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Self-Directed Learning: Toward a Comprehensive Model

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Abstract

Self-directed learning is a core theoretical construct distinguishing adult education as a field of study. Most of the concept's emphasis has been on the external control and management of learning tasks. In an attempt to expand the scope of self-directed learning, this paper presents a comprehensive theoretical model. The proposed model integrates self-management (contextual control), self-monitoring (cognitive responsibility), and motivational (entering and task) dimensions to reflect a meaningful and worthwhile approach to self-directed learning. Explicating the cognitive and motivational dimensions of self-directed learning is identified as an area requiring further research.
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... Entwistle, 2005;Ramsden, 1985), se je vse več raziskovalcev ukvarjalo tudi s pomenom in raziskovanjem metakognicije ter s tem, kako študenti samostojno in avtonomno uravnavajo svoje učenje (npr. Garrison, 1997;Zimmerman, 2002). ...
... Poleg tovrstnih strategij morajo študenti obvladati samo-uravnavanje motivacije za učenje (kam in kako bodo usmerjali svoj trud in energijo), kar je vedno povezano tudi z določenimi socialnimi pričakovanji in pravili (biti odgovoren študent, ustreči učiteljevim pričakovanjem ipd.) (Boekaerts in Cascallar, 2006). Metakognitivne zmožnosti in strategije vključujejo zmožnosti refleksije in kritičnega razmišljanja (Garrison, 1997). Kritično naravnanost mišljenja med drugim predstavlja pripravljenost za prepoznavanje in presojanje lastnih predpostavk in prepričanj, preverjanje utemeljenosti teh prepričanj, odprtost za preoblikovanje in ustvarjanje novih pogledov ipd. ...
... Še posebno pomembno vlogo ima učiteljeva povratna informacija med študijskim procesom (Garrison, 1997). Ker so si študentje različni, ni enega najboljšega načina oblikovanja in posredovanja povratnih informacij, saj nekateri študentje potrebujejo več povratnih informacij iz zunanjih virov, drugi pa se bolj zanašajo na notranje vire in lastno presojo (Vermunt in Donche, 2017). ...
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V poglavju analiziramo vplive dveh evropskih instrumentov, ki sta se vzpostavila v okviru lizbonskega in bolonjskega procesa, to sta evropsko ogrodje kvalifikacij za vseživljenjsko učenje (EOK) ter evropsko ogrodje visokošolskih kvalifikacij (EOVK), na vzpostavitev nacionalnega ogrodja kvalifikacij in kurikularno načrtovanje v visokem šolstvu v Sloveniji. Preučujemo proces, ki se izvaja pod okriljem evropeizacije izobraževanja in poteka od zgoraj navzdol. V okviru slednjega nas zlasti zanima, kako oba evropska instrumenta (EOK, EOVK) vplivata na načrtovanje študijskih programov v visokem šolstvu. Pri tem se podrobneje posvetimo konceptu učnega izida kot osrednjemu elementu obeh ogrodij in pokažemo, kako se koncept učnega izida uveljavlja v visokošolskem kurikularnem načrtovanju in v kakšnem odnosu je do drugih komponent visokošolskega kurikularnega načrtovanja, zlasti do ciljev in kompetenc. Ob tem natančneje preučujemo, na kakšen način je mogoče učne izide načrtovati na ravni predmeta v visokošolskem izobraževanju. V zaključku podamo nekaj predlogov o oblikovanju učnih izidov na ravni študijskega programa in predmeta ter o razmerju učnih izidov do ciljev in kompetenc programa.
... The context of self-directed learning has now changed with online learning, greater access to technology, personalized learning experiences, and access to information sources that were not available earlier [27]. The online course setting provides an open communication environment for students, which allows the students to express themselves socially and emotionally through communication [28], [29]. Students can interact with each other and with teachers through online learning platforms. ...
... The only source book that the researches easily encountered and used in this study is the module of the education and training; ii) There are quite a lot of difficulties in compacting the content of strategic management in the education and training; and iii) Difficulties in developing material or discussion questions at the evaluation level of higher order thinking skills. Tobe a critical thinker, one needs to be self-directed; and conversely, to be a self-directed learner,one needs to be a critical thinker [29] and it indicates a positive relationship between critical thinking (CT) and SDL. Although, simply transplanting a text-based resource to an online setting by itself does not provide an effective online learning environment [13]. ...
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The purposes of this study were: i) Developing strategic management of education and training online tutorial; ii) Testing the feasibility of strategic management of education and training online tutorial; iii) Finding out the obstacles in strategic management of education and training online tutorial development process; and iv) Finding the solutions in overcoming obstacles in developing strategic management of education and training online tutorial. This developmental research used the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE) model and involved second year students of teacher training and education faculty in the Kupang region, Indonesia. The instruments used in this study were: i) Validation guidelines for online tutorial material and supporting instruments; ii) Students’ self-directed learning questionnaire; and iii) Online tutorial formative test questions. Data analysis used descriptive and inferential statistical test. The results show that the online tutorial: i) Fulfilled the aspect of validity in the excellent category; ii) Fulfilled the effectiveness aspect in the good category; iii) Limitations of the source, difficulties in compacting the content of material and developing discussion questions are the obstacles in developing the online tutorial; and iv) The solutions are (utilize Universitas Terbuka (UT)'s open educational resources (OER), make concept maps, and keep practicing to make question samples and consult the questions made to the experts).
... In fact, an ideal SL should not be conducted as an individualistic activity or in a way that students are isolated from others. As described by Garrison (1997), SL should include collaborative experiences in which facilitators provide support, direction, and guidance for the attainment of the necessary educational outcomes [46]. ...
... In fact, an ideal SL should not be conducted as an individualistic activity or in a way that students are isolated from others. As described by Garrison (1997), SL should include collaborative experiences in which facilitators provide support, direction, and guidance for the attainment of the necessary educational outcomes [46]. ...
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Background: Self-learning (SL) is a process in which individuals take the initiative to acquire knowledge with or without the help of others. Knowledge about herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) is important for pharmacists. Unfortunately, there is limited coverage of topics relating to HDS in the pharmacy curricula. The present focus group study applies the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore pharmacy students’ practices and beliefs regarding SL about HDS (SL-HDS). Methods: Focus group interviews (FGIs) were conducted between April and May 2019 among a sample of undergraduate pharmacy students at a public university (n = 20). Four FGI sessions were conducted, each lasting about 60 to 75 min, and all the sessions were audio-recorded. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: Beliefs about SL-HDS were categorised into 12 domains based on the TDF. Students showed positive attitudes towards SL-HDS and agreed that their involvement in SL-HDS was instrumental in improving their knowledge about various aspects of HDS including indications, adverse effects, and HDS-drug interactions. Various facilitators and barriers influencing students’ participation in SL-HDS were uncovered (e.g., access to the internet, time, availability of reference resources). The students demanded to be equipped with critical appraisal skills, as they had limited confidence in assessing literature or information about HDS. Conclusion: This study revealed that the students saw the benefits of SL-HDS. They also perceived that engaging in SL-HDS is compatible with the role of pharmacy students. The findings showed students’ readiness and willingness to conduct SL-HDS.
... The net effect is that learners may be less likely to extract the semantic content featured in naturalistic learning experiences. Doing so requires self-direction of attention, which imposes its own demands on learning (Brockett & Hiemstra, 2018;Garrison, 1997;Knowles, 1975). Prior work testing naturalistic learning has probed factual recall (Sweetman et al., 2020), but has not focused on productive memory processes such as inferential reasoning or self-derivation through memory integration. ...
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Educational opportunities occur through naturalistic everyday life experiences (e.g., reading a newspaper, listening to a podcast, or visiting a museum). Research primarily examines learning under controlled conditions, such as in a classroom or laboratory. There is relatively little known about the extent to which adults extract semantic content, beyond factual recall, from naturalistic educational experiences. In the present work, we focused on virtual museum exhibits. The materials were sourced directly from an art history museum. The naturalistic nature of this work stems from the type of content used though an important component of naturalistic learning—motivational processes—was not measured. In each of three experiments, we assessed adult learners’ performance on tests of factual recall, inferential reasoning, and self-derivation through memory integration from naturalistic virtual museum exhibits. In anticipation of the potential challenge associated with learning outcomes under naturalistic conditions, we administered a yoked protocol under which participants had opportunities to engage in retrieval practice (Experiment 2a) or restudy (Experiment 2b) as explicit mechanisms of support for the three tests of learning. In all experiments, participants performed successfully on all three tests of learning; factual recall was the most accessible of the three learning outcomes. There was no difference in performance at the group level across experiments, but there was at the individual level, such that idea units generated during retrieval practice predicted learning outcomes, whereas restudy of those exact idea units did not. The current work provides novel insight into mechanisms underlying adult learning from naturalistic educational opportunities.
... Mlađi učenici rjeđe od roditelja skrivaju lošu ocjenu, te su skloniji traženju njihove pomoći u odnosu na srednjoškolce (Rijavec i Brdar, 1997). Socijalna podrška vršnjaka postaje sve bitnija i kontinuirano raste s dobi (Seiffge-Krenke, 1993).Također se navodi da samoregulirano učenje treba se promatrati kao proces ili psihološki aspekt koji je uglavnom određen crtama ličnosti (Garrison, 1997). Lounsbury i suradnici (2009) navode da su samoregulirano učenje, akademsko postignuće i crte ličnosti usko povezane. ...
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Društvene mreže kao snažan medij omogućavaju dvosmjernu komunikaciju ipojavu influencera sa značajnim utjecajem na druge ljude, posebice djecu i mlade u vrijeme njihovog intenzivnog razvoja. Influenceri svoje djelovanje ostvaruju konceptima parasocijalne povezanosti i identifikacije želja kao i influence marketingom. Medijske ličnosti danas preuzimaju jednu od socijalizacijskih uloga u odgoju te je iz tog razloga jedna od važnih uloga roditelja pomoći djeci u „odgoju za medije“ kako bi minimizirali manipulaciju djecom i njihovo uvođenje u neki iluzorni svijet koji im se prezentira kao „suvremena neminovnost“. Jedan od ciljeva istraživanja bio je problemu utjecaja influencera pristupiti s pedagoškog stajališta budući ovakav način ispitivanja na nacionalnom i širem planu izostaje. Putem posebno kreiranog anketnog upitnika ispitalo se mišljenje učenika 7. i 8. razreda (N = 51) osnovnih škola i njihovih roditelja (N = 26) o spoznajama influencerskog utjecaja i mogućih posljedica na djecu. Istraživanje je provedeno u 5 riječkih osnovnih škola. Rezultati pokazuju snažan influencerski utjecaj među učeničkom populacijom koji se ostvaruje kroz fenomene parasocijalne povezanosti, identifikacije želja i influence marketinga. Istovremeno roditelji pokazuju neinformiranost o problemu, nepoznavanje utjecaja influencera na djecu, dok neki ne uviđaju negativne utjecaje ili su prema problemu indiferentni. Istraživanje ukazuje na potrebu poticanja intenzivne komunikacije roditelja i djece o medijskom sadržaju i medijskim ličnostima kako bi se djecu osposobilo za kritički odnos prema njima. Istraživanje otvara i niz drugih istraživačkih pitanja na koje bi pedagogijska znanost trebala odgovoriti, a prvenstveno kreirati suvremene načine educiranja i osnaživanja roditeljskih odgojnih kompetencija posebice iz područja medijske pismenosti.
... It has the potential, to significantly enhance the intellectual quality of learning environments and outcomes (Garrison, 1997). Ultimately, effective learning must take into consideration both the internal cognitive process as well as the external contextual elements. ...
Conference Paper
COVID-19 has led to growing dependence on synchronous and asynchronous learning methods. New technologies and software offer both positive and negative implications of knowledge. Some researchers argue that students do not achieve higher level learning in synchronous courses. We have to learn in how to use this technology for effective learning. Universities and academies are now experiencing the influence of synchronous and asynchronous learning methods. Online learning experiences after two years of covid give chance to summarize. This case study explored asynchronous methods derived from experiences in higher education institutions from Bulgaria, Greece, Poland and Romania. In present article presents an analysis of asynchronous learning methods used in the project “Implementation of Digitalization in Defence Higher Education-DDHE”. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that asynchronous online learning used in DDHE can create a rich cognitive presence capable of supporting learning in military higher education institutions. Asynchronous online learning in DDHE is not just another educational technology to be used as a simple enhancement but introducing the teacher to a higher level of cognitive didactics. DDHE is forcing educators to reflect on the teaching and learning process and what constitutes effective learning.
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The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of Self-directed Learning Scale among students. The design of the present study was a correlational one. The statistical population of this research included all students in Tehran city, among whom 315students of Islamic Azad University were selected through available sampling method. The concerned population responded to such scales as Self-directed Learning Scale, Midgley’s Achievement Goal Orientations Scale and Barron's Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. The SPSS (Version 22) and Lisrel (8, 54) software as well as factor analysis method, Chronbach's Alpha and Pierson's Correlation were used to analyze the data. The results of factor analysis showed that this scale was consisted of 4 factors, including motivation for learning, planning and implementation, self-monitoring and interpersonal relationships. Having examined the validity of the scale, it was indicated that this construct had a positive significant relationship with mastery goals, approach functional goals and all components of emotional intelligence. However, the former construct had a negative significant relationship with avoidance approach goals. The reliability of the scale was determined 0.91 for the whole scale using Cronbach's Alpha. Besides, the reliability of each subscales were determined as 0.81, 0.82, 0.75 and 0.75, respectively. The latter results indicated high capability of this instrument. The findings of the study indicated that the Persian version of Self-directed Learning Scale was characterized with acceptable psychometric characteristics among university students.
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Digital learning has certainly affected modern education, and as the pandemic erupted in 2020, digitally mediated instruction helped preserve academic continuity by moving courses online. This digital learning initiative required faculty’s active participation in cooperation with instructional designers and technologists (IDTs) and other experts in teaching and learning for success. This chapter has been written to exemplify how collaborative work could create transformative learning environments. In this project, the Office of Digital Learning at the University of Notre Dame assisted a faculty member in repurposing his instructional videos to enhance student learning by employing instructional design strategies and multimedia technologies based on a range of learning theories to create a student-centered learning environment. The first attempt for the project was to change students’ sense of control in learning and then targeted their emotions to create autonomy that helped them stay in the zone of proximal development. The learning activities in the synchronous parts of the blended model, structured with scaffolded instructions and assessments, supported students in developing the required knowledge and cognitive skills to construct new knowledge. The preliminary results of a postproject survey indicated three main impacts of the design on student learning: (1) learning assistance, (2) free navigation, and (3) increased motivation and engagement. Aside from achieving the goal of enhancing student learning, this project also offered opportunities for the instructor to gain firsthand information, assistance, and experience in applying theory-driven practices with appropriate technologies into a curriculum and course design. As the faculty member began to understand how digital learning can lead to a positive impact on his work, he would be more likely to use it and share the experience with peer faculty members about these types of digital learning initiatives. In turn, the University can prepare more faculty members to engage with the digital learning trend and build an ecosystem for revolutionizing learning through participating in this kind of cooperative effort. The insights from the project have become the blueprints and inspiration for the continued improvement of these efforts. The ultimate goal is to scale the design framework and its practices for wider application, rather than treating them as isolated strategies applicable to only specific projects.
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