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Topics Awaiting Study: Investigable Questions on Animal Issues

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Abstract

At one time or another we have all made use of animals. Plous (1993) observes that in modem American society, “it is virtually impossible to live without relying on animals. Animal by-products of the meat industry are found not only in the foods we eat and the clothes we wear, but in the walls of our homes, in kitchen and bathroom floors, in toiletries, in the streets of our cities, and the cars we drive” (p. 2). Historically, animals have participated in the development of practically every aspect of human civilization — in war and peace, in work and at play, in love (companion animals) and hate (varmints), in life (biological experiments) and in death (pet cemeteries). Appendix 1 identifies the multitude of ways that animals continue to be used by human beings across the world.
... Som ny i feltet bliver man forbløffet over omfanget og variationen af måder, hvorpå andre dyr indgår i menneskers liv; og at det er så selvfølgeligt, at man naeppe har bemaerket det før: I mad, beklaedning, sport og underholdning; i bøger, kunst, religion og kulturelle symboler; i handel, militaer og forskning; som anledning til konflikter og skader -og altså i mere personliggjorte interaktioner med selskabs-, hjaelpe-og interventionsdyr. Antropozoologi omfatter alle disse former for interaktion mellem mennesker og dyr og flere til (Cunningham, 1995) og inkluderer derfor problemstillinger og traekker på viden og metoder fra mange forskellige discipliner, herunder psykologi, etologi, veterinaervidenskab og en lang raekke samfundsfaglige og humanistiske fag (ibid., De-Mello, 2010). ...
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Artiklen introducerer det tværdisciplinære felt, der internationaltkaldes “human-animal studies” eller “anthrozoology” ogforeslår “antropozoologi” som dansk fællesbetegnelse. Feltetsbaggrund og bredde skitseres, og dyreassisteret psykoterapibeskrives mere detaljeret. To små undersøgelser indgår også iartiklen. Den ene analyserede international forskningsinteressefor dyreassisteret terapi ved søgning i tre videnskabelige databaserog fandt i alle et ungt, men hastigt voksende felt. Denanden undersøgelse angik opfattelse af og erfaring med dyreassisteretintervention blandt danske psykologer (N = 59).Mens størstedelen af dette (selv-selekterede) sample fandt brugaf dyr meget relevant for psykologer, havde få erfaring med det(n = 17). Forfatterne hilser på denne baggrund temanummerets15 tværdisciplinære og overvejende skandinaviskebidrag velkommen.
... Equids have participated in the development of practically every aspect of human civilization [1]. There are an estimated 200 million equids worldwide (horses, mules and plications for animal welfare [27]. ...
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Mules are essential for pack work in mountainous areas, but there is a lack of research on this species. This study intends to assess the perceptions, attitudes, empathy and pain perception of soldiers about mules, to understand the type of human–mule relationship. For this, a survey was applied with closed-ended questions where the empathy and pain perception tools were included and later analyzed through correlations. Open-ended questions were analyzed through text mining. A total of 73 soldiers were surveyed. They had a wide range of ages and years of experience working with equids. Significant positive correlations were found between human empathy, animal empathy and pain perception. Soldiers show a preference for working with mules over donkeys and horses. Text mining analysis shows three clusters associated with the mules’ nutritional, environmental and health needs. In the same line, relevant relations were found for the word “attention” with “load”, “food”, and “harness”. When asked what mules signify for them, two clusters were found, associated with mules’ working capacity and their role in the army. Relevant relations were found between the terms “mountain”, “support”, and “logistics”, and also between “intelligent” and “noble”. To secure mules’ behavioral and emotional needs, future training strategies should include behavior and welfare concepts.
... Since ancient times, live animals have performed several activities in a wide range of sectors including agriculture, transportation, entertainment, military and police activities (Alves, 2012(Alves, , 2016Alves and Souto, 2015). Therefore, as pointed out by Cunningham (1995), "Animals have participated in the development of practically every aspect of human civilization-in war and peace, in work and at play, in love (companion animals) and hate (varmints), in life (biological experiments) and in death (pet cemeteries)." ...
... These dead animals are subsequently re-created and preserved as mementos or souvenirs from successful outings. Taxidermists are the individuals that preserve and re-create dead animals, birds, and fish (Cunningham, 1995; Bryant, 1979 ). The taxidermy process requires excellent craft and artistic skills. ...
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Abstract Displays of dead nonhuman animals are a common sight on the walls of many American homes and commercial establishments. Taxidermists are the individuals who preserve and attempt to re-create dead animals, birds, and fish so they can be displayed. Little is known about those employed in the profession, including characteristics of individuals who enter this line of work. Using a qualitative approach to data collection, this exploratory research examined motivations for becoming a taxidermist in Montana. Findings suggest that Montana taxidermists entered the profession for one of five main reasons: an interest in wildlife, a desire to mount their own trophies, a hobby that became a job, the necessity of changing jobs, and miscellaneous motivations.
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In einer umfassenden Herangehensweise können unter dem Outsourcing-Begriff die Varianten „Ausgliederung“ und „Auslagerung“ unterschieden werden. Vertreter einer konventionellen Sichtweise betrachten Outsourcing ausschließlich als eine Auslagerung. Ein weiter gefaßtes Verständnis schließt darüber hinaus auch die Möglichkeit der Ausgliederung in den Outsourcingbegriff ein.108) Nach Heinzl kann „(...) unter einer Ausgliederung die Übertragung von Funktionen und Vermögen auf eine oder mehrere Gesellschaften verstanden werden. Wird nun die Funktion, aber kein Vermögen übertragen, so handelt es sich nicht um eine Ausgliederung, sondern um eine Auslagerung.“109)
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The aim of the book is to "capture the movement's moral vision and sense of mission, with sensitivity to its concerns but also an awareness of some of its excesses" (book jacket). It is a brave book in its attempt to provide a dispassionate account of what has become (along with abortion) one of the most passionate controversies of our era. The authors are two sociologists currently at New York University, with long and prolific careers writing about the interface of science and social values. Jasper has written widely on nuclearism, technology, and social change, and Nelkin on genetic engineering, biotechnology, AIDS, nuclearism, ecology, and job safety. Regarding animals, apparently their only two prior studies were co-authored presentations at recent sociology meetings (Jasper & Poulsen, 1989; Jasper, Nelkin, & Poulsen, 1990). Seven of the 12 chapters analyze the nature of the movement. Over the centuries, several social forces (urbanization, industrialization, democratization) have caused a shift in humans' view of animals, from instruments to be used for food, clothing, and farm work to companions to be cherished - pets given a name and family status. It has led to what the authors term "sentimental anthropomorphism," people's attribution to animals of human sentiments such as the abilities to feel emotions and communicate, and to form social relationships. Borrowing tactics from other reformist movements, animal advocates have become more effective in several ways - protests, litigation, boycotts, lobbying, and public relations. Since the 1970s, philosophers like Peter Singer and Tom Regan have honed a notion of "animal rights," providing an important ideological base that has further accelerated the movement. The remaining five chapters focus on five specific themes of the crusade: Regarding "animals in the wild," strong protests have been mounted against large-scale seal hunts, dolphin-safe tuna, trapping, and hunting. "From rabbits to petri dishes" describes the dramatic drop in industrial testing of cosmetics, drugs and toiletries since 1980, to the point where the once-routine Draize and LD-50 tests are now viewed by many as obsolete. "Test tubes with legs" documents the dramatic rise in biomedical research after World War II, and the effectiveness of protests challenging this- reportedly more easily at some labs (Cornell, Berkeley, Museum of Natural History) than at others (New York University, Stanford). "Animals as commodities" concludes that the crusade has persuasively made moral issues of factory farming, humane slaughter, and fur production (both wild and ranch). Finally, in "Animals on display," earlier protests against pit bull and cock fighting have now expanded to rodeos, circuses, Hollywood films, zoos, and animal shows, with only partial impact. Jasper and Nelkin present an overview of the evolution of the animal rights movement by dividing the movement into three parts: (1) Since the 1860s, the original SPCA "welfarists" were part of a larger humanitarian tradition of helping others; (2) Since the 1970s, more assertive "pragmatists" like Henry Spira have demanded "animal rights," using stronger methods in order to force negotiation with those who violate these rights; (3) Since the 1980s, "fundamentalists" like People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have sought to protect animal rights without "hobnobbing in the halls with our enemy" (p. 154) or compromising. Even in the 1990s, welfarist groups like the HSUS and SPCA remain the largest in both membership and funding. Yet there has been a meteoric rise of the crusader factions, eclipsing the welfarists - pragmatists like Spira's Animal Rights International, Joyce Tischler's Animal Legal Defense Fund, Cleveland Amory's Fund for Animals, as well as fundamentalists like PETA, Trans-Species Unlimited, and the Animal Liberation Front. Moreover, the achievements of the crusader groups are telling. For instance PETA grew from its two founders in 1980 to 300,000 in 1990 (p. 31), and between 1980-87 much of the cosmetics industry had come to pledge an end to all animal testing and allocated $5,000,000 for research on alternatives (p. 2). Some of this strength comes from alliance with parallel movements against pollution, racism, sexism, nuclearism, agribusiness, even cholesterol.
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Students’ responses reveal a high level of personal involvement regarding different aspects related to the use of live animals in school. This attitude stems from the great interest most children have in animals, as well as from personal relationships children have developed with farm animals and pets. No empathetic feelings exist toward lower animals, such as worms, ants, flies, or toads, and this indifference extends to some mammals, including rabbits and mice. As personal feelings and empathy diminish, logical considerations play an increasingly decisive role, as is evident from the relatively high level of consent to the use of mice in operations and experiments. In spite of all the reservations, most students clearly favor using live animals as part of their studies in school and view their experiences with animals as a means for increasing their motivation as well as their efficiency in learning and retention. Most of them do not accept substitutes such as films, television programs, or even plants. This general student attitude, combined with some unique outcomes resulting from animal studies, strongly supports the use of animals in schools. However, teachers should be sensitive to both positive and negative aspects of experiences with live animals and attempt to emphasize the positive and minimize or avoid the negative aspects. Administration of questionnaires, such as the one used in this study, may serve as a basis for class discussion of important issues related to use of live animals by students. Such discussions may make students aware of these different aspects and help them to adopt positive attitudes toward live animals and to refrain from unnecessary cruelty and other negative behaviors. Finally, many of the opinions expressed by the participants in this study may serve as a basis for further research involving large groups of students and representing a variety of student populations. © 1980, National Association of Biology Teachers. All rights reserved.
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In modern urbanized and densely populated societies - such as the contemporary Netherlands, which forms the geographical setting of the present analysis - hunting has lost its meaning as a mode of subsistence to become a symbolic strategy. Hunting is a cultural enclave in which the boundaries between humans and animals are blurred and the relations of dominance and submission symbolically reversed. Hunting challenges the legitimacy of apparently "given" power relations between humans and animals. Hunters construct, reproduce and legitimize hunting by crossing the boundaries between humans and animals. Hunting "for pleasure" is regarded as truly pleasurable only if it allows a reversal of the asymmetrical power relations between humans and animals, attributing almost human characteristerics to the game-species. In theircognitive schemes hunters measure their power and abilities with strong, cunning and preferably male opponents. Game-species share an ambivalent status between the human and the animal realms, the tame and the wild, and between their instrumental and expressive signifccance. Hunting "for pleasure" is justified by this very ambivalence.