues. The review concludes with an organizing framework and suggestions for further research in each of the areas covered.
... Als wichtige, häufig auftretende Konfliktgründe und -auslöser gelten der Verteilungs-bzw. Interessenskonflikt, der Wissenskonflikt und mit leichten Abstrichen der Wertekonflikt (Aubert 1963;Conrad 2010;Geis 2010;Ohlhorst und Schön 2010;Duve et al. 2011;Ziekow et al. 2014a (Becker und Naumann 2016Naumann et al. 2017 sowie Knappheits-, Mensch-Natur-und Ressourcennutzungskonflikt (Ackermann et al. 2001;Scheffran 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gegenstand des literaturbasierten Beitrags sind Ansätze der kommunikativen Bearbeitung von Konflikten im Kontext von Energieinfrastrukturprojekten. Das Korpus umfasst 83 Quellen. Der Fokus richtet sich auf Typen von Konflikten, Maßnahmen ihrer (kommunikativen) Bearbeitung und Zusammenhänge zwischen Konflikttyp, Konfliktgegenstand (Technologie) und Konfliktbearbeitung. Insgesamt zeigt sich deutlicher Forschungsbedarf zu passgenauen Ansätzen. Die meisten Ansätze zur (kommunikativen) Bearbeitung von Konfliktsituationen bleiben eher allgemein. Es gibt nur wenige Autoren, die die Größen Konflikttyp und Konfliktgegenstand (z.B. Windenergie versus Tiefe Geothermie) berücksichtigen. Diese betrachten primär die Typen Verteilungs-, Werte-, Wissens- und sozialer Konflikt. Die Befunde und Empfehlungen zu Konfliktkommunikation orientieren sich primär an den Beteiligungsstufen Information, Konsultation und Kooperation. Empfehlungen auf der Informationsstufe gelten als konflikttypunabhängig, Maßnahmen auf der Konsultations- und Kooperationsstufe dagegen als abhängig vom Konflikttyp. Der Größe Technologie wird weniger Einfluss zugeschrieben. Der Fokus richtet sich auf (konflikt- und technologietypbezogene) Themen und Akteursgruppen sowie Formate. Insgesamt fällt auf, dass Formate genannt und vorgestellt werden, meist jedoch konkrete Angaben zum Wie, d. h. zur konfliktmindernden kommunikativen Gestaltung der Prozesse und Formate fehlen. Hinweise zum Wie bieten vereinzelt breiter angelegte Studien zu Energiekommunikation, die ergänzend in diesem Beitrag ausgewertet wurden. Die Entwicklung von Ansätzen zur kommunikativen Bearbeitung von Konfliktsituationen, die stärker den Konflikttyp und die Technologie berücksichtigen, würden wesentlich zur Entwicklung passgenauer Gesamtstrategien für Infrastrukturprojekte der Energiewende beitragen. Dies schließt Maßnahmen zum Aufbau entsprechender Expertisen ein. Subject of this literature-based contribution are approaches to the communicative processing of conflicts in the context of energy infrastructure projects. A total of 83 sources were evaluated. The focus is on types of conflicts, measures of their (communicative) processing and the connections between conflict type, conflict object (technology) and conflict management. All in all, there is a clear need for research on customized approaches. Most approaches to (communicative) processing of conflict situations remain rather general. There are only a few authors, who consider the parameters conflict type and conflict object (e.g., wind energy versus deep geothermal energy). These consider primarily the types distribution conflict, value conflict, knowledge conflict and social conflict. The findings and recommendations on conflict communication are primarily based on the participation forms of information, cooperation and consultation. Recommendations on the information level are considered to be independent of the type of conflict, whereas measures on the cooperation and consultation level depend on the type of conflict. Less influence is ascribed to the variable technology. The focus is on (conflict- and technology-type related) topics and stakeholder groups and formats. Overall, it is noteworthy that formats are mentioned and presented, but mostly lack specific information on the how, i.e., the conflict-reducing communicative design of the processes and formats. Hints on how to do this are offered by a few studies on energy communication, which were also evaluated in this article. The development of approaches to the communicative processing of conflict situations that take a greater account of the type of conflict and the technology involved would contribute significantly to the development of customized overall strategies for energy transformation infrastructure projects. This includes measures to build up corresponding expertise.
... Developing from studies of disputes (Aubert 1963;Felstiner, Abel, and Sarat 1980;Kidder 1980;Lempert 1980;Mather and Yngvesson 1980;Miller and Sarat 1980;Cain and Kulcsar 1981), scholarship on legal mobilization has done much to demonstrate the fraught and contingent but potentially transformative effects of leveraging the law in social struggles. Importantly, the early literature on legal mobilization (Scheingold 1974;Rosenberg 1991;M. ...
Article
Social movements have increasingly incorporated legal strategies into their repertoires of contention. Yet, both sociolegal and social movement scholarship lack a systematic and theoretically coherent way to conceptualize legal mobilization. In fact, scholars disagree (sometimes in fundamental ways) about what constitutes legal mobilization, which has resulted in conceptual slippage around how the term is used. This article proposes a more self-conscious approach that will facilitate the aggregation of findings across studies. To do so, it sets forth a systematic conceptualization of legal mobilization and situates it within a typology of uses of the law. It also contextualizes the typology with respect to emerging literatures within social movement and sociolegal scholarship and proposes areas for further research that would benefit from a more rigorous conceptualization of legal mobilization.
... Yet it is also the case that interests and values may not be independent sources of conflict. Earlier literature recognized an interplay between values and interests (see Aubert 1963;Druckman and Zechmeister 1973;Druckman et al. 1988). Indeed many conflicts bounce around between different opinions about the normative status of a social object and competing claims for obtaining the lion's share of a resource. ...
Article
Full-text available
Other-affirmation (thinking positively about the other party) seems to be a promising intervention for settling conflicts in which value differences are salient. Hypotheses from research on regulatory fit theory are evaluated in this study. A 2 × 2 design combines pre-negotiation other-affirmation (as explicit or implicit) and mediator approach (as directive or facilitative). In support of the fit hypothesis, we showed that the implicit-directive combination produced the best joint outcomes. Directional findings showed that the fit between explicit affirmation and facilitative mediation also produced favorable outcomes. Uncertainty reduction was posited as a plausible explanation for these findings. Implications are suggested for interventions intended to resolve conflicts over resources derived from values.
... häufig durch andere Bezüge untereinander bekannt. Diese Vorerfahrungen wirken auf den aktuellen Prozess zur regionalen Freiraumentwicklung ein. Während positive Vorerfahrungen eine befördernde Wirkung für die Zusammenarbeit haben, können sich negative einschränkend auf Lernprozesse auswirken.Eine Restriktion ergibt sich auch durch Wertunterschiede.Aubert (1963) unterscheidet zwischen Wert-und Interessenkonflikten. Unterschiedliche Werte der Akteure werden häufig in Prozessen nicht wahrgenommen. Dies führt dazu, dass sie nicht thematisiert werden und den gemeinsamen Diskussionsprozess blockieren. Durch die Identifikation gemeinsamer Werte sowie von Unterschieden können Bedingungen abgesteckt we ...
Article
Kommunikative Planung- ein Schlagwort, das in den letzten Jahren in Planungstheorie und -praxis an Bedeutung gewonnen hat. Bislang kaum erforscht ist die Frage: Was kann sie leisten und wo liegen ihre Grenzen? Am Beispiel des Handlungsfeldes stadtregionaler Freiraumpolitik gibt der Band einen systematischen Überblick über Leistungspotentiale und Restriktionen kommunikativer Instrumente der Stadt- und Regionalplanung.
... Entsprechend plädiert Voswinkel dafür, Anerkennung und Interesse nicht als alternative Konzepte, sondern zwei einander ergänzende Perspektiven auf Arbeitsverhältnissezu behandeln. 20 Siehe Vilhelm Aubert (1963) zur Unterscheidung von "conflicts of interest" und "conflicts of values or beliefs" sowie Albert Hirschman (1994) zur Unterscheidung "teilbarer" und "unteilbarer Konflikte". 1966;Etzioni 1969aEtzioni , 1969bMintzberg 1979, S. 348-379;Meier und Schimank 2012, S. 61-76;Noordegraaf 2007Noordegraaf , 2015Evetts 2013). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Untersuchungsgegenstand des Forschungsprojekts, dessen Ergebnisse in diesem Buch dargestellt werden, sind die Auswirkungen der Reformen des deutschen Hochschulsystems („Bologna“, „Exzellenzinitiative“ und „New Public Management“) auf die berufliche Identität von ProfessorInnen. Welche Identitätsbedrohungen, aber auch -chancen gehen von den Reformmaßnahmen, insbesondere von vielfältigen Leistungsbewertungen, aus, und mit welchen Praktiken der Identitätsbehauptung und -darstellung reagieren ProfessorInnen darauf? In diesem Kapitel werden die Relevanz der Fragestellung, ein theoretischer Bezugsrahmen zu ihrer Analyse sowie die empirische Herangehensweise geschildert. Zentrale Datengrundlage der Untersuchung sind Leitfadeninterviews mit ProfessorInnen aus fünf verschiedenen Wissenschaftsgebieten (Zellbiologie, Nachrichten- und Hochfrequenztechnik, Vergleichende Regierungslehre, Strafrecht und Neuere Deutsche Literaturwissenschaft).
... Vorausgesetzt, die (konfessionell-)religiösen, politischen und ethnischen, Orientierungen und die beobachtete Handlungspraxis der Elitenvertreter*innen stimmt miteinander überein, sollte nun hier an dieser Stelle dennoch über den theoretischen Umgang mit unterschiedlichen Wert-und Normvorstellungen als nicht nur zweckrationales, sondern auch als reales Konfliktpotenzial gerade aufgrund der omnipräsenten Gewalt diskutiert werden. Für eine profundere Analyse der unterschiedlichen Weltanschauungen erweisen sich Bonackers und Imbuschs Überlegungen zu teilbaren und unteilbaren oder konsensualen und dissensualen Konflikten (Aubert 1963) zwischen den afghanischen Eliten als anschlussfähig an die bisherige Konflikt-und Transformationstheorie. In der Transformationsforschung besteht die Aufteilung zwischen konsensualen und uneinigen Eliten nachfolgende Definition kann Aufschluss über die Gründe geben, denn diese liegen in den Konflikten. ...
... When there is reason to believe that a researcher's judgement may be compromised by certain interests related to their ties with other parties, we commonly speak of a conflict of interest (see Davis 2001). Some authors, such a Aubert (1963), and more recently Bero and Grundy (2016) and Wiersma et al. (2017), have suggested that we distinguish 'conflicts of interest proper' (having to do with financial motives only) from 'conflicts of values' (having to do with morality and belief systems), which are both structured in fundamentally different ways and require divergent strategies to resolve. ...
Article
Full-text available
This open access textbook offers a practical guide into research ethics for undergraduate students in the social sciences. A step-by-step approach of the most viable issues, in-depth discussions of case histories and a variety of didactical tools will aid the student to grasp the issues at hand and help him or her develop strategies to deal with them. This book addresses problems and questions that any bachelor student in the social sciences should be aware of, including plagiarism, data fabrication and other types of fraud, data augmentation, various forms of research bias, but also peer pressure, issues with confidentiality and questions regarding conflicts of interest. Cheating, ‘free riding’, and broader issues that relate to the place of the social sciences in society are also included. The book concludes with a step-by-step approach designed to coach a student through a research application process.
Article
Full-text available
In this essay, I recount my career experiences as a research consultant in Washington DC. These experiences, over the course of 23 years, provide examples of how theory and research can be used to guide practice. The account is chronological, beginning with my first consulting assignment in 1975, where I worked with a US delegation on resolving a negotiation impasse, to the 1990s where I directed study groups on a variety of human performance and international conflict resolution topics. These projects consisted both of applications of research‐based knowledge and the generation of research ideas for new projects. By immersing myself in both theory and practice, I could transform basic research into applied insights and induce research ideas from practice. This was the kind of career that Jeff Rubin aspired to having. The IACM Rubin award recognizes the way that his aspiration was fulfilled by one of his colleagues.
Article
Apology legislations have been enacted in many countries to protect an apology offeror from being considered to have made an admission of responsibility. The Hong Kong Apology Ordinance came into effect in July 2017. One of the background objectives in enacting the Apology Ordinance was to encourage disputing parties to offer an apology in mediation where it would help in settling a dispute. Mediation is also commonly used as one of the alternative dispute resolution methods in construction. This study focuses on how an apology would incentivize the disputants to research settlement. In this regard, the prerequisite conditions for settlement of disputes and the main characteristics of the Apology Ordinance are summarized. The incentivizing effect of an apology on settlement is discussed under the equity theory. Views of construction professionals were solicited and the findings suggest that an apology can incentivize settlement by addressing the need of receiving comfort and the desire of having equal footing; both of these conditions are instrumental in engendering a conductive environment for mediation.
Chapter
Elsewhere we have discussed the tensions inherent to being an engineer, and argued they are both necessary and constructive. These tensions necessarily impact on the role of the teacher and the role of the students in learning, and therefore, the curriculum. Curriculum mediates between the needs and values of higher education and those of the larger social system including businesses in a capitalist society, which partially funds it and for which it is claimed to serve. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the implications of this view. It is shown with reference to current debates in the US engineering education community that understanding and embracing these tensions has radical implications for the design and understanding of the curriculum.
Article
Full-text available
Organizational conflict, or workplace conflict, is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests between people working together. Conflict in organizations are inevitable between formal authority and power and those individuals and groups affected. The disputes over how revenues, work, how long and hard people work, the jurisdictional disagreements among individuals, departments, and between unions and management are different sources and kinds of conflict that happens in organisation. There are subtler forms of conflict involving rivalries, jealousies, personality clashes, role definitions, and struggles for power and favor. Conflict within individuals between competing needs and demands to which individuals respond in different ways. that occur in individuals, between individuals, and between groups. Conflicts within work groups are often caused by struggles over control, status, and scarce resources. Conflicts between groups in organizations have similar origins. The constructive resolution of such conflicts can most often be achieved through a rational process of problem solving, coupled with a willingness to explore issues and alternatives and to listen to each other.
Book
Full-text available
Locked in our worldview communities and polarised through increasingly radical campaigning, we are anxious of today's great uncertainty and our politicians have little incentive to reach across party lines. The problem of social division is real. The Brexit vote led to the highest spike in hate crimes in Britain ever recorded and heated situations like the far-right rally in Charlottesville, USA are increasingly boiling over. Overcoming Social Division is not another book about dying democracies, because horror scenarios don't make you act. Instead, it is an optimistic response on what can be done, and about how we can coexist in fragmented and polarised societies. Anatol Valerian Itten explains how public conflict resolution, civic fusion and mediative decision making help us re-learn the ability to find common ground on controversial issues with our fellow citizens, whom we tend to assume believe more extreme things than they really do. This book takes the reader through empirical key factors, obstacles and blind spots and provides helpful guidelines for everyone interested in mitigating social division and resolving conflicts. The author's insights are based on his experience in conflict management, a study of dozens of public conflict resolution cases and surprising stories of over twenty interviewed mediators.
Chapter
In “Sander County” Illinois, concerns about litigiousness in the local population tended to focus on personal injury suits, although such cases were very rarely brought. This article explores the roots of these concerns in the ideology of the rural community and in the reactions of many residents to social, cultural, and economic changes that created a pervasive sense of social disintegration and loss. Personal injury claims are contrasted with contract actions, which were far more numerous yet were generally viewed with approval and did not give rise to perceptions of litigiousness or greed. The distinction is explained in terms of changing conceptions of the community itself and in terms of the problematic relationships between “insiders” and “outsiders” in Sander County. INTRODUCTION Although it is generally acknowledged that law is a vital part of culture and of the social order, there are times when the invocation of formal law is viewed as an anti-social act and as a contravention of established cultural norms. Criticism of what is seen as an overuse of law and legal institutions often reveals less about the quantity of litigation at any given time than about the interests being asserted or protected through litigation and the kinds of individuals or groups involved in cases that the courts are asked to resolve. Periodic concerns over litigation as a “problem” in particular societies or historical eras can thus draw our attention to important underlying conflicts in cultural values and changes or tensions in the structure of social relationships. In our own society at present, perhaps no category of litigation has produced greater public criticism than personal injuries. The popular culture is full of tales of feigned or exaggerated physical harms, of spurious whiplash suits, ambulance-chasing lawyers, and exorbitant claims for compensation. Scholars, journalists, and legal professionals, voicing concern with crowded dockets and rising insurance costs, have often shared the perception that personal injury litigation is a field dominated by overly litigious plaintiffs and by trigger-happy attorneys interested only in their fee (Seymour, 1973: 177; Tondel, 1976: 547; Perham, 1977; Rosenberg, 1977: 154; Taylor, 1981; Gest et al., 1982; Greene, 1983).
Article
Performance and productivity in construction management are essential for schedule and profit considerations, but are often diminished by conflict. Task conflict provides incentive for decisions and innovative solutions, whereas interpersonal conflict, also referred to as relationship conflict, is detrimental to performance and productivity because it affects schedules, cognition and collaboration efforts, and the morale of the team. This qualitative study investigates how relationship conflict affects performance and productivity among construction management professionals. Interviews were conducted in 18 construction firms with 25 construction management professionals, including project executives, senior project managers, project managers, and superintendents. The goal is to understand the antecedents and consequences of relationship conflict within construction management, and discover methods used to mitigate these effects. Key antecedents producing relationship conflict are lack of communication, old-school attitude, and lump-sum contracts. The key individuals generating relationship conflict are the owner or owner's representative, subcontractors, and superintendents. Consequences of relationship conflict include schedule delays, lowered morale and motivation, and reduced profit, whereas mitigating factors are good communication and trust building
Article
Full-text available
Capture fishery conflicts is one issue that requires serious attention. The government has tried to overcome the fisheries conflicts by issuing various regulations, but the results have not been effective. This study aims to create a model of conflict management. The research method used the perception survey. Primary data collected through using a structured questionnaire done purposively to some respondents. Analytical survey of perceptions using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). The results showed: (i) Simultaneously, the better the ability to identify the causes of the conflict the better the ability to determine the conflict resolution techniques. Furthermore, the better the ability to determine an appropriate conflict resolution techniques will increase support for the management of fisheries resources is responsible (ii) Partially causes of conflict are determined by the indicators of competition, opposition, economic, actors and cultural (ii) facilitation techniques, negotiation, litigation and avoidance can be used as an appropriate conflict resolution techniques (iii) an understanding of community participation and conservation of fishery resources determines the creation of sustainable fisheries resource management is responsible.
Chapter
Der Band schließt mit einem Beitrag von Peter Münte, in dem skizziert wird, wie sich die Umweltmediation – ein Verfahren, das in den USA entwickelt wurde und seit den 1990er Jahren auch in Deutschland bei der Auseinandersetzung über umstrittene Infrastrukturvorhaben angewendet wird – als Gegenstand fallrekonstruktiver Forschung einrichten lässt. In Anlehnung an den tatsächlichen Verlauf eines Forschungsvorhabens zum Berufshabitus von Umweltmediatoren wird gezeigt, wie sich eine (vorläufige) Ausgangshypothese entwickeln lässt, mit der die untersuchte Tätigkeit einem universalen Problemfokus humaner Sozialität zugeordnet und in einem bestimmten Kontext der Entwicklung der modernen Gesellschaft ansiedelt werden kann. Es wird außerdem gezeigt, inwiefern diese Ausgangshypothese bei der anschließenden Materialanalyse in Schwierigkeiten führt und wie diese behoben werden können. Ziel des Beitrags ist zu verdeutlichen, dass gerade das Scheitern einer den Forschungsprozess strukturierenden Ausgangshypothese für die Gegenstandserschließung fruchtbar sein kann.
Conference Paper
The report examines the benefits and risks of using artificial intelligence in mediation through the prism of the model introduced in France.
Chapter
The enactment of the first-ever apology ordinance (AO) in 2017 provided the impetus to further promote the use of mediation in Hong Kong. The AO aims to alleviate the concern of disputing parties in making apology. This study pioneers the investigation of using apology in construction dispute resolution. The first part of the study has been developed based on Kalman’s Response Restriction Theory. It is proposed that offering an apology would solicit positive responses of the counterpart by overcoming the barriers against settlement of the dispute. Four forms of apology were summarized from literature- ice-breaking, conciliatory, reality-checking and congruence-driving. It is found that congruence-driving apology is the most versatile in moderating positive responses. The second part of the study examines would the AO result in wider use of construction dispute mediation. When the dispute has an emotion element, suggesting apology is an added advice that mediator would display.
Chapter
Die Selbstbeschreibung des Rechts setzt an der Vorstellung eines durch den Konflikt zweier Parteien geprägten Prozesses an, in dem ein unparteiischer Dritter entscheidet. Diese Vorstellung trifft die gerichtliche Verfahrenswirklichkeit nur selten. Denn Juristen, die wiederholt vor Gericht aufeinandertreffen, pflegen einen kooperativen Arbeitsstil, der sich im Strafrecht in formellen und informellen Urteilsabsprachen dokumentiert. Der Beitrag adressiert die Frage, warum die Juristen kooperieren, mit welchen Folgen sie dies tun und ob informelle Absprachen soziologisch zu beklagen sind.
Book
Full-text available
Leadership Outlook and its importance under various circumstances, and how to develop the capacity of higher cognisance.
Chapter
Conflict may emerge in different aspects of life when different objectives, solutions, stakeholders, and beneficiaries are obliged to interact within a constricted environment to represent and, in turn, preserve their interests. In essence, when stakeholders could not agree on a subject, conflict may arise. This is mainly attributed to the fact that different stakeholders have different demands, requirements, and priorities. The interest of one stakeholder, often and in most real-world problems, is not in line or even in contrast to the interest of other stakeholders. Thus, when personal interests are considered, emerging conflicts are inevitable. In light of water resources planning and management, this could be a very crucial matter since conflict of interest is a general and critical part of decision-making. This chapter aims to shed light on this matter from the water resources perspective. Particularly, it seeks to tackle some mind-provocative questions such as: What is water conflict? How do such conflicts emerge? And how can these conflicts be resolved? Furthermore, real-world examples are provided throughout the chapter to understand the complex nature of conflicts in the context of water resources management.
Book
Full-text available
In diesem Open-Access-Buch wird ein differenziertes Bild der Folgen von „Bologna“, „Exzellenzinitiative“, Drittmittelwettbewerb und „New Public Management“ für die berufliche Identität von Professor*innen gezeichnet. Eine qualitative empirische Studie zeigt, dass die mit diesen Reformen verbundenen Leistungsbewertungen nicht nur Identitätsbedrohungen mit sich bringen müssen, sondern auch neue Möglichkeiten der Identitätsentfaltung bieten können. Der Fokus auf Reformerfahrung und -bewältigung von Professor*innen bietet eine wichtige Ergänzung anderer Analysen der Universitätsreformen. Die Autoren Melike Janßen ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Deutschen Zentrum für Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung, Abteilung Forschungssystem und Wissenschaftsdynamik. Prof. Dr. Uwe Schimank ist Professor für Soziologie an der Universität Bremen im SOCIUM – Forschungszentrum Ungleichheit und Sozialpolitik. Ariadne Sondermann ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin im Bereich der Third Mission im Transfernetzwerk Soziale Innovation – s_inn an der Evangelischen Hochschule Rheinland-Westfalen-Lippe (EvH RWL).
Article
Full-text available
Defining conflict is not as simple as counting its instances, and there is no single, comprehensive, and agreed definition of the conflict in the research literature. It has been one of the main and fundamental challenges in the field of conflict studies in general and water conflicts in particular, which is still persisting. The aim of this paper is to rethink the nature and main concepts of conflicts by trying to explain their functions for dealing with water conflicts. Accordingly, using the analytical-descriptive method, this article analyzes and rethinks the nature of conflicts and their main concepts under four main questions. In addition, two major areas used in the studies of water conflicts, namely game theory and the conflict-cooperation approach, have been analyzed in comparison with novel concepts of conflict knowledge. The results reveal that most studies related to water conflicts do not pay attention to nature, main concepts, and features of conflicts. They also show that the applied and dominant approaches and perspectives in dealing with water conflicts are in accordance with the traditional philosophy of the early twentieth century. Furthermore, the tools used in this area are also associated with the Cold War period while the traditional philosophical approaches for water conflicts and the use of purely technical tools do not comply with the complex dimensions of conflicts in water systems. The results also show that conflict knowledge has resorted to new tools of conflict analysis/mapping, a concept that is necessary to rely on deal with water conflicts.
Article
Full-text available
Church conflicts impact lives in societies wherever they occur. This present study analyses one of such conflicts and impacts, using a congregation of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Ghana as a case study. The approach of the study was qualitative with individual and group interviews techniques. The findings are that: both central and local authorities of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church, caused, fermented ill-sentiments and fanned structural fissures within two religious groups or coalitions at the congregation into conflict that was exacerbated by external pressure from local traditionalists. The coalitions disagree on issues that conflagrate the conflict and the resultant schism. The impact of the conflict is grave affecting lives in both church and society; crippling all socioeconomic development efforts. The conflict appears embedded in moments of history and the structure of culture of the society within which it has unveiled; and provided identity, loyalty and association to the conflict actors. Those identities have influenced the disputants' perceptions and expressions of grievances and conflict. Thus, the study has realized that economic, political and historical variables alone may not be sufficient to explain the undercurrents and motivations of the conflict. This is why it appears important to understand the psychology of disputants and the cultural setting within which they live since these tend to shape the conflict and its resolution.
Article
Crisis-induced refugee migration raises questions of fair responsibility-sharing among political territories. This is relevant for nation states and for subnational territories alike. Theories addressing this problem have mainly been developed with regard to international responsibility-sharing. They assume collective action problems when it comes to organising intergovernmental transfer schemes, something which cannot be easily overcome. It is not well understood how effective transfer schemes can be institutionalised when no hierarchical decision-making is in place. Complementary to that perspective, this paper builds upon constructivist institutional theories that suggest paying more attention to guiding ideas, which can be called upon when intergovernmental transfer schemes are at stake, and to criteria of rationality that can legitimately claim to embody this idea. Legitimate criteria of rationality are typically the result of "investments in form", i.e. social practices which imbue material objects with certain qualities so that they stand for particular guiding ideas. The article tests this assumption empirically by tracing the institutionalisation process of the Königstein key (Königsteiner Schlüssel) as a dynamic formula for determining state quotas in Germany's refugee federalism. While important precedents of physical intergovernmental responsibility-sharing in refugee matters had already existed in West Germany, their translation to the territorial dispersal of non-German asylum seekers was highly controversial in the 1970s. In this case, resorting to the Königstein key proved to be feasible in part because, by then, the formula had already become a symbol of the idea of federal justice through its use in a variety of different and far less controversial policy fields. However, during the recent wave of refugee immigration it has increasingly become the object of critique.
Chapter
Studies in nations with different social and economic systems indicate that the norms of contract law are seldom applied through the litigation process and that disputes are avoided or settled where there is a long-term relationship between the parties. Yet legal scholarship, as well as many proposals for reform, continue to be based on a picture of the contracts lawsuit, to a great extent. It is likely that this distortion is prompted by overgeneralization from a nonrepresentative sample of possible and actual disputes, and by the indirect influence of legal norms; it may also express the needs of legal scholars and reformers. It is questionable whether capitalist, socialist, or mixed economic systems would benefit if more disputes were resolved by the application of officially sanctioned contract norms.
Article
Full-text available
Now-a-days every person is talking about the conflict. Conflict may arise within the individual or two or more individuals or among the group or even the organization. From the organizational point of view, conflict among the individuals or groups can create several positive or negative impacts on organizational performance (OP). For this, they are using some techniques to manage the conflict. Conflict is natural and inevitable in life. We can never avoid it; only we can manage it. We should encourage functional (constructive or healthy) conflict and eliminating dysfunctional (destructive or unhealthy) conflict within the conflict management in order to improve OP. The present research mainly, attempts to examine the practices of different conflict management styles (CMS) in industrial enterprises of Bangladesh. To analyze the conflict management from wider perspective, the present research model includes two antecedents’ factors (Top management support, Innovativeness) which are hypothesized to lead to the practices of CMS and uses decent environment as an intermediate factor and OP as a dependent factor. The study indicates that the integrative style is the best one to manage the conflict effectively than the other styles such as distributive, avoidance, dominating and obliging. Finally, the research explores the positive relationship among the conflict management, decent environment and OP. Keywords: Conflict Management Style, Organizational Performance (OP), Industrial Enterprises.
Article
Zusammenfassung Nur ein gutes Viertel aller zivilrechtlichen Gerichtsverfahren endet mit einem streitigen Urteil. Denn Verfahren lassen sich auch über gütliche Vergleiche erledigen, die etwa in der sog. Güteverhandlung geschlossen werden und damit in einem Verfahrensabschnitt, in welchem Richter primär als Vermittler agieren. Nach § 278 ZPO soll der Richter stets beides sein, Richter im Sinne eines Entscheiders und Vermittler. Im vorliegenden Beitrag gehe ich den Funktionen der richterlichen Rollenkombination Entscheider/Vermittler und der damit verknüpften undifferenzierten Konfliktbearbeitung zwischen Gerichtsverfahren und Vermittlung nach. Die These ist, dass die Vermittlung in Gerichtsverfahren Legitimationsgewinne erzielt. Allerdings werden die Legitimationszuwächse mit Folgeproblemen erkauft, so z. B., wenn Parteien richterliche Vergleichsvorschläge als Voreingenommenheit oder Warnungen vor den negativen Konsequenzen eines Gerichtsverfahrens als indirekte Drohungen interpretieren. Ferner skizziere ich, wie die Folgeprobleme in der sozialen Praxis abgefedert werden, etwa indem Güterichter nur als Vermittler agieren. Diese Lösungen der Folgeprobleme haben selber wiederum nachzuzeichnende Konsequenzen.
Book
Full-text available
This book SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP prepares management professionals who are growing as leaders in their respective field and who are specializing in HR specialization to understand leadership development process in a professional way can be benefitted out of this book since its entire work is on various situations that the leader faces in real life. The book also caters to the HR practitioners and other students of management who specializes in Commerce, Entrepreneurship Management, BBA, MBA, or Business Strategy related subjects, Entrepreneurial practitioners, and includes the dynamic concepts of newer Entrepreneurial Strategies happening across the world, and also caters to the syllabus for BBA and MBA of all the leading Indian Universities specifically Bangalore University, Anna University, Bharathiar University, Kerala University, Calicut University, and other Indian Universities. These concepts in this book will prepare all Entrepreneurial professionals who are evolving into higher-level professionals who can use this book for their challenging and rewarding career. The readers can apply these concepts in their day today management strategy functions to have effective practical advancements in their career. This book contains 09 very deep and interesting chapters with strong research background and is an anthology of the leadership articles published in various journals and had very good citations, downloads and reviews from the Research Gate and Academia.edu. This book on an anthology of leadership traits, with the opening chapter as HR leadership situations, in which the entire chapters discuss in depth the issues related to SHRM, which is a very important area of knowledge any HR leaders or any other leader needs to learn since the transition ix stages are very clearly explained in the chapter, backed with research literature which supports with evidence the contemporary leadership practices across the world in the SHRM area. This chapter comes with the leadership qualities required for the inducing commitment in the people and how to create high-performance work systems in various kinds of organizations with suggestions, and it concludes with suggestions for further research. The second chapter alters the thought process of a reader to take up the leadership as a challenge and not as a mere function to control. The challenge that a leader faces in the work behaviour of the people and to keep them motivated despite the problems. It comes with a detailed explanation of what is Leadership Challenges against the CWBs which is raising in the the contemporary world, and is backed with statistical evidence that is required for broader understanding.
Chapter
Ordnungstheorien verstehen Recht als Kraft der Sozialgestaltung, Konflikttheorien sehen seine Rolle primär in der Vermeidung und Befriedung von Konflikten. Beide Funktionen kann man ineinandersetzen: Recht erzeugt Ordnung – unter anderem durch Konfliktvermeidung und -bearbeitung. „Recht und Konflikt“ bildet ein eigenes Feld der (Kirchen)Rechtssoziologie. Es thematisiert Merkmale rechtlicher Konfliktbearbeitung: Beratungsstrukturen, Instanzen der Rechtspflege und (außer)gerichtliche Vermittlungspraktiken. Wie weltliches Recht ist Kirchenrecht eine Spezialmaterie, deren Durchdringung rechtliche Beratung voraussetzt. Eine Polizei fehlt in der Kirche durchgängig. Dies wirft die Frage auf, ob und unter welchen Bedingungen Kirchenrecht Wirkung verzeichnen kann, ohne von einem Rechtsstab gestützt zu werden. Im Zentrum weltlicher und kirchlicher Justizforschung stehen (außer)gerichtliche Vermittlungspraktiken zwischen Konfliktparteien. Vor allem das Gerichtswesen spielt in modernen Rechtsordnungen eine bedeutende Rolle, in Staat und Kirche.
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers the phenomenon of scientific controversies and how these are currently being resolved. The central role of policy-related-science determines the new features of these conflicts where, not only scientific issues but also ethic values and rights, are at stake. Consequently, the tarnished view of peer community that resolves the dispute with its proper means has been replaced by that of a judge that decides the case. However, despite the controversy is closed in court, this is not always resolved. The original disagreement still persists, as the legal procedures do not satisfy the conditions of scientific procedures. Thus the logic of judicial decision seems unsuitable for settling disputes, where epistemic and non-epistemic factors interact. This paper comes to the conclusion that extrajudicial dispute resolution methods, based on direct participation of the parties and shared decisions, are more adequate to these controversies and represent a new place, where law and science can cooperate to do justice.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.