Article

Study of Thermodynamic Laws in $f(R,T,R_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu})$ Gravity

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Abstract

We study first and second laws of black hole thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of FRW spacetime in f(R; T;R��T��) gravity, where R, R�� are the Ricci scalar and Riemann tensor and T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor T��. We develop the Friedmann equations for any spatial curvature in this modified theory and show that these equations can be transformed to the form of Clausius relation T_hS_{eff}� = �Q. Here Th is the horizon temperature, Se� is the entropy which contains contributions both from horizon entropy and additional entropy term introduced due to the non-equilibrating description and �Q is the energy flux across the horizon. The generalized second law of thermodynamics is also established in a more comprehensive form and one can recover the corresponding results in Einstein, f(R) and f(R; T) gravities. We discuss GSLT in the locality of assumption that temperature of matter inside the horizon is similar to that of horizon. Finally, we consider particular models in this theory and generate constraints on the coupling parameter for the validity of GSLT.

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We investigate the thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of the FRW universe in f(R, T) theory in the nonequilibrium description. The laws of thermodynamics are discussed for two particular models of the f(R, T) theory. The first law of thermodynamics is expressed in the form of the Clausius relation , where δQ is the energy flux across the horizon and is the entropy production term. Furthermore, the conditions for the generalized second law of thermodynamics to be preserved are established with the constraints of positive temperature and attractive gravity. We illustrate our results for some concrete models in this theory.
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We consider the $f(R,T)$ theory, where $R$ is the scalar curvature and $T$ is the trace of energy-momentum tensor, as an effective description for the holographic and new agegraphic dark energy and reconstruct the corresponding $f(R,T)$ functions. In this study, we concentrate on two particular models of $f(R,T)$ gravity namely, $R+2A(T)$ and $B(R)+\lambda{T}$. We conclude that the derived $f(R,T)$ models can represent phantom or quintessence regimes of the universe which are compatible with the current observational data. In addition, the conditions to preserve the generalized second law of thermodynamics are established.
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We investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) modified teleparallel gravity. We consider a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the Hubble horizon. For two viable f(T) models containing f(T) = T+μ1{(−T)}n and f(T) = T−μ2T(1−eβT0/T), we first calculate the effective equation of state and deceleration parameters. Then, {we investigate the null and strong energy conditions and conclude that a sudden future singularity appears in both models. Furthermore, using a cosmographic analysis we check the viability of two models. Finally, we examine the validity of the GSL and find that for both models it} is satisfied from the early times to the present epoch. But in the future, the GSL is violated for the special ranges of the torsion scalar T.
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We consider a gravitational model in which matter is non-minimally coupled to geometry, with the effective Lagrangian of the gravitational field being given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, the trace of the matter energy-momentum tensor, and the contraction of the Ricci tensor with the matter energy-momentum tensor. The field equations of the model are obtained in the metric formalism, and the equation of motion of a massive test particle is derived. In this type of models the matter energy-momentum tensor is generally not conserved, and this non-conservation determines the appearance of an extra-force acting on the particles in motion in the gravitational field. The Newtonian limit of the model is also considered, and an explicit expression for the extra-acceleration which depends on the matter density is obtained in the small velocity limit for dust particles. We also analyze in detail the so-called Dolgov-Kawasaki instability, and obtain the stability conditions of the model with respect to local perturbations. A particular class of gravitational field equations can be obtained by imposing the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor. We derive the corresponding field equations for the conservative case by using a Lagrange multiplier method, from a gravitational action that explicitly contains an independent parameter multiplying the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. The cosmological implications of the model are investigated for both the conservative and non-conservative cases, and several classes of analytical solutions are obtained.
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In this work we explore the consequences that a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter can have on the dynamics of perfect fluids. It is argued that the presence of a static, axially symmetric pressureless fluid does not imply a Minkowski space-time like as is in General Relativity. This feature can be atributed to a pressure mimicking mechanism related to the non-minimal coupling. The case of a spherically symmetric black hole surrounded by fluid matter is analyzed, and it is shown that under equilibrium conditions the total fluid mass is about twice that of the black hole. Finally, a generalization of the Newtonian potential for a fluid element is proposed and its implications are briefly discussed.
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In [ T. Jacobson Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 1260 (1995)] it was shown that the Einstein equation can be derived as a local constitutive equation for an equilibrium spacetime thermodynamics. More recently, in the attempt to extend the same approach to the case of f(R) theories of gravity, it was found that a nonequilibrium setting is indeed required in order to fully describe both this theory as well as classical general relativity (GR) [ C. Eling, R. Guedens and T. Jacobson Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 121301 (2006)]. Here, elaborating on this point, we show that the dissipative character leading to nonequilibrium spacetime thermodynamics is actually related—both in GR as well as in f(R) gravity—to nonlocal heat fluxes associated with the purely gravitational/internal degrees of freedom of the theory. In particular, in the case of GR we show that the internal entropy production term is identical to the so-called tidal heating term of Hartle-Hawking. Similarly, for the case of f(R) gravity, we show that dissipative effects can be associated with the generalization of this term plus a scalar contribution whose presence is clearly justified within the scalar-tensor representation of the theory. Finally, we show that the allowed gravitational degrees of freedom can be fixed by the kinematics of the local spacetime causal structure, through the specific equivalence principle formulation. In this sense, the thermodynamical description seems to go beyond Einstein’s theory as an intrinsic property of gravitation.
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In the context of f(R,T) theories of gravity, we study the evolution of scalar cosmological perturbations in the metric formalism. According to restrictions on the background evolution, a specific model within these theories is assumed in order to guarantee the standard continuity equation. Using a completely general procedure, we find the complete set of differential equations for the matter density perturbations. In the case of sub-Hubble modes, the density contrast evolution reduces to a second-order equation. We show that for well-motivated f(R,T) Lagrangians the quasistatic approximation yields to very different results from the ones derived in the frame of the concordance {\Lambda}CDM model constraining severely the viability of such theories.
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We review different dark energy cosmologies. In particular, we present the $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, Little Rip and Pseudo-Rip universes, the phantom and quintessence cosmologies with Type I, II, III and IV finite-time future singularities and non-singular dark energy universes. In the first part, we explain the $\Lambda$CDM model and well-established observational tests which constrain the current cosmic acceleration. After that, we investigate the dark fluid universe where a fluid has quite general equation of state (EoS) [including inhomogeneous or imperfect EoS]. All the above dark energy cosmologies for different fluids are explicitly realized, and their properties are also explored. It is shown that all the above dark energy universes may mimic the $\Lambda$CDM model currently, consistent with the recent observational data. Furthermore, special attention is paid to the equivalence of different dark energy models. We consider single and multiple scalar field theories, tachyon scalar theory and holographic dark energy as models for current acceleration with the features of quintessence/phantom cosmology, and demonstrate their equivalence to the corresponding fluid descriptions. In the second part, we study another equivalent class of dark energy models which includes $F(R)$ gravity as well as $F(R)$ Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity and the teleparallel $f(T)$ gravity. The cosmology of such models representing the $\Lambda$CDM-like universe or the accelerating expansion with the quintessence/phantom nature is described. Finally, we approach the problem of testing dark energy and alternative gravity models to general relativity by cosmography. We show that degeneration among parameters can be removed by accurate data analysis of large data samples and also present the examples.
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We explore the thermodynamics of dark energy taking into account the existence of the observer's event horizon in accelerated universes. Except for the initial stage of Chaplygin gas dominated expansion, the generalized second law of gravitational thermodynamics is fulfilled and the temperature of the phantom fluid results positive. This substantially extends the work of Pollock and Singh [M.D. Pollock, T.P. Singh, Class. Quantum Grav. 6 (1989) 901] on the thermodynamics of super-inflationary expansion.
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The field equations of a generalized f(R) type gravity model, in which there is an arbitrary coupling between matter and geometry, are obtained. The equations of motion for test particles are derived from a variational principle in the particular case in which the Lagrange density of the matter is an arbitrary function of the energy-density of the matter only. Generally, the motion is non-geodesic, and takes place in the presence of an extra force orthogonal to the four-velocity. The Newtonian limit of the model is also considered. The perihelion precession of an elliptical planetary orbit in the presence of an extra force is obtained in a general form, and the magnitude of the extra gravitational effects is constrained in the case of a constant extra force by using Solar System observations.
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We study thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in F(R) gravity. In particular, we demonstrate that an F(R) gravity model with realizing a crossing of the phantom divide can satisfy the second law of thermodynamics in the effective phantom phase as well as non-phantom one.
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The energy conditions and the Dolgov-Kawasaki criterion in generalized $f(R)$ gravity with arbitrary coupling between matter and geometry are derived in this paper, which are quite general and can degenerate to the well-known energy conditions in GR and $f(R)$ gravity with non-minimal coupling and non-coupling as special cases. In order to get some insight on the meaning of these energy conditions and the Dolgov- Kawasaki criterion, we apply them to a class of models in the FRW cosmology and give some corresponding results.
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A non-equilibrium picture of thermodynamics is discussed at the apparent horizon of FRW universe in $f(R,T)$ gravity, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $T$ is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We take two forms of the energy-momentum tensor of dark components and demonstrate that equilibrium description of thermodynamics is not achievable in both cases. We check the validity of the first and second law of thermodynamics in this scenario. It is shown that the Friedmann equations can be expressed in the form of first law of thermodynamics $T_hdS'_h+T_hd_{\jmath}S'=-dE'+W'dV$, where $d_{\jmath}S'$ is the entropy production term. Finally, we conclude that the second law of thermodynamics holds both in phantom and non-phantom phases.
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We study the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in $f(T)$ cosmology. We consider the universe as a closed bounded system filled with $n$ component fluids in the thermal equilibrium with the cosmological boundary. We use two different cosmic horizons: the future event horizon and the apparent horizon. We show the conditions under which the GSL will be valid in specific scenarios of the quintessence and the phantom energy dominated eras. Further we associate two different entropies with the cosmological horizons: with a logarithmic correction term and a power-law correction term. We also find the conditions for the GSL to be satisfied or violated by imposing constraints on model parameters.
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We consider cosmological scenarios based on $f(R,T)$ theories of gravity ($R$ is the Ricci scalar and $T$ is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor) and numerically reconstruct the function $f(R,T)$ which is able to reproduce the same expansion history generated, in the standard General Relativity theory, by dark matter and holographic dark energy. We consider two special $f(R,T)$ models: in the first instance, we investigate the modification $R + 2f(T)$, i.e. the usual Einstein-Hilbert term plus a $f(T)$ correction. In the second instance, we consider a $f(R)+\lambda T$ theory, i.e. a $T$ correction to the renown $f(R)$ theory of gravity.
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We consider f(R,T) modified theories of gravity, where the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar R and of the trace of the stress-energy tensor T. We obtain the gravitational field equations in the metric formalism, as well as the equations of motion for test particles, which follow from the covariant divergence of the stress-energy tensor. Generally, the gravitational field equations depend on the nature of the matter source. The field equations of several particular models, corresponding to some explicit forms of the function f(R,T), are also presented. An important case, which is analyzed in detail, is represented by scalar field models. We write down the action and briefly consider the cosmological implications of the $f(R,T^{\phi})$ models, where $T^{\phi}$ is the trace of the stress-energy tensor of a self-interacting scalar field. The equations of motion of the test particles are also obtained from a variational principle. The motion of massive test particles is non-geodesic, and takes place in the presence of an extra force orthogonal to the four-velocity. The Newtonian limit of the equation of motion is further analyzed. Finally, we provide a constraint on the magnitude of the extra-acceleration by analyzing the perihelion precession of the planet Mercury in the framework of the present model.
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We generalize the f(R) type gravity models by assuming that the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar R and of the matter Lagrangian L m . We obtain the gravitational field equations in the metric formalism, as well as the equations of motion for test particles, which follow from the covariant divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. The equations of motion for test particles can also be derived from a variational principle in the particular case in which the Lagrangian density of the matter is an arbitrary function of the energy density of the matter only. Generally, the motion is non-geodesic, and it takes place in the presence of an extra force orthogonal to the four-velocity. The Newtonian limit of the equation of motion is also considered, and a procedure for obtaining the energy-momentum tensor of the matter is presented. The gravitational field equations and the equations of motion for a particular model in which the action of the gravitational field has an exponential dependence on the standard general relativistic Hilbert–Einstein Lagrange density are also derived.
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We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in a universe governed by Horava-Lifshitz gravity. Under the equilibrium assumption, that is in the late-time cosmological regime, we calculate separately the entropy time-variation for the matter fluid and, using the modified entropy relation, that of the apparent horizon itself. We find that under detailed balance the generalized second law is generally valid for flat and closed geometry and it is conditionally valid for an open universe, while beyond detailed balance it is only conditionally valid for all curvatures. Furthermore, we also follow the effective approach showing that it can lead to misleading results. The non-complete validity of the generalized second law could either provide a suggestion for its different application, or act as an additional problematic feature of Horava-Lifshitz gravity.
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We study the relation between the thermodynamics and field equations of generalized gravity theories on the dynamical trapping horizon with sphere symmetry. We assume the entropy of dynamical horizon as the Noether charge associated with the Kodama vector and point out that it satisfies the second law when a Gibbs equation holds. We generalize two kinds of Gibbs equations to Gauss-Bonnet gravity on any trapping horizon. Based on the quasi-local gravitational energy found recently for $f(R)$ gravity and scalar-tensor gravity in some special cases, we also build up the Gibbs equations, where the nonequilibrium entropy production, which is usually invoked to balance the energy conservation, is just absorbed into the modified Wald entropy in the FRW spacetime with slowly varying horizon. Moreover, the equilibrium thermodynamic identity remains valid for $f(R)$ gravity in a static spacetime. Our work provides an alternative treatment to reinterpret the nonequilibrium correction and supports the idea that the horizon thermodynamics is universal for generalized gravity theories. Comment: 23 pages, no figure, minor changes, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. D
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With the help of a masslike function which has a dimension of energy and is equal to the Misner-Sharp mass at the apparent horizon, we show that the first law of thermodynamics of the apparent horizon dE=T(A)dS(A) can be derived from the Friedmann equation in various theories of gravity, including the Einstein, Lovelock, nonlinear, and scalar-tensor theories. This result strongly suggests that the relationship between the first law of thermodynamics of the apparent horizon and the Friedmann equation is not just a simple coincidence, but rather a more profound physical connection.
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We investigate the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) in generalized theories of gravity. We examine the total entropy evolution with time including the horizon entropy, the non-equilibrium entropy production, and the entropy of all matter, field and energy components. We derive a universal condition to protect the generalized second law and study its validity in different gravity theories. In Einstein gravity, (even in the phantom-dominated universe with a Schwarzschild black hole), Lovelock gravity, and braneworld gravity, we show that the condition to keep the GSL can always be satisfied. In $f(R)$ gravity and scalar-tensor gravity, the condition to protect the GSL can also hold because the gravity is always attractive and the effective Newton constant should be approximate constant satisfying the experimental bounds.
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We investigate the cosmological reconstruction in modified f(R, T) gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar and T the trace of the stress–energy tensor. Special attention is attached to the case in which the function f is given by f(R, T) = f1(R) + f2(T). The use of auxiliary scalar field is considered with two known examples for the scale factor corresponding to an expanding universe. In the first example, where ordinary matter is usually neglected for obtaining the unification of matter dominated and accelerated phases with f(R) gravity, it is shown in this paper that this unification can be obtained without neglecting ordinary matter. In the second example, as in f(R) gravity, model of f(R, T) gravity with transition of matter dominated phase to the acceleration phase is obtained. In both cases, linear function of the trace is assumed for f2(T) and it is obtained that f1(R) is proportional to a power of R with exponents depending on the input parameters.
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In this paper, we study the behavior of perfect fluid and massless scalar field for homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type I universe model in f(R,T) gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We assume the variation law of mean Hubble parameter to obtain exact solutions of the modified field equations. The physical and kinematical quantities are discussed for both models in future evolution of the universe. We check the validity of null energy condition and conclude that our perfect fluid solution can behave like phantom model. Finally, we find that perfect fluid solutions correspond to massless scalar field models.
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Over the past decade, f(R) theories have been extensively studied as one of the simplest modifications to General Relativity. In this article we review various applications of f(R) theories to cosmology and gravity - such as inflation, dark energy, local gravity constraints, cosmological perturbations, and spherically symmetric solutions in weak and strong gravitational backgrounds. We present a number of ways to distinguish those theories from General Relativity observationally and experimentally. We also discuss the extension to other modified gravity theories such as Brans-Dicke theory and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and address models that can satisfy both cosmological and local gravity constraints.
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There are a number of similarities between black-hole physics and thermodynamics. Most striking is the similarity in the behaviors of black-hole area and of entropy: Both quantities tend to increase irreversibly. In this paper we make this similarity the basis of a thermodynamic approach to black-hole physics. After a brief review of the elements of the theory of information, we discuss black-hole physics from the point of view of information theory. We show that it is natural to introduce the concept of black-hole entropy as the measure of information about a black-hole interior which is inaccessible to an exterior observer. Considerations of simplicity and consistency, and dimensional arguments indicate that the black-hole entropy is equal to the ratio of the black-hole area to the square of the Planck length times a dimensionless constant of order unity. A different approach making use of the specific properties of Kerr black holes and of concepts from information theory leads to the same conclusion, and suggests a definite value for the constant. The physical content of the concept of black-hole entropy derives from the following generalized version of the second law: When common entropy goes down a black hole, the common entropy in the black-hole exterior plus the black-hole entropy never decreases. The validity of this version of the second law is supported by an argument from information theory as well as by several examples.
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The first law and the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics for the generalized f(R)f(R) gravity with curvature–matter coupling are studied in the spatially homogeneous, isotropic FRW universe. The research results show that the field equations of the generalized f(R)f(R) gravity with curvature–matter coupling can be cast to the form of the first law of thermodynamics with the so-called the entropy production terms dS¯ and the GSL can be given by considering the FRW universe filled only with ordinary matter enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon with the Hawking temperature. Furthermore, as a concrete example, by utilizing the GSL the constraints on the gravitational model with f1(R)=R+αRlf1(R)=R+αRl and f2(R)=Rmf2(R)=Rm are also discussed. It is worth noting these results given by us are quite general and can degenerate to the ones in Einsteinʼs general relativity and pure f(R)f(R) gravity with non-coupling and non-minimal coupling as special cases. Comparing with the case of Einsteinʼs general relativity, the appearance of the entropy production term dS¯ in the first law of thermodynamics demonstrates that the horizon thermodynamics is non-equilibrium one for generalized f(R)f(R) gravity with curvature–matter coupling, which is consistent with the arguments given in Akbar and Cai (2007) [13] and Eling et al. (2006) [18].
Article
We discuss the validity of the energy conditions in a newly modified theory named as $f(R,T,R_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu})$ gravity, where $R$ and $T$ represent the scalar curvature and trace of the energy-momentum tensor. The corresponding energy conditions are derived which appear to be more general and can reduce to the familiar forms of these conditions in general relativity, $f(R)$ and $f(R,T)$ theories. The general inequalities are presented in terms of recent values of Hubble, deceleration, jerk and snap parameters. In particular, we use two specific models recently developed in literature to study concrete application of these conditions as well as Dolgov-Kawasaki instability. Finally, we explore $f(R,T)$ gravity as a specific case to this modified theory for exponential and power law models.
Article
The energy conditions are derived in the context of $f(R,T)$ gravity, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $T$ is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, which can reduce to the well-known conditions in $f(R)$ gravity and general relativity. We present the general inequalities set by the energy conditions in terms of Hubble, deceleration, jerk and snap parameters. In this study, we concentrate on two particular models of $f(R,T)$ gravity namely, $f(R)+\lambda{T}$ and $R+2f(T)$. The exact power-law solutions are obtained for these two cases in homogeneous and isotropic $f(R,T)$ cosmology. Finally, we find certain constraints which have to be satisfied to ensure that power law solutions may be stable and match the bounds prescribed by the energy conditions.
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We consider modified theories of gravity with a direct coupling between matter and geometry, denoted by an arbitrary function in terms of the Ricci scalar. Due to such a coupling, the matter stress tensor is no longer conserved and there is an energy transfer between the two components. By solving the conservation equation, we argue that the matter system should gain energy in this interaction, as demanded by the second law of thermodynamics. In a cosmological setting, we show that although this kind of interaction may account for cosmic acceleration, this latter together with direction of the energy transfer constrain the coupling function.
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It is well known that by applying the first law of thermodynamics to the apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, one can derive the corresponding Friedmann equations in Einstein, Gauss-Bonnet, and more general Lovelock gravity. Is this a generic feature of any gravitational theory? Is the prescription applicable to other gravities? In this paper we would like to address the above questions by examining the same procedure for Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We find that in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, this approach does not work and we fail to reproduce a corresponding Friedmann equation in this theory by applying the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon, together with the appropriate expression for the entropy in Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The reason for this failure seems to be due to the fact that Horava-Lifshitz gravity is not diffeomorphism invariant, and thus, the corresponding field equation cannot be derived from the first law around horizon in the spacetime. Without this, it implies that the specific gravitational theory is not consistent, which shows an additional problematic feature of Horrava-Lifshitz gravity. Nevertheless, if we still take the area formula of geometric entropy and regard Horava-Lifshitz sector in the Friedmann equation as an effective dark radiation, we are able to extract the corresponding Friedmann equation from the first law of thermodynamics.
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In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature \frachk2pk » 10 - 6 ( \fracM\odot M )° K\frac{{h\kappa }}{{2\pi k}} \approx 10^{ - 6} \left( {\frac{{M_ \odot }}{M}} \right){}^ \circ K where κ is the surface gravity of the black hole. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 1015 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law:S+1/4A never decreases whereS is the entropy of matter outside black holes andA is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon.
Article
Recently it has shown that Einstein's field equations can be rewritten into a form of the first law of thermodynamics at apparent horizon of Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) universe, which indicates intrinsic thermodynamic properties of apparent horizon of spacetime. In the present Letter we deal with the so-called f(R) gravity, whose action is a function of the curvature scalar R. In the setup of FRW universe, we show that the field equations can also be cast to a similar form, , at the apparent horizon, where W=(ρ−P)/2, E is the energy of perfect fluid with energy density ρ and pressure P inside the apparent horizon. T and S=Af′(R)/4G are temperature and entropy associated with the apparent horizon, respectively. Compared to the case of Einstein's general relativity, an additional term appears here. The appearance of the additional term is consistent with the argument recently given by Eling et al. [C. Eling, R. Guedens, T. Jacobson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 121301, gr-qc/0602001] that the horizon thermodynamics is non-equilibrium one for the f(R) gravity.
Article
Recently there has been a proposal for modified gravitational f(R) actions which include a direct coupling between the matter action and the Ricci scalar, R. Of particular interest is the specific case where both the action and the coupling are linear in R. It is shown that such an action leads to a theory of gravity which includes higher order derivatives of the matter fields without introducing more dynamics in the gravity sector and, therefore, cannot be a viable theory for gravitation. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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We show that it is possible to obtain a picture of equilibrium thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in the expanding cosmological background for a wide class of modified gravity theories with the Lagrangian density f(R,ϕ,X), where R is the Ricci scalar and X is the kinetic energy of a scalar field ϕ. This comes from a suitable definition of an energy–momentum tensor of the “dark” component that respects to a local energy conservation in the Jordan frame. In this framework the horizon entropy S corresponding to equilibrium thermodynamics is equal to a quarter of the horizon area A in units of gravitational constant G, as in Einstein gravity. For a flat cosmological background with a decreasing Hubble parameter, S globally increases with time, as it happens for viable f(R) inflation and dark energy models. We also show that the equilibrium description in terms of the horizon entropy S is convenient because it takes into account the contribution of both the horizon entropy in non-equilibrium thermodynamics and an entropy production term.
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In this paper we first obtain Friedmann equations for the (n−1)-dimensional brane embedded in the (n+1)-dimensional bulk, with intrinsic curvature term of the brane included in the action (DGP model). Then, we show that one can always rewrite the Friedmann equations in the form of the first law of thermodynamics, , at apparent horizon on the brane, regardless of whether there is the intrinsic curvature term on the brane or a cosmological constant in the bulk. Using the first law, we extract the entropy expression of the apparent horizon on the brane. We also show that in the case without the intrinsic curvature term, the entropy expressions are the same by using the apparent horizon on the brane and by using the bulk geometry. When the intrinsic curvature appears, the entropy of apparent horizon on the brane has two parts, one part follows the n-dimensional area formula on the brane, and the other part is the same as the entropy in the case without the intrinsic curvature term. As an interesting result, in the warped DGP model, the entropy expression in the bulk and on the brane are not the same. This is reasonable, since in this model gravity on the brane has two parts, one induced from the (n+1)-dimensional bulk gravity and the other due to the intrinsic curvature term on the brane.
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In this Letter which is an extension of the work [G. Izquierdo, D. Pavón, Phys. Lett. B 639 (2006) 1], we study the conditions required for validity of the generalized second law in phantom-dominated universe in the presence of Schwarzschild black hole. Our study is independent of the origin of the phantom like behavior of the considered universe. We also discuss the generalized second law in the neighborhood of transition (from quintessence to phantom regime) time. We show that even for a constant equation of state parameter, the generalized second law may be satisfied provided that the temperature is not taken as de Sitter temperature. It is shown that in models with (only) a transition from quintessence to phantom regime the generalized second law does not hold in the transition epoch.
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In this paper we discuss thermodynamics of apparent horizon of an n-dimensional Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) universe embedded in an (n+1)-dimensional AdS space–time. By using the method of unified first law, we give the explicit entropy expression of the apparent horizon of the FRW universe. In the large horizon radius limit, this entropy reduces to the n-dimensional area formula, while in the small horizon radius limit, it obeys the (n+1)-dimensional area formula. We also discuss the corresponding bulk geometry and study the apparent horizon extended into the bulk. We calculate the entropy of this apparent horizon by using the area formula of the (n+1)-dimensional bulk. It turns out that both methods give the same result for the apparent horizon entropy. In addition, we show that the Friedmann equation on the brane can be rewritten to a form of the first law, , at the apparent horizon.
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We explore thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in $f(T)$ gravity with both equilibrium and non-equilibrium descriptions. We find the same dual equilibrium/non-equilibrium formulation for $f(T)$ as for $f(R)$ gravity. In particular, we show that the second law of thermodynamics can be satisfied for the universe with the same temperature of the outside and inside the apparent horizon.
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We investigate thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in f(R) gravity in the Palatini formalism with non-equilibrium and equilibrium descriptions. We demonstrate that it is more transparent to understand the horizon entropy in the equilibrium framework than that in the non-equilibrium one. Furthermore, we show that the second law of thermodynamics can be explicitly verified in both phantom and non-phantom phases for the same temperature of the universe outside and inside the apparent horizon.
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We explicitly show that the equations of motion for modified gravity theories of $F(R)$-gravity, the scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, $F(\mathcal{G})$-gravity and the non-local gravity are equivalent to the Clausius relation in thermodynamics. In addition, we discuss the relation between the expression of the entropy and the contribution from the modified gravity as well as the matter to the definition of the energy flux (heat).
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Expressions are derived for the mass of a stationary axisymmetric solution of the Einstein equations containing a black hole surrounded by matter and for the difference in mass between two neighboring such solutions. Two of the quantities which appear in these expressions, namely the area A of the event horizon and the ``surface gravity'' kappa of the black hole, have a close analogy with entropy and temperature respectively. This analogy suggests the formulation of four laws of black hole mechanics which correspond to and in some ways transcend the four laws of thermodynamics.
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It is well known that, for a wide class of spacetimes with horizons, Einstein equations near the horizon can be written as a thermodynamic identity. It is also known that the Einstein tensor acquires a highly symmetric form near static, as well as stationary, horizons. We show that, for generic static spacetimes, this highly symmetric form of the Einstein tensor leads quite naturally and generically to the interpretation of the near-horizon field equations as a thermodynamic identity. We further extend this result to generic static spacetimes in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity, and show that the near-horizon field equations again represent a thermodynamic identity in all these models. These results confirm the conjecture that this thermodynamic perspective of gravity extends far beyond Einstein's theory. Comment: RevTeX 4; 10 pages; no figures
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We consider a general, classical theory of gravity in $n$ dimensions, arising from a diffeomorphism invariant Lagrangian. In any such theory, to each vector field, $\xi^a$, on spacetime one can associate a local symmetry and, hence, a Noether current $(n-1)$-form, ${\bf j}$, and (for solutions to the field equations) a Noether charge $(n-2)$-form, ${\bf Q}$. Assuming only that the theory admits stationary black hole solutions with a bifurcate Killing horizon, and that the canonical mass and angular momentum of solutions are well defined at infinity, we show that the first law of black hole mechanics always holds for perturbations to nearby stationary black hole solutions. The quantity playing the role of black hole entropy in this formula is simply $2 \pi$ times the integral over $\Sigma$ of the Noether charge $(n-2)$-form associated with the horizon Killing field, normalized so as to have unit surface gravity. Furthermore, we show that this black hole entropy always is given by a local geometrical expression on the horizon of the black hole. We thereby obtain a natural candidate for the entropy of a dynamical black hole in a general theory of gravity. Our results show that the validity of the ``second law" of black hole mechanics in dynamical evolution from an initially stationary black hole to a final stationary state is equivalent to the positivity of a total Noether flux, and thus may be intimately related to the positive energy properties of the theory. The relationship between the derivation of our formula for black hole entropy and the derivation via ``Euclidean methods" also is explained.
Article
The Einstein equation is derived from the proportionality of entropy and horizon area together with the fundamental relation ffiQ = TdS connecting heat, entropy, and temperature. The key idea is to demand that this relation hold for all the local Rindler causal horizons through each spacetime point, with ffiQ and T interpreted as the energy flux and Unruh temperature seen by an accelerated observer just inside the horizon. This requires that gravitational lensing by matter energy distorts the causal structure of spacetime in just such a way that the Einstein equation holds. Viewed in this way, the Einstein equation is an equation of state. This perspective suggests that it may be no more appropriate to canonically quantize the Einstein equation than it would be to quantize the wave equation for sound in air. The four laws of black hole mechanics, which are analogous to those of thermodynamics, were originally derived from the classical Einstein equation[1]. With the discovery of the q...
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We consider alternative theories of gravity with a direct coupling between matter and the Ricci scalar We study the relation between these theories and ordinary scalar-tensor gravity, or scalar-tensor theories which include non-standard couplings between the scalar and matter. We then analyze the motion of matter in such theories, its implications for the Equivalence Principle, and the recent claim that they can alleviate the dark matter problem in galaxies. Comment: typos corrected, minor changes, version published in CQG