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Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobial Investigations, and Antioxidative Potentials of Anethum graveolens L. Essential Oil and Acetone Extract: Part 52

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Abstract

: The antioxidant, antifungal, and antibacterial potentials of essential oil and acetone extract of Anethum graveolens L. were investigated in the present study. The extract has shown excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products for rapeseed oil in comparision with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which were evaluated using peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine, and carbonyl values. The activity of extract was further confirmed using other antioxidant properties such as ferric thiocyanate method inlinoleic acid system, which reducing power and scavenging effect (%) on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Using inverted Petri plate method, the volatile oil completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium graminearum at 6 μL dose. Moreover, using poison food technique, the essential oil was found to be highly effective for controlling the growth of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus niger. In antibacterial investigations, using agar well diffusion method, the extract has shown better activity for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in comparison with commercial bactericide. However, essential oil has shown better activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy studies on essential oil resulted in the identification of 35 components, which account for the 98.9% of the total amount. The major component was carvone (55.2%) followed bylimonene (16.6%), dillapiole (14.4%), andlinalool (3.7%). The analysis of acetone extract showed the presence of 25 components, which account for 94.5% of the total amount. The major components were dill apiole (43.2%), linoleic acid (23.1%), trans-anethole (11.0%), 2-propanone, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) (4.6%), carvone (3.1%), p-anisaldehyde (2.7%), and myristicin (1.5%). In conclusion, the results presented here show that dill essential oil could be considered as a source for natural antimicrobial, whereas its extract could be considered as an alternative source of natural antioxidant.

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... Dill seed oil consists of -phellandrene, eugenol, anethole, flavonoids, coumarine, triterpenes and phenolic acid (Jana andShekhawat, 2010 andOmer, 2016). EO chemical composition differs according to the plant part, developing stage and also the extraction method (Singh et al., 2006 andAl Ma'adhedi 2012). Volatile oil obtained from dill seed hydro-distillation and acetone extraction was found to have an inhibition effect on the fungal mycelial growth as, inhibition zone increased with the volatile oil dose, where, it completely inhibited Fusarium graminearum growth, followed by F. citrinum, Aspergillus flavus and A. terreus (Singh et al., 2006 andPrakash et al., 2012). ...
... EO chemical composition differs according to the plant part, developing stage and also the extraction method (Singh et al., 2006 andAl Ma'adhedi 2012). Volatile oil obtained from dill seed hydro-distillation and acetone extraction was found to have an inhibition effect on the fungal mycelial growth as, inhibition zone increased with the volatile oil dose, where, it completely inhibited Fusarium graminearum growth, followed by F. citrinum, Aspergillus flavus and A. terreus (Singh et al., 2006 andPrakash et al., 2012). ...
... These results came in agreement with Dahiya and Purkayasthat (2012), who stated that volatile essential oil of dill seeds, has light yellow color. Also, Singh et al. (2006) and Al-Ma'adhedi (2012) stated that, dill seed oil has a pale yellow color. They also reported that, dill seed oil amount varies depending on the extraction method. ...
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This study was performed to examine the effect of phenolic compounds and antioxidant content of four dill seed extracts. These extracts were prepared by hydro-distillation, ethanol, methanol and acetone. They were examined as antifungal agent against eight Aspergillus spp. Results revealed that hydro-distillation extract (HE) and ethanol extract (EE), derived from dill seed, had higher total phenolic content (45.67 and 39.71 GAE/g, respectively), as well as higher contents of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and octyl methylcinnamate (OMC) (4.98, 1.50, 39.65 and 4.37, 1.10, 33.26 mg/ml, respectively) as compared to the methanol and acetone extracts. HE recorded a high diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) with A. flavus IFO 6343, A. niger DSM 371 and A. parasciticus NRRL 2999, with MIC = 15 mg/l. While EE was more effective on A. niger CAIM 147, A. niger NRRL 337 and A. oryzae NRRL 9362, with MIC = 15 mg/l as compared with methanol and acetone extracts under the same conditions. Antifungal potential of HE and EE were found to be highly effective on enumeration of fungal strains used in this study. Obtained results confirmed strong relationship between the total phenolic content of dill seed extracts and its amounts of BHA as an antifungal agent. It is recommended to use dill HE (light yellow color) with foods highly expected to be infected with A. flavus IFO 6343, A. niger DSM 371 and A. parasciticus NRRL 2999, at 15 and 20 mg/l, while EE (pale yellow color) is recommended to prevent foods to be susceptible to A. niger CAIM 147, A. niger NRRL 337 and A. oryzae NRRL 9362at 15 and 20 mg/l.
... In the linear estimation, the slope of the control is much higher and significantly different from the five tested antioxidants (p < 0.01). The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical is a stable radical with a maximum absorbance at 517 nm that can readily undergo reduction by an antioxidant [23]. When a solution of DPPH is mixed with that of a substance that can donate a hydrogen atom, then this gives rise to the reduced form with the loss of this violet colour [24]. ...
... These results suggest that other compounds of different polarities, probably released through hydrolysis and other cleavage processes, may also contribute to the recorded antioxidant activity [23,34]. Moreover, heat-and water-induced chemical reactions can also change the activity of a complex extraction system consisting of numerous compounds with different chemical and physical properties [23]. ...
... These results suggest that other compounds of different polarities, probably released through hydrolysis and other cleavage processes, may also contribute to the recorded antioxidant activity [23,34]. Moreover, heat-and water-induced chemical reactions can also change the activity of a complex extraction system consisting of numerous compounds with different chemical and physical properties [23]. ...
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In the last decade, there has been growing interest in the food industry in replacing synthetic chemicals with natural products with bioactive properties. This study's aims were to determine the chemical composition and the antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Pastianica sylvestris. The essential oil was isolated with a yield of 0.41% (w/v) by steam distillation from the dried seeds and subsequently analysed by GC-MS. Octyl acetate (78.49%) and octyl hexanoate (6.68%) were the main components. The essential oil exhibited an excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products for cold-pressed sunflower oil comparable with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which were evaluated using peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was additionally validated using DPPH radical scavenging (0.0016 ± 0.0885 mg/mL), and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays. Also, the amounts of total phenol components (0.0053 ± 0.0023 mg GAE/g) were determined.
... It is cultivated worldwide, and its EO has flavoring and medicinal effects. Dill seeds yield 2%-4.2% EO with carvone ( Figure 1-3) as a major chemical component with a share of 47.7-73.6% in total composition, followed by limonene (Figure 1-4), dill apiol, and αphellendrene (Singh et al., 2005;Yili et al., 2009;Chahal et al., 2017;Singh et al., 2017). ...
... Since the chemical composition of DEO varies considerably between different studies, more comprehensive studies on chemical constituents are required. Singh et al. (2005) analyzed the antimicrobial activity of DEO against six pathogenic bacteria. They reported it as an effective antibacterial agent against P. aeruginosa and E. coli with ZOI 25.3 mm and 18.5 mm, respectively, although ineffective against S. typhi. ...
... citrinum and A. niger at 6 µL concentration out of eight tested pathogenic fungi. The activity against other fungi was also considerable (Singh et al., 2005). The Can. albican was also found to be very sensitive to DEO with a MIC value of 2.7 µg/mL (Yili et al., 2009). ...
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There has been an upsurge of interest in the phytobiotics coincident with the onset of the potential ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in the broiler industry and because many kinds of nutraceuticals play an important role in improving growth performance, feed efficiency, and gut health of broilers. In the previous years, significant biological activities of essential oils (EOs) belonging to phytobiotics were observed, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant properties. We found new perspectives on the roles of EOs, particularly extracts from the Apiaceae family, which is one of the largest plant families, in potential replacement of AGPs, and on the chemical composition involved in regulating microorganism activity and oxidative damage. Furthermore, the positive effects of EOs on broiler production and the possible mechanisms inducing the involvement of gut health and growth performance have been studied.
... The seeds of A. graveolens are used in folk medicine as an appetizer, carminative, diuretic, stomachic, digestive, sedative and in hemorrhoids (Jana and Shekhawat, 2010;Singh et al., 2005). Chewing of the seeds improves bad breath, e.g., halitosis. ...
... Phytochemical screening of this plant showed that its flowers, seeds, leaves and stems were rich in polyphenols, tannins, terpenes, and cardiac and flavonoid glycosides (Singh et al., 2005;Nautiyal and Tiwari., 2011). Various pharmacological activities have been reported from A. graveolens plant parts, such as antihypercholesterolemic, chemopreventive effects, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antiulcer, mucosal protective, antisecretory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal and analgesic activities (Zheng et al., 1992). ...
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Anethum graveolens L. is a famous aromatic herb that is widely used as a spice and has been applied in folk medicine to cure many diseases. The current work was carried out to compare the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils obtained from the different parts of Saudi Arabia. graveolens. The oil constituents were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction and were quantified and qualitatively identified using GC/MS. As a result, essential oil isolated from A. graveolens seeds exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity compared to oils isolated from other parts, followed by flowers, leaves and stems. All tested A. graveolens essential oil samples exhibited stronger antifungal activities against Aspergillus parasiticus when compared to itraconazole. To the best of our knowledge, the current work is the first report comparing different parts of Saudi A. graveolens plant with respect to their essential oil chemical composition and antimicrobial potentials. The essential oil of A. graveolens seeds have the highest contents of carvone and limonene and show superior antimicrobial activities compared to other parts of the plant.
... Its main components are limonene (up to 40%) and (+)-carvone (up to 60%). [5,10,11,13,15,19,20,26,28]. ...
... The oils demonstrate antimicrobial [4,7,8,10,14,15,17,19,24] and antioxidant [1,2,25,26] properties and have been traditionally used for food products [3,12]. ...
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The chemical composition of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) commercial essential oils was studied. Carvone (46.89 %) and limonene (28.93 %) were the dominant compounds in the dill seed oil. The major components in dill weed oil were carvone (27.81 %), limonene (16.94 %), α-phellandrene (15.87 %) and p-cymene (14.18 %). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils were also determined.
... The seeds of A. graveolens are used in folk medicine as appetizer, carminative, diuretic, stomachic, digestive, sedative and in hemorrhoids 3,4 . Chewing of the seeds improves bad smell of breath or halitosis. ...
... The phytochemical screening of this plant showed that owers, seeds, leaves and stems were rich in polyphenols, tannins, terpenes, cardiac and avonoids glycosides 4,6 . Various pharmacological activity has been reported from AG plant parts such as; anti-hypercholesterolemic, chemo-preventive effects, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, anti-ulcer, mucosal protective, antisecretory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-in ammatory, insecticidal and analgesic activities 5 . ...
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Anethum graveolens L. (AG) is one of the most important aromatic herb, used in folk medicine to cure many illinesses. The current work was carried to compare the chemical composition and the antimicrobial potency of Saudi AG essential oils obtained from different parts. The oils constituents were extracted by two techniques; the Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) and traditional hydrodistillation (HD), then the constituents of each extracted oil were quantitavly and qualitatively identified. The essential oil isolated from AG seeds exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity comparing to other essential oils isolated from other parts of the same plant followed by flowers, leaves and stems, respectively. Interestingly, all tested AG essential oil samples showed stronger antifungal activity against Aspergillus parasiticus than the control antifungal itraconzole used in the study. Our finding suggest that AG seed essential oil may be considered as an alternative safe remedy derived from a natural source used to cure many uncomplicated infections. Up to our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical compostion of the Saudi AG oils isolated by different methods with a comparable testing against different pathogenic microorganisms.
... In previous research, different chemical compounds were found in A. graveolens plant. According to literature studies, compounds such as α-phellandrene, Dill ether, β-phellandrene, Myristicin, p-Cymene, m-Cymene, α-pinene, β-pinene, Limonene, α-thujene, Apiol, Carvone, Trans dihydrocarvone, Cis-dihydrocarvone, Dill apiol, R-Carvone, S-carvone, Anethole, E-2,6 dimethyl-3,5octatetraene, ϒ-terpinene, Myrcene, Linaylacetate, Camphor, 8-Dehydro-p-Cymene, Carveol, Piperitone, β-Myrcene, Thujyl alcohol, Grandisol, neoiso-dihydrocarveol, Dihydrocarveol, cis-Carveol, Sabinene, 2-Carene, o-Isopropenyltolune, 1,2-diethoxyethane, Diplaniol, Linalool and Bis-1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid have been reported (Mahran et al. 1991;Singh et al., 2005;Yili et al., 2009;Kazemi et al. 2012;Babri et al., 2012;Singh, 2012;Khani and Basavand, 2013;Sharopov et al., 2013;Peerakam et al., 2014;Tanurean et al., 2014;Ma et al., 2015;Khaldi et al., 2015;Chahal et al., 2016). ...
... The findings obtained according to the literature data are given in Table 1. Velioglu et al., 1998;Singh et al., 2005;Singh et al., 2007;Bahramikia and Yazdanparast, 2007;Shyu et al., 2009;Rekha et al., 2010;Selen Isbilir and Sagiroglu, 2011;Tamilarasi et al., 2012;Orhan et al., 2013;Peerakam et al., 2014;Stanojević et al., 2016;Tanruean et al., 2014;Kaur et al., 2019 Cytotoxic effect Essential oils Sharopov et al., 2013;Peerakam et al., 2014 Anticancer Essential oils, aqueous Fukuoka et al., 1980;Zheng et al., 1992;Peerakam et al., 2014 Insecticidal activity Essential oils Babriet al., 2012;Ebadollahi et al., 2012;Khani and Basavand, 2013 Enzyme inhibitory activity N-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol Orhan et al., 2013 Anti-inflamatory activity Aqueous, ethanol Racz-Kotilla et al., 1995;Nasri et al., 2009;Naseri et al., 2012;Rezaee-Asl et al., 2013 Anti-mycobacterial activity Hexane, chloroform, methanol Stavri and Gibbons, 2005 Anti-ulcer activity Ethanol Shipochliev et al., 1968;Harries et al., 1978;Hosseinzadeh et al., 2002 Anti- ...
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From past to present, plants have been used for food, taste and odor, medicine, shelter construction, firewood and arms. In addition, extracts prepared from plants called medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of many diseases. After the beginning of the 19th century, medicines were started to be made by using the active substances found in plants and the pharmaceutical industry was born. In addition to all these developments, especially in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the treatment methods of herbal extracts known as “alternative medicine bilinen which have been used since ancient times due to the side effects that may arise from the use of synthetic drugs. In this study, the medical potential of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) was evaluated. In this context, biological activity studies on A. graveolens plant were determined. As a result of the studies, it was reported that A. graveolens has antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, antihyperlipidemic, antihypercolesterolemic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. As a result, it has been found that A. graveolens plant, which is economically important and consumed extensively, has important pharmacological properties. In this context, in addition to its nutritional properties, A. graveolens has an important place in alternative medicine.
... However, most often one or more substances prevail, determining the major components that characterize the plant species under analysis and its properties (Bakkali et al., 2008). The major components identified in A. graveolens oil in this study were also present in other investigations (Singh et al., 2005;Orhan et al., 2013;Sintim et al., 2015), though their compound concentration differs, showing that these are dependent on several factors such as the area where the plant was raised, type of crop, and the extraction technique it was submitted (Chahal et al., 2017). ...
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Gastrointestinal nematodes are responsible for great economic losses in sheep raising, and their control has long been carried out almost exclusively by the administration of anthelmintics, which have led to serious resistance problems. In the search for alternative control measures, phytotherapic research is highlighted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of Anethum graveolens (dill) essential oil on different stages of Haemonchus contortus life cycle, as well its cytotoxicity MDBK (Madin-Darby bovine kidney) cells. H. contortus larvae and eggs were obtained from infected sheep feces, and essential oil extracted from plant seeds through the Clevenger apparatus. 9.4, 4.7, 2.35, 1.17. 0.58 and 0.29 mg/mL concentrations were evaluated. The Egg Hatch Inhibition (HI), Larval Development Inhibition (LDI) and Larval Migration Inhibition (LMI) techniques were used. Thybendazole 0.025 mg/mL in HI and Levamisole 0.02 mg/mL in the LDI and LMI tests were used as positive controls, while distilled water and a Tween 80 solution were used as positive negative controls. The inhibition results obtained for the highest oil concentration were: HI 100%, LDI 98.58% and LMI 63.7%, differing (�� <0.05) from negative controls. Main A. graveolens oil components present in 95.93% of the total oil were Dihydrocarvone (39.1%), Carvone (22.24%), D-Limonene (16.84%), Apiol (10.49%) and Trans-dihydrocarvone (7.26%). Minimum A. graveolens essential oil concentrations required to inhibit 50% (IC50) of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration were 0.006 mg/mL, 2.536 mg/mL and 3.963 mg/mL, respectively. Cell viability in MDBK (Madin-Darby bovine kidney) cells, when incubated with A. graveolens essential oil, was 86% for the highest (9.4 mg/mL) and 99% for the lowest concentration (0.29 mg/mL). A. graveolens essential oil, according to the results obtained in this study, is a promising alternative in sheep gastrointestinal nematode control.
... Constipation, toxin removal, strengthening the immune system, slimming, sugar and cholesterol lowering, digestive system thanks to its effects is beneficial to the human body (Singh et al., 2005). There is also tea made by dill seed drying or fresh. ...
... Constipation, toxin removal, strengthening the immune system, slimming, sugar and cholesterol lowering, digestive system thanks to its effects is beneficial to the human body (Singh et al., 2005). There is also tea made by dill seed drying or fresh. ...
... Genus Anethum L., belonging to the Apiaceae family, is represented by only one species as Anethum graveolens L. (dill), which is locally known as "Shabat" or "Ein Jaradeh" in the Arabian Peninsula (Bailer, 2001). Dill is an important food crop in the world and it originated in the Mediterranean and Southwest Asia and South-east Europe regions, however, it is, now, cultivated all around the world (Singh, 2005). ...
... A. graveolens, commonly known as dill, is an aromatic herb, belonging to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family. The plant has its origin from Mediterranean and Southwest Asia (Singh et al., 2005). Dill plant has a long history of use as a culinary and medicinal herb. ...
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Anethum graveolens L. (A. graveolens) commonly known as dill, is an essential oil bearing plant extensively being used in traditional system of medicine. However, the reports on the components and biological responses of A. graveolens essential oil (AG-EO) from Saudi Arabia are scarce. The present study was designed to explore the presence of basic constituents and apoptosis induced by AG-EO in HepG2 cells. The constituents in AG-EO was analyzed by Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Cytotoxicity of AG-EO was measured by MTT assay and cell cycle arrest and apoptosis assays were conducted by using flow cytometer. Based on GC–MS analysis, the main constituents present in AG-EO were carvone (53.130%), dillapole (25.420%), dihydrocarvone 2 (11.350%) and dihydrocarvone 1 (6.260%). A few other minor components were also identified viz. cis-dihydrocarveol (0.690%), limonene (0.580%), isodihydrocarveol (0.370%), myristicin (0.210%) and cis-arsone (0.190%). The cytotoxicity results showed that AG-EO decrease the cell viability and inhibit the cell growth of HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory activity of AG-EO was found with IC50 = 59.6 ± 5.64. The cell cycle arrest results showed that HepG2 cells exposed to AG-EO exhibited an increase in G2/M and pre-G1 cell population after 24 h exposure. Furthermore, the flow cytometry data revealed the primarily activation of cell death by apoptosis manners in HepG2 cells exposed to AG-EO. Overall, results from this study highlighted the anticancer potential of AG-EO, which could be considered as a new agent for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Keywords: A. graveolens, Essential oil, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Anticancer, Cell cycle arrest, Apoptosis
... In Iranian traditional medicine, herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for diabetic diseases Najafi et al, 2017) (Shojaii et al, 2011). Extracts of Anethum graveolens (AG) from Apiales order, Apiaceae family, Anethum genus (Santos et al, 2002) have been used for gastric ulcers and parasitic, viral, fungal, and bacterial diseases (Singh et al, 2005). We describe effects of Anethum graveolens aqueous extract (AGAE) on blood values and fasting blood sugar in diabetic male BALB/c mice ...
Article
Bahram E, Khedri MR, Zangeneh MM, Abiari M, Zangeneh A, Amiri-Paryan A, Tahvilian R, Moradi R., Effect of Anethum graveolens aqueous extract on blood fasting glucose and hematological parameters in diabetic male BALB/c mic, Onl J Vet Res., 21 (12):784-793, 2017 Anethum graveolens (AG) or Dill has been used in ayurvedic medicine since ancient times. We describe effect of AG on blood glucose and hematological parameters in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced in 60 BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was determined daily and mice with > 250mg/kg were used for further study. After 3 days, groups of 10 diabetic mice each, were gavaged 20 mg/kg glibenclamide orally or 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg AG aqueous extract (AGAE) daily for 20 days. Two groups served as non-diabetic and untreated diabetic controls. Blood for fasting glucose and hematological parameters were taken at 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 20 days. Results suggested that treatment with 40 and 80 mg/kg AGAE reduced FBG and affected blood cell and platelet counts.
... In the mentioned study, Vera and Chane-Ming (1998) reported that the major components of dill were α-phellandrene (56.5%), dill ether (20.8%), and limonene (10.9%). Also, Singh, Maurya, de Lampasona & Catalan, (2005) showed that the major constituents of dill DEO were α-phellandrene (29.9%), 3,9-epoxy-p-menth-1-ene (25.4%), and β-phellandrene (4.9%). The level of these constituents is related to plant age, plant drying method, chemotype difference, changes during ripening, soil type, weather, various plant parts extraction method, and season of growth (Mehdizadeh et al., 2018). ...
Article
In the present work, physicochemical, sensory characteristics and viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus casei of probiotic yogurt using dill (Anethum graveolens) essential oil (DEO) (50 and 100 ppm) were investigated at 4°C for 21 days. Alterations in amount of fat and protein of yogurt treatments during storage time were not significant. The viability of B. bifidum and L. casei increased up to the 2nd week of storage and then decreased by the end of the storage period. Generally, samples with incorporated 100 ppm DEO had the highest number of probiotic bacteria on the last day of storage, 7.81 and 7.92 CFU/g for L. casei and B. bifidum, respectively. pH and titratable acidity values were decreased and increased, respectively, over the time for all samples. Yogurt with incorporated 100 ppm DEO achieved higher sensory scores compared to other yogurt samples. Therefore, the current results confirmed that the addition of probiotic and DEO improved the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurt. Practical Applications Yogurt undergoes sensory, chemical changes and microbial growth during refrigerated storage. Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus casei are generally applied as probiotic species in milk products. Dill essential oil (DEO) is used in food industries to extend the shelf life of the foods with desired organoleptic properties. This work recommends that DEO can be successfully used as a safe and natural source in the production of probiotic yogurt.
... It grows in the Mediterranean region, in Europe, in central and southern Asia, and in the southeastern region of Iran [9]. A. graveolens leaves are a source of minerals, proteins and fibers [10]. A. graveolens oils are also a source of antioxidants and have antimicrobial and antispasmodic properties [11]. In traditional herbal medicine, A. graveolens is used to treat gastrointestinal ailments such as indigestion and flatulence [12]. ...
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Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Anethum graveolens (dill) powder supplementation on glycemic control, lipid profile, some antioxidants and inflammatory markers, and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: In this study, 42 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups and received either 3 g/day dill powder or placebo (3 capsules/day, 1 g each). Fasting blood sugar, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured in all of the subjects at baseline and postintervention. Results: The dill powder supplementation significantly decreased the mean serum levels of insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol and malondialdehyde in the intervention group in comparison with the baseline measurements (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean serum levels of high-density lipoprotein and total antioxidant capacity were significantly increased in the intervention group in comparison with the baseline measurement (P < 0.05). Colonic motility disorder was the only gastrointestinal symptom whose frequency was significantly reduced by supplementation (P = 0.01). The mean changes in insulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol and malondialdehyde were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the mean changes in high-density lipoprotein were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dill powder supplementation can be effective in controlling the glycemic, lipid, stress oxidative and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes. Trial registration: Iran Clinical Trials Registry: IRCT20120704010181N12. Registered on 12 May 2018.
... Some compounds including cis-carvone, limonene, α-phellandrene, and anethofuran are major compounds in dill essential oil [23]. Alpha-phellandrene is other major compounds in dill essential oil which may decrease bacterial growth and colonization and is to be beneficial in infected wounds [24,25]. ...
... Previous studies have shown that the Pimpinella genus namely P. anisum and P. anisetum contain high amounts of anethole (80-94% and 82.8%, respectively) (Arslan, Gürbüz, Sarihan, Bayrak, & Gümüşçü, 2004;Tepe et al., 2006). This phenolic derivate was also detected in the essential oils of many species of the Apiaceae family such as Foeniculum vulgare (70.1%) and Anethum graveolens (11%) (Gulfraz et al., 2008;Singh, Maurya, Lampasona, & Catalan, 2005). The second most abundant compound in PSEO was pseudoisoeugenol (20.15%) which is an isomer of eugenol found in the essential oil of P. anisum fruits and roots (Santos et al., 1998). ...
... Dill seed (Anethum graveolens) or "sowa" supplementation is already studied in broilers (Mohammad, Mehrdad, Zarbakht, & Reza, 2013) has improved overall performance. Dill seeds contain essential oils like carvone, limonene, (Saini, Singh, & Nagori, 2014) and dill-apiole (Singh, Maurya, Lampasona, & Catlan, 2005) as chief active components, having an excellent ability to reduce oxidative stress on birds by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, it is found that dill seed has antibacterial (Singh, Kapoor, Pandey, Singh, & Singh, 2002) as well as hypolipidemic (Hajhashemi & Abbasi, 2008) properties. ...
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The present study was carried out to study the effect of different doses of hemp seed alone or in combination with dill seed against antibiotic growth promoter on performance, serum biochemicals and gut health of broiler chickens over a period of 42 days. Total 192 broiler chicks were grouped randomly into six treatments and fed with basal diet (BD) along with different levels of seeds, viz., T1 (BD), T2 (BD + 0.2% HS), T3 (BD + 0.2% HS + 0.3 DS), T4 (BD + 0.3% HS) and T5 (BD + 0.3% HS + 0.3 DS) and T6 (BD + 0.025% Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate‐BMD). The performance traits like feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and carcass traits like cut‐up parts, giblet and abdominal fat yield remained unaffected due to dietary treatments for overall trial period; however, the average feed intake in early phase (0–3 weeks) reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in treatment birds than both controls (T1 & T6). Serum protein concentration remained unchanged, whereas significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum lipids like triglyceride, LDL and total cholesterol concentration was noticed due to dietary inclusion of seeds. Serum enzymes like AST and ALT concentrations depleted significantly (p < 0.05) treated groups, except at higher seed doses (T5); however, alkaline phosphatase levels were unaffected. Coliform count in caecum and jejunum reduced linearly (p < 0.01) due to seed inclusion, whereas dose‐dependent proliferation of lactobacilli was evident (p < 0.01) in caecum and jejunum of treated birds. No effect was observed on the villus height and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa. To conclude, dietary supplementation of hemp and dill seed could not affect the growth performance and carcass traits; however, it positively altered the serum lipid profile of the birds and improved gut health as well, thereby enhanced overall performance of broiler chickens.
... The antimicrobial effects of plant essential oils can inhibit the bacterial growth and promote wound healing process through various mechanisms [10]. Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae) so called dill, is commonly used for indigestion, flatulence, stimulant of milk secretion as well as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and analgesic agent [11,12]. It has been reported that dill essential oil is mainly composed of cis-carvone, limonene, α-phellandrene, p-cymene, and anethofuran [13][14][15]. ...
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Medicinal plants are conventionally used for wound healing, but their action mechanisms are still unknown. The present study evaluated the effect of topical administration of ointment containing dill (Anethum graveolens) essential oil (DEO) in the management of apoptosis and cell proliferation during MRSA-infected experimentally induced wound healing process in BALB/c mice model. The GC-FID and GC-MS techniques were used to analyze chemical composition of the essential oil. The mice were randomly divided into four treatment groups including negative control (sham), 2% and 4% DEO and mupirocin®-treated animals. The full-thickness excisional wounds were inoculated by 5 × 107 colony-forming units of MRSA. In order to assess the effect of different concentrations of DEO on wounds infection, wound area, bacterial count, histopathological, immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analysis were evaluated. The GC-MS analysis identified α-phellandrene (47.3%), p-cymene (18.5%) and carvone (14.1%) as the main compounds of the essential oil tested here. Administration of DEO prevented bacterial growth and also reduced wound area in comparison to the control group. Topical administration of DEO significantly reduced the inflammatory phase and accelerated re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, fibroblast and collagen deposition. Moreover, the DEO-treated animals exhibited higher expressions of Bcl-2, p53 caspase-3, VEGF and FGF-2 in comparison to the control and mupirocin®-treated groups (P < 0.05). Topical administration of DEO decreases the inflammatory phase by increasing p53 and caspases-3 expression. It triggers the proliferative phase by up-regulation of the Bcl-2, VEGF and FGF-2 expression and also up-regulates the collagen biosynthesis by enhancing the ERα expression level. Thus, ointment prepared from dill essential oil, in Iran, with its major compounds such as α-phellandrene, p-cymene and carvone can be used as an agent for accelerating the infected wound healing.
... Carrot improves the function of endothelial cells, helps blood vessels to dilate and regulates fluid balance (Kaur and Khanna, 2012). Parsley, coriander, and dill also have antioxidant activity, fibers and phytoconstituents like -carotene, apiol, vitamin C, and vitamin E, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and exert hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects (Singh et al., 2005;Bahnas et al., 2009;Laribi et al., 2015). ...
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Objective Key hemorheological variables are associated with several life-threatening diseases including cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. A diet can influence the blood rheological variables. To compare the effectiveness of a vegetable soup on blood viscosity (BV), hematocrit (Hct), plasma fibrinogen, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and blood osmolarity in patients with polycythemia in comparison to a control group. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled trial study was conducted at Isar health clinics in Mashhad, Iran, during a 7-month period. Forty male participants (35 to 60 years old) with polycythemia, but without underlying diseases, were included. They randomly assigned to two groups and either received diet/phlebotomy or phlebotomy alone, for 6 weeks. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using parametric tests. Results A significant reduction in BV at 30s (p≤0.001), BV at 40s (p≤0.001), BV at 50s (p≤0.001), Hct (p≤0.001), plasma fibrinogen (p≤0.001), total cholesterol (p<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01), VLDL-cholesterol (p≤0.001), HDL-cholesterol (p≤0.01), osmolarity (p≤0.001), and FBS (p≤0.001) was observed in diet recipients. Following the intervention, there was a significant decrease in triglyceride (intervention group, p<0.05; control group, p<0.05), in both groups. Conclusion This trial showed that the plant–based food used in this study could improve blood rheology.
... This is in agreement with previously published research reports. Additionally, carvone (55.2%), limonene (16.6%) and dillapiole (14.4%) were the major compounds of the oil, while linalool, trans-dihydrocarvone and cis-dihydrocarvone were the minor components[37]. Carvone was reported to be ineffective to the outer membrane of E. coli, whereas only a few studies have described[Downloaded free from http://www.apjtm.org on Friday, August 31, 2018, IP: 10.232.74.27] ...
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Objective: To determine the chemical composition, as well as the antioxidant, antityrosinase and antibacterial activities of essential oils obtained from some Apiaceous and Lamiaceous plants collected in Thailand. Methods: The essential oils of the specified spices and aromatic herbs were obtained by hydro-distillation, and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Antioxidant assays were based on the scavenging effects of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals as well as the lipid oxidation inhibition of ß-carotene bleaching by linoleic acid. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was evaluated by the dopachrome method. Broth microdilution technique was performed for the purposes of studying microbial growth inhibition against the isolated bacterial strains. Results: The essential oils of Elsholtzia stachyodes, Coleus amboinicus (I) and Trachyspermum ammi presented a high degree of potency in DPPH, ABTS and ß-carotene bleaching assays. The Trachyspermum ammi oil, which mainly contained thymol (49.04%) and p-cymene (22.06%), proved to be the most effective in terms of antibacterial activity. The major compositions of Coleus amboinicus (I) were carvacrol (51.57%), y-terpinene (18.04%) and p-cymene (7.81%); while thymol (43.76%) and y-terpinene (24.61%) were identified as the major components of Elsholtzia stachyodes oil, with p-cymene (6.73%) being identified as a minor constituent. Moreover, Cuminum cyminum oil containing cuminaldehyde (49.07%) and Elsholtzia communis oil composed with geranial (44.74%) and neral (35.27%) as the major components displayed a specific ability for the inhibition of the mushroom tyrosinase enzyme. Conclusions: The results indicated that these bioactive essential oils obtained from indigenous herbs are of significant interest as alternative raw materials in food, cosmetic and medicinal products.
... In this assay, the populations Turk1, Birjand, Torbat, and Hamedan showed higher reducing power than BHT. Previous reports have confirmed that reducing power of essential oils might be powerfully linked with their antioxidant activity (Singh et al. 2005;Sarikurkcu et al. 2008). Our results are similar to previous investigations which indicated the reducing power ability of essential oils (Sarikurkcu et al. 2008;Chang et al. 2016). ...
Article
The natural compounds such as essential oils are getting more attention due to their potential usage in pharmaceuticals and possibly as natural herbicides. This study was conducted to identify the chemical compositions of essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. populations collected from different regions of Iran, Turkey, and Germany, and their antioxidant (DPPH·, ABTS·+ and reducing power methods) and phytotoxic activity (against Convolvulus arvensis L.). The results exhibited a significant variation in essential oils content (1.74-2.97%). The main compounds in essential oils were trans-anethole (15.23%−90.11%), estragole (4.00-63.72%), fenchone (0.03-12.62%) and limonene (1.05-13.04%). The results revealed that the essential oils have considerable antioxidant (IC50 values in the range of 11.83-36.90 mg mL−1 in DPPH, 7.65-20.13 mg mL−1 in ABTS·+ and EC50 values in the range of 3.65-15.24 mg mL−1 in reducing power assay) and phytotoxic activity. The results of this study can help in the development of natural antioxidants and herbicides.
... Although, N. sativa had a high TPC (750 ± 40 mg GAE/ 100 g DW), its methanolic extract showed a low antioxidant activity (< 40 mg TEAC/100 g DW) ( Table 4, Fig. 4). In previous studies, it was found that the main antioxidant compound in N. sativa was thymoquinone which is extracted in essential oil and not in the extract obtained by maceration (Erkan et al., 2008;Singh et al., 2005). Thymoquinone is known for its significantly high antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects (Khader and Eckl, 2014). ...
... A. graveolens leaves are a potential source of nutrients, including vitamin C, carotenoids, beta-carotene, chlorophylls, and polyphenols (Lisiewska, Kmiecik, and Korus 2006). This plant is also known as a powerful antioxidant source that has antimicrobial and antispasmodic properties (Singh et al. 2006). Moreover, recent preclinical studies have suggested its anticancer, anti-gastric irritation, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory effects (Oshaghi et al. 2016). ...
Article
There is an increased interest in the potential health benefits of nutraceutical therapies, such as Anethum graveolens (dill). Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of Anethum graveolens supplementation on lipid profiles and glycemic indices in adults. A systematic search was performed for literature published through November 2020 via PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Embase to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of oral supplementation with A. graveolens on lipid profile and measures of glycemic control in adults. The random-effects model was applied to establish the weighted mean difference (WMD) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Seven RCTs with a total number of 330 subjects were included in the final analysis. Pooled results indicated that A. graveolens supplementation significantly decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) concentration (WMD: −15.64 mg/dL; 95% CI: −24.55 to −6.73; P = 0.001), serum insulin (WMD: −2.28 μU/ml; 95% CI: −3.62 to −0.93; P = 0.001), and HOMA-IR (WMD: −1.06; 95% CI: −1.91 to −0.20; P = 0.01). However, there was no significant effect on serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and fasting blood glucose (FBS). Subgroup analysis suggested that using A. graveolens in higher doses and long-term duration had beneficial effects on lipid profiles. Dose-response analysis also showed a significant reduction in FBS at doses of 1500 mg/d. The present meta-analysis indicated that Anethum graveolens could exert favorable effects on insulin resistance and serum LDL. Further research is necessary to confirm our findings.
... They also reported that the carvone concentration (34.62%) was lower than that of limonene (40.69%) in immature seeds. Singh et al. [45] noted that the major components of dill mature seed oils were carvone (55.2%), limonene (16.6%), dill apiole (43.2%) and linoleic acid (23.1%). In addition, Sharopov et al. [46] reported that the major components of dill aerial oils were carvone (51.7%), trans-dihydrocarvone (14.7%), dill ether (13.2%), α-phellandrene (8.1%), and limonene (6.9%). ...
Article
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Background In sustainable agriculture, the use of farmyard manure (FYM) is of great interest to environmental security and is effective as a good nitrogen source for sustainable crop production. Therefore, determining the effective doses of FYM that will be an alternative to chemical fertilizers, is also important to improve soil fertility and produce healthy products. This study aimed to determine the effects of FYM and ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizers on the biological value and essential oil content of dill ( Anethum graveolens L.). Methods Different doses FYM (7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 t ha ⁻¹ ) and AN (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha ⁻¹ ) were applied by sowing and compared to a control group (no manure). We evaluated the chemical constituents as well as the biological activities of dill herbs and seeds growing at various doses of FYM and AN fertilizers. Results The most abundant components of essential oils were found to be dill apiole (11.96 ± 0.83 and 18.65 ± 1.89%) and carvotanacetone (15.90 ± 2.34 and 21.76 ± 1.62%) in the leaves and seeds, respectively. Limonene (9.01 ± 1.11%), 4-isopropyltoluen (8.24 ± 0.89%), dill ether (9.13 ± 1.12%) and mycrene (7.44 ± 0.68%) were major essential oils components in herbs. The highest concentration of the essential oil components was determined as 12.5–15 t ha ⁻¹ in FYM and 90 AN applications. From the effective concentration (EC 50 ) of the samples, it was seen that 60 kg ha ⁻¹ AN infusion, 120 kg ha ⁻¹ AN decoction as well as 7.5 t ha ⁻¹ FYM and 10 t ha ⁻¹ FYM essential oils had the highest DPPH, ABTS ⁺ and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity as shown by the lowest value of EC 50 compared to the control. Although the antioxidant activities of the samples were significantly lower than those of the reference antioxidant gallic acid, it was evident that they did show the antioxidative potential for hydrogen and a single electron donor activities, thus could serve as free radical scavengers, and act as reductant. In particular, the highest total phenolic content (18.36 ± 0.35 mg g ⁻¹ ) was found in the infusion extract after applying the 60 kg ha ⁻¹ AN fertilizer. Essential oils extracted from the seeds also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The highest antibacterial activity against all tested microbial species was observed with the 10 t ha ⁻¹ FYM application. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that the application of FYM has promising effects on dill leaf, seed, and herb and can be considered as a suitable substitute for chemical fertilizers when growing dill, a plant with increasing importance and demand.
... The literature demonstrates that dill leaf consumption could lower the risk of cancer and reduce the level of cholesterolemia (Lanky et al. 1993). Dill leaves provide good antioxidant activities (Singh et al. 2005). ...
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Background Two cultivars (Balady and Dukat) of dill plants were grown in the Experimental Farm Station of Agriculture Faculty, Cairo University, during two seasons of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. This investigation aims to determine the response of two dill cultivars to seven fertilizer treatments, i.e., control, 100% mineral fertilizer, 100% biofertilizer, 100% organic fertilizer, 50% organic fertilizer, 100% organic fertilizer with biofertilizer, and 50% organic fertilizer with biofertilizer. Data on plant height, leaf number, and some chemical composition such as antioxidant and nitrate accumulation were recorded in the vegetative growth stage. Results The results demonstrated that dill cv. Dukat gave the highest plants (cm), maximum leaf number per plant, pigment content (mg/g), total carbohydrates (%), nitrogen, and phosphorus percentages in the vegetative growth stage. Meanwhile, dill cv. Balady recorded the maximum potassium percentage and low content of nitrate accumulation (mg/kg) in the vegetative growth stage. Both dill cultivars contained antioxidants without significant differences between them. The best fertilization treatments were 100% organic fertilization with biofertilizer and 100% chemical fertilizer for plant height (cm), leaf number per plant, pigment content, antioxidant percentage, total carbohydrate percentage, and N and P percentages of two dill genotypes. On the other hand, 50% organic fertilization with biofertilizers was recorded as the best treatment for nitrate accumulation and K percentage with two dill cultivars. Conclusion These results prove that chemical fertilizers could be completely replaced by organic sources supplemented by NPK Symbion without any negative effect on dill vegetative growth and or nutrient contents.
... The weed oil is an easy flowing, light yellow liquid with a specific odor. About 53 components (mono-and sesquiterpenes, and phenols) and 25 [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14]. Georgiev and Dimitrov (1982) established for the first time the presence of dihydrocarveol in the Bulgarian dill oil [15]. ...
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Abstract. The chemical composition and therefore the quality of essential oils can vary depending on several factors like the time of harvest, the location of the crop, the part of the plant, the geographical and climatic conditions as well as the production method. The aim of this work is to study the change in the composition of the Bulgarian dill essential oils of known origin during the different harvest years and its storage. Plant parts of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) from the region of village Gavrailovo, Bulgaria were investigated. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the chemical composition of the studied oils and the data in the literature were detected. It has been established that the essential oils from the herb and the fruits of the dill in the region of village Gavrailovo contains significant amounts of methyl chavicol (32,90 – 62,96 %) which is the reason to be considered as a new methyl chavicol chemotype.
... Dill (Anethum graveolens) that belongs to the Umbelliferae family is an annual or biennial herb. Evidence showed that consumption of dill leaf could provide good antioxidant activities (65,66,105,106).The hydro alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens shows reduction in inflammation (65) and pain in rats (107). The analgesic effect has shown 10 % aqueous extract of fruit and 5% aqueous solution of essential oils in mice (induction of pain by hot plate and acetic acid writhing methods (108). ...
Article
Background: COVID-19 caused a global pandemic problem. No confident management is introduced for it yet. This study aimed to propose a dietary protocol for hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of acute respiratory infectious disease caused by COVID-19 based on Persian Medicine. Methods: This study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, any diseases that could be matched with the clinical features of infection with COVID-19 were searched in selected PM references. In the second phase, medicinal herbs and foods that were available and could be used in the hospital diet were extracted and summarized. In the third phase, the new documentation of these pharmaceutical and food items was conducted. Results: The signs and symptoms of infectious respiratory disease caused by COVID-19 can be categorized in the field of Zato al-rieh that can mainly be matched with pneumonia. Based on the described criteria, some nutrients and medicinal materia medica have been introduced for acute respiratory infection including Cydonia oblonga, Honey, Citrus sinensis, Malus domestica, Citrus medica, Crocus sativus, Raisin, Rosa Damas Cena, D.Carota, Camellia Sinensis, Anethum graveolens dhi, Punica granatum, Petroselinum Crispum, Coriandrum sativum, Urtica dioica, Allium sativum, Sesamum indicum. Conclusion: Most materia medica has documents in current articles including anti-cough suppressants, antiviral properties, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory etc. A protocol of hospital diet for patients with infectious respiratory syndrome caused by COVID-19 has been introduced in this manuscript.
... Apart from these activities, essential oil of dill was also reported as anticancer, 64 antisecretory, 65 anti-diabetic, 66 cytotoxic to human white blood cells, 63 diuretic 67 and carminative. 19,[68][69][70] Moreover dill also possess anti hyperlipidaemic activity 6,71 and anti hypercholesterolaemic activity. 33 The biological activity of most of the plant essential oils depends upon the synergistic effects of its constituents. ...
Article
Anethum graveolens L. (dill), a member of Umbelliferae family, is an important essential oil‐bearing herb native to the Mediterranean and West Asia. It is well documented for its medicinal and traditional uses. The chemical composition of dill seed essential oil showed the presence of numerous volatile compounds with carvone, limonene, α‐phellandrene, β‐phellandrene and p‐cymene being the major ones in almost all its aerial parts. Thus, the main focus of this updated review is to highlight the biological importance of dill essential oil and its major constituents (carvone and limonene) reported till date. Although the number of reviews has been published on its chemical composition and medicinal uses, its role in the field of agriculture to develop commercial formulations is still needed to be explored. In brief, the information presented in this review will be useful in creating interest in the use of dill essential oil and its major constituents for the development of commercial plant‐based pesticides.
... In the mentioned study, Vera and Chane-Ming (1998) reported that the major components of dill were α-phellandrene (56.5%), dill ether (20.8%), and limonene (10.9%). Also, Singh, Maurya, de Lampasona & Catalan, (2005) showed that the major constituents of dill DEO were α-phellandrene (29.9%), 3,9-epoxy-p-menth-1-ene (25.4%), and β-phellandrene (4.9%). The level of these constituents is related to plant age, plant drying method, chemotype difference, changes during ripening, soil type, weather, various plant parts extraction method, and season of growth (Mehdizadeh et al., 2018). ...
... Chemical compounds of dill essence are carvone, limonene, dillapiole and linalool [19]. ...
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Increasing attention is being paid to use of organic fertilizers such as manure and vermicompost which can increased yield and protect the environment. Replacing chemical fertilizers with manures has the benefit of low production cost and imparts beneficial effects on soil. Then an experiment was conducted during 2013 to measure effects of organic fertilizers on essential oil of dill (Anethum graveolens L.). Use of organic fertilizers beneficially affected seed yield, percent of essential oil, and essential oil yield. Essential oil percent was highest due to treatment with compost tea applied to the soil compared to foliar application. The combination of 20 t•ha-1 of manure and 7 t•ha-1 of vermicompost, without compost tea,producedthe maximum essential oil yield (23.85 kg•ha-1). The GC-MS analysis of dill essential oil indicated 94% of essential oil compounds were made up of: carvone, α-phellandrene, p-cymene, dillapiole and trans-dihydrocarvone. The maximum value of carvone (73.58%) was obtained by application of 20 t•ha-1 of manure and 15 t•ha-1 of vermicompost and compost tea in form of soil application.
... The supplementation of Dill seed (Anethum graveolens) is already studied in broilers [5] has improved overall performance. Dill seeds contain essential oils such as limonene, carvone, [6] and dill a piole [7] 2 excellent ability to minimize oxidative stress on birds by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, dill seed has antibacterial [8] as well as hypolipidemic [9] properties. ...
Conference Paper
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Background and Aim: Dill "Anethum graveolens" is considered to be an important herbal medicinal plant in the celery family "Apiaceae". It is the only member of the genus "Anethum". Dill seed's health benefits include the potential to improve digestive health, as well as supplying insomnia, hiccups, respiratory disorders, nausea, dysentery, and cancer relief. This experiment was conducted to shed light the influences of dietary Dill leaves powder supplementation on growth performance, edible giblets and mortality rate with reference to its economical figure for Ross 308 broiler. Experimental: 120 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks have been allotted into the four dietary experimental groups, each with three replicates and 10 birds each as randomized design. The experimental groups were classified into basal diet with no Dill powder kept as control, and 1, 2 and 3 g of Dill powder per kg of diets respectively. The birds growth performance including live body weights gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were monitored weekly. At the end of the experiment eight male birds were selected randomly from each replicate slaughtered and edible giblets viz., gizzard, heart and liver, were calculated. In addition, the effect of dill power supplementation on the mortality rate as well as its economic figure was recorded. Results: Data indicated that using Dill leaves powder at the level of 1 g/kg ration significantly increased feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW), weight gain (WG) compared to control and other treatment groups. Additionally, there were remarkable differences (p≤0.05) for feed conversion ratio (FCR) among experimental groups. In addition, edible giblets were better in groups supplemented with dill leaves powder compared with the control. The Dill leaves powder at the level of g/kg ration did not reported any mortalities and the economic figures did not show any significant differences among the experimental groups. Recommended applications/industries: Conclusively, dietary supplementation of Dill leaves powder enhanced the productive performance of broilers chicks especially at the level of 1 g/kg ration.
... They have also reported that FFA and PV of sunflower oil were found to be increasing with the heating time and reported that FFA and PV can be decreased by adding TBHQ. Similar results were found by Singh et al. [31] and Hou et al. [32], with their studies with different types of oils. ...
Article
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Lipid oxidation has been identified as a major deterioration process of vegetable oils, which leads to the production of primary and secondary oxidative compounds that are harmful to human health. Oleoresins of ginger, garlic, nutmeg, pepper, cloves, and cinnamon were extracted and incorporated into coconut oil, and change occurrence on physicochemical properties, thermal stability, shelf life, and antioxidant activity was monitored against the same properties of pure coconut oil. Lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of the free fatty acid level and peroxide value. For the comparison purpose, another oil sample was prepared by incorporating vitamin E too. Results revealed that both peroxide value and FFA of pure and flavored coconut oil samples after a one-week storage period were 3.989±0.006 and 3.626±0.002 mEq/kg and 0.646±0.001 and 0.604±0.002 (%), respectively. Saponification value, iodine value, smoke point, and the flashpoint of flavored oil were decreased while increasing the viscosity during storage. The highest phenolic content and DPPH free radical scavenging activity were found in flavored coconut oil. Since spices containing antioxidants, the thermal stability of flavored oil was better than that of pure coconut oil. Both oleoresins and vitamin E-incorporated samples showed the same pattern of increment of FFA and peroxide value during storage; however, those increments were slower than those of pure coconut oil.
... A ação inseticida pode ser explicada devido à composição química da planta. Dentre os principais compostos químicos de A. graveolens estão o dilapiol, a carvona e o limoneno, nas porcentagens de 14,4%, 55,2% e 16,6%, respectivamente [27]. O d-limoneno é um terpenoide que apresenta forte ação repelente e de inibição da reprodução sobre lagartas-de-cartucho, pernilongos, besouros fitófagos e pragas de grãos armazenados, sendo utilizado comercialmente na formulação de diversos inseticidas agronômicos, não apresentando toxicidade aos animais homeotermos [28]. ...
Article
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Sitophilus zeamais conhecido como gorgulho do milho é uma praga que afeta a qualidade de grãos armazenados. O uso de inseticidas químico é o método mais utilizado para o controle desta praga causando impactos ao meio ambiente. Neste sentido, meios menos agressivos são avaliados para o controle de insetos por meio de plantas com compostos de interesse, como extratos, que possuem metabólitos secundários que atuam na defesa das plantas. Portanto, o objetivo foi avaliar o potencial inseticida e repelente de plantas presentes na região Sul. A mortalidade e repelência de adultos S. zeamais foi avaliada em placas de Petri contendo grãos de milho tratados com extrato e pó de Anethum graveolens L. (endro) e Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim) em condições de laboratório. Todos os tratamentos afetaram a sobrevivência dos insetos. O melhor resultado foi para o extrato de A. graveolens, que apresentou DL50 = 139,16 μL/placa, menor valor dentre os tratamentos. A dose de 0,25 g de pó de endro/10 g de milho causo 100% dos insetos dos insetos, conferindo potencial inseticida. Quanto a repelência, o extrato de A. graveolens atingiu o maior Índice de Preferência (I.P.) repelindo 100% dos insetos na dose de 1,35 μL/cm². O pó de A. graveolens repeliu a partir de 0,15 g e o extrato de A. indica foi repelente nas doses de 2,29 μL/cm² e 3,95 μL/cm², e atraente nas menores, 0,64 μL/cm² e 1,37 μL/cm². A utilização de extratos e pó de endro e nim constituem uma alternativa de controle sobre o gorgulho do milho.
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Present work described the effect of natural stabilizers on Ca/P on naturally synthesised and Eco-friendly Nano-HAP powders.Nano- powders were preparedemploying wet chemical precipitation method by adjusting Ca/P between 1.5 to2.2,using different Natural Stabilisers (NSs)such as Rice Water (RcW), Soya Milk (SM), Tea Decoction (TD), Tulsi Leaves (TL), Soya Leaves (SL), Rose Petals (RP), Spinach Leaves (SpL), Gum Kondagogu (GKg) and Aloe Vera (AlV)as precursors. The pH of the powders was varying from 8.1 to 12.8.In this paper, the average crystallite sizes of the samples, pH, therate of reaction, initial temperature and Ca/P of synthesised powders are reported.
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Spices have broadly been used as food flavoring and folk medicine since ancient times. Numerous phytochemicals have been identified in spices, namely thymol (ajowan and thyme), anethole (aniseed), piperine (black pepper), capsaicin (capsicum), cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon), eugenol (clove), linalool (coriander), sabinene (curry leaf), limonene (dill seed), estragole (fennel seed), allicin (garlic), gingerol (ginger), safranal (saffron), and curcumin (turmeric), among others. The antioxidants in spices are very effective and also render anti-mutagenic, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Apart from their antioxidant efficacy, spices, particularly their essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and microbial toxins synthesis. In this contribution, a summary of the most relevant and recent findings on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of spices has been compiled and discussed. The content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids in different spices are summarized. In addition, the beneficial effects of spices in food preservation and in health promotion and disease risk reduction are briefly described.
Chapter
Essential oils stand for a class of fragrance bearing secondary metabolites consisting of terpenes, terpenoids, shikimates, phenylpropenes, etc. Apiole (1-allyl-2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene), commonly known as parsley apiole, belongs to the phenylpropene class of bioactives. It mainly occurs in Apiaceae, Piperaceae, and Myristicaceae plant families. However, Petroselinum crispum (Miller) A.W. Hill, Piper aduncum L, Anethum graveolens L. (dill), Ocimum basilicum L., and Pastinaca hirsute have been ranked as the top source of apiole. Apiole has been largely extracted from plants via hydrodistillation, Steam distillation, microwave-assisted hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid type extraction, and headspace volatiles (HS). The intake of apiole affects the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, cures chronic breast lactation, and regulates menstrual cycle. On a clinical basis, apiole can act as antioxidant, antifungal, anticancerous, abortifacient, acaricidal, phytotoxic, antitumor, and antiproliferative agents. Besides abortion, its long-term or excessive intake can cause acute or chronic problems related to the liver, kidney, irritation, or anemia. This chapter provides brief but up-to-date information regarding the occurrence, extraction, biogenesis, and therapeutic prospectus of apiole.
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Spices have broadly been used as food flavoring and folk medicine since ancient times. Numerous phytochemicals have been identified in spices, namely thymol (ajowan and thyme), anethole (aniseed), piperine (black pepper), capsaicin (capsicum), cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon), eugenol (clove), linalool (coriander), sabinene (curry leaf), limonene (dill seed), estragole (fennel seed), allicin (garlic), gingerol (ginger), safranal (saffron), and curcumin (turmeric), among others. The antioxidants in spices are very effective and also render anti-mutagenic, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Apart from their antioxidant efficacy, spices, particularly their essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and microbial toxins synthesis. In this contribution, a summary of the most relevant and recent findings on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of spices has been compiled and discussed. The content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids in different spices are summarized. In addition, the beneficial effects of spices in food preservation and in health promotion and disease risk reduction are briefly described.
Article
A large number of essential oils (EOs) have been proposed as natural antioxidants in foods. They are added to minimize the oxidation effects in diverse meat matrices, showing promising results by inhibiting oxidation processes. Moreover, its addition in meat products induces changes in physicochemical and sensory properties, such as color, texture stability, pH, flavor among others, which are of great importance in the meat technology. In this review, the main physicochemical and sensory effects caused in different meat matrices by the addition of diverse EOs were analyzed in two parts, by reviewing strategies to add EOs and main changes reported. EOs are a good antioxidant source, and for their application in meat matrices is suggested to test different doses which could avoid negative effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties, as well as including toxicological assays to find an effective and safe dose.
Article
In this study, we aim to compare essential oils from Anethum graveolens L. obtained by hydrodistillation, steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The influence of the particle diameter was investigated for all extraction techniques considered. The effect of pressure on the supercritical fluid extraction was also evaluated. For this, a full factorial design 2² combined with response surface methodology was used to maximize the yield of volatile extract from the seeds of A. graveolens L. The mathematical modeling of each extraction method was performed using a suitable model. The gas chromatography analysis (GC) identified dillapiole, carvone and its isomers to be the major compounds.
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Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) has been shown strong antioxidative and immune propertise, but the precise potency and action mechanisms remain largely elusive. This study is to dissect the different fractions' antioxidant power and antiinflammatory function. We extracted 4 fractions from China original dill with ether (DI-E), ethyl acetate (DI-EA), n-butanol (DI-B) and water (DI-W), and performed 4 different kinds of antioxidative analysis together with vitamine C (Vc): DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and TPTZ-FRAP. For correlated compounds in antioxidant assays Folin-Ciocalteu's analysis was performed. For antiinflammation, cell proliferation by MTT, NO molecules and interleukin-1 and 6 in supernatant were detected by Griess reaction and Elisa, respectively, and gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analyzed by RT-PCR. The strength of antioxidant activity was Vc > DI-EA > DI-B > DI-W > DI-E. Folin-Ciocalteu's analysis showed that antioxidant power was correlated to phenolic compounds. However, in antiinflammatory assays DI-E was most active one by cell proliferation, iNOS's gene expression, and secretion of interleukin IL-1 and 6 in macrophage RAW264.7. The antioxidant fraction and antiinflammatory fraction of the dill were determined. The certain fractions of dill may be strong at antioxidation, but weak at antiinflammation, vice versa. Thus dill has anti-ageing and anticancer potential, a good resource for functional food and ancillary drugs of rehabilitation.
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The essential oils (EOs) have been used in humans and animals for several millennia, as they represent an important part of folk medicine for their medicinal properties. EOs are a very heterogeneous group of complex mixtures of secondary plant metabolites. The nature of an EO varies from plant to plant, species to species, and within botanical families. By now, more than 3000 varieties of volatile aromatic compounds have been identified. Hundreds of chemical compounds have been identified in the essential oils (EOs) of some plants, with properties such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiseptic, antimycotic, antitumor, antispasmodic, immunostimulating, etc. In addition to aromatherapy, they are either ingested or topically applied for conditions such as pain, arthritis, bruises, scratches, scars, flea control, and many others. This chapter describes EOs of plant and non-plant origins, their active constituents, and clinical applications in animal health and disease.
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Seeds of 6 medicinally important plants they belong to family Apiaceae growing in Sindh province of Pakistan, including Anethum graveolens-dill, Apium graveolens-celery, Coriandrum sativum-coriander, Cuminum cyminum-cumin, Foeniculum vulgare-fennel, Trachyspermum ammi L-Carom, the deduction of four main seed storage proteins i.e. albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin. All plant species found and cultivated in Sindh, Pakistan. Proteins were seed flour was extracted by sequential steps of extractions including delipidation (removal of oil), water (albumin), 5.0 M NaCl (globulin), 70% ethonal (prolamin), and 0.2 M Na₃PO₄ buffer, pH8.0 (glutelin). Quantitative estimation was performed Dye binding technique of Bradford used for quantifiable estimation and found huge differences in terms of their concentrations and overall production (Table-1). Among all seed plants the albumin fraction was observed high in family Apiaceae where, C. cyminum (85.01%) and T. ammi L (47.12%) containing the highest, A. graveolans, F. vulgare, C. sativam L (37.66%, 36.88%, 30.14%, respectively) contains the medium while, the lowest concentration was observed in A. graveolans L. (29.11%). Globulin with the second dominant protein fraction may also vary from 3.52% in C. cyminum to 50% in C. sativam L. The meaningful increase in prolamin was observed in T. ammi L (33.08%), A. graveolans L (28.11%), A. graveolans, F. vulgare (21.34%) while, the lowest of around (9.6%) in C. cyminum, C. sativam L seeds. On the other hand, a consistent pattern of 5 to 20% of glutelin concentration was detected among every plant seeds (with exception of A. graveolans L having 23%). To the help of our research information, this study for the first time reported the comparative seed storage proteins profile of the family Apiacea and its possible medicinal and biotechnological application.
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Hair and scalp infections have been considered one of the current major concerns as they are the main causes of hair damage and loss, thus gravely compromise the quality of life. The scalp is a unique ecological niche, suitable for microbial colonization due to high follicular density, humidity, warm, dark surface, and a large number of sweat-sebaceous glands. Several microbes utilize the favorable conditions of the scalp for their colonization and cause mild to severe infections like dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis, and tinea capitis. Several conventional antimicrobials available in the market fail to cure such infections due to the resistance of microbial strains. Inappropriate and excessive use of antimicrobials stems resistance, therefore the need for new anti-microbials has been dramatically increasing and medicinal plants are considered as one of the most promising alternatives of novel bioactive compounds that could be utilized as a potential source of antimicrobial drugs. Plants produce certain bioactive phytochemicals, naturally toxic to microorganisms, so have been investigated as therapeutic agents. Antimicrobials extracted from plants are considered multifunctional curing agents, easy to extract, less in cost, and safe for human consumption. This has been clinically proven that herbal formulations enhance the growth of hair and stop hair fall. Presently, there are many herbal hair oils and shampoos available in the market with high demand as they strengthen and nourish hair and scalp with negligible side effects. In this context, this article reviews a number of microbial hair and scalp conditions and detailed knowledge about medicinal plants utilized in herbal formulations and their antimicrobial efficacy against pathogens infecting hair and scalp.
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In this study, essential oils were extracted from Thyme and Star anise using Clevenger method. Oil yield extracted were 2.4% and 4.5% respectively. The physical properties of extracted oils have been studied. Refractive index values for essential oils were 1.4952 and 1.5584 respectively. colors of extracted essential oils were yellow gold and pale yellow respectively, and the taste of Thyme oil was hot burning and the taste of Star anise oil was sweet,as essential oils were dissolved in organic solvents and did not dissolve in water. The Active chemical compounds of the essential oils were characterized using GC-MS. Thyme oil contains 29 compounds,and the most important one of them was Thymol 54.87%. Star anise oil contains 19 compounds, the most important one of them was Anethol 86.88%.
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Colletotrichum nymphaeae is the causal agent of strawberry anthracnose, which is one of the most important disease affecting strawberry plant in Iran. This research aimed to apply the selected plant essential oils (EOs) such as Achillea millefolium, Mentha longifolia, and Ferula kuma to the management of strawberry anthracnose disease under in vitro, in vivo, and greenhouse conditions. In vitro tests indicated that all the EOs and fungicide were able to inhibit mycelial growth and conidial germination of the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that EOs significantly suppressed the mycelia growth and caused a change in morphology of fungal mycelia. The severity of strawberry anthracnose disease was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced by all EOs under in vivo and greenhouse conditions. Results of all experiments showed that M. longifolia EO was the best EO to control C. nymphaeae. Also, EOs almost reduced weight loss and preserved firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenol, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and enzyme peroxidase activity in treated fruit. Moreover, EOs preserved the sensory quality of strawberry fruit during the storage period so that there were no significant differences between treatments (EOs) in their appearance, flavor, odor attributes, and overall evaluation compared to the control. Our results indicate that EOs are excellent bio-fungicides for the management of strawberry anthracnose.
Article
Peach fruit is susceptible to decay caused by Monilinia fructicola infection. Synthetic fungicides are effective for inhibiting this pathogen and rot rate, but more and more attentions to the safety and pollution that chemicals compel us to find other methods to control M. fructicola disease. Natural volatile organic compound was considered as a potential way to reduce pathogen infection. 1-Octen-3-ol, a natural product from plant or fungi, can inhibit several pathogens growth. In this study, it is found that 1-octen-3-ol fumigation not only inhibited development of M. fructicola in vitro but also effectively reduced brown rot caused by the pathogen in vivo. The results showed 37.20, 55.80 and 74.40 μg mL⁻¹ 1-octen-3-ol fumigation could inhibit the extension of M. fructicola hyphae and significantly reduce the ergosterol content of mycelium. The results of microscopy, it can be seen that 1-octen-3-ol destroyed the hyphae morphology and cell structure. The spore apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased, and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decreased. Moreover, 55.80 μg mL⁻¹ 1-octen-3-ol fumigation could significantly reduce disease incidence and lesion diameter of fruit. Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were enhanced, and expression of ICS1, NPR1, TGA1, PR1 were up-regulated, as well as down-regulation of AOS, COI1 and MYC2. These results indicate that 1-octen-3-ol treatment is a promising approach to control brown rot, which is related to the activation of salicylic acid (SA) signal to enhance fruit disease resistance besides direct destruction of pathogen.
Chapter
Vegetables are the major protective food in our diet, and besides providing essential nutrients, they are also the reservoirs of bioactive compounds. Bioactive compounds are the secondary metabolites that have an effect on living organisms and impart many health benefits. Most prominent bioactive compounds present in vegetables are terpenoids, carotenoids, phenolics, phytosterols, and glucosinolates. Many of these bioactive compounds are reported to possess antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-osteoporotic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties, and are said to be effective as the reducers of cardiovascular complications. These bioactives can be extracted by various extraction techniques, and the extracted bioactives are evaluated using multiple in vitro and in vivo methods to ascertain their health benefits. This book chapter summarizes the literature available on bioactive compounds present in vegetables along with their health benefits, their extraction methods and effect of storage and processing on bioactive constituent retention.
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Food preservation is becoming more complex. New food products are being introduced onto the market. Generally these require longer shelf-lives and greater assurance of freedom from foodborne pathogenic organisms. The search for new substances to be used in food preservation is hampered by regulatory restrictions. Consequently a great deal of time and money may be required to develop a new chemical preservative and to get it approved especially in view of the public pressure against chemical additives in general. Such obstacles provide new opportunities for those seeking alternative routes in the search for new food preservatives. The excessive use of chemical preservatives, some of which are suspect because of their supposed or potential toxicity, has resulted in increasing pressure on food manufacturers to either completely remove chemical preservatives from their food products or to adopt more ‘natural’ alternatives for the maintenance or extension of a product’s shelf life. There is considerable interest in the possible use of such natural alternatives as food additives either to prevent the growth of foodborne pathogens or to delay the onset of food spoilage. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as phenols (phenolic acid, polyphenols, tannins), and organic acids (acetic, lactic, citric) have been considered in this context. Many spices and herbs and extracts possess antimicrobial activity, almost invariably due to the essential oil fraction (Deans and Ritchie, 1987). Thus the essential oils of citrus fruits exhibit antibacterial activity to foodborne bacteria (Dabbah et al., 1970) and moulds (Akgul and Kivanc, 1989) so too have the essential oils of many other plants such as oregano, thyme (Salmeron et al., 1990;Paster et al., 1990), sage, rosemary, clove, coriander etc. (Farag et al., 1989; Aureli et al., 1992; Stecchini et al., 1993). The antibacterial and antimycotic effects of garlic and onion have been well documented also (Mantis et al., 1978; Sharma et al., 1979; Saleem and Al-Delaimy, 1982; Conner and Beuchat, 1984a,b).
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Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at www.juniperus.org
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Twenty-four wild and 19 cultivated caraway (Carum carvi L.) populations/cultivars were cultivated at Mikkeli, Finland (61°44'N, 27°18'E) during 1990-1991. Twenty-eight of the populations studied were of Northern European origin and 15 were of Central European origin. Clear agrobotanical differences were observed between the wild and cultivated populations. The cultivated populations were characterized by a 10-14 days longer growing period, differences in rosette growth habit, size and weight of seeds (fruit) and a higher and more constant germination capacity of the seeds. The oil content of both groups of caraway seeds showed great variations (2.3–7.6%). The average oil content of the wild and the cultivated forms were 5.0% and 5.1% respectively. The highest oil contents (7.6% and 7.5%) were found in a cultivated Swiss and a wild Finnish population. The oil content of the wild Finnish populations was significantly higher (5.3%, n=13), than those of the Finnish cultivated forms (4.8%, n=6). The main components of the oil were carvone (40–60%) and limonene (38–54%). Especially high carvone contents were found in a Norwegian and an Icelandic population (60%). The carvone/limonene ratio of the wild populations from the northern parts of Finland was higher than that from the southern parts of the country. Also, the populations from the higher elevations in the Alps had high carvone/limonene ratios.
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Acute toxicities of 34 naturally occurring monoterpenoids were evaluated against 3 important arthropod pest species; the larva of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the adult of the twospotted spider mite. Tetranychus urticae Koch; and the adult house fly. Musca domestica L. Potential larvicidal or acaricidal activities of each monoterpenoid were determined by topical application, leaf-dip method, soil bioassay, and greenhouse pot tests. Phytotoxicity was also tested on a corn plant. Citronellic acid and thymol were the most topically toxic against the house fly, and citronellol and thujone were the most effective on the western corn rootworm. Most of the monoterpenoids were lethal to the twospotted spider mite at high concentrations; carvomenthenol and terpinen-4-ol were especially effective. A wide range of monoterpenoids showed some larvicidal activity against the western corn rootworm in the soil bioassay. Perillaldehyde, the most toxic (LC50 = 3 micrograms/g) in soil, was only 1/3 as toxic as carbofuran, a commercial soil insecticide (LC50 = 1 microgram/g). Selected monoterpenoids also effectively protected corn roots from attack by the western corn rootworm larvae under greenhouse conditions. alpha-Terpineol was the best monoterpenoid in the greenhouse pot test. The acute toxicity of monoterpenoids was low relative to conventional insecticides. Some monoterpenoids were phytotoxic to corn roots and leaves. l-Carvone was the most phytotoxic, whereas pulegone was the safest. The results with thymyl ethyl ether, one of the synthetic derivatives of thymol, showed a potential of derivatization to reduce monoterpenoid phytotoxicity.
Article
The kinetic behaviour of polyphenols common in fruits as free radical scavengers was studied using 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•). After addi‐tion of different standard concentrations to DPPH· (0·025 g litre⁻¹), the percentage of remaining DPPH• was determined at different times from the absorbances at 515 nm. The percentage remaining DPPH• against reaction time followed a multiplicative model equation: ln [DPPHREM•]=b ln t+ln a. The slopes of these equations may be useful parameters to define the antioxidant capacity. The steeper the slope, the lower the amount of antioxidant necessary to decrease by 50% the initial DPPH• concentration (EC50). This parameter, EC50, is widely used to measure antioxidant power, but it does not takes into account the reaction time. Time needed to reach the steady state to the concentration corresponding at EC50 (TEC50) was calculated, and antiradical efficiency (AE) was proposed as a new parameter to characterise the antioxidant compounds where AE=1/EC50TEC50. It was shown that AE is more discriminatory than EC50. AE values are more useful because they also take into account the reaction time. The results have shown that the order of the AE (×10⁻³) in the compounds tested was: ascorbic acid (11·44)>caffeic acid (2·75)⩾gallic acid (2·62)>tannic acid (0·57)⩾DL‐α‐tocopherol (0·52)>rutin (0·21)⩾quercetin (0·19)>ferulic acid (0·12)⩾3‐tert‐butyl‐4‐hydroxyanisole, BHA (0·10)>resveratrol (0·05). © 1998 SCI.
Article
An easy and fast test has been designed to compare the total free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of various food samples. Black and green teas from different countries, and wines of different brands were studied and compared as examples of coloured liquids (water‐ and methanol‐soluble); oils from different sources were used as examples of lipidic foodstuffs; apples of different varieties and spinach were analysed as solid foods. Dilutions of extracts of the described foodstuffs were prepared and aliquots of each dilution were spotted onto TLC silica gel layers in the form of a dot‐blot test: layers were stained with a methanolic solution of the 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl radical. Dots of extracts of foodstuffs with RSC turned yellow, with a colour intensity depending on the RSC compounds present in the dilutions. After 1 h staining, the intensity of the yellow colour was measured with a chromameter (b* parameter) at one of the dilutions at which the colour value was linearly correlated to the concentration of the sample. According to these readings the different samples were organised in decreasing order of b* values, an order which corresponded to the decreasing order of RSC as determined by spectrophotometric methods. The dot‐blot test was sensitive enough to detect differences of RSC between varieties and brands of water‐ or methanol‐soluble products, but was not adequate for lipid‐based compounds. The test was also able to follow the variation of RSC during food processing as in, for example, the heat‐treatment of spinach. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Natural antioxidants have recently gained increased interest because of the belief that natural food ingredients are better and safer than synthetic ones. The review presents the results on stabilisation of the main edible oils with different types of natural antioxidants, Sources of natural antioxidants are spices, herbs, teas, oils, seeds, cereals, cocoa shell, grains, fruits, vegetables, enzymes, proteins. Researchers concentrate on ascorbic acid, tocopherols and carotenoids as well as on plant extracts containing various individual antioxidants such as flavonoids (quercetin, kaemferol, myricetin), catechins or phenols (carnosol, rosmanol, rosamaridiphenol) and phenolic acids (carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid). Ascorbyl palmitate is regarded as a 'natural' antioxidant because it is hydrolysed in the body to ascorbic and palmitic acids. Among the herbs of the Lamiaceae family, rosemary has been more extensively studied and its extracts are the first marketed natural antioxidants. Oregano, which belongs to the same family, has gained the interest of many research groups as a potent antioxidant in lipid systems. The review concerns the following main topics: stabilisation of oil with individual natural antioxidants, interaction of antioxidants with synergists, stabilisation of oil with extracts or dry materials from different plant sources (e.g. herbs and spices), stabilisation at frying temperatures and in emulsions.
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Four natural plant compounds (limonin, S (+) and R (-) carvone, and cucurbitacin) and one insect pheromone (verbenone) were evaluated for antifeedant activity against the pales weevil, Hylobius pales (Herbst), on Pinus strobus seedlings and for toxic activity against the pathogenic fungus, Leptographium procerum (Kendrick) Wingfield, which is vectored by H. pales to P. strobus. All compounds demonstrated significant antifeedant activity in a choice test on treated pine seedlings, but none completely eliminated feeding. Only cucurbitacin elicited a linear dose-response relationship, with significant activity occurring at concentrations as low as 0.10 μg/ml. The other compounds significantly reduced feeding at concentrations as low as 1 μg/ml (the lowest concentration at which they were tested). Total feeding activity was unaffected for all but one treatment (S (+) carvone at 1 μg/ml) when compared with feeding on the untreated control seedlings. It is, therefore, unlikely that the compounds in this study were toxic to the weevils during the 2 d evaluation period. In the fungitoxin test, all compounds except cucurbitacin suppressed germination of L. procerum spores. R (-) carvone was the most effective, allowing only 5% germination at 1 μg/ml, compared to 96% germination in the water solvent.
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?????????????????????????????????????????????, 37??????????????????????????????0?????????30???????????????????????????????????????????????? (BGA) ???????????????, ?????????, ?????????, ????????????????????????, pH, ?????????, ???????????????, ??????0?????????5???????????????, ??????5??????????????????30???????????????????????????, 0, 15, 30????????????????????????BGA????????????????????????G-15????????????, ????????????, ?????????, ?????????, pH????????????????????????, ?????????????????????????????????1) ???????????????????????????, 3????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2) ???????????????????????????, 25?????????30????????????????????????BGA?????????????????????3) BGA?????????????????????????????????????????????, ???????????????????????????????????????4) ????????????????????????BGA???, ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????, ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????5) ????????????????????????BGA??????, ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????, ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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As a search for natural antioxidants from plant materials, strong antioxidative activity was observed in leaf waxes extracted from Eucalyptus species. A novel type of antioxidant was isolated from the leaf wax of Eucalyptus globulus and identified as n-tritriacontan-16, 18-dione. Antioxidative activities were determined by different methods; a thiocyanate method, a thiobarbituric acid method, a total carbonyl value method and a weighing test. The antioxidant showed remarkable antioxidative activity in a water/alcohol system and was more effective than α-tocopherol and BHA; however, it has no antioxidative activity in an oil system.
Article
1,3-disubstituted aliphatic and aromatic symmetrical and unsymmetrical thioureas were synthesised by novel routes and the antifungal activities of these compounds against two plant pathogens, Pyricularia oryzae and Drechslera oryzae were studied in Czapek-Dox medium at four different concentrations using acetone as the control and the structure-activity relationship among the substituted thioureas is reported. © 1998 SCI.
Article
The inhibitory and lethal effects of synthetic versions of compounds found in common herbs and spices were compared on a food spoilage yeast Debaromyces hansenii. Separate treatments of trans‐anethole, carvacrol, eugenol, and thymol were investigated in potato dextrose broth (PDB) suspension cultures. Inhibitory activity was studied for all compounds at concentrations of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm over a 55 h incubation while lethality was investigated for trans‐anethole, carvacrol, and thymol at 100 and 125 ppm over a four day incubation. All compounds exhibited at least minor inhibitory activity at a concentration of 25 ppm. During the 55 h incubation period, the minimum concentration for total inhibition by trans‐anethole was 75 ppm, while that for carvacrol and thymol was 100 ppm. The maximum level of eugenol examined, 100 ppm, did not completely inhibit outgrowth. Growth curve data were described by the logistic equation which provided for quantitative comparison of inhibition. Lethality was achieved with trans‐anethole, carvacrol, and thymol at 100 and 125 ppm as determined by colony forming units (CFU) on potato dextrose agar (PDA) over four days incubation. These findings demonstrate an approach for quantitatively describing inhibition and evaluating the lethal effects of synthetic versions of plant metabolites on D. hansenii. This research may prove useful in future studies identifying active compounds, determining their effective concentrations, and providing strategies for the development of food applications.
Article
The analysis of the δ13CPDB-values and the enantiomeric distribution in combination with the composition of the essential oil of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) at various developing stages of different plant parts allows us to draw valuable conclusions about the biosynthesis of the monoterpenes in the entire plant. The composition of the essential oil is different for the various plant parts and changes significantly during the ripening of the dill umbels. While α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, dill ether and carvone occur enantiomerically pure in all investigated plant parts and during all stages of maturity, both enantiomers of limonene are detected. The enantiomeric composition of limonene is different for the various plant parts and changes during the development of the umbels. The δ13CPDB-values of the different monoterpenes also change with development. (R)-Limonene and carvone show absolutely the same behaviour in their δ13CPDB-values during the whole development of the umbels up to the seeds. In addition the δ13CPDB-values themselves are absolutely the same. Also α-phellandrene and dill ether show the same behaviour in their δ13CPDB-values, but the δ13CPDB-values themselves differ around 1.5–2‰. Based on the results of these investigations, a biochemical pathway of the monoterpenes in dill is postulated, according to which a very close biogenetic relationship is established for limonene and carvone and also for α-phellandrene and dill ether. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Incubation of rat liver mitochondrial suspensions in the presence of low concentrations of ascorbic acid results in the formation of lipide peroxides and the oxidation of the ascorbic acid. There is a quantitative relationship between the two reactions.The effects of added iron salts and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the system have been studied. The results suggest that the mechanism involved is non-enzymic and consists of a cooxidation of ascorbic acid and unsaturated fat mediated by a metal ion.
Article
The antioxidant activity (AA) of acetone oleoresins (AcO) and deodorised acetone extracts (DAE) of sage (Salvia officinalis L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and borage (Borago officinalis L.) were tested in refined, bleached and deodorised rapeseed oil applying the Schaal Oven Test and weight gain methods at 80 °C and the Rancimat method at 120 °C. The additives (0.1 wt-%) of plant extracts stabilised rapeseed oil efficiently against its autoxidation; their effect was higher than that of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%). AcO and DAE obtained from the same herbal material extracted a different AA. The activity of sage and borage DAE was lower than that of AcO obtained from the same herb, whereas the AA of savory DAE was higher than that of savory AcO. The effect of the extracts on the oil oxidation rate measured by the Rancimat method was less significant. In that case higher concentrations (0.5 wt-%) of sage and savory AcO were needed to achieve a more distinct oil stabilisation.
Article
A kinetic analysis was performed to evaluate the antioxidant behavior of α- and γ-to-copherols (5—2000 ppm) in purified triacylglycerols obtained from sunflower oil (TGSO) and soybean oil (TGSBO) at 100 °C. Different kinetic parameters were determined, viz. the stabilization factor as a measure of effectiveness, the oxidation rate ratio as a measure of strength, and the antioxidant activity which combines the other two parameters. In the low concentration range (up to 400 ppm in TGSBO and up to 700 ppm in TGSO) α-tocopherol was a more active antioxidant than γ-tocopherol whereas the latter was more active at higher concentrations. It has been found that the different activity of the tocopherols is not due to their participation in chain initiation reactions, but that the loss of antioxidant activity at high tocopherol concentrations is due to their consumption in side reactions. The rates of these reactions are higher in TGSBO than in TGSO. Both α-tocopherol itself and its radicals participated more readily in side reactions than γ-tocopherol and its radicals. Both α- and γ-tocopherol reduce lipid hydroperoxides, thus generating alkoxyl radicals which are able to amplify the rate of lipid oxidation by participating in chain propagation reactions.
Article
There is a renewed interest in the antimicrobial properties of spices. In vitro activities of several ground spices, their water and alcohol extracts, and their essential oils have been demonstrated in culture media. Studies in the last decade confirm growth inhibition of gram positive and gram negative food borne bacteria, yeast and mold by garlic, onion, cinnamon, cloves, thyme, sage and other spices. Effects in foods are limited to observations in pickles, bread, rice, and meat products. In general, higher spice levels are required to effect inhibition in foods than in culture media. Fat, protein, and water contents in foods affect microbial resistance as does salt content. Very few studies report on the effect of spices on spores, and on microbial inhibition in conjunction with preservatives and food processes. Of the recognized antimicrobial components in spices, the majority are phenol compounds with a molecular weight of 150 to 160 containing a hydroxyl group. Eugenol, carvacrol and thymol have been identified as the major antimicrobial compounds in cloves, cinnamon, sage and oregano.
Article
Natural antioxidants have recently gained increased interest because of the belief that natural food ingredients are better and safer than synthetic ones. The review presents the results on stabilisation of the main edible oils with different types of natural antioxidants. Sources of natural antioxidants are spices, herbs, teas, oils, seeds, cereals, cocoa shell, grains, fruits, vegetables, enzymes, proteins. Researchers concentrate on ascorbic acid, tocopherols and carotenoids as well as on plant extracts containing various individual antioxidants such as flavonoids (quercetin, kaemferol, myricetin), catechins or phenols (carnosol, rosmanol, rosamaridiphenol) and phenolic acids (carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid). Ascorbyl palmitate is regarded as a 'natural' antioxidant because it is hydrolysed in the body to ascorbic and palmitic acids. Among the herbs of the Lamiaceae family, rosemary has been more extensively studied and its extracts are the first marketed natural antioxidants. Oregano, which belongs to the same family, has gained the interest of many research groups as a potent antioxidant in lipid systems. The review concerns the following main topics: stabilisation of oil with individual natural antioxidants, interaction of antioxidants with synergists, stabilisation of oil with extracts or dry materials from different plant sources (e.g. herbs and spices), stabilisation at frying temperatures and in emulsions.
Article
The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Mentha spicata L. and Anethum sowa Roxb. (Indian dill) were studied. The major chemical constituents of the hydrodistilled essential oils and their major isolates from cultivated M. spicata and A. sowa were identified by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and GC: (S)-(−)-limonene (27.3%) and (S)-(−)-carvone (56.6%) (representing 83.9% of the spearmint oil) and (R)-(+)-limonene (21.4%), dihydrocarvone (5.0%), (R)-(+)-carvone (50.4%) and dillapiole (17.7%) (together 76.9% in Indian dill oil), respectively. In vitro bioactivity evaluation of the isolated oil components revealed that both the optical isomers of carvone were active against a wide spectrum of human pathogenic fungi and bacteria tested. (R)-(+)-limonene showed comparable bioactivity profile over the (S)-(−)-isomer. The activity of these monoterpene enantiomers was found to be comparable to the bioactivity of the oils in which they occurred. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The kinetic behaviour of polyphenols common in fruits as free radical scavengers was studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•). After addi-tion of different standard concentrations to DPPH· (0·025 g litre−1), the percentage of remaining DPPH• was determined at different times from the absorbances at 515 nm. The percentage remaining DPPH• against reaction time followed a multiplicative model equation: ln [DPPHREM•]=b ln t+ln a. The slopes of these equations may be useful parameters to define the antioxidant capacity. The steeper the slope, the lower the amount of antioxidant necessary to decrease by 50% the initial DPPH• concentration (EC50). This parameter, EC50, is widely used to measure antioxidant power, but it does not takes into account the reaction time. Time needed to reach the steady state to the concentration corresponding at EC50 (TEC50) was calculated, and antiradical efficiency (AE) was proposed as a new parameter to characterise the antioxidant compounds where AE=1/EC50TEC50. It was shown that AE is more discriminatory than EC50. AE values are more useful because they also take into account the reaction time. The results have shown that the order of the AE (×10−3) in the compounds tested was: ascorbic acid (11·44)>caffeic acid (2·75)⩾gallic acid (2·62)>tannic acid (0·57)⩾DL-α-tocopherol (0·52)>rutin (0·21)⩾quercetin (0·19)>ferulic acid (0·12)⩾3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, BHA (0·10)>resveratrol (0·05). © 1998 SCI.
The free radical scavenging capacity of a wide range of plant oil extracts, principally those used in traditional European herbal medicine (with novel therapeutic potential for patients with degenerative disorders of the CNS), has been compared in vitro. The antioxidant capacity of individual plant extracts was determined via three complementary assay procedures, based on: (i) attenuation of the generation of ABTS+ radical (quantitated colorimetrically), by a metmyoglobin catalyst/hydrogen peroxide system; (ii) inhibition of iodophenol enhanced chemiluminescence by a horseradish peroxidase/perborate/luminol system; (iii) protection of a target enzyme (human brain alanyl aminopeptidase, activity quantitated via fluorimetric assay) against oxidative damage by OH or O−2 generated by Co60γ radiolysis. In assays (i) and (ii), only three plant extracts (cinnamon, pimento, bay) showed substantial antioxidant activity, although the two assays yielded quantitatively different values of antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent values of 16–25 M (method ii) and 0.25–2.1 M (method (i)). None of the plant extracts investigated showed significant antioxidant protective activity against OH or O−2 species in assay (iii). The data obtained thus demonstrate that the apparent antioxidant capacity of putative free radical scavenging agents depends entirely on the assay method utilized and particular free radical species generated. We therefore suggest that antioxidant capacity determined by a single assay method (particularly via competitive assay with ABTS+) should be interpreted with some caution. This conclusion may be of particular potential importance in clinical chemistry, in view of the current interest in the assessment of the antioxidant status of tissues of patients with a variety of disorders.
Article
In field tests carried out over several years, 26 accessions of dill were compared to four annual and seven biennial caraway varieties concerning seed harvest yield, essential oil content and composition. Essential oil contents and carvone ratio in the essential oil are similar in caraway and dill, so harvest yield figures are crucial whether dill can be regarded as an alternative carvone source or not. Dill seed yields were low, 400–600 kg/ha in one year and 200 kg/ha and less in the other year due to seed shattering, compared to 900 kg/ha in biennial caraway, and 1250 kg/ha in annual caraway. Essential oil content was 3.4–4% with dill, 2.8–3.3% in annual and 3.9–5% in biennial caraway. In dill, the carvone content in the seeds was largely independent of the essential oil content, approximately 11 mg/g seeds, whereas different oil contents were due to varying limonene amounts. Minor essential oil components were observed in a proportion of 2% in biennial caraway, 3.5% in annual caraway and 7% in dill. In caraway, cis- and trans-dihydrocarvone and some isomers of carveol and dihydrocarveol were present in the range 0.5–1% each, whereas in dill, cis-dihydrocarvone (3%) and α-phellandrene (2%) were most abundant. Apiole and myristicin were absent in most samples, but were found in proportions of 0.2–11% in dill chemotypes where they were present. Solvent extraction of the crushed seeds with hexane, a method using triple extraction and ultrasonic treatment, led to nearly identical results as hydrodistillation with dill, but to carvone values 16% lower with caraway.
Article
Gas-liquid chromatography was used to determine the essential oil compositions of thyme, cumin, clove, caraway, rosemary, and sage. The basic components of these oils were thymol, cumin aldehyde, eugenol, carvonc, borneol and thujonc, respectively. The antifungal potential of the oils against Aspergillus parasiticus were investigated. The essential oils caused complete inhibition of both mycelial growth and aflatoxin production. The effectiveness followed the sequence: thyme > cumin > clove > caraway > rosemary > sage. The major components of the essential oils produced an inhibitory effect at minimum inhibitory concentrations equal to those obtained with the oils.
Article
The nonvolatile fraction of the dichloromethane extract of ginger rhizomes exhibited a strong antioxidative activity using linoleic acid as the substrate in ethanol-phosphate buffer solution. The fraction was purified by chromatographic techniques to provide five gingerol related compounds and eight diarylheptanoids. Among them, 12 compounds exhibited higher activity than alpha-tocopherol. The activity was probably dependent upon side chain structures and substitution patterns on the benzene ring.
Article
Throughout the years numerous investigations concerning the inhibition of microorganisms by spices, herbs, their extracts, essential oils and various constituents have been reported. Many of these materials possess significant antimicrobial activity, which in many cases is due primarily to a particular constituent. Interpretation and comparison of results of various studies is complicated by variations in the methodology used for the determination of antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity varies depending on the microorganism, the spice or herb and the test medium. These and other factors are examined in the light of their effect on the outcome of the test method.
Article
The monoterpenes (R)-(−)-carvone and (S)-(+)-carvone inhibited sprout growth in a model system consisting of sprouts growing from potato eye pieces. The sprout tissue was not necrotic after carvone treatment and the inhibition was reversible, since after treatment the sprouts showed regrowth either by continued top growth or by branching. However, the effect of both isomers on sprout growth differed, and (S)-(+)-carvone inhibited the elongation of the sprouts sooner than did (R)-(−)-carvone. This might be explained by a faster uptake of the former, since the concentration of (S)-(+)-carvone and its derivatives was twice as high during the first 4 days compared with (R)-(−)-carvone-treated sprouts. The sprouts were able to reduce (R)-(−)-carvone mainly into neodihydrocarveol, and (S)-(+)-carvone into neoisodihydrocarveol; in addition hydroxylated compounds were also detected.
Article
The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of oregano, dittany, thyme, marjoram, spearmint, lavender and basil were tested in lard stored at 75°C. The concentration of extracts in lard varied from 0.01 to 0.20%. Oregano extract was found to be the most effective in stabilizing lard, followed by thyme, dittany, marjoram and lavender extracts, in a decreasing order. The induction period of lard increased with antioxidant concentration. After the induction period, peroxide formation proceeded rapidly, following pseudo-zero order reaction kinetics. The rate of the reaction decreased slightly with increasing plant extract concentration. Combined addition of plant extracts in lard showed a low synergistic action between thyme extract and spearmint extract.
Article
Potato seed tubers may suffer from premature sprouting during storage, thus limiting their suitability for cultivation. Commonly used sprout suppressant treatments negatively affect but viability and therefore a reliable method to inhibit bud development must still be found for seed tubers. The monoterpene carvone ((S)-(+)-carvone) was tested in small scale experiments. The vapour of this compound fully inhibited bud growth of tubers cv. Monalisa stored at 23°C without affecting bud viability throughout 6 months of treatment. The most effective range of carvone vapour concentrations was between 0.34 and 1.06 μmol mol−1. With these qualities we can expect carvone to become a suitable sprout suppressant for seed tubers.