Article

Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice

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  • Australian Catholic University North Sydney
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Abstract

Self-determination theory (SDT) assumes that inherent in human nature is the propensity to be curious about one's environment and interested in learning and developing one's knowledge. All too often, however, educators introduce external controls into learning climates, which can undermine the sense of relatedness between teachers and students, and stifle the natural, volitional processes involved in high-quality learning. This article presents an overview of SDT and reviews its applications to educational practice. A large corpus of empirical evidence based on SDT suggests that both intrinsic motivation and autonomous types of extrinsic motivation are conducive to engagement and optimal learning in educational contexts. In addition, evidence suggests that teachers' support of students' basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness facilitates students' autonomous self-regulation for learning, academic performance, and well-being. Accordingly, SDT has strong implications for both classroom practice and educational reform policies.

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... More specifically, these activities seem to have been a particular kind of special reward found in each individual (Ryan & Deci, 2000;Schunk et al., 2014). In contrast, extrinsic motivation, as Ryan and Deci (2000) put it, is an engagement of the individuals in any tasks or activities with an anticipation of some separable outcomes, such as earning rewards, receiving praise, fulfilling academic requirements, or avoiding punishment (see also Brown, 2000;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Schunk et al., 2014). Therefore, such outside influences encourage language students to take part in academic tasks, even if the tasks themselves are not interesting (Chow & Yong, 2013). ...
... Research has shown that these two types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic, have various impacts on students. For example, Cho (2012) and Niemiec and Ryan (2009) noted that intrinsic motivation helps improve students' progress, making them more process-oriented and determined in learning and likely turning them into autonomous students who seek growth and selfdevelopment. Furthermore, students who possess this kind of motivation are more likely to take risks in their learning, do challenging tasks to broaden their knowledge, enthusiastically engage in activities while remaining highly focused with a clear determined goal, know exactly what they are doing, and critically reflect on their learning (Csikszentmihalyi & Nakamura, 2014). ...
... Even though intrinsic motivation plays such a vital role, extrinsic motivation should not be overlooked. Certain external factors, such as rewards and the relevance of the task, are said to serve as a major source of motivation to encourage students to learn when given a task that looks boring or when they feel demotivated to participate (Cho, 2012;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). For this reason, Assor et al. (2002) suggested that teachers should engage students by explaining to them the fact that their willingness to work on and contribute to classroom tasks will in some ways help them accomplish their set goals. ...
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The Cambodian Journal of Educational Research (CJER) is a peer-reviewed academic journal initiated and managed by the Cambodian Education Forum (CEF). CJER publishes English manuscripts in the field of education, which would be of interest to Cambodian or international readership. All manuscripts must be original and have not been previously published or currently under publication consideration elsewhere. All manuscripts submitted to CJER will go through an initial screening by the CJER editorial team. The editorial team will then decide whether or not to send a manuscript for a blind peer review by two invited reviewers. CJER publishes two issues annually (the first issue will be published in June and the second issue in December). Submissions to CJER can be made throughout the year following the CJER submission guidelines. Accepted manuscripts will be published online first and will later be included in one of the two issues.
... More specifically, these activities seem to have been a particular kind of special reward found in each individual (Ryan & Deci, 2000;Schunk et al., 2014). In contrast, extrinsic motivation, as Ryan and Deci (2000) put it, is an engagement of the individuals in any tasks or activities with an anticipation of some separable outcomes, such as earning rewards, receiving praise, fulfilling academic requirements, or avoiding punishment (see also Brown, 2000;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Schunk et al., 2014). Therefore, such outside influences encourage language students to take part in academic tasks, even if the tasks themselves are not interesting (Chow & Yong, 2013). ...
... Research has shown that these two types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic, have various impacts on students. For example, Cho (2012) and Niemiec and Ryan (2009) noted that intrinsic motivation helps improve students' progress, making them more process-oriented and determined in learning and likely turning them into autonomous students who seek growth and selfdevelopment. Furthermore, students who possess this kind of motivation are more likely to take risks in their learning, do challenging tasks to broaden their knowledge, enthusiastically engage in activities while remaining highly focused with a clear determined goal, know exactly what they are doing, and critically reflect on their learning (Csikszentmihalyi & Nakamura, 2014). ...
... Even though intrinsic motivation plays such a vital role, extrinsic motivation should not be overlooked. Certain external factors, such as rewards and the relevance of the task, are said to serve as a major source of motivation to encourage students to learn when given a task that looks boring or when they feel demotivated to participate (Cho, 2012;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). For this reason, Assor et al. (2002) suggested that teachers should engage students by explaining to them the fact that their willingness to work on and contribute to classroom tasks will in some ways help them accomplish their set goals. ...
Article
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Motivation has been considered one of the main contributing factors to academic success, particularly in foreign language learning classes where there is little contact with the target language community. This is because highly motivated students tend to be ready to learn and engage themselves in the lesson, which allows them to receive more input that will help them to succeed in language learning. Hence, motivation is regarded as an internal power that drives students' abilities to perform well. However, it is worth noting that motivation in foreign language learning is complicated as every language student walks into the class with different levels of motivation, requiring teachers to be creative in designing the lesson to help them meet their needs and goals. This article discusses common types of motivation and their importance, as well as ways to sustain students' motivation in language learning. The article concludes with a variety of classroom tips that can be useful in keeping students motivated in learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Empirically, the concept of intentions to quit is closely related to academic amotivation (Howard et al., 2021). Because of the evident link with motivational processes, intentions to quit school is in this thesis investigated in light of theories of motivation and engagement (Meece et al., 2006;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Reschly & Christenson, 2012;Ryan & Deci, 2017b). ...
... Scholars from different theoretical groundings have developed various frameworks that postulate which characteristics of, and how, the psychosocial learning environment nurture students' optimal motivation in achievement settings (Patrick et al., 2011). Some frameworks emphasize social climate and perceived social support (e.g., Fraser, 1991), for instance via satisfaction of inherent psychological needs (as in perspectives emanating from SDT; Niemiec & Ryan, 2009), whereas others emphasize the culture and its perceived motivational drivers of success (e.g., achievement goal theory; Ames, 1992; Meece et al., 2006). Inspired by Patrick et al. (2011), a two-fold categorization is integrated in this thesis: 1) a need-supportive learning environment framework, and 2) a motivational climate framework. ...
... SDT holds the basic assumption that humans by nature are curious, active and challenge-seeking (Ryan & Deci, 2017b), and postulates that when the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are supported (e.g., in the classroom), the internalization process will be strengthened, and students will be increasingly autonomously motivated and persistent in their studies (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Ryan & Deci, 2017b;. These assumptions are clearly reflected in how this theory outlines the optimal learning environment. ...
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Background: National and international research has repeatedly shown that many late adolescents have poor motivation for school. Moreover, the fact that a considerable proportion of youth do not complete upper secondary education is an insistent challenge with severe costs for the individual and society. This thesis concentrates on upper secondary students’ intentions to quit school, which is considered an indicator of a negative motivational process that can lead to dropout from school. From a motivation theory perspective (self-determination theory, in particular), intentions to quit school is considered a persistence-related academic outcome. A theoretical rationale based on self-determination theory (SDT) and achievement goal theory (AGT) of how and why perceptions of the psychosocial learning environment may contribute to the development of such intentions is proposed. Emanating from this theoretical ground and previous evidence, research questions considering how the following aspects of the psychosocial learning environment are related to intentions to quit school were posed: perceived teacher support (emotional support, autonomy granting, and feedback quality), loneliness among peers, and perceived mastery climate. Thus, while decades of research on school dropout have focused on demographic factors and students’ academic achievement level, the current approach scrutinizes the potential in the learning environment on a process that do not limit itself to the final “pass or fail” (dropout vs. completion) yet acknowledges the broader and gradual process of the individual’s more or less prominent intentions to quit school. Enhanced knowledge regarding this process can be vital from a dropout preventive perspective, but also for increased understanding of how the psychosocial learning environment in upper secondary school is related to student motivation. Aims: The overall aim was to empirically investigate how students’ perceptions of the psychosocial learning environment in upper secondary school are related to their intentions to quit school. Three separate studies had specific aims subordinate to this. Hopefully, knowledge derived from this work can contribute to inform measures to optimize students’ motivation and increase their likelihood of completing upper secondary education. Methodology: The thesis has a quantitative approach, and all three studies were empirical investigations of a sample of 1379 students in upper secondary schools in Rogaland, Norway. The main data source was self-reports from these students on three occasions during upper secondary school: T1 in the second semester of the first year, T2 in the first semester of the second year, and T3 in the second semester of the second year, giving a total timespan of 13 months. In addition to self-reports, register data on students’ previous academic achievement, gender, and study track in upper secondary were obtained from county administration, which were applied as control variables in the structural models. Study I had a cross sectional design, and Study Ⅱ and Study Ⅲ had longitudinal panel designs. To investigate the specific research questions, different statistical methods were applied, primarily types of structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus. This included confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), mediation models, multigroup testing of moderation, latent growth curve models (LGCM), and growth mixture models (GMM). Results: In the cross-sectional design of Study Ⅰ, the main aim was to investigate the degree to which three aspects of perceived teacher support (i.e., emotional support, autonomy granting, and feedback quality) were related to intentions to quit school, directly, and/or indirectly via emotional engagement and academic boredom. Relevant individual background variables (gender, prior academic achievement, immigrant background, as well as study track) were accounted for. The SEM results showed that all three aspects of perceived teacher support were indirectly negatively associated with intentions to quit school. In addition, emotional support showed a direct negative association with intentions to quit and thus appeared to be a particularly important aspect of perceived teacher support. In Study Ⅱ, the main aim was to investigate intentions to quit school longitudinally, and specifically scrutinize how individual change in intentions to quit was related to initial levels and changes in perceived emotional support from teachers and loneliness among peers at school. Initially, unconditional latent growth curve models indicated an average increase in intentions to quit school and loneliness among peers during the study period, and no average change in emotional support from teachers. However, substantial individual differences were found in the trajectories of all these three concepts. A multivariate latent growth curve model with the rate of change in intentions to quit as the final outcome showed no significant prediction from initial levels of either emotional support or loneliness; however, a substantial inverse associated change with perceived emotional support from teachers and a strong positive association with change in loneliness among peers was found. In Study Ⅲ, individual change in intentions to quit school was kept as the focal outcome yet investigated from the outset of potential trajectory subgroups of perceived emotional support from teachers. The substantial between-student differences in individual trajectories of perceived emotional support detected in Study Ⅱ served as an important ground for this person-centered approach. Furthermore, change in perceived mastery climate was theorized to function as an intermediate variable in a hypothesized association with change in intentions to quit school. Three distinct trajectory subgroups of perceived emotional support from teachers were identified: stable-high (84.9%; the normative group), decreasing (7.8%), and low-increasing (7.3%). Compared to the normative group, membership in the decreasing emotional support trajectory subgroup was indirectly associated with more increase in intentions to quit, and this association was fully mediated by a more negative development in perceived mastery climate. Membership in the low-increasing group was associated with more positive development in mastery climate, but no significant indirect association with change in intentions to quit was found. Conclusion: Prominent in all three studies, was the central role of perceived emotional support from teachers as negatively associated with students’ intentions to quit school. This was also persistent when accounting for background variables, and predominantly when investigating longitudinal relationships. Students with decreasing trajectories of perceived emotional support during the first and second years of upper secondary school were more likely to have steeper increase in intentions to quit school during this phase. However, the opposite route was not supported and requires further research. In addition to emotional support from teachers, individual trajectories of loneliness among peers were closely related to individual trajectories of intentions to quit school, and these results add to previous research conducted in cross-sectional designs. In sum, the current work contributes to empirical support for psychosocial factors in school having a substantial potential to keep students motivated to continue upper secondary school, and this should be considered in all efforts to enhance late adolescents’ academic motivation and to increase upper secondary completion rates.
... Thirdly, cognitive autonomy support meant that teachers gave students the opportunity to independent thinking and solved problems so that they could generate their own solutions or ideas. Niemiec and Ryan (2009) proposed four strategies for enhancing autonomy included encouraging individual choice, offering meaningful rationales of learning activities, acknowledging students' subjective feelings, and minimizing pressure and control. Through a meta-analysis of 19 autonomy-supportive intervention studies, Su and Reeve (2011) summarized five elements of autonomy support: provide meaningful rationales, acknowledge perspective and feelings, offer choices, nurture inner motivational resources, and use noncontrolling language. ...
... The opposite of structure support is chaos, which means that teachers provide confusing information, fail to communicate clear goals and expectations, and ask for outcomes without clearly expressing the means to attain them, resulting in confusion in students' learning process (Jang et al., 2010). Current researches on structure supportive instructional strategies were mostly focus on improving students' competence perception, including introducing challenging tasks (Clark et al. 2010), presenting clear goals and expectations (Skinner et al., 2008), providing meaningful feedback (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009), adjusting teaching strategies to the level of the students (Skinner & Belmont, 1993), and offering explicit instructional guidance and organization (Stroet et al. 2013). For instance, van Loon et al. (2012) proposed that providing structure meant providing students with clear goals, expectations and clear procedure to follow, and explaining the consequences of achieving or failing to achieve those goals. ...
... The first category refers to teachers provide structure by communicating clear goals and expectations (Skinner et al., 2008) and providing appropriate challenging tasks (Clark et al. 2010) in order to help students clear the learning direction then work hard for it. What's more, teachers need to encourage students to complete the learning activities and give competence-relevant feedback in time (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009), so that students can adjust their self-behavior in time, perceive self-confidence, and then generate and maintain internal learning motivation. The second category refers to teachers provide process support for students' inquiry learning by providing clear scaffold to follow (Stroet et al., 2013), so as to reduce leaning chaos. ...
... The internalization of behavioral regulation towards more self-determined forms of motivation can be facilitated by the social context in education, i.e., how a course and a class are designed as well as by the interaction with social agents that can support basic psychological need satisfaction. Teachers or docents that provide structure (e.g., formulate clear expectations, provide helpful feedback) support students' competence satisfaction (e.g., Mouratidis et al., 2013;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). When being involved (e.g., allocating time or resources for students, show a caring attitude) teachers support students' need for relatedness (e.g., Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Sparks et al., 2016). ...
... Teachers or docents that provide structure (e.g., formulate clear expectations, provide helpful feedback) support students' competence satisfaction (e.g., Mouratidis et al., 2013;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). When being involved (e.g., allocating time or resources for students, show a caring attitude) teachers support students' need for relatedness (e.g., Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Sparks et al., 2016). Teacher's autonomy-supportive behaviors (e.g., prioritize students' perspectives instead of enforcing the teacher's view, minimize control and offer choice and options instead) will support students' satisfaction of their need for autonomy (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Reeve, 2016). ...
... When being involved (e.g., allocating time or resources for students, show a caring attitude) teachers support students' need for relatedness (e.g., Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Sparks et al., 2016). Teacher's autonomy-supportive behaviors (e.g., prioritize students' perspectives instead of enforcing the teacher's view, minimize control and offer choice and options instead) will support students' satisfaction of their need for autonomy (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Reeve, 2016). When feeling not competent enough, students will not engage in a behavior. ...
Thesis
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In my doctoral dissertation I report about experimental field studies implementing interventions based on Self-Determination Theory in teacher training. Aiming to support students' motivation to learn about data-based decision-making and their readiness to apply these skills as future teachers, I implemented a relevance-intervention and autonomy-supportive feedback into the higher education curriculum at large German unversity.
... Self-determination has three major components: relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Niemiec and Ryan (2009) explained relatedness in the educational context as, "People tend to internalize and accept as their own the values and practices of those to whom they feel, or want to feel, connected, and from contexts in which they experience a sense of belonging" (p. 139). ...
... In this instance, the agenda would be co-created to help students when they were not sure what is most important in the institutional context. Niemiec and Ryan (2009) referred to autonomy in the educational settings as having choice on the students' own volition. This was present in the way participants strongly expressed their support for students to set the agenda or topic in each meeting. ...
... Either way, there were strong beliefs that students choose the topic no matter when the agenda or topic is chosen, supporting the autonomy of students (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009 Growth and insight. The growth and insight phase refers to the time in a meeting where growth, learning, and insight are happening the most. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to explore how trained, four-year success coaches perceive their coaching practice with students in higher education, particularly in the context of their meetings. While coaching programs have proliferated, little is known about coaching as a practice in higher education and it is difficult to generalize findings because professionals are ‘coaching’ in different ways. Some academic coaches in the field have stated they were given a title, but they are not ‘coaching’ (Sepulveda, 2017). Little is known about coaching as a practice, and this study will help to fill this gap. Taking a narrative approach, I used self-determination theory as a lens to explore the perceptions of trained, four-year success coaches to understand what they perceived they strategically do in their meetings with students. I interviewed 18 coaches in higher education across the United States and asked for stories in how they have helped students in each meeting, and throughout their meetings. In this narrative study, I explored how coaches approach their meetings and what skills they incorporate. Through semi-structured interviews I elicited stories of growth, development, and intentionality in their practices. Beliefs, skills, conversational framework, the progression over time, the training, growth, and development and the role make up coaching practices in higher education. It is the consistent combination of these that make the coaching practice a unique student support service. This study builds upon self-determination theory and I draw conclusions about what findings mean for coaching practices in higher education.
... It helps when people are real about their challenges." As suggested in Self-Determination Theory, the need for autonomy is supported when learning opportunities are relevant and meaningful to participants and as they see how new learning is practical in their roles (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Ryan & Deci, 2017). Similarly, participants' competence was supported as they participated in case-based learning opportunities that were directly applicable to their roles as educators and/or parents. ...
... I have learned so much." Self-Determination Theory suggests that competence is supported when individuals feel that they are able to effectively bring about desired outcomes in their environment (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). The use of case-based learning supported participants' needs for competence as they were able to apply practical knowledge to produce desired goals in their everyday settings. ...
... It is making a difference." Self-Determination Theory explains that competence is built when learners engage in optimally challenging situations that expand their knowledge and skills (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009) and when they feel that they are effective at solving problems (Ryan & Deci, 2017). The well-aligned topics of the didactic and case sessions provided an opportunity for participants to build these feelings of competence. ...
Conference Paper
Family engagement has been an integral part of education across the United States over decades. Research has shown evident benefits of effective family engagement on grade improvement and learning performance. Family engagement has a positive effect on student motivation, student behavior, student attendance and student optimism towards schooling. During COVID, schools had to close their doors. During this time, TeleNGAGE still connected families to school with an online approach. TeleNGAGE is an online environment for engaging families for student education. While benefits have emerged, there has been no research yet to present successful online elements of TeleNGAGE. The purpose of this study is to explore, through the lens of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2017), how components of TeleNGAGE facilitated engagement of participants as they collaboratively addressed problems associated with the pandemic. Main components through the online approaches include using case-based scenarios and didactic sessions, discussion, and accessibility. Implications for practice and directions for further research are discussed.
... A learning environment is seen as autonomy-supportive when it satisfies the basic psychological needs and avoids a controlling and evaluative atmosphere [32]. Many previous studies demonstrate the essential role of the teacher in an autonomy-supportive environment. ...
... For example, in circumstances with limited possibilities to meet student preferences, or when activities are less attractive, it is critical that students still interpret the teacher requests in an autonomy-supportive way [33]. Niemiec & Ryan [32] showed that students with a higher level of autonomy support demonstrated more initiative and volition to engage in activities they initially found less interesting. Another study showed that when teachers explained the importance of a particular learning activity, it supported students' interest and effort to study [34]. ...
... SDT is one of the most comprehensive and widely supported theoretical approaches related to human motivation in educational settings [10,20], examining three universal and fundamental psychological human needs, that is, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. SDT contends that intrinsic motivation will be sustained and enhanced when these three needs are fulfilled [14,29]. Previous literature has focused on the validity of SDT in educational fields both in traditional classrooms [29] and online learning environments [30,31]. ...
... SDT contends that intrinsic motivation will be sustained and enhanced when these three needs are fulfilled [14,29]. Previous literature has focused on the validity of SDT in educational fields both in traditional classrooms [29] and online learning environments [30,31]. In some other studies, self-determination variables were viewed as antecedents influencing learners' perceptions, such as perceived behavioral control, attitude [32], and behavioral intention [33]. ...
Article
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There is a relatively small body of literature that is concerned with the extent to which students are actively engaged in online English learning. To address this issue, the present study investigates 233 Chinese secondary school students attending online English courses during the pandemic and explores the degree to which learners are behaviorally, cognitively, emotionally, and socially engaged in synchronous online English courses. Three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are examined as antecedents of learning engagement, and the behavioral intention was hypothesized as a learning outcome. This study takes a mixed-methods approach, integrating quantitative data from questionnaires and qualitative data from semi-structured interviews. A partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used to test hypotheses and the proposed research model. The quantitative findings indicate that, firstly, whereas the basic psychological needs predict students’ four dimensions of online learning engagement, competence is confirmed to be the strongest predicting factor. Secondly, behavioral intention is significantly influenced by students’ cognitive engagement and emotional engagement. Thirdly, thematic analysis of the qualitative data shows that students tend to have a lower level of engagement compared with a face-to-face classroom, and a more interesting and interactive online course design is crucial to the fulfillment of learners’ psychological needs of autonomy and relatedness in synchronous online English learning.
... These needs are: (a) autonomy, (b) competence and (c) belongingness. The need of autonomy is the need to experience behavior as voluntary and give learners autonomy choosing the content they want to study (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). The need of competence which means the need to experience behaviors as effectively enacted (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). ...
... The need of autonomy is the need to experience behavior as voluntary and give learners autonomy choosing the content they want to study (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). The need of competence which means the need to experience behaviors as effectively enacted (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). The need of belongingness which means learners' need to have meaningful relationships and interactions with other peers (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). ...
Research Proposal
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Engineering Education needs to be approached in different, innovative ways to meet the needs of society, learners, and education providers. This ranges from new educational programs and innovative pedagogies in individual classrooms, to online and immersive learning, to micro-credentials and modularity along with how to enable rapid adaptation for reskilling and upskilling, to entirely new pathways of restructuring education. Gamification is the application of game elements and digital game design techniques to non-game problems, such as learning challenges. It is about using game-based mechanics, aesthetics, and game thinking to enhance users’ engagement, motivate action, and support learning. At first view, the concept of gamification does not contain game design elements, but with the addition of additional elements such as the video game component that is applied in different contexts, the users are encouraged to participate in learning activities and complete learning challenges successfully. The first step in the process of designing a gamification activity is to think like a game designer. According to Cook (2013), any process can be gamified when the following requirements are covered: (i) the gamified activity is easy to learn, (ii) user progress can be measured, (iii) continuous feedback is provided to users.
... Individuals have a natural tendency to internalize and accept as their own the values and practices of those to whom they feel, or want to feel, connected, and from contexts in which they experience a sense of belonging (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). Thus, in general, students who report relatedness and are supported by their significant others, such as parents, peers, and teachers, are more likely to engage in academic activities and perform well in school, whereas those who feel disconnected or rejected are more likely to disengage from school. ...
... The basic psychological need of being accepted and supported must, therefore, be considered for everyone. In the long run, students are likely to internalize the values and practices of those who support them (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009), which helps students stay engaged at school. However, student-perceived support from teachers was not associated with completion of upper secondary education in normative time. ...
Article
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Not completing upper secondary education is often presignaled by truancy from school. Student-perceived social support from family, peers, and teachers can prevent truancy and the risk of not completing education. However, prior studies have not focused on the stability of social support across school transitions. This longitudinal study of 1901 Finnish students examined the extent to which social support was stable or specific to primary, lower secondary, and upper secondary schools. Moreover, we examined whether support was associated with not completing upper secondary education in normative time and whether truancy mediated the relationship between support and not completing education. The analyses showed that most variance in social support was context-specific; family and peer support was related to truancy and not completing education; and truancy acted as the mediator. The findings underscored the importance of stable social support over school transitions in reducing the likelihood of truancy and not completing education.
... An extensive line of research has documented the benefits of autonomy support in schools (cf. [9][10][11][12]). Longitudinal research by [13] demonstrated that teacher autonomy support reduces adolescent anxiety and depression. ...
... In line with SDT, the experience of autonomy was a key element in education [87] and practitioners are advised to avoid unnecessary pressure in schools [10,11,50]. Following a bottom-up perspective, we recommend that teachers integrate students' perspectives on autonomy support and pressure-related factors and use this information to (further) develop the design of learning environments in schools. ...
Article
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This study investigates, based on Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory, how autonomy support and school-related pressure are associated with students’ vitality, their contentment with and academic performance in school, and whether feeling related to teachers and feeling competent mediate these relations. In total, 812 secondary school students participated in this questionnaire-based survey. Perceived autonomy support was positively related while school-related pressure was negatively related with vitality and contentment. Relations were partially mediated by relatedness to teachers and perceived competence. In sum, this study provides insight into how autonomy support contributes not only to better academic achievement but also to students feeling vital in school and experiencing contentment with school environments. Moreover, the results emphasize that pressure is not only irrelevant for academic performance, but rather, detrimental for students’ perceptions in school. The practical implications imply that teachers should be trained to avoid unnecessary coercion and to strengthen their abilities in supporting their students’ autonomy. This contributes to make school a productive and enjoyable environment for learners and teachers alike.
... Indeed, teachers' and principals' observations suggest children's play becomes strikingly more creative, physically active, and more social, in the presence of loose parts (e.g., Bundy et al., 2008Bundy et al., , 2009. Interestingly, it appears that nature, loose parts, and autonomy can each independently contribute to outcomes (see Bundy et al., 2009;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Studente et al., 2016, respectively), raising the possibility of synergy among these factors. Although the effects of loose parts play on child development have yet to be quantitatively demonstrated (Gibson et al., 2017), the potential contributions of more creative, more social, more physically active play to cognitive, social and physical development seem clear. ...
... However, teachers tend to apply more controlling instead of autonomy supportive teaching styles (Reeve, 2009). Whereas the importance of BPN-satisfaction for educational success has been widely discussed in the educational literature (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Vansteenkiste et al., 2006), only a few studies focus on the perceived relevance of content (Vansteenkiste et al., 2006). Assor et al. (2002) have shown that the main autonomy-enhancing behaviour of teachers in different subjects, e.g. ...
Chapter
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In a Danish context regular (weekly or biweekly) education outside the classroom (EOtC), school-based outdoor learning or learning outside the classroom (LOtC) is called udeskole and aims to enhance both health and education. The purpose of this chapter is to present two Danish research projects; the Søndermark School and TEACHOUT studies. It highlights the impact and potentials of physical activity (PA) in primary school based on results from pupils (grade 3–6 grade—year 9–12), taught weekly outside the classroom and school buildings. The chapter summarises how teaching in nature, green areas or using cultural institutions like museums, factories, cemeteries etc. has an impact on PA levels. The Søndermark School study in Copenhagen investigated whether udeskole in urban nature or cultural institutions helps to increase children’s PA in four classes. 44 girls and 40 boys (grade 4–6) participated in this study, where the PA was measured for seven consecutive days. For all 84 pupils, the average PA was significantly higher on udeskole days compared to traditional school days without PE lessons. The average PA levels among boys were significantly higher than among girls in all mentioned settings, except on days with PE lessons, where both sexes’ PA levels were equal. As part of the TEACHOUT research project, PA of 663 children was measured 24 h a day for 9–10 consecutive days. Udeskole classes were compared with control classes, i.e. their parallel classes, from 12 schools located in different parts of Denmark, in a quasi-experimental design. A gender comparison was made on a weekly basis, i.e. days with more than 150 min of udeskole were compared with traditional school days and days with physical education (PE) classes. Measured over a whole week, boys having udeskole were more physically active than boys in control classes and girls in both settings. No difference was found between girls in udeskole and the comparison classes during a week, but girls on udeskole days were associated with a greater proportion of PA at light intensity than on traditional school days and days with PE lessons. In general, the children were far less sedentary during udeskole compared to traditional classroom teaching.
... Presenting precise learning objectives of each course would also attract people interested in a given topic, making it easier for them to engage in acquiring new knowledge. Moreover, according to the self-determination theory (SDT) [40], autonomy is one of the factors that must be met in order to inspire the learner's internal motivation to learn. ...
... According to SDT [40], autonomy is one of the factors that must be met to inspire the learner's internal motivation to learn. The need for relatedness must also be satisfied in this aspect, which can be achieved by treating students with warmth and respect [35]. ...
Article
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The constant development of medical and pharmaceutical sciences and the changing roles of pharmacists highlight the importance of lifelong learning in their profession. Given the identified knowledge gaps in the literature in terms of pharmacists' preferences for lifelong learning, the study aimed to evaluate the opinions and attitudes of community pharmacists towards lifelong learning, including their previous experiences and educational needs, in order to propose evidence-based tips for designing such solutions and interventions intended for them both in face-to-face and online forms. For this purpose, ten semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with Polish community pharmacists on the topic using a thematic guide. Subsequently, they were subjected to literal transcription and interpretative phenomenological analysis by two independent researchers using phenomenology as the qualitative approach. The identified themes covered the topic's relevance for pharmacists' work, practice-oriented form and content, previous learners' experiences as a foundation for further learning, commercial initiatives' risks, motivation sources, and barriers for participation in lifelong learning solutions so far. Based on the insights provided by the respondents, as well as scientifically proven learning theories and educational principles, ten tips were formulated for designing recipient-friendly learning solutions and interventions within the framework of postgraduate lifelong learning of pharmacists.
... The internal motivation of students is the key driving force for learning and the catalyst for stimulating and maintaining learning behavior. Therefore, in the autonomous support teaching environment, students' learning is dominated by internal motivation, which can improve students' learning interest, self-efficacy (LIU et al., 2006) school sense of belonging, and self-confidence (Painter, 2011), so to encourage students to participate in their study and improve their studies academic performance spontaneously (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). ...
... The study found that the students' perceived autonomy support could significantly predict the students' basic psychology needs, intrinsic motivation and academic performance. Such results are consistent with the previous findings as well (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009) (Chen & Zhang, 2013;Xiang & Ding, 2014).According to the findings, it could be concluded that teachers' autonomy support could finally have positive effects on student academic achievement through satisfying students' autonomy needs, and arouse their intrinsic motivation. ...
... In all three models, perceived autonomy support was found to be a significant predictor of self-regulated learning. The more students feel supported by their instructors, the better they tend to self-regulate their own learning, which is consistent with existing research findings (e.g., Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). This is probably because students have a better idea of what and how they want to study because teachers provide them with more choices, so they plan their study better. ...
... We note that most people do not find elementary financial activities (e.g., budgeting or deciding about financial products) inherently interesting or enjoyable. Because intrinsic motivation for these financial behaviors is not evident, facilitating and promoting internalization is essential to enhance learning and behavioral change(Niemiec and Ryan 2009). ...
Article
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Financially vulnerable consumers are often associated with suboptimal financial behaviors. Evaluated financial education programs so far show difficulties to effectively reach this target population. In our attempt to solve this problem, we built a behaviorally informed financial education program incorporating insights from both motivational and behavioral change theories. In a quasi-experimental field study among Dutch financially vulnerable people, we compared this program with both a control group and a traditional program group. In comparison with the control group, we found robust positive effects of the behaviorally informed program on financial skills and knowledge and self-reported financial behavior, but not on other outcomes. Additionally, we did not find evidence that the behaviorally informed program performed better than the traditional program. Finally, we discuss the findings and limitations of this study in light of the financial education literature and provide implications for policy making and directions for future research.
... Considering the outcomes of agency from a normative perspective, agency is usually considered as a desirable capacity for human beings (Shogren et al., 2017), that is also worthy of support from public policy (Kosko, 2013;Niemiec and Ryan, 2009). However, the definition of agency outcomes poses similar challenges to those created by the nature of the elements involved. ...
Article
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Its importance for understanding social dynamics notwithstanding, the concept of agency is one of sociology’s more controversial ideas. The debate around this concept has mostly been developed at a theoretical level and the empirical studies tend to rely on socio-psychological interpretations of agency as a stable, inner force capable of influencing prospects, decisions, and behavior with little room for change in agency capacity. Social sciences, though, should take a more dynamic stance on agency and highlight the role of the different elements of the social context that can enable or hinder individual agency capacity. Prompted by recent developments of the Capability Approach, this article proposes a framework for the study of agency that defines individual agency as the result of a conversion process of personal resources shaped by conversion factors. Conversion factors operate at micro, meso, and macro levels of analysis, each of which can be oriented toward past experiences, present conditions, and future prospects. This article also seeks to analytically distinguish three types of agency outcome: adaptation, autonomy, and influence. Such a framework will facilitate the transformation of the slippery notion of agency into more tractable empirical phenomena which increase its analytical and critical capacity.
... In older adolescents (n = 34, mean age 17.7 years), relatedness to teachers predicted autonomous academic motivation (Guay et al., 2008). Niemiec and Ryan (2009) suggest that intrinsic motivation is maintained when autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met. Students who felt competent will not maintain their motivation if they do not have autonomy. ...
Thesis
Research has increasingly focused on understanding and improving students' academic performance. Academic success rests not only on academic factors but influences such as motivation and self-efficacy. Educators and policymakers alike are interested in improving students' mathematics performance. Students experience pressure to perform, especially in high-stakes exams. This study explored the issues facing students learning mathematics with two papers; a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating whether self-efficacy and mathematics self-efficacy interventions improve mathematics performance, and a qualitative study to explore students' experiences resitting the high-stakes General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) mathematics exams. The first paper conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions for self-efficacy or mathematics self-efficacy that aimed to positively change the mathematics performance in students aged 11-25 years. Twenty-two papers were included in the meta-analysis. The analysis on the mathematics performance outcome produced an average random effect of g = 0.21, 95% CI[0.02, 0.41]. The results indicated that the included interventions had a small but significant effect on mathematics performance. Issues with the instruments used in the included studies and with the studies' designs were highlighted. The heterogeneity across the studies and the small number of studies available were considered in interpreting the results. In the second paper, eleven Further Education college students aged 16-19 years were interviewed about their experiences of resitting the GCSE mathematics exams. The data were coded using inductive framework analysis. Thematic analysis was used to develop four themes; 1) Struggling with Mathematics, 2) Learning That Works, 3) Relying on Others, 4) Being Left Behind. The findings show a complex picture of students who had previous negative education experiences but re-engaged with learning. Student-teacher relationships were found to be key for students to re-engage in learning and be confident in mathematics. The implications of the findings from the papers for practitioners, researchers and policymakers are discussed. <br/
... Die Selbstbestimmungstheorie (Ryan & Deci, 2000) besagt, dass u. a. das Erleben von sozialer Verbundenheit Grundvoraussetzung für Wohlbefinden und intrinsische Motivation ist und damit schlussendlich akademischen Erfolg beeinflusst (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009 (Caspi & Moffitt, 1993). ...
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Geringe akademische und soziale Integration sind Risikofaktoren für den Studienerfolg, die u. a. von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen der Studierenden beeinflusst werden. Diesen wird in Situationen hoher Unsicherheit, wie einem Studium im Ausland, eine besondere Bedeutung zugemessen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurden in der vorliegenden Studie Zusammenhänge zwischen Big-Five-Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen und Indikatoren sozialer und akademischer Integration an mehr als 2000 internationalen Studierenden im Längsschnitt mittels autoregressiver Mediationsmodelle untersucht. Die Big-Five-Persönlichkeitsdimensionen sagten mit Ausnahme von Offenheit für Erfahrungen und Gewissenhaftigkeit akademische und soziale Integration vorher, während sich die Integrationsmaße über die Zeit nicht wechselseitig beeinflussten. Daraus abzuleitende Implikationen für Hochschulen zur Steigerung der sozialen und akademischen Integration internationaler Studierender werden abschließend diskutiert.
... However, teachers tend to apply more controlling instead of autonomy supportive teaching styles (Reeve, 2009). Whereas the importance of BPN-satisfaction for educational success has been widely discussed in the educational literature (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Vansteenkiste et al., 2006), only a few studies focus on the perceived relevance of content (Vansteenkiste et al., 2006). Assor et al. (2002) have shown that the main autonomy-enhancing behaviour of teachers in different subjects, e.g. ...
Chapter
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The development of 21st century skills in or rather through science teaching is on the agenda of many national and international school reforms aiming at creating so-called 21st century classrooms. In this context autonomous learning and practical relevance of science classes have been identified as important features, and education outside the classroom (EOtC) has been described as one way of providing such enriched classroom settings. We explore the relative importance of the four basic psychological needs (BPN), “perceived autonomy support”, “perceived competence support”, “student-teacher relatedness” and “student-student relatedness”, for the perceived practical relevance of the content (PRC) in science class in secondary school. We applied the same measures in normal and EOtC science classes, both in a short-term cross-sectional within-subject design study (A) and in a longitudinal between-subject design study (B). In order to account for the theoretical and empirical non-independence of the four BPN-explanatory variables, we used Bayesian ridge regression techniques. Our findings suggest that PRC in EOtC contexts is perceived higher than in normal classroom settings, both in the short-term as well as in the long-term designs. This can be best explained by the degree of perceived autonomy support by the students. In the short-term design, this holds true for both, the normal and the EOtC teaching contexts. In the long-term design, the relative importance of autonomy support can only be deemed statistically credible in the EOtC context. Perceived competence support and relatedness have no relative importance in the EOtC context. This suggests that science classes outside the classroom are less contingent on teacher-reliant or peer-related basic needs satisfaction. Thus, we can conclude that science teaching in EOtC fosters 21st century skills through more flexible, autonomous and collaborative settings and by being less teacher-centred.
... As the second factor, basic psychological needs affect motivation and are related to the context of each person; basic psychological needs are autonomy, competence and relatedness [29], which are necessary for general health: physical, psychological and social well-being [16]. Autonomy is understood as the desire to feel that one is the originator and regulator of one's own behavior, competence is the person's perception of being able to show effectiveness within a particular context and relatedness refers to the feeling of belonging to a social environment [29,31]. It has been shown that any element that can satisfy basic psychological needs will lead to improvements in intrinsic and self-determined motivation of the individual, as well as to greater enjoyment of physical education classes [32]. ...
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Gamification is a new methodological tool in the field of physical education and sports sciences, which seeks to generate a formative change in educational centers and in the training of future teachers. The aim of the research was to analyze the effect of gamification on motivation, basic psychological needs and cooperative learning of prospective physical education teachers. The sample consisted of 102 future teachers in the specific area of physical education and sport. Three measuring instruments were used: Motivational Situation Scale, Cooperative Learning Questionnaire and Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale. The significance level (p < 0.05) was determined according to the variables described. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal–Wallis test for the variables age and study group and the Mann–Whitney U-test for gender. The results show high values for basic psychological needs, motivation and cooperative learning. In the case of cooperative learning, gamification has a different behavior according to gender. By degree, gamification does not affect the degree of study in the same way. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the use of gamification in the training of future physical education teachers, as it is associated with increased levels of students’ intrinsic and self-determined motivation, basic psychological needs and cooperative learning.
... The current finding also supported by Jang, Reeve, Ryan, and Kim (2009) which stated that fulfilment of 3 basic psychological needs could increase pleasant learning experience and decreased anxiety. Niemiec and Ryan (2009) also found that class contexts which supported satisfaction to competence, relatedness, and autonomy needs tend to encourage students to be motivated intrinsically. Moreover, Jang et. ...
Conference Paper
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Flow is an experience of pleasure and enjoyment in doing an activity, characterized by total absorption which entangles awareness and action. Flow is an important asset for college students in carrying out their academic activities. When students experience a flow condition, they will enjoy and get an optimal learning experience. Student motivation also increases and affects better learning outcomes, and prevents students from boredom and academic stress. In fact, not all learners can get a flow experience. An effort that can be made to build flow in the classroom is to allow for autonomy, giving freedom and control to the learner. Autonomy is one of three components of the Basic Psychological Needs (BPN's) that need to be satisfied so individuals can function and grow optimally. This study aims to determine the relationship between flow in the academic and satisfaction with BPN's (competence, relatedness, and autonomy) in college students. Subjects were 292 undergraduate students in the faculty of Psychology, Airlangga University. The data was collected online right before the pandemic using the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at Work Scale and The Flow Inventory for Students. Analysis using spearman's rho shows a positive relationship between satisfaction with BPN's and flow in the academic, with an all significance level 0.000 (p<0.05). The correlation coefficient of the three basic needs were 0.480 (competence), 0.310 (relatedness), and 0.416 (autonomy). Thus, the higher student satisfaction with BPN's followed by higher flow in the academic.
... Self-determination theory assumes that people have an inherent tendency to be curious about their environment and that teachers support students' autonomy in the teaching process, which contributes to students' academic performance [5]. Autonomous behavior arises from a person's integrated selfawareness, whereas controlled behavior has externally perceived causality and is experienced as being pressured by needs [6]. ...
Conference Paper
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While virtual reality has become a research hot spot in the education field, few studies considered the students ' individual differences (e.g., attitude, knowledge), which may influence their learning. This study aimed to investigate, which types of learners are suitable for the virtual reality environment. A fuzzy set analysis was conducted, we found: (1) high autonomy virtual reality environment suitable for students with a solid foundation of knowledge; (2) low autonomy virtual reality environment cause more cognitive load for learners compare to high autonomy virtual reality environment; (3) a positive attitude towards VR may lead to worse learning outcomes for learners with low prior knowledge. The findings indicated that teachers should personalize their use of educational technology based on their students.
... The results of many studies show correlations, illustrating how meeting these needs cause a number of positive and desirable consequences. Internally motivated students: 1) achieve higher school grades (Noels, Pelletier, Clement, and Vallerand, 2000;Nguyen and Deci, 2016;Oga-Baldwin, Nakata, Parker, and Ryan, 2017); 2) have a higher self-esteem (Orsini, Binnie, and Tricio, 2018); 3) better understand the essence and meaning of what they learn at school (Gagne and Deci, 2005); 4) have higher social competences (Reeve, 2002); 5) display higher adaptability to changing conditions and new situations (Niemiec and Ryan, 2009); 6) show higher self-awareness and emotional competence (Grolnick, Deci, and Ryan, 1997). ...
... Although recent studies have shown how these technologies also contribute to overall better learning outcomes among students (Laanpere et al., 2014;Luckin et al., 2016), very few have been implemented as applications in classrooms. To capitalize on students' optimal learning (Ryan and Deci, 2017), in addition to academic performance, positive learning experiences need to be designed that consider students' interactions with AI, including the maintenance of a certain level of motivation and engagement (Niemic and Ryan, 2009;Peters et al., 2018), as well as a well-defined role for the classroom teacher. With a more proactive role assigned to classroom teachers involved in collaborative research, the need to integrate their perspectives in AI-driven educational technological developments would be integral in understanding student learning in a sociotechnical approach. ...
Article
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AI-powered technologies are increasingly being developed for educational purposes to contribute to students’ academic performance and overall better learning outcomes. This exploratory review uses the PRISMA approach to describe how the e􀀀ectiveness of AI-driven technologies is being measured, as well as the roles attributed to teachers, and the theoretical and practical contributions derived from the interventions. Findings from 48 articles highlighted that learning outcomes were more aligned with the optimization of AI systems, mostly nested in a computer science perspective, and did not consider teachers in an active role in the research. Most studies proved to be atheoretical and practical contributions were limited to enhancing the design of the AI system. We discuss the importance of developing complementary research designs for AI-powered tools to be integrated optimally into education.
... A skills perspective helps us analyse how business school students acquire technical, communication, and leadership skills and self-determination theory (SDT) distinguishes among different motivators. SDT has been mobilised in educational and work contexts such as: work motivation (Gagné & Deci, 2005), students' engagement and optimal learning (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009), and recently to understand students' intention to undertake PM certification (Blomquist et al., 2018). Additionally, it is suitable to address our research problem, that is, to study students' intentions toward a PM career as it covers not only motivations but also skills and behaviours of students. ...
Article
Project management (PM) career choice is important as millions of new projects will need skilled and motivated project managers. Therefore, the younger generation must be motivated to acquire the necessary skills to deal with project complexities and dynamics. In previous research, the factors that impact students’ perceptions of their learning experiences and their readiness to PM work has been investigated without examining the factors that impact the choice of a PM career. In this study our aim is to describe the intentions and motivations of business school students to pursue a PM career. Our results demonstrate that motivations such as self-development, professional growth, status and power, and technical and human skills are significantly influential in PM career choices.
... For schools facing budget crunches, teacher shortages, greater student needs, and escalating classroom populations, it can be appealing to partner with businesses looking to fund, and brand, part of the educational experience. And the answer "So that you can get a good job" is a simple and effective rejoinder to the perennial student moan of "why do I need to know this?" Framing education in purely extrinsic or transactional terms has its risks for student motivation, whereas helping students find intrinsic reasons to value education should help boost their motivation in school (see Niemiec & Ryan, 2009 for a review). It may be possible to use meaning in life as a framework for why education is intrinsically important. ...
... In addition, autonomous selfregulation predicted students' academic performance in college-level courses with positive experiences such as lower anxiety, increased enjoyment, and decreased likelihood of dropping the course. Niemiec and Ryan (2009) found that both intrinsic motivation and autonomous types of extrinsic motivation support optimal learning both within educational contexts and across diverse cultures. ...
Chapter
Fostering student engagement is a core rationale of the PASS (Peer-Assisted Student Success) scheme investigated here, an institutional partnership with trained peer mentors (Success Coaches) who provide course-embedded and individual support. Their stories, analysed thematically, illustrate why they became agents, their contributions to student engagement and the benefits they have gained. Inspired by their own experiences as first-years to become helpers who could empower others by sharing what they have learnt, they also provide a feedback loop between students and lecturers, while helping to create a friendly and engaging environment. Many Success Coaches become involved in other ways too, as representatives, ambassadors, trainers or in student societies. Their histories testify to increased self-confidence and understanding of their subject, and development of transferable skills-thanks to the opportunities afforded by their role, from the perspective of self-determination theory, to experience aspects of autonomy, relatedness and competence-while facilitating first-years' engagement and development.
Article
Recent studies have addressed the technological and cognitive motivational factors influencing e-learning. However, research investigating the comparative analysis of psychological factors that influence the academic motivation of e-learners and their interconnection has not been reported. Considering the array of psychological challenges faced by the student community in the current pandemic, a detailed look at the sudden transition and its impact on the academic motivation of learners is imperative. This paper examines the impact of psychological factors on the academic motivation of learners in pre-COVID and COVID times. Further, the significant difference in academic motivation during the period is also studied. A structural equation modelling (SEM) analyses the data obtained in two phases—phase 1 (Pre-COVID) and phase 2 (COVID)—from executive business management students of India. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that looks at the academic motivation of learners using three different theoretical lenses. Findings suggest that all psychological factors influence the academic motivation moderately/strongly during both the phases, except attention during pre-COVID. However, increased focus on attention and need for relatedness is suggestive during exigencies like COVID. The validity of second order measures, that is, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation and amotivation, fortifies the findings and makes a substantial contribution to the body of the knowledge in e-learning motivation. The study details the research and practical implications of the findings.
Chapter
Do experiences with nature—from wilderness backpacking, to plants in a preschool, to a wetland lesson on frogs, promote learning? Until recently, claims outstripped evidence on this question. But the field has matured, not only substantiating previously unwarranted claims but also deepening our understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between nature and learning. Hundreds of studies now bear on this question, and converging evidence strongly suggests that experiences of nature boost academic learning, personal development, and environmental stewardship. This brief integrative review summarizes recent advances and the current state of our understanding. The research on personal development and environmental stewardship is compelling although not quantitative. Report after report—from independent observers as well as participants themselves—indicate shifts in perseverance, problem solving, critical thinking, leadership, teamwork, and resilience after time in nature. Similarly, over fifty studies point to nature playing a key role in the development of pro-environmental behavior, particularly by fostering an emotional connection to nature. In academic contexts, nature-based instruction outperforms traditional instruction. The evidence here is particularly strong, including experimental evidence; evidence across a wide range of samples and instructional approaches; outcomes such as standardized test scores and graduation rates; and evidence for specific explanatory mechanisms and ‘active ingredients’. Nature may promote learning by improving learners’ attention, levels of stress, self-discipline, interest and enjoyment in learning, and physical activity and fitness. Nature also appears to provide a calmer, quieter, safer context for learning; a warmer, more cooperative context for learning; and a combination of “loose parts” and autonomy that fosters developmentally beneficial forms of play. It is time to take nature seriously as a resource for learning—particularly for students not effectively reached by traditional instruction.
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A design case is a form of scholarly writing in which the author embarks on a reflective journey sharing rich descriptions of their design, design processes, challenges, etc. This paper presents two design cases that demonstrate how learning theories and instructional design concepts were purposefully incorporated in two instructional applications utilizing Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR). The first case used AR to convert a face-to-face construction site safety analysis assignment to an online assignment for an online undergraduate course. In the second case, VR was utilized for construction site safety training for construction professionals. This paper will discuss how learning theories and frameworks were adhered to when designing and developing the applications to promote deep learning - in-depth learner engagement and positive learning outcomes and experiences. It aims to advocate for a learning design approach and mindset that is first and foremost driven by pedagogy rather than technology.
Article
The study aimed to test the psychometric properties of a Portuguese adaptation of the Adolescent Students’ Basic Psychological Needs at School Scale (ASBPNSS). For this, we used data from a sample of eighth graders ( N = 1648; M age = 14.1 years; 46.9% girls) from Portugal. Cronbach alpha and omega coefficients showed the ASBPNSS subscales—autonomy, relatedness, and competence—were reliable. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed the hypothesized three-factor model fit the data well. Multi-group CFAs showed the ASBPNSS had scalar invariance across gender and students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Finally, need satisfaction in school was positively correlated with positive affect and life satisfaction and negatively correlated with negative affect. These findings support the theoretical assumptions of Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT), and particularly the assumption that basic needs are universally applicable. We conclude the ASBPNSS is a reliable and valid measure of basic need satisfaction at school in Portuguese adolescents.
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Personality variables contribute to the development of passion for studies leading undergraduates to different affective experiences. Academic hardiness, an affective personality trait, may have effect on undergraduates’ passion for studies. The purpose of the study (which uses a quantitative methodological approach) was twofold: (a) to examine the psychometric properties of Passion scale in Greek undergraduates and (b) to investigate the role of Academic Hardiness 3Cs in the Harmonious (HP) and Obsessive (OP) passion. A convenience sample of 293 undergraduates completed the following scales: (a) Passion scale, (b) Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, (c) The Positive and Negative Affect schedule, and (d) The revised Academic Hardiness scale. Initially, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the two-factor passion scale. Moreover, results from SEM analyses revealed that control and challenge were positively related to HP, whereas commitment was positively related to both HP and OP. A negative relationship was found between control and OP. OP was positively related with negative affect, which, in turn, was negatively related with undergraduates’ happiness. On the contrary, HP was positively related with positive affect, which, in turn, was positively related with happiness. Findings of the study are discussed, focusing on the adaptive nature of academic hardiness and harmonious passion in academic settings.
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Öz Biyolojik, sosyal ve kültürel koşulların, psikolojik büyüme ve iyi oluş için doğuştan gelen kapasitemizi nasıl geliştirdiğini veya engellediğini inceleyen Öz Belirleme Kuramı’na (ÖBK) göre üç temel psikolojik ihtiyaçtan biri olan ilişkili olma ihtiyacı, insanların değer gördükleri ve ait hissedebildikleri sosyal bağlar kurabilmeleri anlamına gelir. İlişki Motivasyonu Kuramı (İMK), ÖBK’yı oluşturan altı mini kuramdan sonuncusudur. Bu derleme çalışmasının amacı, İMK’nın tanımladığı ilişkili olma ihtiyacına odaklanarak mevcut alanyazını incelemek ve alanyazının güçlü ve zayıf yanlarını belirleyebilmektir. İlk kısımda ÖBK ve İMK genel hatlarıyla tanıtılmış, ikinci kısımda farklı ilişki türleri üzerinden İMK’nın alanyazında nasıl irdelendiği ve ne tür bulgular sunduğu değerlendirilmiştir. Genel anlamda, herhangi bir ilişkide temel psikolojik ihtiyaçların karşılanması, kişinin özerk motivasyon seviyesi ve çevrenin sağladığı özerklik desteği miktarı, ilişkideki kişilerin genel iyilik halini arttırmakta; temel ihtiyaçların çatışması ya da engellenmesi kişilere zarar vermektedir. Alanyazında, romantik ilişkiler dışındaki ilişki türlerine odaklanan daha çok çalışmaya ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Kesitsel çalışmalardan ziyade, deneysel ve boylamsal desenli çalışmalara yer verilmesi önerilmiştir. Ayrıca, her bir ilişki türünün farklı örneklem grupları ile test edilmesinin bulguların genellenebilirliğine katkı sağlayacağı; farklı ilişki türlerini aynı anda inceleyen çalışmaların arttırılmasının ise İMK’nın kapsamlı olarak değerlendirilebilmesine imkân sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. The Importance of Basic Psychological Needs in Relationship Quality: A Review on the Basis of Self-Determination Theory and Main Relationship Categories Abstract Self-Determination Theory (SDT) assesses how biological, social, and cultural conditions improve or thwart our innate capacity for psychological growth. According to the SDT, one of three basic psychological needs is the need to be related which means the ability to form social bonds to whom people are valued and feel belonging. This review aims to assess the current literature by focusing on the need for relatedness from the perspective of the Relationships Motivation Theory (RMT). After a brief introduction about the SDT and the RMT, current literature on the RMT is examined through different types of relationships. In general, meeting basic psychological needs in any relationship, the level of autonomous motivation of the person and the amount of autonomy support provided by the environment increases the general well-being of the people in the relationship, while the conflict or obstruction of basic needs negatively affect them. More studies are needed in areas other than romantic relationships, with experimental and longitudinal designs. In addition, testing each type of relationship with different sample groups and increasing studies that examine different types of relationships at the same time might enable a comprehensive evaluation of the RMT.
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To address calls to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted entrepreneurship education, this paper reflects on four different teaching modalities used in a virtual learning environment. The aim is to provide further insights into the different means by which students engage and interact in online classes. Findings indicate that while competence-based modalities seemed to stimulate class interaction more than supply-based modalities, over half of the class remained ‘passive’ or ‘detached’ from the virtual learning environment. Students were found to have either belonging, competence, or autonomy motives driving their engagement in different teaching modalities. The paper concludes by proposing hybrid-based approaches to class delivery can meet the varying student engagement motives in virtual entrepreneurship education environments.
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The current study hypothesized that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs mediates the relationship between positive teacher-student relationship (TSR) and psychological well-being of the students. Using a cross-sectional explanatory design, the specific hypotheses were tested among 430 randomly selected Filipino college students. The results revealed that satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and relatedness mediated the relationship between positive TSR and psychological well-being, but autonomy did not. Results are discussed with emphasis on the satisfaction and nurturance of basic psychological needs in college students.
Article
Background Motivation is the first and most important constituent element of learning behavior. One of the most important theories in this field is self-determination theory (SDT) which is a general theory of motivation. According to this theory, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are effective in the internalization of incentive. Hence this theory can be a good foundation for reforming medical education programs. Objective The aim of this study was determining the basic psychological need and the effect of it on level of motivation and self-determined motivation of nursing student in the field. Methods This is a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study done through a census on 243 nursing students of … University of Medical Sciences. Data gathering tool was demographic information, motivation level, and basic psychological needs questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, Spearman and Pearson correlation, Man-Whitney, backward regression considering P < 0.05. Results The findings showed that the majority of students (51.9 %) were female and, the mean age was 21 years. Statistical tests indicated a significant relationship between levels of motivation, basic psychological needs, and demographic variables. However, the regression coefficients indicated that the need for competence and relatedness could be a suitable predictor for internal motivation. Conclusion Basic psychological needs satisfaction, especially needs of competence and relatedness in the clinical field by instructors can lead to internalization of their incentive and positive outcomes.
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Is there a model of the ideal business school instructor? This was a question I asked myself many times when I first started teaching in a business school classroom. Assessing the style and approach of other impactful instructors signaled that there are many models for success in the classroom, but how should I think about developing my own successful teaching style and approach? To address this challenge, I developed the concept of the personalized teaching signature, which accounts for teaching as a complex, multidimensional activity which includes preparation, practicality, rigor, entertainment, empathy, experiential engagement, enthusiasm, novelty, and surprise. I conceptualized that an instructor should strive to exceed an expected threshold of proficiency in each teaching dimension and then focus on specific dimensions in which they can excel to develop a personalized teaching signature. In this essay, I describe the concept of a personalized teaching signature, outline its generic dimensions, and describe a step-by-step process for using the signature to become a better business school instructor.
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An increasing number of studies have been committed to the effectiveness of mobile learning applications. This study examined motivation, learning strategies, learning outcomes, and their mutual correlations in mobile English language learning via two experiments. Results suggested that in mobile English language learning, (a) motivation was significantly stronger than in traditional English language learning; (b) students adopted significantly more learning strategies than in traditional English language learning; (c) learning outcomes were significantly better than in traditional English language learning; and (d) motivation, learning strategies, and learning outcomes were positively correlated in both learning approaches at the significance level .025. Although it is necessary to further identify the underlying mechanisms, findings suggest interdisciplinary cooperation in future research.
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A total of 174 Latinx undergraduates attending a predominantly White institution provided online responses regarding motivating persons, processes, and factors that helped them persist in college. Using a multi-step, content-based qualitative approach, there were three meta-themes (i.e. family, friends and peers, and self) with 15 themes developed from 350 response items. Using a psychosociocultural lens to guide our work and organize the data, we highlight Latinxs’ educational narratives, offering critical understanding for university personnel and academic staff into students’ internal and external motivations. We provide psychosociocultural implications for student support services personnel to assist and support Latinx students’ success and wellness in higher education.
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While human beings have a right to digital experiences that support, rather than diminish, their psychological wellbeing, technology designers lack research-based practices for ensuring psychological needs are met. To help address this gap, we draw on findings from over 30 years of research in psychology (specifically, self-determination theory) that has identified contextual factors shown to support psychological wellbeing. We translate these findings into a list of 15 heuristics and 30 design strategies to provide technology makers with theoretically grounded, research-based, and actionable ways to support wellbeing in user experience.
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Human behavior and emotional intelligence add to the backdrop for social interactions. Robots are becoming more human-like with every new update, remodel, and release. In a time where human interaction is minimized, anthropomorphic recalibrations become a baseline for new designs. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced technology engineers to re-focus. Lately, where single adults are less likely to engage in new social connections, human–robot interactions have become the norm. All cultures and demographics alike are affected. Robot/technology with human personality traits, facial recognition, inflection in tone, and reading temperatures are all part of a demand in current upgrades. This research dives into the degrees of varying changes and adjustment timeframes when robots are introduced to new experiences. The research focuses on human personality dimensions in human–robot interaction situations and examines the relationships between human personality traits and robotic anthropomorphism across different demographics and emotional changes regarding overall robot likeability and acceptance.KeywordsAnthropomorphic recalibrationsCOVID-19 pandemicHuman–robot interactionSocial roboticsCulturesDemographicsHuman personality traitsRobot likeabilityRobot acceptance
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This study examined a process model of relations among children's perceptions of their parents, their motivation, and their performance in school. Children's perceptions of their parents on dimensions of autonomy support and involvement were measured with the new children's perceptions of parents scale. Three motivation variables-control understanding, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy-were hypothesized to mediate between children's perceptions of their parents and their school performance. Analyses indicated that perceived maternal autonomy support and involvement were positively associated with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions of autonomy. Perceived paternal autonomy support and involvement were related to perceived competence and autonomy. In turn, the 3 motivation variables, referred to as inner resources, predicted children's performance. Structural equation modeling generally supported the mediational model.
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This study tested whether students who learned with an active orientation would be more intrinsically motivated to learn and would learn more than students who learned with a passive orientation. The active orientation was created by having subjects learn material with the expectation of teaching it to another student; the passive orientation was created by having subjects learn the same material with the expectation of being tested on it. The results indicate that subjects who learned in order to teach were more intrinsically motivated, had higher conceptual learning scores, and perceived themselves to be more actively engaged with the environment than subjects who learned in order to be examined. The two groups were equal, however, in their rote learning scores. The effects of exposure to the material were ruled out as an explanation because the two groups reported spending equal time with the material. The results are discussed in terms of intrinsic motivation theory.
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When teachers are more supportive of autonomy and less controlling, students demonstrate higher levels of intrinsic motivation and self-determination. The purpose of this study was to examine social-contextual conditions that led teachers ( N=254) who taught classes from Grades 1 to 12 to be more autonomy supportive versus controlling with their students. Using structural equation modeling, the authors observed that the more teachers perceive pressure from above (they have to comply with a curriculum, with colleagues, and with performance standards) and pressure from below (they perceived their students to be nonself-determined), the less they are self-determined toward teaching. In turn, the less they are self-determined toward teaching, the more they become controlling with students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Recognizing recent criticisms concerning the cross-cultural generalizability of self-determination theory (SDT), the authors tested the SDT view that high school students in collectivistically oriented South Korea benefit from classroom experiences of autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction. In Study 1, experiences of autonomy, competence, and relatedness underlaid Korean students’ most satisfying learning experiences, and experiences of low autonomy and low competence underlaid their least satisfying learning experiences. In Study 2, psychological need satisfaction experiences were associated with productive (achievement and engagement) and satisfying (intrinsic motivation and proneness to negative affect) student outcomes. Study 3 replicated and extended Study 2’s structural equation modeling findings by showing that the hypothesized model explained students’ positive outcomes even after controlling for cultural and parental influences, including the collectivistic value orientation. Study 4 replicated the earlier cross-sectional findings with a semester-long prospective 3-wave design. The authors discuss how the findings support the motivation theory’s cross-cultural generalizability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies examined the significance of children's perceptions of their classroom environment along autonomy vs external control dimensions. Study 1 related a self-report measure of the perceived classroom climate—R. deCharms's (1976) origin climate questionnaire—to other self-related constructs. Among 140 4th–6th graders, the more "origin" the Ss perceived in their classroom, the higher their perceived self-worth, cognitive competence, internal control, and mastery motivation, and the lower their perceived control by unknown sources or powerful others. These relationships were primarily due to individual differences within classrooms rather than average classroom differences. Ss also wrote projective stories about an ambiguous classroom scene. Ratings of these stories indicated that originlike behavior in Ss' fantasy was associated with autonomy-oriented teachers and low aggression. Self-report and projective methods converged, particularly for Ss whose self-reported perceptions were extreme. In Study 2, with 578 Ss, relative contributions of classroom and individual difference effects were further examined. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of perceived autonomy and issues in assessment strategies. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research on curiosity has undergone 2 waves of intense activity. The 1st, in the 1960s, focused mainly on curiosity's psychological underpinnings. The 2nd, in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by attempts to measure curiosity and assess its dimensionality. This article reviews these contributions with a concentration on the 1st wave. It is argued that theoretical accounts of curiosity proposed during the 1st period fell short in 2 areas: They did not offer an adequate explanation for why people voluntarily seek out curiosity, and they failed to delineate situational determinants of curiosity. Furthermore, these accounts did not draw attention to, and thus did not explain, certain salient characteristics of curiosity: its intensity, transience, association with impulsivity, and tendency to disappoint when satisfied. A new account of curiosity is offered that attempts to address these shortcomings. The new account interprets curiosity as a form of cognitively induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge or understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined teachers' experience of autonomous motivation for teaching and its correlates in teachers and students. It was hypothesized that teachers would perceive various motivations posited by E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory as falling along a continuum of autonomous motivation for teaching. Autonomous motivation for teaching was predicted to be associated positively with teachers' sense of personal accomplishment and negatively with emotional exhaustion. Most important, teachers' self-reported autonomous motivation for teaching was expected to promote students' self-reported autonomous motivation for learning by enhancing teachers' autonomy-supportive behavior, as indicated by students' reports. Results from a sample of 132 Israeli teachers and their 1,255 students were consistent with the hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the importance of the experience of autonomous motivation for teaching for teachers and students.
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The imposition of external constraints on an activity has frequently been shown to undermine intrinsic motivation. Given that limits must often be set upon peoples' activities, especially in parenting and education, the present study addressed the question of whether limits can be set without undermining intrinsic motivation for the activity being limited. Using cognitive evaluation theory, contrasting limit setting styles of either a controlling or informational nature, or no limits, were placed upon forty-four first- and second-grade children engaged in a painting activity. The intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, creativity, and quality of artistic production were expected to be decreased by controlling limits relative to informational and no-limits, which were not expected to differ from each other. The results provided substantial support for these predictions, suggesting that limits can be set without undermining intrinsic motivation if they are informational in nature. Support was also found for the consensual assessment of creativity method recently developed by Amabile (1982a). Results of the study are discussed along with the general relation between creativity and intrinsic motivation.
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When motivating others during uninteresting activities, people typically use extrinsic contingencies that promote controlling forms of extrinsic motivation. In contrast, we investigated a motivational strategy that could support another person's capacity to personally endorse and value the effort he or she put forth during the uninteresting activity. That strategy is the provision of an externally provided rationale when communicated in an autonomy-supportive way. In two studies, we tested and found support for a motivational mediation model, based on self-determination theory, in which the presence of such a rationale (vs. its absence) adds to participants' identification with the task's personal value which, in turn, explains participants' subsequent effort. These studies suggest that extrinsically motivated behaviors can become self-determined through the process of identification and that the promotion of this identification experience depends on the presence of a rationale that is communicated in an autonomy-supportive way.
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This study examined a process model of relations among children's perceptions of their parents, their motivation, and their performance in school. Children's perceptions of their parents on dimensions of autonomy support and involvement were measured with the new children's perceptions of parents scale. Three motivation variables—control understanding, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy—were hypothesized to mediate between children's perceptions of their parents and their school performance. Analyses indicated that perceived maternal autonomy support and involvement were positively associated with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions of autonomy. Perceived paternal autonomy support and involvement were related to perceived competence and autonomy. In turn, the 3 motivation variables, referred to as inner resources, predicted children's performance. Structural equation modeling generally supported the mediational model.
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Ninety-one fifth-grade children participated in a study that assessed the effects of motivationally relevant conditions and individual differences on emotional experience and performance on a learning task. Two directed-learning conditions, one controlling and one noncontrolling, were contrasted with each other and with a third nondirected, spontaneous-learning context. Both directed sets resulted in greater rote learning compared with the nondirected-learning condition. However, both the nondirected and the noncontrolling directed-learning sets resulted in greater interest and conceptual learning compared with the controlling set, presumably because they were more conducive to autonomy or an internal perceived locus of causality. Furthermore, children in the controlling condition experienced more pressure and evidenced a greater deterioration in rote learning over an 8-(+/- 1) day follow-up. Individual differences in children's autonomy for school-related activities as measured by the Self-Regulation Questionnaire (Connell & Ryan, 1985) also related to outcomes, with more self-determined styles predicting greater conceptual learning. Results are discussed in terms of the role of autonomy in learning and development and the issue of directed versus nondirected learning.
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Two studies tested self-determination theory with 2nd-year medical students in an interviewing course. Study 1 revealed that (a) individuals with a more autonomous orientation on the General Causality Orientation Scale had higher psychosocial beliefs at the beginning of the course and reported more autonomous reasons for participating in the course, and (b) students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy-supportive became more autonomous in their learning during the 6-month course. Study 2, a 30-month longitudinal study, revealed that students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy-supportive became more autonomous in their learning, which in turn accounted for a significant increase in both perceived competence and psychosocial beliefs over the 20-week period of the course, more autonomy support when interviewing a simulated patient 6 months later, and stronger psychosocial beliefs 2 years later.
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A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.
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Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
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In the present study, we used a model of motivation grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991; Ryan & Deci, 2000a, 2000b, 2002) to examine the relationship between physical education (PE) students' motivational processes and ratings of their effort and persistence as provided by their PE teacher. Data were obtained from 394 British secondary school students (204 boys, 189 girls, 1 gender not specified; M age = 11.97 years; SD = .89; range = 11-14 years) who responded to a multisection inventory (tapping autonomy-support, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and self-determined motivation). The students' respective PE teachers subsequently provided ratings reflecting the effort and persistence each student exhibited in their PE classes. The hypothesized relationships among the study variables were examined via structural equation modeling analysis using latent factors. Results of maximum likelihood analysis using the bootstrapping method revealed the proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data, chi-squared (292) = 632.68, p < .001; comparative fit index = .95; incremental fit index = .95, standardized root mean square residual = .077; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .054 (90% confidence interval of RMSEA = .049 -.060). Specifically, the model showed that students who perceived an autonomy supportive environment experienced greater levels of autonomy, competence, and relatedness and had higher scores on an index of self-determination. Student-reported levels of self-determined motivation positively predicted teacher ratings of effort and persistence in PE. The findings are discussed with regard to enhancing student motivation in PE settings.
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Self-determination theory research has demonstrated that intrinsic and identified self-regulations are associated with successful adaptation. However, few distinctions are typically made between these regulations and their outcomes. In the present studies, the associations between intrinsic and identified motivations and outcomes of psychological well-being and academic performance are compared in educational settings. In Study 1, intrinsic self-regulation predicted psychological well-being, independent of academic performance. In contrast, identified regulation predicted academic performance. Additionally, the more that students demonstrated an identified academic regulation, the more that their psychological well-being was contingent on performance. In Study 2a, priming intrinsic self-regulation led to greater psychological well-being 10 days later. In Study 2b, an implicit measure of identified regulation predicted academic performance 6 weeks later. Results indicate the need to address important distinctions between intrinsic and identified regulations.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Article
Two studies tested self-determination theory with 2nd-year medical students in an interviewing course. Study 1 revealed that (a) individuals with a more autonomous orientation on the General Causality Orientations Scale had higher psychosocial beliefs at the beginning of the course and reported more autonomous reasons for participating in the course, and (b) students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy-supportive became more autonomous in their learning during the 6-month course. Study 2, a 30-month longitudinal study, revealed that students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy-supportive became more autonomous in their learning, which in turn accounted for a significant increase in both perceived competence and psychosocial beliefs over the 20-week period of the course, more autonomy support when interviewing a simulated patient 6 months later, and stronger psychosocial beliefs 2 years later.
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Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of evaluation structure on children's intrinsic motivation and learning. The following three experimental conditions were set up in terms of the mode of feedback given to the pupils: norm-referenced evaluation, criterion-referenced evaluation, and self-evaluation. Each of the three classes of sixth graders was randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions. The learning material was composed of several pages of programmed sheets. The pupils were given feedback based on the result of tests corresponding to the three experimental conditions. The dependent variables consisted of several measures of intrinsic motivation obtained from behavioral indicators and questionnaires. Results indicated that higher intrinsic motivation was revealed in the criterion-referenced evaluation group than in the normreferenced evaluation group. And the results of a questionnaire showed that increasing pressure was experienced in the norm-referenced evaluation group relative to the criterion-referenced evaluation group. Furthermore, ATI effect was observed between intelligence and the three conditions when perceived competence was used as a dependent variable.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the paradox of achievement that harder you push, the worse it gets. The chapter says that people can be motivated in more controlled ways or more self-determined ways, with intrinsic motivation and well-integrated extrinsic motivation being the bases for self-determination. By encouraging students' experimentation and self–initiation, teachers can foster students' willingness to take on challenges, explore new ideas, persist at difficult activities, and feel good about themselves. The chapter reviews an array of evidence suggesting that intrinsic motivation and the internalization of extrinsic motivation flourish in situations of secure relationships that provide opportunities for need satisfaction. By offering optimal challenges, providing feedback that is not evaluative of the person, giving a meaningful rationale for requested behavior, acknowledging feelings, providing greater choice, and setting up co-operative learning opportunities, teachers can foster students' self-determination. Moreover, by taking account of teachers' needs along with the students' needs, it is possible to begin implementing the types of widespread school reform that, although more difficult than simply emphasizing higher standards and using tougher tests, is nonetheless the most promising prospect we have for bringing about excellent education.
Article
The proposition, derived from self-determination theory (SDT), that autonomy-support has a positive effect on self-motivation and well-being, is examined in two distinct cultural settings. Participants were 264 high school students from Russia and the United States who completed measures of perceived parental- and teacher-autonomy-support, academic motivation, and well-being. Means and covariance structure analyses were used to examine the cultural comparability of measured constructs. Results supported the hypotheses that Russian adolescents would perceive parents and teachers as more controlling than U.S. students; and in both samples, perceived autonomy-support would predict greater academic self-motivation and well-being. Results are discussed in terms of SDT’s postulate of a basic human need for autonomy in the context of cultural variations.
Article
Extended findings that support cognitive evaluation theory to intrapersonal processes by exploring the effects of informational vs controlling feedback, when self-selected and administered vs other-administered, and in conditions of task-involvement (intended to create an informational orientation in relation to the activity) vs ego-involvement (intended to create a controlling orientation in relation to the activity). 128 undergraduates working on a hidden figures task received either an ego- or task-involving induction and then a series of 3 puzzle problems for which half of the Ss received informational feedback and the other half controlling feedback. Half the Ss had the feedback self-administered, and half had it administered by the experimenter. After puzzle-solving, Ss were left alone with additional puzzles and magazines and were observed to see if they worked on the puzzles. Finally, Ss completed a questionnaire assessing their interest and attitudes toward the target activity. Results confirm that controlling feedback, whether self- or other administered, undermined intrinsic motivation relative to task-involvement. Results are discussed in terms of the application of cognitive evaluation theory to intrapersonal processes and self-control theories. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Developed a 32-item, paper-and-pencil measure with 4 subscales combined to provide an overall orientation. It is shown that the responses from 68 teachers had a good range and were internally consistent and temporally stable. Further, the measure was found to be externally valid in that teachers of Grades 4–6 who were more autonomy oriented on the measure were rated as such by their students. The children of the autonomy-oriented teachers were more intrinsically motivated and had higher self-esteem than children of more control-oriented teachers. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Achievement behavior is defined as behavior directed at developing or demonstrating high rather than low ability. Ability can be conceived either with reference to the individual's own past performance or knowledge, a context in which gains in mastery indicate competence, or as capacity relative to that of others, a context in which a gain in mastery alone does not indicate high ability. To demonstrate high capacity, one must achieve more with equal effort or use less effort than do others for an equal performance. The conditions under which these different conceptions of ability function as individuals' goals and the nature of subjective experience in each case are specified. Different predictions of task choice and performance are derived and tested for each case using data from previously published studies. The effects of task and ego involvement, task choice, and self-perceptions are discussed. (125 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study investigated intraindividual variation in students' interest experience in 3 school subjects and the predictive power of perceived autonomy support and control. Participants were 261 students in 7th grade. After a survey of students' individual interests and other individual characteristics, repeated lesson-specific measures of students' interest experience and perceived autonomy support and control during instruction were obtained over a 3-week period. Hierarchical linear modeling showed 36%-45% of the variance to be located at the within-student level. Moreover, perceived autonomy support and control during lessons, as well as individual interest, predicted students' interest experience in the classroom.
Article
Despite their interest in why people do what they do, psychologists typically overlook interest itself as a facet of human motivation and emotion. In recent years, however, researchers from diverse areas of psychology have turned their attention to the role of interest in learning, motivation, and development. This article reviews the emerging body of work on the psychology of interest, with an emphasis on what contemporary emotion research has learned about the subject. After considering four central questions—Is interest like other emotions? What functions does interest serve? What makes something interesting? Is interest merely another label for happiness?—the article considers unanswered questions and fruitful applications. Given interest's central role in cultivating knowledge and expertise, psychologists should apply research on interest to practical problems of learning, education, and motivation.
Article
This prospective study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' course-specific self-regulation and their perceptions of their instructors' autonomy support on adjustment and academic performance in a college-level organic chemistry course. The study revealed that: (1) students' reports of entering the course for relatively autonomous (vs. controlled) reasons predicted higher perceived competence and interest/enjoyment and lower anxiety and grade-focused performance goals during the course, and were related to whether or not the students dropped the course; and (2) students' perceptions of their instructors' autonomy support predicted increases in autonomous self-regulation, perceived competence, and interest/enjoyment, and decreases in anxiety over the semester. The change in autonomous self-regulation in turn predicted students' performance in the course. Further, instructor autonomy support also predicted course performance directly, although differences in the initial level of students' autonomous self-regulation moderated that effect, with autonomy support relating strongly to academic performance for students initially low in autonomous self-regulation but not for students initially high in autonomous self-regulation. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sci Ed84:740–756, 2000.
Article
ABSTRACT The assumption that there are innate integrative or actualizing tendencies underlying personality and social development is reexamined. Rather than viewing such processes as either nonexistent or as automatic, I argue that they are dynamic and dependent upon social-contextual supports Pertaining to basic human psychological needs. To develop this viewpoint, I conceptually link the notion of integrative tendencies to specific developmental processes, namely intrinsic motivation; internalization; and emotional integration. These processes are then shown to be facilitated by conditions that fulfill psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and forestalled within contexts that frustrate these needs. Interactions between psychological needs and contextual supports account, in part, for the domain and situational specificity of motivation, experience, and relative integration. The meaning of psychological needs (vs. wants) is directly considered, as are the relations between concepts of integration and autonomy and those of independence, individualism, efficacy, and cognitive models of “multiple selves.”
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
Article
This chapter reviews theory and research on the development of children's knowledge about the mental world, focusing especially on work done during the past 15 years under the rubric of theory-of-mind development. The three principal approaches to explaining this development--theory theory, modular theory, and simulation theory--are described first. Next comes a description of infant precursors or protoforms of theory-of-mind knowledge in infancy, including a beginning awareness of the intentionality and goal-directedness of human actions. This discussion is followed by a summary of the postinfancy development of children's understanding of visual perception, attention, desires, emotions, intentions, beliefs, knowledge, pretense, and thinking. Briefly considered next are intracultural, intercultural, and interspecies differences in theory-of-mind development. The chapter then concludes with some guesses about the future of the field.
Article
The present article examines the nature and function of human agency within the conceptual model of triadic reciprocal causation. In analyzing the operation of human agency in this interactional causal structure, social cognitive theory accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, self-reflective, and self-regulatory processes. The issues addressed concern the psychological mechanisms through which personal agency is exercised, the hierarchical structure of self-regulatory systems, eschewal of the dichotomous construal of self as agent and self as object, and the properties of a nondualistic but nonreductional conception of human agency. The relation of agent causality to the fundamental issues of freedom and determinism is also analyzed.
Article
Using self-determination theory, two studies investigated the relations among perceived need support from parents, their adolescents' autonomous self-regulation for academics, and the adolescents' well-being. Study 1 indicated that perceived need support from parents independently predicted adolescents' well-being, although when mothers' and fathers' data were examined separately, the relation was stronger for mothers than for fathers. In Study 2, autonomous self-regulation for planning to attend college was a significant partial mediator of the relation of adolescents' perceived need support to well-being. Thus, perceived need support from parents does seem important for the development of adolescents' autonomous self-regulation and well-being.
Self-determination theory and the explanatory role of psychological needs in human well-being
  • M Vansteenkiste
  • R M Ryan
  • E L Deci
Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R.M. and Deci, E.L. (in press) 'Self-determination theory and the explanatory role of psychological needs in human well-being', in L. Bruni, F. Comin and M. Pugno (eds), Capabilities and Happiness, pp. 00–00.