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Abstract

This study is concerned with self-disclosure to close friends among various age groups, using a multi-dimensional approach. The study indicated that amount, depth and valence of self-disclosure differentiated four age groups (19-25; 26-40; 41-60; 61-91). However, when length of friendship was taken into-consideration, only valence of self-disclosure differentiated the groups. The findings were discussed in terms of different stages of relationship development and similarity of self-disclosure, even though value systems may be very different. This study also highlights the need for longitudinal studies that explore age differences.
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... One indicator of someone starting to trust and establish a more intimate relationship with the other person is selfdisclosure. Disclosure of information and private stories, ranging from telling about family, experiences, plan for the future, love stories, and other privacy matters (Dickson, 1986;Rizal & Langerya, 2021;Sherly et al., 2019). ...
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Couchsurfing is an application that connects persons who need lodging, with individuals who offer their house as a free place to stay. Persons who need lodging are called surfers and individuals who provide their house are called hosts. When hosts and surfers are just getting acquainted through the Couchsurfing app, they hold some uncertainty with each other. This study describes the experiences of both parties in their efforts to reduce uncertainty and build close relationships, even though they only met through digital applications and never face to face. This study uses a phenomenological approach with data search techniques in the form of in-depth interviews, direct observation, and data observation through the Couchsurfing application. The number of interviewees was 14 from various cities in Indonesia. To reduce uncertainty and build close relationships, hosts and surfers go through five stages; first, understanding and believing technology; second, pre-conversation; third, online conversation-1; fourth, face-to-face conversation; and fifth, online conversation-2. The description of these stages is summarized in the findings of this study. This finding also proves that the presence of technology may modify the previously known theories of interpersonal communication. Interpersonal communication not only takes place between two people directly but also involves technology as an intermediary.
... Many of the technologies used to broadcast self-disclosure (e.g., e-mail, SNSs, microblogs) make it possible to share a potentially large number of disclosures with relatively little effort. Moreover, the number or amount of disclosures has been identified as an important factor in research examining self-disclosure across a variety of contexts ranging from among friends (Dickson-Markman, 1986) and family members (Martin, Anderson, & Mottet, 1999) to student-instructor interaction (Lannutti & Strauman, 2006). Among SNS users, one study showed a positive association between respondents' disclosure amount and their perceptions of intimacy with their connections on the network (Park, Jin, & Jin, 2011). ...
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Several new communication technologies have made it relatively easy for individuals to broadcast a single self-disclosure directly to almost everyone with whom they share a relationship—ranging from close friends to little-known acquaintances. Drawing from research on self-disclosure and the negativity effect, two studies were conducted to test the notion that the interpersonal and relational outcomes of broadcasting positive and negative self-disclosures are not uniform. The results of the cross-sectional survey offer evidence that the outcomes of positive and negative broadcasted disclosures vary depending on the receiver’s relationship with the discloser. The results from the experiment largely support the negativity effect explanation for differences in the outcomes of broadcasted disclosures. Relative to positive disclosures, negative broadcasted self-disclosures have a significantly greater impact on acquaintances than on friends’ perceptions of the discloser and their relationship.
... which Wheeless excluded from his analysis. The alpha scores obtained by Wheeless are similar to scores obtained in other studies(Dickson-Markman, 1986; ...
... The interview questions consisted of open-ended probes on leisurely activities, marital issues, thoughts and feelings about their relationship, and how couple members met (or did not meet) relational needs of their partners.T his study encompassed twenty couples over 60 years of age who had been married, on average, 42 years. According to epidemiological research and developmental theory, 60 yeiars of age is often considered an acceptable indicator of the beginrung of later life (Warheit, G., Bell, R., & Schwab, J., 1977;Dickson-Markman, F., 1986). ...
... Her major finding was that as age increases, the negative valence of self-disclosure increases. Dickson-Markman also shows a correlation between length of friendship and the degree and amount of self-disclosure, which, when combined with her primary findings, indicates the need for longitudinal studies regarding this subject (Dickson Markman, 1986). Ngozi Nkongho's research focused on 107 elderly men and women from 6 senior centers in New York City who completed Lohman's Life Satisfaction Scale and a modified version of Moriwaki's self-disclosure questionnaire. ...
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The study evaluates communication tendencies in a younger college-age population and an older population with regard to intra- and intergenerational communication. Voluntary questionnaires were distributed to each population in an attempt to learn more about communication topics, comfort level, and frequency of communication within and outside one's own age range. The findings support the hypothesis that when communicating intergenerationally, individuals tend to attempt to adapt to the person with whom they are communicating, while still retaining a large degree of independence. Further study is recommended on the topic of depth of self-disclosure among intergenerational dyads.This paper fulfilled W. Bettes's Honor Contract. His faculty supervisor was Professor Terry Helmick of Johnson County Community College.
... The first two domains, initiation of interactions and assertion, have commonly been studied in the behavioral research on assertiveness (Galassi & Galassi, 1980;Lipton & Nelson, 1980;Rathus, 1973;Schroeder, Rakos, & Moe, 1983). The third domain, disclosure of personal information, has been emphasized as important by communication researchers (Dickson-Markman, 1986), social psychologists (Chelune, Sulton, & Williams, 1980;Jourard, 1971), and marital researchers (Gottman, 1979;Tolstedt & Stokes, 1984). The fourth domain, emotional support, refers to providing comfort to others when they are experiencing problems or distress (Barker & Lemle, 1984;Gottlieb, 1985). ...
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In three studies we investigated the utility of distinguishing among different domains of interpersonal competence in college students' peer relationships. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire to assess five dimensions of competence: initiating relationships, self-disclosure, asserting displeasure with others' actions, providing emotional support, and managing interpersonal conflicts. Initial validation evidence was gathered. We found that self-perceptions of competence varied as a function of sex of subject, sex of interaction partner, and competence domain. In Study 2 we found moderate levels of agreement between ratings of competence by subjects and their roommates. Interpersonal competence scores were also related in predictable ways to subject and roommate reports of masculinity and femininity, social self-esteem, loneliness, and social desirability. In Study 3 we obtained ratings of subjects' competence from their close friends and new acquaintances. Relationship satisfaction among new acquaintances was predicted best by initiation competence, whereas satisfaction in friendships was most strongly related to emotional support competence. The findings provide strong evidence of the usefulness of distinguishing among domains of interpersonal competence.
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This study conceptualized perceived trustworthiness of the individual, self-disclosure to the individual, perceived trustworthiness of people in general, and disclosive tendencies to other people in general to be indicants of a broader construct of trust. Self-disclosure and perceived trustworthiness of the individual were found to be related constructs assessing differential aspects of the trust construct. Likewise, self-disclosure and perceived trustworthiness of the individual were found to be criterial attributes of interpersonal solidarity. These communication-related phenomena indicated the solidarity of interpersonal relationships. In the progress of the research, a 20-item measure of perceived interpersonal solidarity was developed as a criterion for assessing the impact of communication-related variables on interpersonal relationships. Other exploratory research issues were investigated.