Article

Organizing WomenThe New Women's Movement in Algeria

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  • Northestern University, Boston, Mass., USA
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Abstract

This article examines the women's movement in Algeria in the context of domestic developments, such as the post-Boumedienne restructuring of the state, regional liberalization, and global developments such as the rise of Islamism and the expansion of feminism. It points to the emergence of the Algerian feminist movement during the crises of the 1980s and 1990s, and to its current interface with regional and transnational feminist organizations.

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... Lo que se ha registrado en la investigación académica permite evidenciar la forma mediante la cual, mujeres de todos los lugares del mundo han recurrido a las movilizaciones para protestar en contra de actos bélicos; por ejemplo, en Suiza en 1935 (Andersson, 2003), durante la Guerra del Golfo Pérsico (Riley, 2005), y durante la Revolución Argelina en los años 60 (Moghadam, 2001). Se destacan de manera fundamental, como un movimiento global, las Mujeres de Negro quienes, desde hace varias décadas, nacidas en Israel y Palestina, pero extendidas a diversas partes del mundo, se visten simbólicamente de negro para alzar su voz en las calles, movilizarse en el espacio público para denunciar la violencia y las guerras; según ellas, siempre iniciadas por los hombres, mientras que normalmente, las principales víctimas suelen ser mujeres y niños. ...
... Cabe resaltar el papel y lugar que las mujeres han tenido en diálogos y acuerdos de paz que han sido firmados entre 1989 y 2011 (O'Reilly, 2016), donde han podido empoderarse de su rol como constructoras de paz, no solo desde el escenario público, sino también en el académico, en la educación de sus hijos y en sus comunidades (Wood Wetzel, 1996;Morrison, 2006;Omotayo, 2006;Moghadam, 2001;Rajasingham-Senanayake, 2004;Kutz-Flamenbaum, 2015;ONU Mujeres, 2012;Hudson, 2011). Un hito significativo fue el registrado en la desmovilización del "Revolutionary United Front (RUF)" en Sierra Leona; gracias a la acción conjunta de las mujeres, la comunidad local se comprometió con la necesidad de dar cese a las atrocidades y ceñirse al acuerdo anterior pactado con Naciones Unidas. ...
... Además, ellas han sido claves para generar políticas públicas que producen cambios sociales y comunitarios en los que, tanto mujeres como niñas, se han visto beneficiadas en su reconocimiento como sujetos políticos; así como cambios culturales y educativos. (Rajasingham-Senanayake, 2004;Moghadam, 2001;Kuumba, 2006). En Colombia, la Ruta Pacífica de las Mujeres (2013) ha vivido un proceso de maduración, en el que las participantes han construido e implementado una propuesta educativa en cultura de paz y no violencia; mediante la Escuela Itinerante de Formación Política han cimentado una paz con sentido de mujer (De Ávila, 2011). ...
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Este artículo tiene como objetivo recoger y hacer una sistematización de investigaciones y textos de reflexión teórica o investigativa acerca de las acciones de resistencia de las mujeres a la guerra y la militarización, así como a su continuo trabajo por la construcción de la paz. Se revisaron las bases de datos: Scopus, Sage Publications, Taylor y Francis, Redalyc, Scielo y Dialnet; además de otras publicaciones que se han realizado sobre el tema, en el contexto colombiano: en los procesos sociales, las ONG y otras organizaciones internacionales, que no aparecen en estas bases de datos. La revisión se realizó priorizando artículos entre 2010 y 2016, lo cual no excluye la presencia de otras referencias. La información se analizó según el método de análisis categorial por matrices, siguiendo un procedimiento intratextual de coherencia, uno intertextual y una codificación teórica que permitió cruzar las categorías con el marco geográfico de las acciones. En los resultados se abordan las formas en las que las mujeres se movilizan públicamente para hacer resistencia, ya sea por medio de marchas y otro tipo de movilizaciones, acciones performativas y artísticas, o por medio de la incursión en la esfera política conformando movimientos sociales para dejar un impacto en el tejido social que genere transformaciones en su subjetividad como mujeres, en sus comunidades y en la sociedad en general.
... Globalization is also tied to the veritable explosion in the 1990s of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), a vehicle that women's movements around the world have driven successfully to further the cause of women's rights (Moghadam 2001). Using global communications technology to inform and organize, women's NGOs have focused, inter alia, on violence against women and the education of girls and women, two issues of especial concern in Algeria. ...
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This article focuses on the combined consequences for women of militarization and pan-Islamism—a particular manifestation of Islam that has spread using some of the mechanisms of globalization, especially global trade and global communications. The empirical data are drawn from the civil conflict of the 1990s in Algeria, where an Islamist movement led by the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) and several armed Islamist groups (notably the GIA, the Armed Islamic Group) terrorized the population and killed tens of thousands of people in an attempt to seize control of the state. External support from pan-Islamists accounts, in part, for the ability of the FIS and the GIA to gain a foothold in Algeria. The pan-Islamist movement has cells in Europe and the Middle East, some of which were in contact with Algerian Islamists. Armed Islamist groups from Algeria received training from Al Qaeda, combat experience in Afghanistan and Bosnia, and financial support from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Iran.
... In the Arab world, issues about gender equality continue to circulate around poverty, education, violence against women, the effects of armed conflict on women, and the need to end inequality in power sharing and decision-making at all levels of society (Sakr, 2004). The Arab women's movement has motivated the creation of various organizations and unions that strive to instigate awareness of the importance of women's rights and with the aim of affirming and extending the scope of those rights to obtain gender equality (Darwiche, 1999;Moghadam, 2001;Salem, 1990;Sonbol, 2003). However, women's movements are still struggling to obtain basic political rights. ...
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Changing the Political Climate and Creating Conditions to Promote Equality: The Role of Non-governmental Organizations', paper prepared for the International Workshop on National Machinery to Promote Equality between Women and Men in Central and Eastern European Countries
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Demographic factors have been identified as important by a number of scholars who have studied women's organizations. See, for example
Demographic factors have been identified as important by a number of scholars who have studied women's organizations. See, for example, Chafetz and Dworkin (1986); see also Margolis (1993).
Women Living under Muslim Laws
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Gah, Shirkat (1997) 'Women Living under Muslim Laws', Newssheet 9(1-2): 19-23.
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Algerian Women at a Crossroads: National Liberation, Islamization, and Women
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Feminine Militancy: Moudjahidates during and after the Algerian War
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Other key elements are mobilizing structures (the capacity to mobilize financial and human resources and build organizations), and framing processes (the interpretive, cultural, discursive, and symbolic aspects of movement-building)
  • See Mcadam
Political opportunity structure (POS) is a key element of social movement analysis. Other key elements are mobilizing structures (the capacity to mobilize financial and human resources and build organizations), and framing processes (the interpretive, cultural, discursive, and symbolic aspects of movement-building). See McAdam et al., 1996. REFERENCES
Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority
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Layachi, Azzedinne (1995) 'Algeria: Reinstating the State or Instating Civil Society?', in I. William Zartman (ed.) Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.