Article

The Effect of Musical Style on Restaurant Customers' Spending

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Abstract

Classical music, pop music, and no music were played in a British restaurant over the course of 18 evenings. The mean spend per head for each table was calculated for starters, main courses, desserts, coffee, bar drinks, wine, overall drink bill, overall food bill, and total spend. Total time spent in the restaurant was also measured. A MANOVA analysis revealed that there was an overall significant difference between the conditions with classical music leading to higher spending than both no music and pop music. Univariate analyses indicated that there were differences between the conditions on mean spend per head on starters, coffee, total spend on food, and overall spend. These findings were consistent with the limited previous research, which indicated that the playing of background classical music led to (a) people reporting that they were prepared to spend more and (b) higher actual spending. The results indicate that restaurant managers can use classical music to increase customer spending, and the results are discussed in terms of three possible explanations for this.

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... For example, Wilson (2003) found that customers tended to purchase more expensive wines when classical music was played. In addition, researchers found that background music played in the waiting areas decreases customers' tension and anxiety (Schubert, 2007) and increases customers' actual spending at the restaurant (North, Shilcock, & Hargreaves, 2003). By investigating customers dining at Chinese restaurants in the U.S., Jang et al. (2011) found that Chinese music had a significant impact on customers' positive and negative emotions, and these emotions mediated the relationship between the authentic atmosphere and customers' behavior intentions. ...
... Background music has been found to be an effective cue in accessing the physical environment of restaurants which further predicts restaurant patrons' quality evaluation and behaviors (Caldwell & Hibbert, 2002;Milliman, 1986;North et al., 2003;Wilson, 2003). Music played in restaurants has been found to extend the dining time (Wansink & Van Ittersum, 2012), increase food consumption and spending (North et al., 2003;Stroebele & Castro, 2006), and encourage the purchase of higherpriced items (Areni & Kim, 1993). ...
... Background music has been found to be an effective cue in accessing the physical environment of restaurants which further predicts restaurant patrons' quality evaluation and behaviors (Caldwell & Hibbert, 2002;Milliman, 1986;North et al., 2003;Wilson, 2003). Music played in restaurants has been found to extend the dining time (Wansink & Van Ittersum, 2012), increase food consumption and spending (North et al., 2003;Stroebele & Castro, 2006), and encourage the purchase of higherpriced items (Areni & Kim, 1993). Wilson (2003) found that playing different types of music in a restaurant resulted in different perceptions of the restaurant's atmosphere. ...
Article
Given the growing interest among restaurateurs in using atmospherics to enhance customers' dining experiences, this study sought to examine the impact of background music on customers’ perceptions of ethnic restaurants by applying the cue utilization and consumer socialization theories. A total of 346 valid responses were collected through an online survey sampling website. PLS-SEM was employed to validate the proposed model. Multigroup analysis was conducted to compare customers with different companions, either family or friends. The results indicated that the congruency between ethnic music and restaurant theme showed a more significant effect on perceived authenticity than the enjoyment of music itself. Perceived authenticity had a significant impact on both satisfaction and behavioral intention. The effect of music enjoyment on perceived authenticity was significantly higher for customers who dine out with families, while the effect of music congruency on perceived authenticity was significantly higher for customers who dine out with friends.
... One particular characteristic is music. Background music can affect the taste of wine [14] and increase the pleasantness of the taste experience leading to enhanced appreciation of the holistic dining experience [10,61] Additionally, compared to a pop music background, a classical music background influenced costumers to purchase more expensive wines in a wine store [62] and to spend more in a restaurant [61]. North and colleagues explained their findings by the upmarket atmosphere of classical music inducing the congruent behavior of spending more [61]. ...
... One particular characteristic is music. Background music can affect the taste of wine [14] and increase the pleasantness of the taste experience leading to enhanced appreciation of the holistic dining experience [10,61] Additionally, compared to a pop music background, a classical music background influenced costumers to purchase more expensive wines in a wine store [62] and to spend more in a restaurant [61]. North and colleagues explained their findings by the upmarket atmosphere of classical music inducing the congruent behavior of spending more [61]. ...
... Background music can affect the taste of wine [14] and increase the pleasantness of the taste experience leading to enhanced appreciation of the holistic dining experience [10,61] Additionally, compared to a pop music background, a classical music background influenced costumers to purchase more expensive wines in a wine store [62] and to spend more in a restaurant [61]. North and colleagues explained their findings by the upmarket atmosphere of classical music inducing the congruent behavior of spending more [61]. This is certainly plausible, but another possibility is that classical music increased the pleasant experience, which in turn enhanced the appreciation of the dining experience. ...
Article
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There is lack of research on effects of red wine on consciousness when drank in wine bars designed to enhance the pleasurableness of the wine drinking experience. Effects of a moderate dose of red wine (≈ 40.98 g of ethanol) on consciousness were examined in a naturalistic study taking place in a wine bar located in one of the most touristic areas of Lisbon, Portugal. One hundred two participants drank in one of three conditions: alone, in dyad, or in groups up to six people. Red wine increased pleasure and arousal, decreased the awareness of time, slowed the subjective passage of time, increased the attentional focus on the present moment, decreased body awareness, slowed thought speed, turned imagination more vivid, and made the environment become more fascinating. Red wine increased insightfulness and originality of thoughts, increased sensations of oneness with the environment, spiritual feelings, all-encompassing love, and profound peace. All changes in consciousness occurred regardless of volunteers drinking alone, in dyad or in group. Men and women did not report different changes in consciousness. Older age correlated with greater increases in pleasure. Younger age correlated with greater increases in fascination with the environment of the wine bar. Drinking wine in a contemporaneous Western environment designed to enhance the pleasurableness of the wine drinking experience may trigger changes in consciousness commonly associated with mystical-type states.
... In particular, the marketing literature has shown how the structural components of music (musical tempo, volume and mode), the preferential dimension (liked or familiar music, high level of fit, popular music) or genre (e.g., classical, jazz) have an influence on the evaluation and satisfaction of a store or a service, the time spent in the store, purchase intentions, sales volume and patronage behaviour [15]. In particular, classical music has been associated with more consumers' spending [18,[24][25][26]. One of the aims of this body of research is to understand which music is the most appropriate in different contexts, e.g., different kind of shops, bars or restaurants. ...
... In Japanese-themed and a Mexican-themed restaurant chains in Singapore, a mixture of pop and traditional music increased consumers' expenditure. [18,19,[24][25][26][27][51][52][53][54][55][56] Combination of structural properties ...
... In particular, classical music was shown to increase the time spent in a shop, sales volumes and the prices that consumers are willing to pay. People tend to spend more and select more expensive products [24][25][26]55]. Classical music also increases the positiveness of the reviews or the venue [24]. ...
Article
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Psychological research has long demonstrated that preferences can be influenced by stimuli coming from the environment. Music, as an external stimulus influencing people behaviours, purchasing processes and spending, has been widely analysed in consumer behaviour and marketing literature. Here, we focus on the effect of music genres on preferences and willingness to pay for selected ecosystem services of a Nature Park when they are elicited with a Discrete Choice Experiment. This aspect is important in non-market valuation because music can represent an element of context-dependence for the assessment of individual choices, so that the assumption of preference stability does not hold, and welfare estimates may be biased. The results of a generalized mixed logit model evidenced a significant effect of music on preferences. If elicited preferences depend on the context on which the survey is implemented, wrong information to decision makers is provided when the choice context is altered by an uncontrolled external stimulus. This result is particularly important for applied researchers and policy makers. First, the use of protocols and guidelines that instruct respondents about the ambient background when answering a questionnaire is highly recommended, particularly for online surveys. Second, specific genres of music should be used in educational and ecosystem services conservation campaigns and also piped in visitor centres and virtual tours to encourage nature conservation and improve visitors’ sensitiveness for the environment.
... Areni and Kim [31] and North et al. [32] demonstrated that liquor stores and restaurants that played classical music in the background had higher sales and that their cus-tomers chose more expensive commodities. North and Hargreaves [33] and North et al. [34] showed that customers purchased more German wines than French wines when a wine shop played German music and purchased more French wines than German wines when the wine shop played French music. ...
... Areni and Kim [31] and North et al. [32] demonstrated that liquor stores and restaurants that played classical music in the background had higher sales and that their customers chose more expensive commodities. North and Hargreaves [33] and North et al. [34] showed that customers purchased more German wines than French wines when a wine shop played German music and purchased more French wines than German wines when the wine shop played French music. ...
Article
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The music environment of a restaurant is an important factor that affects consumer behaviors during the dining experience, especially silent dining behaviors among people who are not encouraged to talk in the context of COVID-19. This study empirically analyzed the influence of consumers’ background music preferences on their emotions and behavioral responses during their dining experience at a high-end Chinese restaurant. A total of 393 valid samples were obtained through purposive sampling and snowball sampling. The research tools used in this study included a personal background information questionnaire, four Oriental and Western music conditions, a background music preference scale, a scale for evaluating emotions during the dining experience, and a behavioral response scale. The results showed that the subjects preferred the Chinese classical music—the Butterfly Lovers Concerto. Background music affected the participants’ emotions during their dining experience, and different background music conditions resulted in significant differences in emotions and behaviors. The consumers’ emotions, during their dining experience significantly predicted their behaviors under all four music conditions. The greatest contribution and value of this study stem from the finding that the background music at a restaurant can arouse specific positive emotions in consumers during their dining experience and thus affect their eating behavior.
... Background music could therefore be used as a controllable environmental stimulus to influence consumer behaviors in retail as well as in food and beverage environments (North & Hargreaves, 2008). In fact, the manipulation of music parameters, such as genre, valence, tempo, rhythm, and volume has been demonstrated to influence consumer expenditure (Caldwell & Hibbert, 2002;Garlin & Owen, 2006;Milliman, 1982;North & Hargreaves, 1998;North, Shilcock, & Hargreaves, 2003;Wilson, 2003), purchase choices (Areni & Kim, 1993;North, Hargreaves, & McKendrick, 1999;Yeoh & North, 2010), emotional responses to waiting times (Grewal, Baker, Levy, & Voss, 2003;Hui, Dube, & Chebat, 1997), overall evaluation of the establishment (Demoulin, 2011;Grewal et al., 2003;North & Hargreaves, 1996), and approachavoidance behaviors (Demoulin, 2011;Liu & Jang, 2009). ...
... Further research showed that playing classical background music in food and beverage environments could lead to increased spending (Caldwell & Hibbert, 2002;North & Hargreaves, 1998;North et al., 2003;Wilson, 2003) and induce pleasant perception of food (Fiegel, Meullenet, Harrington, Humble, & Seo, 2014). Particularly, North and Hargreaves (1998) reported 3.7%, 18.8%, and 20.5% higher expenditure in classical background music than pop music, easy listening music, and no music conditions, respectively. ...
Article
Influences of background music on consumer behavior have economic potential for businesses. However, the precise parameters for manipulating these effects have remained elusive. In this study, the impact of different genres of background music on consumer spending was examined in three branches each of both a Japanese-themed and a Mexican-themed restaurant chain in Singapore. Three music genre conditions ("pop," "traditional," "mix") corresponding to the restaurants' cultural theme, were played for a week in each restaurant. Data on total spending and spending per customer were collected and analyzed. While direct music genre effects were not statistically significant, results indicated certain trends where higher consumer expenditure was observed in conditions utilizing a mixture of pop and traditional music ("mix"). Specifically, spending per customer for the "mix" condition was 11.4% higher than for "pop" for the Japanese restaurant, whereas it was 6.3% higher for the "mix" condition than for "traditional" for the Mexican restaurant. The results suggest that music could be tailored to different days of the week to appeal to different customer profiles and that music can be parameterized to influence consumer behaviors.
... Therefore, background music could be used as a controllable environmental stimulus that influence consumer behaviours in retail as well as in food and beverage (F&B) environments . In fact, the manipulation of music parameters, such as genre, valence, tempo, rhythm, and volume had been demonstrated to influence consumer expenditure (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002;Garlin and Owen, 2006;Milliman, 1982;North and Hargreaves, 1998;North, Shilcock, and Hargreaves, 2003;Wilson, 2003), purchase choices (Areni and Kim, 1993;North, Hargreaves, and McKendrick, 1999;Yeoh and North, 2010), emotional responses to waiting times (Grewal, Baker, Levy, and Voss, 2003;Hui, Dube, and Chebat, 1997), overall evaluation of the establishment (Demoulin, 2011;Grewal et al., 2003;North and Hargreaves, 1996), and approach-avoidance behaviours (Demoulin, 2011;Liu and Jang, 2009). ...
... Further research showed that playing classical background music in F&B environments could lead to increased spending (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002;North and Hargreaves, 1998;North et al., 2003;Wilson, 2003) and induce pleasant perception of food (Fiegel, Meullenet, Harrington, Humble, and Seo, 2014). Particularly, North and Hargreaves (1998) reported 3.7%, 18.8% and 20.5% higher expenditure in classical background music than pop music, easy listening music and no music conditions, respectively. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Influences of background music on consumer behaviour has economic potential for businesses, however, the precise parameters for manipulating these effects have remained elusive. In this study, the impact of different genres of background music on consumer spending was examined via a pilot field test conducted in three branches each of both a Japanese-themed and a Mexican-themed restaurant chain in Singapore. Three music genre conditions (‘pop’, ‘traditional’, ‘mix’), corresponding to the restaurants’ cultural theme, were played for a week in each restaurant. Data on total spending and spending per customer were collected and analysed. While direct music genre effects were not statistically significant, results indicated certain trends where higher consumer expenditure was observed in conditions utilizing a mixture of pop and traditional music (‘mix’). Specifically, spending per customer for the ‘mix’ condition was 11.4% higher than for ‘pop’ for the Japanese restaurant, whereas it was 6.3% higher for the ‘mix’ condition than for “traditional” for the Mexican restaurant. The results also further suggest that music could be tailored to different days of the week to appeal to different customer profiles and lend additional support for the leveraging of suitable music parameters to induce consumption behaviours.
... Types of music genre, rythm and tempo in restaurant play integral part in influencing consumers' behaviour. In food service establishment, music can be assessed through four characteristics which are the tempo of the music (Milliman, 1986;Caldwell & Hibbert, 2002), type of music (Magnini & Thelen, 2008;North, Shilcock & Hargreaves, 2003), difficulty of the music (North & Hargreaves, 1996) and volume of the music (Guéguen, Hélène & Jacob, 2004). Pleasant and good music could arouse the positive behaviour of the customers to lengthen the duration of stay and spending, thus generating profit for the restaurateurs. ...
... In addition, customers also lengthen the duration of stay in restaurants and increase their expenses as well (Milliman, 1986;Sullivan, 2002;Akrin, 2013). On the same note, there are an abundance of studies on consumer acceptance regarding music (Milliman, 1986;Caldwell & Hibbert, 1999;North, Shilcock & Hargreaves, 2003;Akrin, 2013;Soh, Jayaraman, Choo & Kiumarsi, 2015). However, there are few studies that focus on music and the duration of stay in café restaurants specifically in Malaysia. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food service in Malaysia has grown positively and to a certain extent is being labelled as 'sophisticated'. The atmosphere in restaurants such as the colours, scents, temperature and music have become some of the essential elements that influence customers' behaviour. Previous studies have shown that music genre, rhythm and tempo were able to arouse the emotion of customers, thus affecting the patrons' consumption and duration of stay. Therefore, this study aims at reporting the empirical investigation of background music, emotions and duration of customers' stay in cafés and restaurants. The findings of this study revealed the relationship of the background music managed to arouse the emotion of patrons which led to lengthening the duration of customers' stay and increasing their consumption. The positive response among the customers indicated that the use of music in restaurants plays an integral part. As such, it is important for restaurateurs to choose suitable music to create pleasant atmosphere as it influences customers' emotion.
... Different types of restaurant may use different types of background music, which will also have a certain impact on sound comfort [14,15]. Of these music types, classical concerts encourage people to spend more [16]. The noise of the equipment in the restaurant has an adverse effect on customers' acoustic comfort [17]. ...
Article
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While an increasing number of studies are examining the effect of the sound environment in restaurants, this study is the first to examine the effect of children on the sound environment of dining areas. We measured children's behaviour and the sound pressure level in a dining area and investigated acoustic comfort and sound source to ascertain the influence of the number of children, behaviour, and gender combinations while playing on the sound environment of a typical fast-food restaurant in Harbin City, China. The results demonstrate that, first, with fewer than four children, the sound pressure level (SPL) increases significantly when the number of children increases (e.g., by 2.8dBA per child). However, when the number of children exceeds four, the SPL is almost stabilised. Second, sound sources heard by people in the dining area can also be influenced by the number of children; the sound of communication among children increased by 12% and then decreased by 20% as the number of children increased. Finally, the number of children affects acoustic comfort by 2.2 (on a 5 point scale) due to the duration of the Max SPL, and by 1.0 due to the percentage of screaming and communicating. These results demonstrate that the sound environment can be improved by changing the number of children and their combination groups.
... North, A. C., Shilcock, A. & Hargreaves, D.J. (2003). The effect of musical style on restaurant customers' spending. ...
... Lee et al., 2010;Pearce & Moscardo, 1986;Namkung & Jang, 2007;North et al., 2003; Ryu & Jang, 2006;Verhoef et al., 2009;Williams, 2006;Wijaya et al., 2013). Co-creation or coproduction of experience between customer and brand and other customers of the brand(Gentile et al., 2007;Kirpalany, 2011;Selstad, 2007;Verhoef et al., 2009) online experiences through information technology (LanLuo & Ratchford, 2008) have received attention from researchers.The third set of antecedents is related to situational factors in the consumption context(Hwang & Seo, 2016) and macro-environmental factors such as the economy(Grewal et al., 2009). ...
Article
The concept of customer experience has received increasing attention in different disciplines. However, the pathway for handling experience has not been clearly set forth due to divergent conceptualizations and insufficient measures of customer experience. This study critically analyzes empirical and conceptual literature on experience, provides a holistic definition of experience, proposes an experience model with four main components (emotional, cognitive, sensorial, and conative), and suggests using a combination of several measures to capture the totality of tourism experience at pre-visit, onsite, and post-visit stages. These suggestions provide important implications for researchers and practitioners by offering new ways to explore customer interaction with tourist products, detect affective and sensory components leading to important consumption outcomes, investigate individual impacts of anticipation, onsite experience, and recall, as well as analyze effectiveness of destination marketing practices.
... Como ya hemos comentado, la música es un elemento de diseño importante en el área de compras que afecta a las decisiones conscientes e inconscientes de los consumidores (Banat y Wandebori, 2012) y que, por tanto, impactará significativamente en su intención de compra. De este modo, el estilo de música puede influir en la percepción de calidad (Agmon, 1990) y el gasto que conlleve la compra (Wilson, 2003;North et al., 2003;Spence y Piqueras-Fiszman, 2014). Como resultado, un ambiente agradable prepara al consumidor para tomar una decisión repentina de comprar un producto no planificado (Donovan y Rossiter, 1982;Verplanken y Herabadi, 2001), contribuyendo así a la rentabilidad financiera del establecimiento (Herrington, 1996). ...
Article
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Este trabajo trata del marketing auditivo, una de las estrategias comerciales más utilizadas en la disciplina del merchandising. La sección teórica del trabajo comienza con el desarrollo de cada una de las variables musicales objeto de estudio y como pueden afectar teóricamente (de una forma y en un grado u otro) a las distintas características y cualidades de los consumidores. Finalmente, se ha realizado un planteamiento general para poder abordarse en futuras líneas de investigación.
... Additionally, music volume, tempo, styles and genre could also affect customers' behaviour, satisfaction and perception towards acoustic comfort in the restaurant [14,31,33,34,36,37,38]. Moreover, music affects customers' willingness to spend more money and time in restaurant [38,39,41]. In other aspect of study, perceptions and consumption of food and drinks are also affected by music and background noise, which loud music can impair the taste and consumption of food and drinks [8,40,42,43,44,45,52]. ...
Article
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One of the important dining interests for focusing on smelling and tasting during dining in eatery places is having concentration or attention perceived of what we eat or drink. The dining satisfaction influenced positive behavior of return intent and recommending the eatery places to others. Higher noise level may distract the concentration for having a fine dining experience and could interrupt the ability of smelling and tasting senses. Settings in the noisy atmosphere of eatery places such as located near to a busy road, open kitchen, table layout and inappropriate decoration as well as the patrons’ conversation behavior may affect speech intelligibility. Ultimately, the long period exposure towards high decibel sound and noise affecting not only the health and wellbeing but also the social interactions and communications. It is also having a direct significant impact to human preferences on acoustic comfort during their dining. However, there is no specific classification or rating system established in Malaysia to assist the information on acoustic environment obtained in the eatery place. The aim of this paper is to identify the framework of eatery places classification in Malaysia within the context of the acoustic comfort and its performance. The main concern is to elucidate clearly different categorization of eatery places which might have significant on human psychoacoustics. Based on ongoing research, this paper will discuss on the critical literature reviews to develop a conceptual framework in classifying eatery places typologies and diners’ acoustical preferences.
... A number of real-world studies have shown that playing background classical music (e.g., when compared to Top-40 hits) leads to consumers spending more on their food and beverage purchases, no matter whether they happen to be in a wine shop (Areni and Kim, 1993), a university cafeteria (North and Hargreaves, 1998;North et al., 2003North et al., , 2016, or even an African-themed restaurant (Wilson, 2003). The suggestion that is often put forward here is that playing classical music semantically primes notions of quality and class, which nudges consumers into spending more than they otherwise might (see also Magnini and Thelen, 2008). ...
Book
Full-text available
What we hear before and/or while we eat and drink often affects our tasting experiences. The focus of Auditory Contributions to Food Perception and Consume Behaviour is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on how such music and ambient inputs can influence our expectations, our purchasing behaviour, as well as our product experience. Much of the research collected together in this volume relates to 'sonic seasoning' This is where music/soundscapes are especially chosen, or else designed/composed, in order to correspond to, and hence hopefully to modify the associated taste/aroma/mouthfeel/flavour in food and beverages. The various chapters collected together in this volume provide a state-of-the-art summary of this intriguing and emerging field of research, as well as highlighting some of the key directions for future research.
... A number of real-world studies have shown that playing background classical music (e.g., when compared to Top-40 hits) leads to consumers spending more on their food and beverage purchases, no matter whether they happen to be in a wine shop (Areni and Kim, 1993), a university cafeteria (North and Hargreaves, 1998;North et al., 2003North et al., , 2016, or even an African-themed restaurant (Wilson, 2003). The suggestion that is often put forward here is that playing classical music semantically primes notions of quality and class, which nudges consumers into spending more than they otherwise might (see also Magnini and Thelen, 2008). ...
... Además tocar música clásica aumentó el gasto promedio en un restaurante (Wilson, 2003;North et al., 2003;Spence y Piqueras-Fiszman, 2014) y un estilo de música francés llevó a más compras de vino francés en un supermercado (North et al., 1997(North et al., , 1999. ...
Research Proposal
Este proyecto se basa principalmente en el estudio del marketing auditivo, una de las estrategias comerciales más utilizadas por las empresas a día de hoy y uno de los campos de mayor desarrollo en la disciplina del merchandising. En primer lugar, la sección teórica del trabajo comienza con un breve resumen histórico sobre la evolución de la música ambiental, seguido de una aclaración sobre las diferentes terminologías existentes que puede adoptar ésta, evitando así cualquier posible confusión al respecto. Tras esta introducción, a partir de una serie de apartados, procedemos a desarrollar cada una de las variables musicales objeto de estudio y como pueden afectar teóricamente (de una forma y en un grado u otro) a las distintas características y cualidades que poseen las personas que frecuentan los distintos establecimientos comerciales, todo esto apoyado siempre con argumentos y ejemplos que explican más detalladamente estos efectos.
... A number of real-world studies have shown that playing background classical music (e.g., when compared to Top-40 hits) leads to consumers spending more on their food and beverage purchases, no matter whether they happen to be in a wine shop (Areni and Kim, 1993), a university cafeteria (North and Hargreaves, 1998;North et al., 2003North et al., , 2016, or even an African-themed restaurant (Wilson, 2003). The suggestion that is often put forward here is that playing classical music semantically primes notions of quality and class, which nudges consumers into spending more than they otherwise might (see also Magnini and Thelen, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Food product-extrinsic sounds (i.e., those auditory stimuli that are not linked directly to a food or beverage product, or its packaging) have been shown to exert a significant influence over various aspects of food perception and consumer behaviour, often operating outside of conscious awareness. In this review, we summarise the latest evidence concerning the various ways in which what we hear can influence what we taste. According to one line of empirical research, background noise interferes with tasting, due to attentional distraction. A separate body of marketing-relevant research demonstrates that music can be used to bias consumers' food perception, judgments, and purchasing/consumption behaviour in various ways. Some of these effects appear to be driven by the arousal elicited by loud music as well as the entrainment of people's behaviour to the musical beat. However, semantic priming effects linked to the type and style of music are also relevant. Another route by which music influences food perception comes from the observation that our liking/preference for the music that we happen to be listening to carries over to influence our hedonic judgments of what we are tasting. A final route by which hearing influences tasting relates to the emerging field of 'sonic seasoning'. A developing body of research now demonstrates that people often rate tasting experiences differently when listening to soundtracks that have been designed to be (or are chosen because they are) congruent with specific flavour experiences (e.g., when compared to when listening to other soundtracks , or else when tasting in silence). Taken together, such results lead to the growing realization that the crossmodal influences of music and noise on food perception and consumer behaviour may have some important if, as yet, unrecognized implications for public health.
... Music impacts the variety of independent variables such as customer's mood, arousal, pleasure and emotion (Dillman Carpentier & Potter, 2007;Droit-Volet, et al., 2013 andThompson, et al., 2001), financial returns known as sales volume, quantity purchased and profit margin (North, et al., 2000 andNorth, et al., 2003), attitudes and perception of consumers (Areni &Kim, 1993 andGrewal, et al., 2003), behavioral variables such as purchasing frequency, store choice, time spending (Garlin &Owen, 2006 andTurley &Milliman, 2000) and temporal effects like time taken to purchase, duration to perceived (Holbrook &Gardner, 1993 andKyu Kim &Gal Zauberman, 2019). The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the music tempo played inside the supermarket affects the behavior of the customer. ...
Article
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Background music has been used to improve customer behavior by improving emotional and behavioral characteristics. The present research examines the effects of music tempo of two language songs on customer shopping behavior. A survey was conducted at Arpico Super Center Kandy comprising with five experimental treatment viz no music, high tempo English song, low tempo English song, high tempo Sinhala song, and low tempo Sinhala song. The response of 30 randomly selected customers were evaluated for each type of treatments and in total 150 customers was interviewed. Overall, the study reveals that significant variations on customer behavior were found among the music tempo particularly English and Sinhala songs (p < 0.05). Lower tempo music of both languages had positively affected customer behavior resulted in the highest level of pleasure, arousal, and satisfaction after purchase. On the other hand, a considerable number of customers neither attracted by the tempo nor the language of music. Thus this study suggests to maintaining a lower level of music tempo will encourage the majority of the customer behaviors thereby could be used as a strategy to improve sales volume.
... Additionally, music manipulation, such as differing volumes, tempos, styles and genres, can affect the overall restaurant dining experience [90,92]; customers' behavior, satisfaction and perception towards acoustic comfort in a restaurant; atmospheric characteristics [22,30,35,[93][94][95][96][97]; and food perception and acceptance [98]. Moreover, music affects customers' willingness to spend more money and time in restaurants [93,97,[99][100][101][102]. Another portion of the study shows that customers' perceptions and consumption of food and drinks are also affected by music and background noise; loud music can harm the taste and consumption of food and drinks [9,78,[103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110]. ...
Article
In the context of eatery places, it is important that people concentrate and focus on the smells and tastes of their food and drinks to ensure that they are satisfied with their meals, as this influences the positive behavior of the intent to return and can prompt them to recommend an eatery place to others later. A higher level of noise may distract people from having a fine dining experience and could interfere with their sense of smell and taste. Ultimately, long-term exposure to noise will affect not only a person’s health and well-being but also his or her social interactions, communication and preferences for acoustic comfort during the dining experience. This paper will discuss the critical literature reviews of the determining factors of this phenomenon in order to develop a conceptual framework by which to classify eatery place typologies and diners’ perceived acoustic comfort. The main goal of this paper is to clearly elucidate the different categorizations of eatery places and the determining factors that might have significant effects on human acoustic comfort. Therefore, the paper aims to develop a framework based on the determining factors of acoustic comfort classification in eatery places. This framework can be used by diners as a reference for selecting suitable eatery places based on their preferences.
... Ebenso hat Jacob verifiziert, dass das Spielen von Trinkliedern in einer französischen Bar an der Atlantikküste einen wirtschaftlichen Vorteil gegenüber der Beschallung mit Stücken aus den Charts oder Cartoon Music besitzt (Jacob 2006, S. 718 North et al. (2003) zeigen, dass sowohl das Vorhaben der Gäste als auch die tatsächliche Höhe der Geldausgabe bei den Bedingungen mit klassischer Musik signifikant über den beiden anderen Versuchsansätzen liegt (North et al. 2003, S. 716). Die Wiedergabe klassischer Musik konnte die Gesamteinnahmen in einem britischen Restaurant, das als gehobenes Mittelklasselokal beschrieben wird und qualitativ hochwertiges sowie frisch zubereitetes Essen serviert, pro Person um ca. ...
Chapter
Die psychotrope Wirkung von Musik ist vielfach nachgewiesen worden. Der Einsatz von Musik in Gaststätten und auf Veranstaltungen hat einen deutlichen Einfluss auf das Konsumverhalten der Gäste sowie auf deren Beurteilung von Speisen, Getränken und der Atmosphäre des Lokals bzw. des Events. Die geeignete Auswahl von Musik bewirkt je nach Gaststättenart und Zielgruppe, dass sich Geschwindigkeit, Menge, Art und Geschmackserlebnis der konsumierten Speisen und Getränke beeinflussen lassen. Zudem ist Musik an der Erzeugung einer spezifischen Atmosphäre des Lokals beteiligt.
... The last dimension, and most relevant for the reported research, is the fit of the music to the service setting; that is, how well the chosen music piece matches consumers' expectations of the respective serving setting (Demoulin, 2011;Oakes and North, 2008a). Discussed next, store-fit is one of the most important considerations a retailer can make when choosing music, as the impact of music is affected by the relationship between music, type of business and type of clientele (Demoulin, 2011;Morrin and Chebat, 2005;North et al., 2003;Vida et al., 2007;Vida, 2008;Wilson, 2003). ...
Purpose – Previous research has demonstrated that, in retail settings, music has some of the largest effects on consumer behavior. However, it is still unknown how the language of the lyrics (native vs. foreign) affects consumer behavior. In order to address this gap in retail atmospherics, the reported study examines the differential effects of the language of the lyrics of the music played and explains the interactions between the music-language and volume. Design/methodology/approach – The data were obtained from a field study conducted in an apparel store and from 241 shoppers speaking Spanish as their native language. The study involved the manipulation of language of the lyrics of music played in the store (native vs foreign). Findings – Results indicate that customers in a non-English speaking country are more likely to make purchases when music is played in English, which fits with the store’s global image. This effect is mediated by time spent in the store. Practical implications – For managers of global apparel brands, the results suggest that English music may be a good option to increase time spent in the store and subsequent purchases. This is especially attractive as music is an atmospheric cue that can be easily modified at less expense than other atmospheric cues. Originality/value – This work is the first to demonstrate that fitting the language of the lyrics of music in an international retail store to a global brand image affects consumer behavior. Furthermore, it demonstrates that atmospherics research may not directly transfer to non-English speaking countries. Keywords Atmospherics, Music, Language of the lyrics of music, International retailing, Store-fit
... Los resultados respecto al comportamiento del cliente indican efectos divergentes sobre la presencia de música en el punto de venta (Baumann y Gayer, 2017). Si bien algunos autores informan de una presencia 15 minutos superior del consumidor en la tienda (Andersson et al., 2012;Sullivan, 2002) otros trabajos no identifican diferencias significativas entre utilizar o no música (Wilson, 2003;North et al., 2003). ...
Article
Frente a consumidores cada vez mejor informados y más exigentes, que también buscan que su compra se convierta en una experiencia y a la creciente importancia de los portales de compra onlinefrente al retailfísico, se hace necesario el desarrollo de estrategias en el punto de venta para atraer a los compradores y sigan acudiendo a las mismas, no sólo a realizar una compra, sino a pasar tiempo en la tienda. Y, en este sentido, una de las grandes diferencias (por no decir el punto fuerte) entre la tienda física y la onlinees la experiencia física de poder tocar y sentir el producto. La tienda no debe ser entendida solo como un punto de venta, sino que se debe configurar como un espacio donde vivir experiencias. Y es aquí, integrada dentro de la estrategia de trade marketing, donde cobra especial relevancia el marketing de los sentidos. Partiendo de esta premisa, la presente investigación se centra en el estudio del marketing sensorial utilizado por las tiendas de moda del grupo Inditex y, más concretamente, la influencia que el uso de dichas técnicas tiene en el comportamiento de compra de los consumidores y en cómo estos perciben la generación de experiencias. Para ello se aplicará la metodología cuantitativa de la encuesta a una muestra de la población cuyas respuestas se estudian a través del software estadístico SPSS. De los resultados se desprende que si bien el uso de estas técnicas tiene una influencia positiva en los consumidores desde el punto de vista de la experiencia de compra, realmente no les influyen en la decisión de compra final.
... The music constitutes a part of atmosphere in a background context in terms of accompanying offered food or other products, i.e. being a tool. In terms of foods or other products representing music or that is represented by music, numerous studies have been conducted on the concept of background music in different fields (see Baker, Grewal & Parasuraman, 1994;Milliman, 1982Milliman, & 1986North, Shilcock & Hargreaves, 2003). These may serve as an example to the relationship of gastromusicology with interdisciplinary studies. ...
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Music, in addition to being listened to live on stage or from a record, is a commercial tool used by people. It is known that music is used by businesses under various occupational groups to increase representation capability of their products, address a particular audience, stimulate shopping or create an atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to determine the genre(s) of music preferred by boutique burger establishments, to research the purpose(s) for preferring such music genres, and to identify whether there is a music genre that represents boutique burger. During preliminary studies conducted in line with this purpose, it was determined that Caferağa Neighborhood of Kadıköy District in İstanbul province has had improving social, cultural and gastronomic characteristics that were maintained throughout the years, and boutique burger establishments also gained prominence as social and gastronomic spaces in the recent years. 8 boutique burger establishments, which were shaped by the relationships between space, taste and music, were identied in Caferağa Neighborhood, and a gastromusicological study has been conducted with ethnographic methods in line with the purpose in question. In this qualitative study based on descriptive assessment, data was collected by application of observation and interview techniques on 6 managers, 4 cook-managers, 10 cooks and 16 customers in a total of 8 businesses. The data on research problem was analyzed with descriptive analysis and it was determined that boutique burger was represented by various American popular music genres such as Electronic (House, Electro House, Deep House, Techno), Funk, Pop, Rock, Country, Jazz, Reggae, Rap, Chill-out, R&B and Hip-hop.
... Further, the type of music differently affected children's or adults' cognitive learning and consumption habits, being the highly arousing genres more linked with kids and the relaxing ones with adults (Cassidy & MacDonald, 2007;Hallam et al., 2002;Kumar et al., 2016;North, Shilcock, & Hargreaves, 2003;O'Hare, 2011;Schellenberg & Hallam, 2005;Schellenberg & Weiss, 2013). ...
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Music is essential for human development, and its distribution throughout almost all individual and social environments has generated significant research far beyond the arts, as it has become a subject of inquiry in academic learning. To analyze the influence of music habits on academic performance, 123 undergraduate students were voluntarily surveyed about music habits and academic scores for a core subject were registered. The most preferred genres were Pop and Rock, followed by Reggaeton, while the least preferred were Electronic and Asian. No particular individually analyzed habits as far as the type, frequency of listening or the number of years the subject has listened to music determined general academic performance, but a negative effect of listening to any preferred genre over the fact to suspend or pass the subject while studying was observed. Besides, students who used to listen to Pop/Rock and Asian music daily and since they could remember had better academic scores. Incorporating music research in science learning would provide a better comprehension of its relevance in academic environments.
... For example, rock music has correlated with increased consumption of alcohol [36], while classical music appears to help reduce the intake of savory foods [37]. People also tend to spend more money at a restaurant when classical or jazz music is playing rather than pop music or no music at all [38]. Thus, to some extent, the spending of money is related to the amount of food consumed. ...
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Food intake has been shown to be related to several environmental factors including the presence of music. However, previous findings of the relationship between music and food intake are inconsistent. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively review the extent to which music is associated with food intake as well as to investigate potential moderators that might have contributed to the heterogeneity of the existing findings. Literature was searched on four databases (i.e., PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses) and Google Scholar. Nine articles published from 1989 to 2020 met our inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was carried out via a three-level random-effects model. The overall effect size (i.e., Hedges’ g) was 0.19 (95% Confidence Interval: −0.003, 0.386; SE = 0.10, t = 1.99, p = 0.054), indicating a marginally significant but small effect size. Body Mass Index (F(1, 21) = 5.11, p = 0.035) was found to significantly contribute to the heterogeneity of effect sizes, with larger positive effects of music on food intake for individuals with higher BMI. However, music-related features did not significantly moderate the relationship between music and food intake. More experimental studies are needed to update the current meta-analysis and get a better understanding of this topic.
... Among customer-employee, customer-environment, and customer-customer interactions, Wu and Liang (2009) found physical environment factors to have the strongest influence on consumer experiential value in luxury hotel restaurants. North et al. (2003) compared the effects of playing classical music, pop music, and no music in restaurants, revealing that classical music led to higher customer spending. Countryman and Jang (2006) identified five atmospheric elements of hotel lobbies, and found color, lighting, and style to be significant predictors of guests' overall impression of lobbies being beautiful, inviting, and comfortable. ...
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As COVID-19 prevention efforts have become normalized, conflicts between guests and hotel staff, who must adhere to government protocols, can have a serious impact on host-guest interactions. Drawing on interaction ritual chain theory, this research explores the ritualized mechanism of host-guest interactions during the pandemic from the perspectives of staff and guests. By combining video ethnography and interviews, this study identifies the ritual ingredients, processes, outcomes, and collective symbols of COVID-19 prevention measures. Based on the attitudes and performance paths of staff and guests, the interaction chain may become longer or shorter, and result in guests becoming "insiders" or "outsiders" and leaving the interaction space. An integrated model of host-guest interactions based on interaction ritual theory is proposed.
... Characteristics of the physical settings such as the facilities, layout, music, scents, and temperature (ambient cues) influence approach (e.g., engage in valuable and helpful behavior toward other customers, share experiences with others, etc.) and avoidance (e.g., limited interaction with other customers) behaviors (North 2003;Spangenberg 1996). For example, seating arrangements in airports discourages comfortable conversation among travelers (Sommer 1974). ...
... En cuanto al efecto que el uso de la música tiene sobre el comportamiento del consumidor los estudios ofrecen diferentes resultados (Baumann y Gayer, 2017). Mientras hay investigaciones que confirman que la utilización de música incrementa 15 minutos la presencia del cliente en el local (Andersson Et al., 2012;Sullivan, 2002) se pueden encontrar estudios que no han hallado diferencias significativas en el comportamiento entre utilizar música o no hacerlo (Wilson, 2003;North Et al., 2003). ...
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La creciente importancia de los portales de compra online frente al retail físico, hace necesario el desarrollo de estrategias en el punto de venta para que los consumidores sigan acudiendo a las mismas a comprar. Y, en este sentido, una de las grandes diferencias (por no decir el punto fuerte) entre la tienda física y la online es la experiencia física de poder tocar y sentir el producto. La tienda no debe ser entendida solo como un punto de venta, sino que se debe configurar como un espacio donde vivir experiencias. Y es aquí, integrada dentro de la estrategia de trade marketing, donde cobra especial relevancia el marketing de los sentidos. Partiendo de esta premisa, la presente investigación se centra en el estudio del marketing sensorial utilizado por las tiendas de moda del grupo Inditex Stradivarius y ZARA y, más concretamente, en como aplican estas técnicas en sus tiendas, desde el punto de vista del olfato, el oído, la vista y el tacto. Para ello se aplicará la metodología del análisis de contenido. De los resultados se desprende que estos establecimientos aplican de manera activa las técnicas de marketing sensorial, estando presentes en todas las tiendas, al objeto de mejorar la experiencia de compra de los consumidores.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, etnik restoranları yönetici perspektifinden değerlendirerek marka değeri algılarının belirlenmesidir. Nitel araştırma yönteminin kullanıldığı çalışmada araştırmanın verileri, görüşme tekniği ile elde edilmiş ve elde edilen veriler betimsel analiz aracılığı ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma evrenini İstanbul’da faaliyet gösteren etnik restoranlar oluşturmaktadır. Bu bağlamda İstanbul ilinde bulunan 15 farklı etnik restoran yöneticisi ile yüz yüze görüşme yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda etnik restoranların marka değerini yükseltmeleri için işletme reklamlarına odaklandıkları ve marka imajının müşteriler üzerindeki etkisini artırabilmeleri için özel gün promosyonları ve sosyal sorumluluk projelerinde rol alma gibi stratejiler izledikleri belirlenmiştir. Bununla birlikte müşterilerin markaya olan bağlılıklarının sürdürülebilirliği için yöneticilerin algılanan marka ve kalite standartlarını aynı seviyede tutmaya özen gösterdikleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Background: Silibinin (SBN), a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activator, has been evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity in many inflammatory diseases. However, its role in diabetes-induced peripheral neuropathy (DPN) remains unknown. The SIRT1 activation convalesces nerve functions by improving mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy. Methods: DPN was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 55 mg/kg, i.p. in the male SD rats whereas neurotoxicity was induced in Neuro2A cells by 30 mM (high glucose) glucose. Neurobehavioural (nerve conduction velocity and nerve blood flow) western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytochemistry were performed to evaluate the protein expression and their cellular localisation. Results: Two-week SBN treatment improved neurobehavioural symptoms, SIRT1, PGC-1α, and TFAM expression in the sciatic nerve and HG insulted N2A cells. It has also maintained the mitophagy by up-regulating PARL, PINK1, PGAM5, LC3 level and provided antioxidant defence by upregulating Nrf2. Conclusion: SBN has shown neuroprotective potential in DPN through SIRT1 activation and antioxidant mechanism.
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This study focusses on the impact of the background music on consumers' shopping experience during the festival seasons. The authors derived a new research model based on the environmental psychology model in the literature and then designed an empirical experiment to examine changes in consumers' non‐behavioural shopping outcomes under different conditions. The authors built a virtual shopping website and chose a traditional Chinese festival, the Mid‐Autumn Festival, as the experimental scenario in which the authors used a questionnaire to measure the differences in dependent variables formed by different treatments. Data from the online experiment showed that consumers' experience is more positive with music than without the background music, and the consumer's emotions play a mediating role. However, there is no significant effect of music with the theme of the Mid‐Autumn Festival compared to ordinary pop music, which proves that the theme of music does not affect consumers' experience in the online shopping scenario. These findings reflect the psychology and behaviour of consumers when using shopping websites and provide suggestions for shopping site design.
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Purpose Obesity among elderly consumers precipitates undesirable health outcomes. This study aims to investigate the effects of environmental cues on food intake of elderly consumers in an aged-care facility. Design/methodology/approach A longitudinal study conducted over 17 weeks in situ within an aged-care facility with 31 residents investigated how auditory (soothing music), olfactory (floral-scented candle) and visual (infographic on health benefits of the main meal component) cues influenced food intake quantity during a meal, while accounting for portion size effect (PSE). Findings Analysing the cross-sectional results of individual treatments and rounds did not reveal any consistent patterns in the influence of the three environmental cues. Longitudinal analyses, however, showed that the presence of auditory and olfactory cues significantly increased food intake, but the visual cue did not. Moreover, PSE was strong. Research limitations/implications Extending research into environmental factors from a commercial to a health-care setting, this study demonstrates how the presence of auditory and olfactory, but not cognitive cues, increased food intake behaviour among elderly consumers. It also shows that a cross-sectional approach to such studies would have yielded inconclusive or even misleading findings. Merely serving more would also lead to higher food intake amount. Practical implications Environmental factors should be a part of health-care providers’ arsenal to manage obesity. They are practical and relatively inexpensive to implement across different health-care settings. However, the same environmental factors would have opposite desired-effects with normal or underweight residents, and hence, aged-care facilities need to separate the dining experience (or mealtime) of obese and other residents. Quantity served should also be moderated to discourage overeating. Originality/value While studies into managing obesity, particularly among older adults, have mainly focused on techniques such as pharmacotherapy treatments with drugs, dietary management or even lifestyle change, less attention has been given to the influence of environmental cues. This study, executed in situ within an aged-care facility, provided evidence of the importance of considering the impact of environmental factors on food intake to help reduce obesity.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the three-way interaction effects among congruence type (proximal vs distal) of nonverbal ad messages, assessment perspective (internal vs external) of verbal ad messages and social distance (close vs faraway) on consumers’ visit intention. Design/methodology/approach After developing the four categories of restaurant advertisements and scenarios for each type of social distance, the authors used 780 observations collected from Chinese consumers via the online survey platform Sojump and WeChat. The authors conducted ANOVA to test the hypotheses. Findings The results reveal that in proximal congruence situations, consumers who feel a close social distance between themselves and their companions report higher visit intentions when exposed to internal versus external perspective-oriented ad messages; in distal congruence situations, external perspective-oriented ad messages elicit higher intention to visit advertised restaurant when consumers feel a far social distance between themselves and their companions. Research limitations/implications Future research can focus on the different categories of messages, such as functional and experiential messages, to find whether similar interaction effects are explored or not. Practical implications This paper suggests some practical implications for advertisers to maximize the impact of advertisements on consumers’ behavioral outcomes via combining the different characteristics of nonverbal and verbal messages effectively, especially according to their target consumers’ characteristics. Originality/value In the view of the three-way interaction effects, this paper offers a new lens on understanding how advertisements influence consumers’ behavioral outcomes, which could contribute to the advancement of advertisement theories.
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Music is considered as an effective tool in shaping consumers’ responses to advertising. The present study examines the effects of mildly incongruent background music upon consumers’ responses to restaurant advertising. It integrates country of origin and genre congruity of music in a single congruity framework through focusing more closely upon the twin components of congruity (expectancy and relevancy) and examines how various quadrants of musical in/congruity affect consumers’ cognitive responses and behavioral intentions. Between-subjects experiment was conducted to explore participants’ responses to an advertisement promoting a fictitious Italian restaurant. Findings indicate how the deliberate crafting of musical incongruity can be used to engage and amuse consumers, proposing that resolving mild musical incongruity may enhance consumers’ attitude toward advertising, perception of brand image and quality, as well as their purchase intent. The present research develops, refines, and redefines the concept of musical congruity in advertising and offers the first empirical evidence for the positive effects of using purposeful, mildly incongruent music upon consumers’ cognitive responses to advertising as well as their behavioral intentions.
Purpose Through investigation and comparisons between tourists and restaurant managers regarding their understanding of traditional music and their attitudes, expectations and assigned importance to it, this paper aims to identify the most problematic aspects of the (non)inclusion of traditional music in restaurant settings in tourist destinations. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through a field survey of tourists and managers/owners of catering establishments in the four municipalities of Slovenian Istria. Findings The results show that tourists attach a relatively high importance to this element of cultural heritage and that it is not sufficiently included in the overall product of the destination and in the catering establishments. Differences in the understanding of traditional music between the two groups were also found. Research limitations/implications The research limitations are, namely, a relatively small sample of managers for the quantitative analysis, the particular nature of the chosen destination which does not allow generalization of the results and finally, the study was conducted in the high season when the structure of tourists is significantly different compared to that in the mid and low season. Practical implications The findings bring some useful insights into tourists’ expectations and understanding of traditional music as part of the tourism experience for catering establishments’ managers and destination management organizations. By addressing the identified gaps, they can enrich the overall tourism product of the destination, while catering operators can achieve better business results. Social implications The more frequent and cogent inclusion of traditional music in the hospitality sector would provide a new social function and raison d'être for this segment of cultural heritage, which is in danger of being forgotten in many tourist destinations. Originality/value This research addresses a widely overlooked area of two interrelated fields of research, namely, hospitality and cultural heritage. Unlike the majority of previous research on this topic, which only involves actual guests, the present research is designed as a comprehensive investigation and comparison of the attitudes of the general population of actual tourists in the destination (as potential guests of the inns/restaurants) and managers of catering businesses operating in the destination.
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Musical fit refers to the congruence between music and attributes of a food or product in context, which can prime consumer behavior through semantic networks in memory. The vast majority of research on this topic dealing with musical fit in a cultural context has thus far been limited to monocultural groups in field studies, where uncontrolled confounds can potentially influence the study outcome. To overcome these limitations, and in order to explore the effects of ethnically congruent music on visual attention and food choice across cultures, the present study recruited 199 participants from China (n = 98) and Denmark (n = 101) for an in-laboratory food choice paradigm with eye-tracking data collection. For each culture group, the study used a between-subject design with half of the participants listening to only instrumental “Eastern” music and the other half only listening to instrumental “Western” music, while both groups engaged in a food choice task involving “Eastern” and “Western” food. Chi-square tests revealed a clear ethnic congruency effect between music and food choice across culture, whereby Eastern (vs. Western) food was chosen more during the Eastern music condition, and Western (vs. Eastern) food was chosen more in the Western music condition. Furthermore, results from a generalized linear mixed model suggested that Chinese participants fixated more on Western (vs. Eastern) food when Western music was played, whereas Danish participants fixated more on Eastern (vs. Western) food when Eastern music was played. Interestingly, no such priming effects were found when participants listened to music from their own culture, suggesting that music-evoked visual attention may be culturally dependent. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that ambient music can have a significant impact on consumers’ explicit and implicit behaviors, while at the same time highlighting the importance of culture-specific sensory marketing applications in the global food industry
Chapter
The eating environment is a complex phenomenon involving a number of factors which, either individually or synergistically, have the ability to influence the meal experience. The study of emotions in such circumstances is important as, for example, emotions have the ability to influence behavioral intentions, which in turn influence overall satisfaction and can be effective in the event of service failure. The techniques used to measure emotions in a typical environment tend, for the moment at least, to be restricted to questionnaires, and more recently, interviews, although other techniques continue to be developed. The choice and nuances of a questionnaire require careful deliberation, as no single instrument represents the ideal, and may need to be adapted to fit the circumstances. Similar considerations also apply to interviews along with the sample size. Thereafter, the practicalities of the actual data collection are not something which should be left to chance and each aspect needs to be carefully thought through.
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Store atmospheres are inherently multisensory and constitute an important driver of consumer behaviour. The research suggests that background music (as one element of the multisensory atmosphere) can influence consumer preference and choice. However, the findings have been inconsistent as far as how background music influences people’s preferences for healthy vs. indulgent foods is concerned. By considering different music genres, food types, and tastes/flavours, we aimed to disentangle the mixed results that have been reported previously. Across two experiments (including one pre-registered replication), the participants rated their preferences for each of several options (healthy savoury, indulgent savoury, healthy sweet, indulgent sweet) while listening to one of four music genres (Jazz, Classical, Rock/Metal, and Hip-hop). The results of the two experiments consistently demonstrated that the effects of background music on food preferences were dependent on the interaction between music genre, food type (healthy vs. indulgent), and taste/flavour (sweet vs. savoury). Crucially, listening to Jazz and Classical music increased people’s preferences for healthy savoury foods (e.g., vegetable sandwich) as compared with Rock/Metal music. Listening to Rock/Metal, Hip-hop, and Jazz music increased people’s preferences for indulgent savoury foods (e.g., a beef sandwich) as compared with Classical music. Additionally, listening to Classical music increased people’s preferences for both healthier (e.g., low-fat milk) and indulgent (e.g., milk chocolate) sweet foods as compared with the other musical genres. The mediating role of emotions was also documented in these experiments. Specifically, positive valence mediated the relationship between music genre and sweet as well as healthier savoury foods, while the feeling of arousal mediated the relationship between music genre and indulgent savoury foods. These findings suggest that auditory atmospherics may influence consumers’ food preferences. Practical implications for store managers concerning when to select and use specific types of background music are made.
Thesis
Music has the power to evoke specific emotions in users according to its tone. The music used in an advertisement largely determines the customer's attitude towards the brand. There are many precedents in the world when advertising music has significantly increased the image, awareness and sales of the brand, however in Georgia no significant research has been conducted on this topic so far. The research aims to determine the emotional impact of advertising music on Georgian consumers and demonstrate the consequences of this impact. This paper discusses the specifications of the types of music used in advertising, as well as reviews the experiences of the global market and Georgia in the field of branding, where music plays one of the major roles. In the modern competitive market it is vital for any brand to have a distinct image and identity. The findings of the study indicate that audio branding is as significant component of a company’s identity as visuals and values. Moreover, music has the power to influence customer’s behavior. The results of the study demonstrate that a distinct musical direction has a positive effect on brand awareness. Properly planned and selected music can trigger specific consumer behavior and has a long-term impact on customer loyalty.
Chapter
Music is considered as one of the most important executional cues in advertisements. It is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the context of television and radio advertising, with more than 94% of advertisements incorporating a certain type of music. Music accounts for a significant commercial advantage in the context of advertising by producing favorable associations with the product/brand, contributing to the message, and by attracting consumers’ attention and enhancing message recall.
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