Gender relations, socialization and the making of different masculinities and femininities: The use of drugs in everyday life

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... Uniquely, their study was based on participant observation. In Norway, Heggen (2000) used qualitative life histories to examine the link between multiple problems, including crime, school termination, and marginalization in peripheral areas, while Severinsen (2002) used participant observation and qualitative interviews to examine how young females sought out older boys who then initiated them to a drug milieu. ...
... Surprised by the relative lack of qualitative research of delinquent behavior within criminology journals, we made some extra efforts to locate such research. Some impressive realist-ethnographic studies of delinquent subcultures emerged (e.g., Perho 2000;Fondén 2001;Severinsen 2002;Vaaranen and Wieloch 2002), often published in the Nordic youth research journal Young. Nevertheless, such contributions can hardly be described as a major emphasis in Nordic research on delinquent behavior. ...
... While drugs use cannot be described as proxy crime (committing crime when asked or forced to do it as a substitute for the instigator), the social processes of onset can be similar; seeSeverinsen's (2002) qualitative research on how girls are initiated into drugs use by older boyfriends. ...
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Research on delinquent behavior has traditionally been a core emphasis of Nordic criminological research. Historically, Nordic cooperation in criminology began with the world’s first ever internationally comparative survey of self-reported delinquency, the Nordic Draftee Research program, 1961–64. Youths of the five Nordic nations tend to manifest relatively similar prevalence levels of delinquent behavior, with a partial exception that Danish adolescents have above-average levels of substance use and property offending. During the 1990s, Danish, Finnish and Swedish surveys revealed a consistent rise in the number of law-abiding youths, a trend explained by a coincidence of multiple social changes: diminishing cohort sizes, the rise of the surveillance society, increasingly conservative and anticrime attitudes among youths, and changing routine activities, some of which may have resulted in crime type displacement (from traditional theft to computer-related crime) instead of overall crime reduction. Reviewed articles in core journals reveal that focal concerns of Nordic delinquency researchers have been social problems–related research, the question of generality versus specialization of delinquency, longitudinal research in individual-level risk factors, methodological research, and research on the social causation of delinquency.
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