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Chronic Noise Exposure and Reading DeficitsThe Mediating Effects of Language Acquisition

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Abstract

First- and second-grade schoolchildren chronically exposed to aircraft noise have significant deficits in reading as indexed by a standardized reading test administered under quiet conditions. These findings indicate that the harmful effects of noise are related to chronic exposure rather than interference effects during the testing session itself. We also provide evidence that the adverse correlation of chronic noise with reading is partially attributable to deficits in language acquisition. Children chronically exposed to noise also suffer from impaired speech perception, which, in turn, partially mediates the noise-exposure-reading deficit link. All of these findings statistically controlled for mother's education. Furthermore, the children in this study were prescreened for normal hearing by a standard audiometric examination.

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... 206). Children raised in disadvantaged residential contexts tend to have worse life outcomes compared to their more-advantaged counterparts on a variety of measures, including cognitive skills, academic performance, educational attainment, adult economic performance, social mobility, substance abuse, sexual behavior, teen pregnancy, mental and physical health, aggression and violence, deviance and criminal involvement, and victimization (Bronzaft and McCarthy 1975;Wilson 1987;Ransom and Pope 1992;Peeples and Loeber 1994;Wilson 1996;Evans and Maxwell 1997;Sampson et. al. 1999;Sampson et. ...
... Ransom and Pope (1992), for instance, found an association between air pollution and school absenteeism. Other studies have found that children who are exposed to excessive noise from highway traffic, airplanes, and trains tend to have worse reading skills and memory (Bronzaft and McCarthy 1975;Evans and Maxwell 1997;Stansfeld et. al. 2005). ...
Article
This study examines the place-based differences in opportunity experienced by men from low-income backgrounds across U.S. and Pennsylvania counties. Our quantitative findings suggest that U.S. and Pennsylvania counties are very unequal in terms of how men raised in low-income families fare in adulthood on measures of upward mobility, household income, college graduation, incarceration, and marriage. A variety of county-level measures of concentrated disadvantage were associated with these outcomes, including county household income, poverty rate, degree of racial segregation, college graduation rate, single parenthood rate, social capital rate, and job growth rate. Additionally, anonymous qualitative data from phone interviews with county commissioners from some of the Pennsylvania counties that struggled the most in our analysis helped to confirm our findings with valuable on-the-ground perspectives. We discuss these findings and their implications for equality of opportunity in the U.S. and the state of Pennsylvania.
... When Evans and Maxwell (1997) tested students in different acoustic conditions, they found that aircraft and road noise had a negative impact on students during reading comprehension test, while verbal noise had no impact at all. ...
... Excessive noise causes a negative impact on student achievement, notably on students with hearing impairments (Nelson & Soli, 2000). Noise was also found to impact verbal conversations and pre-reading skills in children (Evans & Maxwell, 1997). ...
Thesis
A growing body of research shows that conditions for learning significantly influence students’ academic achievement (Schneider, 2002). Research indicates that conditions for learning, including physical conditions and social relations, as well as students' sense of security, influence students' academic performance. Environmental conditions, including air quality, indoor lighting, temperature, accessibility, the spatial configuration of the class and décor (Fisher, Godwin, & Seltman, 2014), the school and classroom size (Coupé, Olefir & Alonso, 2016) also influence students' achievement. However, a relatively small number of studies in Malta examine the impact of conditions for learning at home and in school on student academic performance. This dissertation aims to explore the effects of environmental factors on student learning and seeks to determine which conditions for learning hinder students’ achievement in school. The study also examines whether there are some differences in students' perceptions of learning environment among primary and secondary, and with both male and female students. The study also examines the impact of students' family characteristics on their perceptions of conditions for learning and the effect of perceived environmental conditions at school and home on student academic achievement. To examine the established research questions, this dissertation applies a concurrent triangulation mixed-method design that combines the results of a survey which included primary and secondary school students with the findings from a set of interviews conducted during a similar period. The objective was to effectively examine students’ experiences when learning in different environments and under various conditions. In total, 205 primary and secondary students completed a paper-and-pencil survey and eight students participated in a follow-up interview. KEYWORDS: CONDITIONS FOR LEARNING, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, SOCIAL BACKGROUND, SOCIAL RELATIONS, RESOURCES FOR LEARNING
... al. 1973;Bronzaft and McCarthy 1975;Cohen et. al. 1980;Hambrick-Dixon 1985;Ransom and Pope 1992;Evans and Maxwell 1997;Evans and Kantrowitz 2002;Lanphear et. al. 2005;Stansfeld et. ...
... al. , 2020c. Children from disadvantaged areas tend to develop worse cognitive skills, perform worse in school, and have lower rates of high school and college completion (Bronzaft and McCarthy 1975;Evans and Maxwell 1997;Aaronson 1998;Plotnick and Hoffman 1999;Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn 2000;Duncan et. al. 2001;Harding 2003;Stansfeld et. ...
Article
This study examines the association between inequality of place and adult outcomes in the United States, with a specific focus on social mobility. Using U.S. Census Bureau data as well as anonymous federal tax return data for over 20 million Americans, we examined the relationship between county of origin characteristics and adult outcomes for low-income men raised there. These outcomes included not only social mobility, but also college graduation, household income, incarceration, and marriage. We focused on low-income men (born between 1978-1983, raised in households at the 25th income percentile, and tracked into their mid-thirties) for this analysis in order to see the differences in difficulty in achieving success coming from a low-income household across different U.S. states. All of the origin county characteristics examined (college graduation rate, median household income, job growth rate, percentage population Black, poverty rate, single parenthood rate, and social capital) were associated with low-income men's adult outcomes. When ranking U.S. states, we found very different chances for upward mobility for low-income men across the country, with about a quarter reaching the top 20 percent in household income in high-opportunity North Dakota, but only 4 percent achieving such mobility in South Carolina. Our analysis showed that the seven aforementioned county characteristics were much more advantageous in North Dakota compared to South Carolina, which plausibly helps explain some of the differences in opportunity between these states. Additionally, anonymous qualitative data from phone interviews we conducted with five county council members from some of the South Carolina counties that struggled the most in our analysis (bottom ten in upward mobility) reinforced these quantitative findings. - in Sociological Viewpoints
... Additionally, hearing and learning new words in the context of noisy environments may interfere with the phonological aspects of language learning, potentially impacting the development of language skills (Wightman & Kistler, 2005). Children's early speech perception and phonological awareness are pivotal to language and reading development (Nittrouer, 2002;Melby-Lervåg et al., 2012;Melvin et al., 2017;Wagner & Torgeson, 1987), and impaired speech perception may mediate the link between noise exposure and language development (Evans & Maxwell, 1997). Indeed, increases in language and reading scores have been observed following the closure of a nearby airport (Hygge et al., 2002), and it has been suggested that excessive noise exposure may be a potential mechanism underlying socioeconomic disparities in language development (Skoe et al., 2013). ...
... For example, in Hygge (2002), researchers measured noise using a dedicated sound measurement device for an entire 24-hour period. In another study, a school was chosen for examination based on predicted noise levels using their location within the airport's flight contour (Evans & Maxwell 1997). In contrast, our study used LENA technology to measure individual children's home noise environments over the course of 5-16 h. ...
Article
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While excessive noise exposure in childhood has been associated with reduced language ability, few studies have examined potential underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for noise-related differences in language skills. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that higher everyday noise exposure would be associated with 1) poorer language skills and 2) differences in language-related cortical structure. A socioeconomically diverse sample of children aged 5–9 (N = 94) completed standardized language assessments. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired, and surface area and cortical thickness of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left superior temporal gyrus (STG) were extracted. Language Environmental Analysis (LENA) was used to measure levels of exposure to excessive environmental noise over the course of a typical day (n = 43 with complete LENA, MRI, and behavioral data). Results indicated that children exposed to excessive levels of noise exhibited reduced cortical thickness in the left IFG. These findings add to a growing literature that explores the extent to which home environmental factors, such as environmental noise, are associated with neurobiological development related to language development in children.
... The most robust findings associate chronic exposure to aircraft noise to impairments in pupils' reading skills (Clark & Sörqvist, 2012;Evans, Hygge, & Bullinger, 1995;Evans & Maxwell, 1997;Haines, Stansfeld, Head, & Job, 2002), an effect that can be explained by cumulative difficulties in speech perception (Evans & Maxwell, 1997;however, see Van Kempen et al., 2010). Chronic exposure to aircraft noise has also been associated with lower scores on nationally standardised tests (Clark & Sörqvist, 2012), lower mathematics performance (Haines et al., 2002), and a reduced ability to complete meaningful sentences (Matheson et al., 2010;Stansfeld et al., 2005). ...
... The most robust findings associate chronic exposure to aircraft noise to impairments in pupils' reading skills (Clark & Sörqvist, 2012;Evans, Hygge, & Bullinger, 1995;Evans & Maxwell, 1997;Haines, Stansfeld, Head, & Job, 2002), an effect that can be explained by cumulative difficulties in speech perception (Evans & Maxwell, 1997;however, see Van Kempen et al., 2010). Chronic exposure to aircraft noise has also been associated with lower scores on nationally standardised tests (Clark & Sörqvist, 2012), lower mathematics performance (Haines et al., 2002), and a reduced ability to complete meaningful sentences (Matheson et al., 2010;Stansfeld et al., 2005). ...
Conference Paper
Noise is a prevalent part of primary school. Yet, it is unclear why some pupils are more affected by it than others. Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that noise impacts learning by deviating attention. This hypothesis has been tested on adult populations using working memory and attention tasks, but not on children. This thesis presents laboratory and school studies filling this gap. Chapter 2 investigates the impact of moderate verbal noise (single-talker noise) and multi-talker classroom noise on reading comprehension, text recall and mathematics performance, among a sample of children in Years 4 to 6. Noise had a detrimental effect on text recall and mathematics, but only when the noisy session was presented before the silent session. There was no difference between the impact of the two types of noise. Inhibitory control was not identified as a protective factor. Better working memory was protective when doing mathematics in noise – but this was not found for reading comprehension and text recall. In Chapter 3, children in Years 1 to 6 were engaged in two idea generation tasks, with or without the presence of moderate multi-talker noise. Noise only had a detrimental impact on the original of ideas for children in Years 1 to 3, and this was evident in only one of the two tasks. Better inhibitory control was protective when generating new ideas in noise, especially for children in Years 1 to 3. Studies from Chapters 2 and 3 provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the impact of noise. They also reveal a challenge for researchers and educators; namely, that the objective impact of noise on performance does not align with children’s self-reported experience of being distracted. Chapter 4 explores different dimensions of children’s reactions to noise, in a sample of pupils in Years 5 and 6. Here, perceiving noise as interfering with an ongoing activity in the classroom was partly dissociable from feeling annoyed by it. Children who reported greater difficulties in switching from one task to another also reported greater noise interference and annoyance. Children who reported greater mind-wandering reported greater interference, but not annoyance. Chapter 5, based on the same sample, highlighted that behavioural tests of sustained attention and working memory were associated with noise interference, but not annoyance. Together, these results bridge the gap between self-report, and behavioural assessments of distractibility. Finally, Chapters 6 and 7 reported on two separate mindfulness and sound awareness interventions that were co-designed with teachers, and implemented among the same sample as in Chapters 4 and 5. The reduction in noise levels was more important in the sound awareness and in the control groups than in the mindfulness group. Only the sound awareness group was associated with reduced feelings of noise interference and annoyance. Improvements in reading comprehension were more important in the mindfulness group than in the sound awareness group. In conclusion, this thesis shows that the impact of noise on learning and well-being is partly underlined by attentional mechanisms, and suggests practical solutions to reduce children’s negative reactions to noise.
... For the acoustical studies, both internal and external noise were investigated. The main identified external sources were cars, aircraft and railway (Evans and Maxwell, 1997;Shield and Dockrell, 2003;Hygge, 2003;Haines et al., 2001), while the studies about internal noise were mainly focused on babble, equipment noise or other background noise level in classrooms (Shield and Dockrell, 2008;Shield and Dockrell, 2006;Ronsse and Wang, 2013) Several different types of lighting (e.g. the daylight (Heschong, 2002), UV light (Hathaway, 1995) and full-spectrum light (Nicklas and Bailey, 1996)) have been studied to assess the relationship between visual quality in classroom and students' performance. Besides, the colour of environment, i.e. colour of walls, also has been concerned by some researchers (Park, 2014;Yildirim et al., 2015). ...
... Besides, some internal noise sources, like babble, have been studied (Shield and Dockrell, 2006). Results of other related studies indicated that no matter what kind of noise, it can have adversely impact on students' performance (Evans and Maxwell, 1997;Haines et al., 2001;Hygge, 2003;Ronsse and Wang, 2013). Although some solutions, such as acoustic suspended ceilings, wall absorbers (Campbell et al., 2014) and absorbing flooring materials (Harris, 2015), are being explored, an individual control method over noise is still uncommon ...
Conference Paper
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Good indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in classrooms is an essential requirement to ensure children's comfort and learning performance. However, although in most studies the current situation of the IEQ in classrooms has been investigated, few or no studies have been focused on the way to ameliorate it. Recently, some researchers managed to utilize local control to improve local environment quality, but most of these studies have been focused on offices instead of classrooms. Existing knowledge about how to apply local control of IEQ in the classroom is very limited. This paper presents a summary of knowledge in both fields of IEQ in classrooms and local control. In addition, some issues will be discussed and new problems will be proposed. All of these discussions will illuminate the direction for further research on how to use local control to improve the IEQ in classrooms to facilitate childrens' health and performance.
... Apart from comparing achievement scores of urban and rural students as index of location, it may be necessary to consider other indexes such as the level of noise around the school. Evans and Maxwell (1997) and Dunne (2000) have suggested a link between noise and academic achievement. Hopkins (1997), reporting the views of the US Cornell University researchers, observed that children in schools bombarded by noise do not leam to read as well as children in quiet schools do. ...
... The implication of this result is that students from less noisy area had better performance than those from highly noisy area. The result of this study agrees with that of Evans and Maxwell ( 1997), who found a negative effect of noise on children's reading skills leading to poor academic achievement. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to find out if there was an association between achievement in JSC Mathematics Examination and class size on one hand and the level of noise around the school on the other hand. The Mathematics results of a sample of 7,276 students who took JSCE in Onitsha North Local Government Area of Anambra State were obtained after the schools in that Local Government Area had been stratified according to level o f noise around the school and then according to average class size. The result of the study established a negative association between academic achievement and average class size on one hand, and level o f noise on the other. From the results one concludes that a student is more likely to perform better in JSC Mathematics Examination, if he is in a school with small average class size, or one in a less noisy area, than if he is in a school with large average class size or one in a highly noisy area.
... Young children have been reported to suffer from memory loss, poor reading skills, and low motivation as a result of loud airplane noise (Evans and Lepore, 1993;Clark et al., 2006). Similar to how airplane noise affects reading ability, attention, and school attendance, other environmental noise sources, like train and automobile traffic, have been linked to similar effects (Bronzaft and McCarthy, 1975;Lukas, and DuPree, 1980;Cohen, Evans, Krantz, and Stokols, 1980;Bronzaft, 1981;Sanz, Garcia and Garcia, 1993;Romero and Lliso, 1995;Evans and Maxwell, 1997;Haines et al., 2001;Klatte, Meis, Sukowski and Schick,. 2007). ...
... A sample of class design with various furniture types is shown in Figure 2. Comparing the old chairs and new chairs that entered a school, the authors found that chairs were essentially requiring students to do an activity and its newness per se cannot be efficient and useful [17]. Other studies regarding classroom arrangementbehavior include the study of the effect of noise pollution and density in the classroom and their role in student learning [18][19][20][21]. ...
... Of the academic indicators defined in Figure 1, only absenteeism has not been studied. Within measures of cognitive tasks, analogously to ventilation rate research, some acoustics studies have pointed to different impacts for different subjects, i.e., numeracy versus literacy (Dockrell, Shield, and Connolly 2018) And like indoor air research, personal contexts such as age (Connolly et al. 2019) or learning difficulties, appear to matter (Evans and Maxwell 1997) Thus it appears that vulnerability to both air pollutants and noise is moderated by the demandingness of the task at hand and the student's ability to cope. ...
Article
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The adoption of green building certification schemes, such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) for Schools, establishes common building factors among certified schools. Many building factors influence student performance outcomes including cognitive skills, standardized test scores and rates of absenteeism. This review synthesizes current research from 28 new studies and 101 other studies that were previously included in 15 reviews of associations between LEED-specified building factors and these performance outcomes in schools. In appraising the relative quantity and quality of studies, along with the frequency of LEED credits found in certified schools, this review finds that building features common to 100% of LEED-certified schools also have the strongest research supporting associations with academic outcomes, and largely come under the purview of indoor air quality (e.g., minimum ventilation rate, filtration or air cleaning) and acoustic performance. Comparatively, building factors related to the school site and daylighting have fewer associated studies, but findings suggest these are good targets for future research as they may be important for influencing student performance. Achieving a transition to a lower carbon future requires that schools be built with their energy impacts in mind; and this review provides value to those involved in the planning and design of these green schools that facilitate improved student performance outcomes.
... In terms of psychological and emotional functioning, Haines et al. (as cited in Sherman, Shepley, et al., 2005) indicate that no association has been made between noise, stress response, and cortisol measurement, although there have been weak associations found between a noisier condition and hyperactivity and psychological morbidity. According to Evans and Maxwell (1997), exposure to chronic noise is correlated with reading deficits; with noisier conditions being linked with poorer reading comprehension, poorer sustained attention, and annoyance (as reported in Sherman, Shepley, et al., 2005, p. 206). ...
Article
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Aim This article elucidates current understanding in pediatric healthcare building design via scoping review of research on the impacts on the health and well-being of children of the architectural and landscape characteristics of healing spaces. Background Studies indicate that patients’ phenomenological experiences of the built environment characteristics of healthcare buildings can impact their healing and well-being. It follows that understanding the healing effects of landscape and architecture can inform the design of healthcare settings for increased health benefits. Method This method comprises five search stages: (1) research question is formed; (2) key words, search terms, and search strategy are identified; (3) databases are searched, and papers are assessed via inclusion and exclusion criteria; (4) information of the selected articles is extracted and summarized; and (5) key findings are interpreted and reported via comparative tabulation. Results One hundred seventy-three papers were found during the first search stage. After screening and evaluating for relevance and quality, 13 articles were selected for study. Analysis indicates that the built environment characteristics of pediatric healthcare environments that have healing benefits include access to nature, music, art and natural light, reduced crowding, reduced noise, and soft, cyclical, and user-controlled artificial lighting. Conclusions While it is important to understand the design variables that influence pediatric healthcare, it is also necessary to contextualize them and to distinguish these variables from each other and appreciate their interaction. In other words, a more rounded understanding of these variables is required via research so that their individual and combined impacts are reflected in holistic design recommendations.
... control matters such as chronic noise exposure has been shown to hinder cognitive functioning and to impair pre-reading and reading skills.‖ [56,[76][77][78]. Another supporting research is by Harris [73] that mentions that building occupants' hearing ability will be restricted if they are puzzled due to the high noise levels. ...
Article
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The tourism and hotel industry positively contribute to the country's socioeconomic sector, however, it simultaneously impacts surrounding nature into further deterioration. There has been green building and green hotel rating tools emerging worldwide in the attempt to operate sustainably with better performance, as well as ensuring human comfort inhabiting the spaces. This review highlights briefly the existing global rating tools for green buildings, further exploring into Malaysia's rating tools namely Green Building Index (GBI), focusing towards hotels. The paper will also highlight the up to date green hotels certified by the GBI, the issue on non-renew expired green certification validity date, and the importance of undergoing a green certification renewal. Lastly, the paper reviewed indoor environmental quality's five parameters (Air quality, thermal comfort, lighting, visual, acoustic) and its interrelation with human comfort. In sum, further exploration of existing green hotels indoor environmental correlation with guests' comfort is vital to promote guests' satisfaction and future green hotel revisit.
... Thus, it is not surprising that students exposed to noise in the classroom need more time to learn to read (Hetú et al., 1990). Already in primary school, children who attend schools with high levels of noise show a consistent poor performance in reading comprehension (Bronzaft and McCarthy, 1975) (Clark et al., 2005) (Evans and Maxwell, 1997). ...
Article
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Since oral communication is the main means we use to learn, acoustics becomes one of the most important attributes of the architectural design of classrooms. Adverse acoustic conditions in the classroom negatively affect the learning, performance and cognitive development of students. In year 2015 the Ministry of Education introduced acoustic design criteria for learning spaces. This article presents a review of these criteria based on a comparison with international regulations and considering the database of the Santiago's urban noise map. The results show that the current acoustic criteria for educational settings in Chile present several shortcomings with respect to international standards. It is also observed that more than 70% of educational establishments in Santiago are exposed to environmental noise levels that lie outside the range of application of the criterion.
... Such noise exposure is an environmental stressor that affects the cognitive development of children. 25,104,105 For example, chronic aircraft noise exposure for children aged 8-11 living near an airport has been associated with reductions in reading comprehension and attention capacity, along with higher levels of annoyance and stress, even when adjusted for socioeconomic factors. 106 Cognitive impairment is not the only reported mental health outcome related to chronic noise exposure. ...
Article
Global urbanization, combined with evidence of increased prevalence of mental illness in urban environments, highlights a need to investigate potential connections between the built environment and mental health. Previous research has shown that the built environment may impact occupant mental health through its effects on connection to nature, personal control and indoor air quality. Contact with the natural environment has physiological and psychological benefits; consequently, reduced contact or exposure leads to negative mental health outcomes. The control an occupant has in the built environment can alter the mental health of individuals through direct pathways, such as prevention of exposures to environmental stressors and indirect pathways, such as social connections to others. Indoor air quality is connected to the mental health of built environment occupants, as particulate matter, malodorous irritants and toxins have all been shown to alter mental well-being. Opportunities for architects and engineers to optimize building designs that improve occupant mental health include planned urban greenspace, personalized temperature control and building ventilation. To understand optimization targets, interdisciplinary research utilizing controlled experiments are needed to confirm causality and improve our current understanding of mechanisms underlying the association between the built environment and mental health.
... The American Academy of Paediatrics [20] indicated that exposure to excessive noise during pregnancy may result in high frequency of hearing loss in new-borns while exposed neonates likewise could experience cochlear damage. Children exposed to chronic environmental noise have been found to have poorer auditory discrimination and speech perception [21], experienced raised blood pressure, stress and defects in reading abilities and often reported feeling of helplessness [22,23]. ...
Article
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Reports in the past few decades indicate that Nigerian cities have high noise levels that is claimed to impact the health of residents negatively. The present article therefore examine the rela-tionshipbetween levels of environmental noise in selected residential areas in Ibadan metropolis with varying reported cases of hearing impairments (HI). Data on cases of HI were collected from one hospital; noise monitoring was conducted with the aid of a noise level meter while copies of questionnaire were administered to residents to elicit information on public perception. The distribution of reportedcases of HI among residential areas in Ibadan city showed varying magnitude (p< 0.001). About 75 % of children diagnosed with HI cases were within ages of 4-12 and female children suffered more (53.9 %). Sensorineural and conductive impairments accounted for 88.2 % of all reported HI cases.Monitored noise levels vary significantly among the selected residential area at each of morning, after-noon and evening (p < 0.05). Noise levels at morning and eveningshowed significant correlation with cases of HI reported at each of the 10 selected residential areas (r = 0.81; 0.82). Regression analysis showed that noise level explained 70.1 % of the spatial pattern of HI cases. Residents indicated that their neighbourhoods were noisy, that noise levels were on the increase and that ceremonies and generator use were major sources of noise. An integrated strategy for noise control is urgently required to stem the tide of noise pollution so as to safeguard human health in Nigerian cities.
... Further, by applying the nationwide noise model based on data collected 2000-2014 to 2010 US Census data, we estimated that over 70% of US adolescents lived in communities where day-night noise levels exceeded the US EPA exposure limit. Early 60,61 and more recent 62,63 US studies have focused on transportation noise at schools, generally finding lower reading scores, cognition, and attention among students in louder learning environments. Most recent child and adolescent studies took place in Europe and reported positive associations between noise and cognitive impairment. ...
Article
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Background: Environmental noise has been linked to negative health outcomes, like poor sleep, poor mental health, and cardiovascular disease, and likely accounts for more than 1 million disability-adjusted life years annually in Western Europe. Adolescence may be a particularly sensitive period for noise exposure due to an increased need for sleep, failure to meet sleep guidelines, and increased risk for first onset of some mental health disorders. However, the potential health effects of living in high-noise environments have not been studied in US adolescents, rarely in European adolescents, and mental health outcomes studied have not corresponded to diagnoses from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Methods: Using a US-based nationally representative survey of urban adolescents (N = 4,508), we estimated associations of day-night average sound levels exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency's 55 decibel limit with sleep outcomes and lifetime mental health DSM diagnoses. We implemented doubly robust targeted minimum loss-based estimation coupled with propensity score matching to account for numerous potential adolescent, household, and environmental confounders. Results: Living in a high- versus low-noise Census block group was associated with later bedtimes on weeknights (0.48 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.15, 1.12) and weekend nights (0.65 hours, 95% CI = 0.37, 0.93), but not with total hours slept. Associations between living in a high- versus low-noise Census block group and mental disorders were mixed, with wide CIs, and not robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: We find evidence for an association between residence in a high-noise area and later bedtimes among urban adolescents but no consistent evidence of such an association with mental health disorders.
... Specifically, independent of the effects of SES, excessive noise and crowding in the home were associated with delays in reading (Evans & Maxwell, 1997), lower scores on standardized reading tests (Evans, Lepore, Shejwal, & Palsane, 1998), and elevated stress hormones (Evans & English, 2002) in children. All of these findings relate to home environment, over and above potential influences of SES. ...
Article
Biologically embedded experiences alter developmental trajectories in ways that can influence health, learning, and/or behavior. These systematic differences in experiences may contribute to different biological outcomes as individuals grow and develop, including at the neural level. Previous studies of biologically embedded experiences on neurodevelopment have focused on large‐scale institutional or economic factors (e.g., socioeconomic status (SES)) and psychosocial factors (e.g., caregiving behavior). Less attention has focused on how the quality of the immediate home settings, such as the physical home environment (PHYS), influences neurodevelopment. Moreover, no study has investigated these effects in adolescents, who undergo significant physical maturation and neurodevelopment that may influence how they respond to their physical environments. The goal of the current study was to examine whether PHYS quality is biologically embedded in the developing adolescent brain as evidenced by cognitive achievement and cortical development in 56 (48% female) healthy adolescents (14 to 18 years (M = 16.83 years, SD = 1.17). Using in‐home assessments of the physical home environment, anatomical brain scans, and indices of academic achievement, we found that adolescents who have more physical problems in the home (e.g., structural hazards, crowding, excessive noise, poorly lit) have thinner prefrontal cortices, which was associated with lower levels of reading achievement, independent of SES and psychosocial factors. By conducting home visits to assess physical characteristics of adolescents’ home, we highlight a typically overlooked aspect of the home environment that has relevance for adolescents’ cognitive and brain development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... These effects have since been related to those found in naturally occurring school environments, and there has been recent work to manipulate these physical variables in more lifelike classroom settings. Thus, laboratory work showing that noise disrupts cognitive functioning, producing deficits in memory tests, can be linked to findings that emerged of reading problems among children exposed to chronic noise levels at school, due to the location of their schools near flight paths, highways or railway lines (Bronzaft & McCarthy, 1975;Cohen et al., 1980;Evans & Maxwell, 1997;Haines et al., 2001). Some studies have since tried to test the impact of different sorts of noise in more naturalistic settings (Hygge, 2003;Knez & Hygge, 2002), but noise is a complicated phenomenon, making its relationship with teaching and learning very complex: in addition to interfering with cognitive functions, noise can be immediately distracting for students (Cohen et al., 1980), cause teachers to pause (Bronzaft & McCarthy, 1975) and be upsetting or annoying in the longer term (Haines et al., 2001). ...
Chapter
Abstract This chapter considers the evidence base for the impact of the school physical environment on education, recognizing that there appear to be limited direct impacts on learning, but arguing that this is an under-estimation of the importance of school space. To explore this wider organizational perspective, we start by evaluating research into factors, such as attendance, that can mediate the impact of the physical environment before moving on to consider the interaction of the physical setting with social and cultural aspects. Findings demonstrate the complexities of the relationship between the physical environment of schools and the experiences of occupants, demanding an understanding of the school building as active organizational agent. Implications for policy and practice, particularly in relation to equity in education, are suggested. A central conclusion is that school premises need to be of sufficient quality to support occupant well-being and enable a positive, dynamic relationship between curriculum, timetabling, staff culture and student experience. School leaders, who occupy a critical position in this dynamic system, can then make the school building an active agent in their comprehensive educational plan.
... They likewise have the ability to "de-center" or observe matters from a v i e w p o i n t -64 -different from theirs. Regarding that point toddler language changes to be "socialized" besides comprises matters for example inquiries, responses, orders, and disparagements, (Evans & Maxwell, 1997). ...
Article
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Language is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human beings. Language is vital, we use language in our everyday activities all the time to send, receive messages to all around us living, dealing with, and these messages are in the form of Language. This process named communicating with community; it is one of the essential means to understand each other. In this case, we need to ask ourselves, how did we learn to speak? The Language speaking process sometimes seems to be a very complicated process. Mostly language acquisition can be a misunderstanding term, sometimes you find it difficult to simplify or even forget. When you acquire a language and have that incredible ability to use meaningfully then we are the only creatures who have scientific evidence until now. Do you still remember your first word you spoke? Did you ask yourself before how many words you learn through your life? Psychologists say that we learn about 3.500 words by year. Since the beginning of our birth until 30. We grow up, as infants lacking the language to gossips by a talent for talk, and scholars are wondering how this happens. Our brain grows rapidly. Several things happen, for instance, that ability to speak and understand. There are different theories regarding The language acquisition according to Psychologists these theories elaborate the procedure through it We learn how to speak, write, and otherwise, how can we use symbolic or sign language in significant means of communication.
... Di samping itu kebisingan juga berdampak pada masalah psikologis dan fisologis seperti penurunan tingkat kejelasan pembicaraan, penurunan kemampuan membacadan memahami, kurang konsentrasi, daya ingat menurun, motivasi menurun, dan kejengkelan meningkat (Stansfeld & Matheson, 2003). Beberapa kajian menunjukkan bahwa motivasi juga menurun akibat terpapar kebisingan ini (Evans & Maxwell, 1997)dan (Matheson, Stansfled, & Haines, 2003).Kebisingan juga sebagai penyebab stress (Stansfeld & Matheson, 2003). Kebisingan lalu lintas menghasilkan gangguan fisik dan psikologis terutama di pagi dan sore, yang berpengaruh pada:mudah marah, insomnia, kesulitan dalam berkonsentrasidan gangguan konservasi (Mohammadi, 2009). ...
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Kebisingan lalu lintas jalan raya semakin dirasakan meningkat dan mengganggu. Berdasarkan berbagai penelitian diketahui bahwa kebisingan yang melebihi ambang batas dapat memengaruhi kesehatan fisik maupun psikologis. Upaya-upaya untuk menurunkan tingkat kebisingan ini telah dilakukan dengan membuat penghalang (barrier) yang kaku (rigid) maupun dari tanaman. Penelitian ini dilakukan guna mendapatkan alternative jenis tanaman hias sebagai bahanp enghalang (barrier) kebisingan yang paling efektif dalam menurunkan kebisingan lalu lintas jalan raya. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah terowongan suara sepanjang enam meter. Tanaman hias ditempatkan tepat di mulut terowongan di depan sumber suara. Pada jarak nol meter dan seterusnya setiap satu meter berikutnya diukur tingkat kebisingannya dengan alat sound level meter.Jenis tanaman hias yang paling efektif menurunkan tingkat kebisingan adalah Imodia, kemudian disusul oleh Furing Telor, Soka, Furing Tissue, Walisongo dan Pucuk Merah. Masing-masing jenis tanaman ini memiliki luas permukaan daun mulai dari yang paling kecil hingga yang lebih lebar. Kata kunci: kebisingan, penghalang, tanaman hias, daun. Abstract Road traffic noise is increasingly felt to increase and disturb. Based on various studies it is known that noise that exceeds the threshold can affect physical and psychological health. Efforts to reduce this noise level have been carried out such as making a rigid barrier in addition to being flexible as from vegetations. This research was conducted to obtain alternative types of ornamental plants as noise barriers that are most effective in reducing road traffic noise. The instrument used is a six-meter sound tunnel. Ornamental plants are placed right in the mouth of the tunnel in front of the sound source. At zero meters and so on every one meter until six meters the noise level is measured with a sound level meter. The most effective type of ornamental plants to reduce noise levels was Imodia, followed by FuringTelor, Soka, Furing Tissue, Walisongo and PucukMerah. Each type of plant has a leaf surface area ranging from the smallest to the wider. PENDAHULUAN Pertumbuhan kendaraan bermotor yang tinggi akan semakin meningkatkan penurunan kualitas lingkungan. Dampak penurunan kualitas lingkungan yang disebabkan oleh kepadatan lalu lintas seperti kualitas udara, penurunan indeks kesehatan lingkungan (Masridkk., 2008) dan kebisingan lebih dirasakan secara
... A wide variety of studies [12,13] considers the link between the noise of a school environment, not acoustically correct, and the acquisition of language and subsequent reading skills of children in the first years of school age. ...
Article
Index of clarity of the word a b s t r a c t The acoustic environment in a typical school classroom is often an obstacle for students to listening and learning as well as maintaining attention, sticking to task, speech recognition and reading achievement. In this paper three commonly used scenarios of acoustic correction design of a classroom at an Italian state school were investigated, in order to choose the most favourable acoustical configuration. Subsequently, with reference to the most favourable one, the results of acoustical measurement verification after the realization of the intervention were discussed. First of all a measurement campaign of the main acoustic descriptors (Reverberation Time, Index of Clarity of the Word and Speech Transmission Index) for this kind of location (UNI 11367) using an Integrated Impulse Response (ISO 3382) was carried out, in order to set the parameters of the simulated classroom model. Then the most favourable solution through a low-budget intervention without the need to carry out structural changes is chosen by comparing three different reference scenarios. After built a detailed classroom 3D model and then simulating the considered configurations by using a previsional software (CadnaR), the improved acoustic effects were achieved using sound-absorbant panels placed appropriately on the walls and the ceiling, in order to obtain optimal acoustics in school setting at reasonable cost. The choice of the sound absorbant panels was made accounting for four common materials and investigating on their behaviour in terms of both absorption/frequency and antibacterial-fireproofing properties connected with the use in a scholar environment. The detailed analysis of the measured acoustic parameters after the completion of the intervention , according to the choosed configuration, allows the authors to conclude that the realized intervention shows a very good agreement with the simulated one and represents the optimal configuration in terms of acoustic performances and of a cost-benefit return. Moreover the results of this investigation can be used as a general design guide for acoustic engineers involved in these kind of design.
... Studies focused on chronic exposure to transportation noise compare children living in noisy areas (e.g. near an airport) and those living in quieter areas (Evans, Hygge, & Bullinger, 1995;Evans & Maxwell, 1997;Haines, Stansfeld, Head, & Job, 2002, Matheson et al., 2010Stansfeld et al., 2005;. Globally, the impact of noise on cognitive performance varies depending on the type of noise (acute, chronic noise) and task (reading, attention, memory; for reviews, see Evans & Lepore, 1993;Klatte, Bergström, & Lachmann, 2013). ...
Article
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Classrooms are noisy, yet little is known about pupils’ subjective reactions to noise. We surveyed 112 children between 8.70 and 11.38 years of age and extracted five dimensions in their reactions to noise by factorial analyses: (1) perceived classroom loudness, (2) hearing difficulties, (3) attention capture, (4) interference, (5) annoyance from noise. Structural Equation Models were run to better understand interindividual differences in noise interference and annoyance. Children reporting hearing and switching difficulties experienced more interference and annoyance from noise. Children who had a greater propensity for mind-wandering also experienced more interference from noise, but were annoyed by noise only to the extent that it produced interference—the relationship between mind-wandering and noise annoyance was indirect, and not direct, as was the case for reported hearing and switching difficulties. We suggest that the distinction between annoyance and interference has theoretical, empirical, and practical relevance for educational research.
... In contrast, safety concerns regarding low frequency ultrasound in air must consider the hearing system in air, which is out-of-remit for the FDA guidelines cited in the uBeam quote. The same reflection coefficient relied upon in the uBeam quote also applies to sound at voice frequencies that, if sufficiently loud, can cause adverse bioeffects (e.g., hearing threshold shifts at a rock concert; compromised learning 21 and sleep 22 as a result of environmental noise). The human ear is designed specifically to be sensitive despite this >99% reflection at the skin. ...
Article
This editorial introduces a Special Issue of the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, on "Ultrasound in Air." In this Special Issue, one paper covers ways of categorizing the ultrasonic regimes, and three papers cover human effects. One of those three, plus five others, constitute the six papers that report on the measured outputs of commercial devices. Two cover calibration, and the final three papers cover novel applications. This editorial outlines the context in which these papers provide individual studies, including the development of technology and guidelines for safe exposure, and ending with an analysis of what is currently known about claims of sonic attacks on embassy staff in Cuba and China.
... 150 In addition, those exposed chronically have impaired speech perception. 151 The learning issues caused by chronic aircraft exposure cause stress and worsen cognitive performance for young school children. 60 A study found that aircraft noise combined with train or road traffic greatly increased recognition and recall. ...
... Psychological effects such as clarity of speech, decreased ability to read and understand, lack of concentration, lack of memory, decreased motivation, and increased irritation [3]. In several studies also showed a decrease in motivation [4]. ...
Article
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Traffic noise that exceeds the required noise level standard in the Minister of Environment Decree No. 48 of 1996 of the Republic of Indonesia can interfere with physiological and psychological health. This research was conducted in the city of Malang, which aims to determine the attitudes and responses of residents who live around the road sections to the noise coming from motorized vehicles that expose it. The study was conducted with interviews assisted with closed and open questionnaires. Simultaneously with the interview, data collection of noise levels outside and inside the house was carried out using a sound level meter. Interviews were conducted between 16:00 and 21:00. Respondents' responses are divided into four variables, namely perception, expectation, attitude, and adjustment to the noise that exposes it. From the separately processed noise level data, it is found that around the road segments in Malang City have far exceeded the required noise level, which is an average of 85.2 dB. From the descriptive analysis obtained facts, respondents have the perception that their place of residence is in a noisy environment. In these conditions, they hope that motor vehicle noise can be reduced or minimized. They are not comfortable living in a noisy environment. There are even some of them who want to move house to a place that is not noisy. Most of them make adjustments to noise with certain treatments. However, quite a number of them did not make any adjustments.
... Further, the study found that chronic exposure to noise was associated with a significant impairment in reading comprehension (Stansfeld et al. 2005). Additional studies exploring whether enduring exposure to environmental noise may cause persisting deficits in children's cognitive development have found evidence of chronic effects on children's reading and pre-reading skills (Evans and Maxwell 1997;Klatte et al. 2010;Maxwell and Evans 2000;Seabi, Goldschagg and Cockcroft 2010;Shield and Dockrell 2008). "The ability to understand spoken English is also related to the listener's proficiency in the English language" (Nelson, Soli and Seltz 2002, 5) and children whose home language is English understand sentences with a lower SNR as compared to English second-language speakers who require a higher SNR to understand sentences. ...
Article
Noise disturbance has been recognised as a problem in schools, affecting the intelligibility of speech, and consequently, educational outcomes. Whilst research has explained various effects of noise on learning, less is known about specific learner populations’ perceptions of the effects of noise on their learning. This article reports on a study that compared the noise perceptions of learners at two all-girls high schools (one comprising mostly English home-language speakers; the other English second-language speakers) in Johannesburg, South Africa. The findings of the purposive questionnaire survey that was administered to girls aged 15–18 are presented. Sound measurements are considered alongside questionnaire data and published standards for acceptable classroom noise. Higher levels of noise interference were reported by second-language speakers, which suggest that increased language processing demands make these learners more susceptible to the negative effects of noise. Thus, the implications point to the need for schools to recognise and minimise the negative effects of noise particularly when learners are engaged in tasks of higher order cognitive demand or when teachers are verbally presenting new or complex concepts. This is particularly true for girls for whom English is their second language.
... Um espaço ruidoso gera efeitos negativos em tarefas cognitivas, como a leitura, o foco, a resolução de problemas e a memorização [2]. Isso também afeta a saúde dos professores, pois precisam fazer um enorme esforço vocal para serem compreendidos pelos alunos como demonstra o estudo de Ronsse [3]. ...
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Resumo: Este artigo apresenta um estudo para apoiar a melhoria das condições acústicas em salas de aula e espaços de ensino de duas escolas públicas sediadas no município de Santa Maria, a partir de medições e simulações acústicas para avaliação da inteligibilidade da fala. A temática abrange a qualidade acústica de ambientes de ensino como ferramenta necessária ao aprendizado, contribuindo com tarefas cognitivas dos alunos como a leitura, a concentração e a memorização. Nesse sentido, torna-se necessária a realização de medições e simulações acústicas para o ajuste adequado dos ambientes de ensino, que possam proporcionar conforto acústico aos usuários. Sendo assim, propõe-se a avaliação da inteligibilidade a partir do levantamento de respostas impulsivas em algumas salas de aula. O sinal sonoro adotado é a varredura em frequência. Para emissão do sinal sonoro é utilizada uma fonte omnidirecional e como receptores utilizam-se de microfones, distribuídos na região onde os alunos estão normalmente posicionados. Com os sinais obtidos nas medições, faz-se o processamento de sinais para obtenção de alguns parâmetros acústicos tais como tempo de reverberação, tempo de decaimento inicial, definição, fator de clareza e STI (índice de transmissão da fala). Os resultados das medições refletem a má qualidade acústica nas salas de aula participantes do estudo, apresentando valores para clareza e definição abaixo do recomendável e de tempo de reverberação acima do requerido para salas de aula. Os resultados demonstram que a inteligibilidade da fala do professor fica seriamente comprometida nesses espaços, dificultando o desempenho cognitivo dos alunos e a saúde vocal do professor. Palavras-chave: Inteligibilidade da fala, conforto acústico, parâmetros acústicos. PACS: 43.55.Br, 43.55.Gx, 43.55.Ka. Assessment of acoustic conditions in public school classrooms in Santa Maria/RS Abstract: This article presents a study to support the improvement of acoustic conditions in classrooms and teaching spaces of two public schools located in the municipality of Santa Maria, from measurements and acoustic simulations to assess speech intelligibility. The theme covers the acoustic quality of teaching environments as a necessary tool for learning, contributing to students' cognitive tasks such as reading, concentration and memorization. In this sense, it is necessary to carry out measurements and acoustic simulations for the adequate adjustment of teaching environments, which can provide acoustic comfort to users. Therefore, it is proposed the evaluation of intelligibility from the assesment of impulse responses in some classrooms. The sound signal adopted is the sweep sine. For the emission of the sound signal, an omnidirectional source is used and microphones are used as receivers, distributed in the region where the students are normally positioned. With the signals obtained in the measurements, the signals are processed to obtain some acoustic parameters such as reverberation time, initial decay time, definition, clarity factor and STI (speech transmission index). The measurement results reflect the poor acoustic quality in the classrooms participating in the study, presenting values for clarity and definition below the recommended and reverberation time above what is required for classrooms. The results show that the teacher's speech intelligibility is seriously compromised in these spaces, hindering the students' cognitive performance and the teacher's vocal health.
... A non-linear relationship between socioeconomic status, longstanding illness and annoyance has been reported [177]. Children exposed to high noise levels show poor auditory discrimination and speech perception [179][180][181][182][183]. ...
Article
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This paper presents a bibliometric and critical review of auditory and non-auditory health impacts due to road traffic noise exposure. The paper discusses the general trends of studies conducted in the research domain using the bibliometric network approach. These networks are based on citation, bibliographic coupling, and co-authorship relationships. Further, a critical review is conducted to summarise the auditory and non-auditory impacts due to traffic noise exposure. Auditory health impact issues such as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus are presented. Non-auditory impacts are categorised as physiology and performance-related impacts. Physiology related health impact includes a review of cardiovascular and sleep disturbance issues due to noise. Performance-related health impact includes annoyance and cognitive impairment issues. This paper discusses the severity level, different exposure-response relationships, techniques, and empirical models developed to assess the magnitude of these health impacts. Subjective and laboratory assessment techniques used to analyse the health impact through various modeling and statistical approaches are considered. Additionally, a scenario analysis of health impact due to heterogeneous transportation is performed. An assessment is done to find the applicability of health risk prediction models in heterogeneous traffic conditions.
... Many years of research into the impact of noise shows that noise interferes in the short term with learning tasks (Salame and Wittershiem, 1978;Hygge, 2003) as well as being distracting and annoying (Cohen et al., 1980). Research in school settings demonstrates that they are often noisy (Shield and Dockrell, 2004), and indicates that long-term exposure to external noise impairs learning (Evans and Maxwell, 1997;Haines et al., 2001), seeming particularly to interfere with language development (Maxwell and Evans, 2000). Such external noise may have other consequences for physical and mental health (Haines et al., 2001). ...
Technical Report
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The report proposes a framework to guide investments in education infrastructure so they can better contribute to students' learning outcomes. An education perspective is embedeed to the traditional construction process along four distinct phases, from initial brief to post-occupancy. A marginal additional investment cost that we believe can make an importatn difference.
... Posterior means and 95% credible intervals; open dots denote individual data points. impairments of language competence and learning in human children (4,31). Our results indicate that young songbirds, just like human children, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of noise because of its potential to interfere with learning at a critical developmental stage. ...
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Noise pollution has been linked to learning and language deficits in children, but the causal mechanisms connecting noise to cognitive deficiencies remain unclear because experimental models are lacking. Here, we investigated the effects of noise on birdsong learning, the primary animal model for vocal learning and speech development in humans. We found that traffic noise exposure retarded vocal development and led to learning inaccuracies. In addition, noise suppressed immune function during the sensitive learning period, indicating that it is a potent stressor for birds, which is likely to compromise their cognitive functions. Our results provide important insights into the consequences of noise pollution and pave the way for future studies using birdsong as an experimental model for the investigation of noise-induced learning impairments.
... Literature on noise studies has shown the adverse effects of brief and continuous noise on attention [3] [4], reading deficits and skill [5] and cognitive processing [6] [7]. Historically as well, noise has been considered as a botheration and research has demonstrated the negative side effects of this external, unwanted sound [8] [9] [10]. ...
... children living in urbanized regions are more or less affected by traffic noise throughout the day. Negative effects of chronic noise exposure on children's learning and cognitive performance [5,12,15,[23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36], motivation [24,37,38], and quality of life including annoyance [15,24,28,30,31,[39][40][41][42][43][44] have been extensively described in the literature so far. Only few well-founded studies on noise impacts on sleep in children have been available up to now [45-47] even though their sleep is expected to be particularly sensitive to traffic noise impacts [48][49][50][51]. ...
Article
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Children are considered at higher risk for harmful noise effects due to their sensitive development phase. Here, we investigated the effects of nocturnal aircraft noise exposure on short-term annoyance assessed in the morning in 51 primary school children (8–10 years) living in the surrounding community of Cologne-Bonn Airport. Child-appropriate short-term annoyance assessments and associated non-acoustical variables were surveyed. Nocturnal aircraft noise exposure was recorded inside the children’s bedrooms. Exposure–response models were calculated by using random effects logistic regression models. The present data were compared with those from a previous study near Cologne-Bonn Airport in adults using very similar methodology. Short-term annoyance reaction in children was not affected by the nocturnal aircraft noise exposure. Non-acoustical factors (e.g., the attitude that “aircraft are dangerous” or noise sensitivity), however, significantly impacted on children’s short-term annoyance. In contrast to children, the probability of moderate to high annoyance in adults increased with the number of aircraft flyovers during the time in bed. It is concluded that short-term annoyance from nocturnal aircraft noise in children is mainly determined by non-acoustical factors. Unlike in adults, acoustical factors did not play a significant role.
... According to Schneider (2002), school facilities can be categorised in terms of the quality of the air inside the building, the provision of air to a room, heating standards, lighting, sound, the condition and quality of the buildings, the size of school, and the size of classrooms. The school environment affects children's minds and behaviour through crowding (Evans, Lepore, Shejwal, & Palsane, 1998), noise (Evans & Maxwell, 1997), the amount of greenness at school (Wells, 2000), school safety and disciplinary policy (Frendenberg & Ruglls, 2007) ...
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This study is concerned with the high rates of school attrition among adolescent girls in rural regions of Cambodia and with the effectiveness of national and international programmes that have thus far been undertaken in order to ameliorate this problem. The research sought to investigate the impact that these programs have had on the dispositions and attitudes to education of female students in a rural school in Cambodia as reflected through the perspectives they offer on their own context. In order to elicit these beliefs, the study looked for the differences between the participants’ perspectives and the key factors that research and government reports traditionally identified as limiting educational opportunities of female students. This is a mixed methods study. Qualitative and quantitative data was analysed using quantitative procedures. Questionnaire was chosen as a method of data collection. The questions were informed by studies which examined the impact of different factors on the retention of female students’ enrolments. The participants included 206 female students from a lower secondary school in Pursat province, Cambodia. Overall, the findings show that participants value education despite its many challenges. Still, not all students felt that they could pursue their education, predominantly due to financial pressures. Drawing on theories of Freire (1973, 1990) and Gadotti (2010), the study interpreted its research findings in relation to frameworks which concern themselves with power as a factor of one’s engagement. It concludes with a framework proposed to assist the government in developing capacity-building programs which support change by building community social capital through strategies which focus less on problems and more on the mechanisms by which communities can negotiate, envisage and address the needs and resources that are appropriate for their well-being and sustainable futures. Girls’ education can only benefit from such a reflective, critical and constructive process.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which actual (e.g., density) and perceived (e.g., crowding and distance) elements of the spatial home environment act as predictors of family functioning. Data were gathered from 164 families whose child was attending a university's preschool/kindergarten facility in a mid-sized community in the Western United States. Structural equation modeling (SEM, AMOS 19.0) was employed to examine the strength of the relations within the model. Results showed that though actual elements of the home (i.e., density) affect family functioning outcomes, perceptions of the home environment (e.g., crowding and distance) were especially influential as mediating the link between density and aspects of family functioning. Findings suggest that how individuals perceive their home environment has more of an effect on family functioning than actual home characteristics.
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The attrition of both new and experienced teachers is a challenge for schools and school administrators throughout the United States, particularly in large urban districts. Because of the importance of this issue, there is a large empirical literature that investigates why teachers quit and how they might be induced to stay. Here we build upon this literature by suggesting another important factor in the teacher decision to stay or leave: the quality of school facilities. We investigate the importance of facility quality using data from a survey of K–12 public school teachers in Washington, D.C. We find in our sample that facility quality is an important predictor of the decision of teachers to leave their current position, even after controlling for other contributing factors.
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La théorie hédonique stipule que les externalités sont internalisées dans le prix de vente des biens immobiliers. Pour la proximité aux autoroutes, le défi est de taille puisque ces infrastructures génèrent à la fois des effets positifs, une amélioration de l'accessibilité, mais également des effets négatifs, notamment sur la santé des individus. En utilisant les informations sur le marché immobilier, il est possible de recouvrer la prime nette exprimant l'équilibre entre ces deux types d'externalités. L'article propose de développer une approche permettant d'isoler la prime, ou volonté de payer, associée aux externalités négatives liées à la proximité des grands axes routiers. Une application est développée pour le territoire de la ville de Québec à partir d'une analyse par appariement des transactions résidentielles unifamiliales entre 1993 et 2004. Les résultats montrent que, selon le type d’infrastructure, une trop grande exposition aux externalités négatives engendre une baisse de la valeur variant entre 6% et 14% du prix moyen. Ces résultats soulignent la présence d’une forme d’iniquité environnementale liée à une trop grande proximité aux axes routiers.
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This paper examines the impact of political protests on student achievement. The chief conceptual difficulty in identifying the effect of protests on student achievement is their non-random nature. To address this problem, I exploit the political protests in Thailand in 2008 and 2010 as quasi-experiments to measure their effect on the national examination, the O-NET, conditional on school fixed effects. The estimates suggest that the protests had a negative and significant effect on all test scores except for mathematics, perhaps because students were able to study mathematics more easily outside of school. The absolute sizes of the change in test score as a result of the protests range from 0.05 to 0.14 standard deviations, depending on the subject.
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Children are vulnerable to environmental hazards and spend significant portions of their days at school. However, just one national-level study has examined school-level environmental inequalities (in air pollution exposures), and none have examined disparate exposures to noise pollution, even though noise impacts children's health and development. We integrated data from 2014-2015 on the locations and socio-demographics of each public school in the contiguous US (n=94,432) with road and aviation transportation noise estimates. Using bivariate and multivariate statistics, we tested for disparities in road and aviation noise exposure across schools. Among the 49,697,890 children attending contiguous US public schools, we found that those attending schools most highly exposed to road noise or aviation noise were significantly more likely to be eligible for free/reduced price meals (economically deprived), and to be Hispanic, black, or Asian/Pacific Islander (API). They were less likely to be white or of another race. In multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEEs) controlling for school district effects, we found that schools with greater proportions of Hispanic, black or API students, schools with higher enrollment, and schools serving the youngest students had significantly more road noise and greater odds of aviation noise exposure. In the GEEs, a higher proportion of economically-deprived students in schools was associated with greater road noise, but not aviation noise. Overall, our analyses indicate that America's racial/ethnic minority children bear the brunt of transportation noise exposures at school, which may unequally impact their academic performance, health, and future potential.
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The purpose of this research is to examine whether low and high student success and green-mixed-old types of buildings have a meaningful relationship with perceptions of teachers on quality of school buildings, and the relationship between school building conditions and life satisfaction of teachers, and the degree of effects of buildings to this satisfaction. Quantitative methods were used in the research. 170 participants of research were elementary and middle school teachers from Madison/Wisconsin, US. Stratified random sampling was used in the research. In data collection, ‘Quality School Building Scale’ and ‘Teachers Life Satisfaction Scale’ were used. Data was analyzed with Mann Whitney U test, F & r statistics, and multifactor regression analysis. According to results, school building conditions and life satisfaction of teachers has a positive relation. A significant correlation was found between perception of teachers of school buildings, and low or high academic success of students in the dimension of ‘equipment and building of school’ and ‘physical condition and equipment’ - in favor of green schools. Life satisfaction has an intermediate level meaningful relationship with school campus and lightnings, and with a close resulted, there is a low level meaningful relationship with visibility range and acoustics. School building sizes explains 20% of unidimensional life satisfaction. Thus, bettering the conditions of building should be an important task for authorities and employees of schools.Extended English summary is in the end of Full Text PDF (TURKISH) file. ÖzetBu araştırmada öğretmenlerin okul bina kalitesine algıları arasında öğrenci başarısı ve okul bina tipine göre anlamlı bir farkın olup olmadığı; okul bina koşullarıyla öğretmenlerin okul yaşam doyumları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın katılımcıları ABD, Wisconsin/Madison’da ilk ve orta dereceli okullarda görev yapan öğretmenlerdir. Araştırmada tabakalı seçkisiz örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmış, 170 öğretmen örneklemde yer almıştır. Veri toplama aracı olarak “kaliteli okul binası ölçeği” ve Yaşam Doyumu Öğretmen Ölçeği adlı ölçekler kullanılmıştır. Veriler Mann Whitney U, F ve r istatistiği ile çok faktörlü regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre öretmenlerin okul bina koşulları ve yaşam doyumuna algıları olumludur. Akadamik başarıya göre öğretmen algıları toplam ölçek ve fiziksel koşullar boyutunda farklılaşırken, okul tipine göre yeşil okullar lehine tüm tüm boyutlarada farklılaşmaktadır. okulların lehinedir. Okul binaları ve öğretmenlerin okul yaşam doyumları arasında pozitif yönlü bir ilişki vardır. Okul yaşam doyumu ile fiziksel koşullar ve ışıklandırma boyutları arasında orta, akustik ve görüş mesafdesi boyutları arasında ise az bir farkla düşük düzeyde püzitif bir ilişki vardır. Okul bina ve donanımı okul yaşam doyumunu %20 düzeyinde açıklamaktadır. Bu durumda okul binalarının durumun iyileşmesi yetkililerin ve okul çalışanlarının önemeli bir konusu olmalıdır.
Chapter
This chapter provides a systematic overview of the existing evidence investigating the health effects of environmental noise. There is now considerable scientific literature linking environmental noise exposure with a wide array of negative health effects. The most significant of these are annoyance and sleep disturbance, and a range of cardiovascular outcomes such as hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. Other emerging effects include myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, adverse birth and fertility issues as well as tentative links with various cancers. Moreover, the after-effects of noise-induced sleep disturbance are associated with numerous health-related problems including fatigue, reduced cognitive and physical performance, increased anxiety and negative emotional states such as anger and depression. Children appear to be a particular risk group with respect to noise with research showing that environmental noise exposure negatively impacts cognition in children. These negative impacts include reduced reading and problem-solving ability as well as reduced attention span and motivation among noise-exposed children. Moreover, the most recent evidence suggests a link with mental health issues including emotional problems, conduct disorder, hyperactivity and antisocial behaviour.
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Desde que la comunicación oral es el principal medio que utilizamos para aprender, la acústica se vuelve uno de los atributos más importantes del diseño arquitectónico de las aulas. Las condiciones acústicas adversas en las aulas afectan negativamente el aprendizaje, el desempeño y el desarrollo cognitivo de los estudiantes. En el año 2015 el Ministerio de Educación introdujo criterios de diseño acústico para los espacios educativos. Este artículo presenta una revisión de dichos criterios realizada mediante una comparación con la normativa internacional y considerando la base de datos del mapa de ruido urbano de Santiago. Los resultados muestran que los actuales criterios acústicos para los espacios educativos en Chile presentan falencias con respecto a la normativa internacional. Además se observa que, con los actuales niveles de ruido urbano, el criterio de diseño acústico para los espacios educativos del Ministerio de Educación no se puede aplicar a más del 70% de los establecimientos educacionales en Santiago.
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Road traffic noise constitutes a major problem for the health of populations exposed to it over extended periods. From a perspective of environmental equity, we focus on the distribution of four segments of the population—children, seniors, low-income individuals and visible minorities—in noise disturbance zones near major traffic routes of the Montreal Metropolitan Community. First, some corridors along these traffic routes with different levels of noise disturbance are defined according to a number of parameters; subsequently, the overrepresentation of the groups studied is assessed with the help of two indices. Next, we attempt to determine whether these groups have access to noise barriers, abatement measures to mitigate the noise. To assess the overrepresentation of the four groups under examination in protected and unprotected noise disturbance zones, multinomial logistic regression models were constructed for the entire territory, and then for six subregions. The results reveal a situation doubly inequitable for low-income persons and, to a lesser extent, for visible minorities. Indeed, these groups more often live close to major traffic routes and are less likely to be protected by noise barriers. In contrast, children are doubly advantaged.
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Literacy skills are essential for success in today’s society. However, classrooms often have suboptimal acoustic conditions for learning. The goal of this review was to synthesize research assessing the effect of different classroom acoustic conditions on children’s literacy. A comprehensive search of four online databases was conducted in August 2021. The search term was classroom AND (noise OR reverberation OR acoustics) AND (reading OR spelling OR writing OR literacy). Eighteen papers were deemed relevant for the review plus an additional seven from their references. The types of acoustic conditions that have been assessed, the types of measures used to assess literacy, and the effect of the acoustic conditions on children’s reading, writing, and spelling outcomes are discussed. Suggestions for the classroom acoustic conditions needed to ensure appropriate literacy development and areas for future research are also considered.
Chapter
This chapter deals with (1) the basic theory of sound propagation; (2) an overview of noise pollution problem in view of policy and standards by the World Health Organization, the United States, and the European Union; (3) noise exposure sources from aircraft, road traffic and railways, in-vehicle, work, and construction sites, and occupations, and households; (4) the noise pollution impact on human health and the biological environment; (5) modeling of regional noise-affected habitats in protected and unprotected land areas and the marine environment; (6) noise control measures and sustainability in view of sustainable building design, noise mapping, and control measures such as barriers and berms along roadsides, acoustic building materials, roadway vehicle noise source control, road surface, and pavement materials; and (7) environmental noise pollution management measures and their impact on human health.
Conference Paper
The Internet of Things (IoT) has penetrated the global market including that of children's toys. Worldwide, Smart Toy sales have reached $9 billion in 2019 and is expected to exceed $15 billion by 2022. Connecting IoT toys to the internet exposes users and their data to multivariate risk due to device vulnerabilities. When IoT devices are marketed to individuals, especially children, the potential for negative impact is significant, so their design must result in robust security implementations. For our study, we performed penetration testing on a Fisher-Price Smart Toy. We were able to obtain root access to the device, capture live pictures and videos, as well as install remote access software which allows surreptitious recordings over WiFi network connections without user knowledge or permission. We propose solutions including adhering to rudimentary standards for security design in toys, a mobile application for IoT threat assessment and user education, and an ambient risk communication tool aligned with user risk perception. The proposed solutions are crucial to empower users with capabilities to identify and understand ambient risks and defend against malicious activities.
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Cultural centers play a key role in broadening perspectives and opportunities which elevate the level of communication among community members and foreign residents and visitors of all nationalities. The purpose of this thesis is to determine the need of expanding the community’s knowledge about other cultures and speaking different languages. This is in line with the Kingdom’s Vision 2030, which aims to be one of the most important tourist destinations in the world in addition to raising the cultural level of its youth to enable communication and knowledge exchange. The data for this project was collected from surveys and interviews to enhance and support the idea behind the project and to know what is needed with taking into consideration the effect of the environment on people. As a result of the research, it indicated that people support the idea for establishing this project as from their point of view language is the first and most important gate through which people would be able to have better access to other cultures and societies. This thesis identifies cultural ethnography and the diversity of human society in time and space. It also explains linguistic ethnography and the use of language in the context of social life for youth and children. It ends up with the importance of languages and cultural centers for providing opportunities to learn about other cultures and communicate with people from different parts of the world. Keywords: Cultures, Languages, society and take advantage of the diversity.
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Recent reviews addressing the impact of noise exposure in teaching and learning situations conclude negative effects on learning performance. Providing objective real-time feedback on noise is a key for teachers and students to adjust it into suitable levels. This experimental work presents the results from a study exploring the visual feedback based on noise level and the impact on students’ ( n = 198) perceived learning performance collected in 24 sessions. The results suggest persuasive effects of the ambient display on the groups and an improvement of noise awareness in students. Measurements of perceived learning-performance, and perceived noise were collected and correlated with the objective noise samples concluding poorer perceived learning performance in noisiest groups. Finally, implications for further research, as well as lessons learned to moderate noise levels in classrooms using ambient displays are discussed.
Chapter
One of the most serious issues associated with the aviation sector is aircraft noise, which negatively impacts nearby communities. It can lead to community annoyance, diminished educational attainment, and various health issues such as sleep disturbance, loss of concentration, and cardiovascular illness. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effect of aircraft sound on students’ learning and teachers’ performance using a binary logit model. A total of 2,023 students in two different schools, near Abu Dhabi International Airport, age between 15 and 18 years, and 214 teachers in the schools participated in a survey. The model findings demonstrate that airplane noise has no effect on the health, cognitive performance, or learning performance of students of both genders. Moreover, the survey results revealed that there is no substantial impact on teaching performance. The results of the noise measurements show that the noise level in all of the classes is less than the limit value (40 dB). The survey is coupled with noise level measurements at the selected schools. Overall, the survey results and noise level measurements indicate that there is no impact of aircraft sound on students’ performance. This is maybe partly due to the nature of buildings and the difference between airport flight scheduling and schools workday hours. Future study could develop new noise impact measurements and indicators that correlate with health impacts.
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Only 2 chapters are available as full-text: 1. Stress Processes and the Cost of Coping. 2. Correlational Field Methodology in the Study of Stress
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Previous work has demonstrated that children who are poor readers have short-term memory deficits in tasks in which the stimuli lend themselves to phonetic coding. The aim of the present study was to explore whether the poor readers' memory dificit may have its origin in perception with the encoding of the stimuli. Three experiments were conducted with third grade good and poor readers. As in earlier experiments, the poor readers were found to perform less well on recall of random word strings and to be less affected by the phonetic characteristics (rhyming or not rhyming) of the items (Experiment 1). In addition, the poor readers produced more errors of transposition (in the nonrhyming strings) than did the good readers, a further indication of the poor readers' problems with memory for order. The subjects were tested on two auditory perception tasks, one employing words (Experiment 2) and the other nonspeech environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Each was presented under two conditions: with a favorable signal-to-noise ratio and with masking. The poor readers made significantly more errors than the good readers when listening to speech in noise, but did not differ in perception of speech without noise or in perception of nonspeech environmental sounds, whether noise-masked or not. Together, the results of the perception studies suggest that poor readers have a perceptual difficulty that is specific to speech. It is suggested that the short-term memory deficits characteristic of poor readers may stem from material-specific problems of perceptual processing.
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This article summarizes the role of language deficiencies in reading disability, focusing on two areas that appear particularly critical to reading skill: language processing abilities and the awareness of phonological structure. The distinguishing characteristics of disabled readers are shown to be consistent with theoretical and experimental findings about skilled reading. These characteristics also provide direction for the remediation of reading problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
Book
1 Introduction.- 2 The Study of Early Experience.- 3 The Physical Environment and Its Relationship to Cognitive-Intellectual Development.- 4 The Social Environment and Its Relationship to Cognitive-Intellectual Development.- 5 Early Experience and Cognitive-Intellectual Development: The Emotional-Attitudinal Environment.- 6 The Earliest Social Experiences and Their Effect on Social Development.- 7 The Socialization of Young Children.- 8 The Relationship between Social and Cognitive Development.- 9 The Nature of Early Environmental Action.- 10 Early Experience and Development: Implications and Applications.- References.- Author Index.
Article
Three bodies of research that have developed in relative isolation center on each of three kinds of phonological processing: phonological awareness, awareness of the sound structure of language; phonological recoding in lexical access, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representational system to get from the written word to its lexical referent; and phonetic recoding in working memory, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representational system to maintain them efficiently in working memory. In this review we integrate these bodies of research and address the interdependent issues of the nature of phonological abilities and their causal roles in the acquisition of reading skills. Phonological ability seems to be general across tasks that purport to measure the three kinds of phonological processing, and this generality apparently is independent of general cognitive ability. However, the generality of phonological ability is not complete, and there is an empirical basis for distinguishing phonological awareness and phonetic recoding in working memory. Our review supports a causal role for phonological awareness in learning to read, and suggests the possibility of similar causal roles for phonological recoding in lexical access and phonetic recoding in working memory. Most researchers have neglected the probable causal role of learning to read in the development of phonological skills. It is no longer enough to ask whether phonological skills play a causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. The question now is which aspects of phonological processing (e.g., awareness, recoding in lexical access, recoding in working memory) are causally related to which aspects of reading (e.g., word recognition, word analysis, sentence comprehension), at which point in their codevelopment, and what are the directions of these causal relations?
Article
A family of reference signals for signal quality studies is described that is perceptually similar to speech signals undergoing certain signal‐dependent distortions, such as quantizing and predictive coding. This perceptual similarity can yield greater accuracy and reproducibility in subjective comparison tests than do reference signals employing additive, signal‐independent noises. Equally important, for nonstationary and the intermittent signals (such as speech) the signal‐to‐noise (S/N) ratios of the reference signals described here are defined on an instantaneous (sample‐by‐sample) basis, thus avoiding the troublesome ambiguities in measuring signal and noise powers. The distorted signal whose quality is to be evaluated can be assigned an equivalent S/N ratio independent of the time intervals over which average are extended.
Article
A school was selected for the testing of the effects of resilient rubber pads as noise control devices on a nearby elevated rail track. In addition three school classrooms received acoustical treatment to the ceilings. Teachers and students reported a quieter atmosphere after installation of the pads. Reading scores in the year prior to installation were lower on the noisy side of the building, but after installation of the rubber pads and the noise-absorbing ceilings there were no differences in reading achievement between children on the noisy side and those on the quiet side. Possible explanations of these findings and implications for social policy decisions are discussed.
Article
This article illustrates the value of incorporating psychological principles into the environmental sciences Psychophysiological, cognitive, motivational, and affective indices of stress were monitored among elementary school children chronically exposed to aircraft noise We demonstrate for the first time that chronic noise exposure is associated with elevated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular measures, muted cardiovascular reactivity to a task presented under acute noise, deficits in a standardized reading test administered under quiet conditions, poorer long-term memory, and diminished quality of life on a standardized index Children in high-noise areas also showed evidence of poor persistence on challenging tasks and habituation to auditory distraction on a signal-to-noise task They reported considerable annoyance with community noise levels, as measured utilizing a calibration procedure that adjusts for individual differences in rating criteria for annoyance judgments
Article
Examined the relationship between high-intensity, uncontrollable noise and reading deficits, as well as the experiential effect of such noise, in an actual environmental setting. Data were obtained from 161 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders in a public school in New York City which lies approximately 220 ft from an elevated subway track; 80 trains pass along this track each weekday between 9:00 AM and 3:00 PM. The average classroom noise level is about 59 db; when a train passes, the level rises to 89 db. Classes are disrupted, on the average, every 4.5 min for about 30 sec. Ss were given an attitude questionnaire on noise from the trains and on other sources of disturbance or interference with the school work, and Metropolitan Achievement Reading Test scores obtained from school records for 1971-1974 were compared between matched classes on the quiet and noisy sides of the building. A 2 * 2 analysis of variance yielded a significant main efect for location. Scores of 9 of the 10 classes on the noisy side of the building tended to lag 3-4 mo (based on a 10-mo school year) behind their quiet side counterparts. There were no sex differences. Ss's responses to the attitude questionnaires are discussed, the effect of socioeconomic status (more than 50% of the children come from families with incomes below the poverty level), and the effects of the lost teaching time due to the noise are examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three bodies of research that have developed in relative isolation center on each of three kinds of phonological processing: phonological awareness, awareness of the sound structure of language; phonological recoding in lexical access, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representational system to get from the written word to its lexical referent; and phonetic recoding in working memory, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representation system to maintain them efficiently in working memory. In this review we integrate these bodies of research and address the interdependent issues of the nature of phonological abilities and their causal roles in the acquisition of reading skills. Our review supports a causal role for phonological awareness in learning to read, and suggests the possibility of similar causal roles for phonological recoding in lexical access and phonetic recoding in working memory. Most researchers have neglected the probable causal role of learning to read in the development of phonological skills. It is no longer enough to ask whether phonological skills play a causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. The question now is which aspects of phonological processing (e.g., awareness, recoding in lexical access, recoding in working memory) are causally related to which aspects of reading (e.g., word recognition, word analysis, sentence comprehension), at which point in their codevelopment, and what are the directions of these causal relations? (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the relationship between a child's auditory and verbal skills and the noisiness of his home. Expressway traffic was the principal source of noise. Initial decibel measurements in a high-rise housing development permitted use of floor level as an index of noise intensity in the apartments. Children living on the lower floors of 32-story buildings showed greater impairment of auditory discrimination and reading achievement than children living in higher-floor apartments. Auditory discrimination appeared to mediate an association between noise and aeading deficits, and length of residence in the building affected the magnitude of the correlation between noise and auditory discrimination. Additional analyses ruled out explanations of the auditory discrimination effects in terms of social class variables and physiological damage. Partialling out social class did, however, somewhat reduce the magnitude of the relationship between noise and reading deficits. Results were interpreted as documenting the existence of long-term behavioral aftereffects in spite of noise adaptation. Demonstration of postnoise consequences in a real-life setting supplement laboratory research showing the stressful impact of noise on behavior.
Article
The effects of aircraft noise on teaching and classroom activity were studied in a number of schools close to Heathrow Airport, both by direct observation and by a small sample survey of teachers' opinions.The principal changes in observed behaviour result from interference with speech and this finding corresponds with the survey of teachers' opinions. The study was unable to identify any other consistent or systematic changes in class activities directly related to aircraft noise.Teachers speaking to whole classes pause more frequently with increasing peak levels over a wide range of flyover levels. Since they pause during at least one flyover in four of those which peak at or above 70 dB (A) one may assume such flyovers cause appreciable discomfort. When talking to individuals or small groups teaching is less vulnerable to interference and is not seriously affected during flyovers which peak below 75 dB (A). Above this level there is a rapid increase in pausing and in the masking of the teacher's speech when addressing the whole class.The nuisance caused by flyovers peaking below 70 dB (A) depends on the nature of the activities and the level of background noise in the classrooms which was observed to vary between 55 and 70 dB (A).
Article
This study analyzes data for white high school seniors from the 1985 Monitoring the Future national survey. Students who had less educated parents or lower educational aspirations were more likely to have tried a cigarette, more likely to have adopted cigarette smoking, and less likely to have quit smoking. These students also had more favorable attitudes toward smoking, and reported greater acceptance of smoking by their friends. In addition, the students with less educated parents or lower educational aspirations appeared to be more rejecting of adult authority and more predisposed to adopt adult behaviors, and these characteristics, in turn, were associated with smoking more. The results of multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that these students have experienced less success in school and are more likely to adopt behaviors characteristic of adults as an alternative source of status and gratification, and this contributes to their higher rates of smoking.