Article

The Non-monetary Benefits of Education

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... While over the years these phenomena have been described in great detail, their broader implications are not yet entirely clear. On the one hand, higher levels of education have long been linked to many favourable outcomes -both economic and non-monetary [Vila 2000;Hout 2012;Dickson and Harmon 2011]. Higher education has also been observed to foster liberal, tolerant, and overall post-materialistic attitudes and values [Kalmijn and Kraaykamp 2007;Inglehart 1971]. ...
... On the one hand, higher education has long been linked to a number of favourable outcomes for both individuals and societies, and the effect of expansion and massification ought therefore to be significantly positive. For example, people with tertiary attainment tend to be healthier, better at managing money, and better at decision-making [Vila 2000;Hout 2012]. They have also been observed to be more tolerant in their attitudes and less radical in their political views, which is said to enhance and strengthen democracy and social cohesion [Hannum and Buchmann 2005;Pascarella and Terenzini 1995;Kalmijn and Kraaykamp 2007;Vila 2000]. ...
... For example, people with tertiary attainment tend to be healthier, better at managing money, and better at decision-making [Vila 2000;Hout 2012]. They have also been observed to be more tolerant in their attitudes and less radical in their political views, which is said to enhance and strengthen democracy and social cohesion [Hannum and Buchmann 2005;Pascarella and Terenzini 1995;Kalmijn and Kraaykamp 2007;Vila 2000]. Most typically, however, higher education has been understood to tie in with a more advantageous position in the labour market (e.g. ...
... Dưới góc độ kinh tế thì chi tiêu cho giáo dục được coi như là đầu tư vào nguồn vốn nhân lực, đem lại tác động trực tiếp cho người học và lợi ích ích cho toàn bộ xã hội. Nhìn chung, các bằng chứng đều cho thấy điều kiện kinh tế của nhóm có học vấn cao sẽ tốt hơn nhóm có học vấn thấp (Vila, 2000) [1]. Có thể chưa chính xác nếu cho rằng toàn bộ sự khác biệt về điều kiện kinh tế giữa các các nhân là do giáo dục. ...
... Dưới góc độ kinh tế thì chi tiêu cho giáo dục được coi như là đầu tư vào nguồn vốn nhân lực, đem lại tác động trực tiếp cho người học và lợi ích ích cho toàn bộ xã hội. Nhìn chung, các bằng chứng đều cho thấy điều kiện kinh tế của nhóm có học vấn cao sẽ tốt hơn nhóm có học vấn thấp (Vila, 2000) [1]. Có thể chưa chính xác nếu cho rằng toàn bộ sự khác biệt về điều kiện kinh tế giữa các các nhân là do giáo dục. ...
... Tuy nhiên, bằng chứng khoa học khẳng định rằng với các điều kiện khác là như nhau, các cá nhân có giáo dục tốt hơn, nhìn chung, sẽ có công việc tốt hơn _______ * Tác giả liên hệ. [1,2]. Giáo dục không chỉ đem lại lợi ích kinh tế cho người học, mà nó còn đem lại nhưng tác động phi tiền tệ khác không chỉ đối với cá nhân mà còn với xã hội, cộng đồng và quốc gia. ...
Article
The main objective of this research was to analyze the relationship between eduation levels of Vietnamse Youth and their puposes of life. We used the data from the School-to-Work Transition Survey-SWTS in 2012-2015. Both descriptive statistics and multinomial logit regression analyses were used for the study. We provide the first evidence that higher levels of education is closely linked with having purpose of non-monetary life purposes, namely contributing to society; a successful career or a happy family. In addtion, such effects tend to increase with higher levels of education. Thus, our research finding implies that better education not only offers economic benefits for educated individuals but also for their family, communities and society.
... Los aspectos educativos implicados en el capital humano de las personas empleables promueven la formación adecuada de expectativas y de elecciones laborales que tienen en cuenta la dinámica del mercado laboral. Por todo esto, el proceso de búsqueda de empleo puede ser más corto y eficiente al ajustar las expectativas y preferencias laborales a las elecciones ocupacionales (Vila, 2000;. ...
... Los aspectos educativos implicados en el capital humano de las personas empleables promueven la obtención de información necesaria para la formación adecuada de expectativas y para la realización de elecciones que tienen en cuenta la dinámica del mercado laboral. De esta manera, el capital humano puede conllevar un proceso de búsqueda de empleo más eficiente y la percepción de mayores beneficios provenientes de la educación debido a que las preferencias laborales están mejor ajustadas a las características de la actividad laboral (Vila, 2000;. ...
... Adicionalmente, el capital humano de las personas empleables puede conllevar un proceso de búsqueda de empleo más eficiente y la percepción de mayores beneficios provenientes de la educación debido a que las preferencias laborales están mejor ajustadas a las características de la actividad laboral (Vila, 2000;. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
El objetivo general de la presente tesis es determinar si la empleabilidad de los jóvenes facilita la obtención de empleos de calidad. En este sentido, se pretende identificar si la empleabilidad tanto a nivel percibido, como a nivel de las dimensiones que la constituyen, predice la calidad del empleo medida a través de un conjunto amplio de indicadores. Así, la presente tesis pretende contribuir a la literatura al identificar las consecuencias de la empleabilidad, hasta ahora poco estudiadas, en la calidad del empleo de los jóvenes. Más específicamente, la presente tesis pretende responder dos preguntas de investigación fundamentales a través de la realización de cuatro estudios empíricos. La primera pregunta de investigación indaga si la empleabilidad, entendida como la percepción de empleabilidad de los jóvenes, se relaciona positivamente con la obtención empleos de calidad. La pregunta primera pregunta de investigación se abordó a través de los estudios 1 y 2 de la tesis. El primer estudio de la tesis pretendió determinar en qué medida la empleabilidad percibida predice la satisfacción de los jóvenes con los aspectos intrínsecos, extrínsecos y sociales de su trabajo. Adicionalmente, este primer estudio analizó si la satisfacción con dichos aspectos aumenta cuando la empleabilidad percibida interacciona con la iniciativa personal, la cual es considerada como una característica personal importante en la potenciación de los efectos de la empleabilidad. En términos generales, los resultados de dicho estudio mostraron que tanto la empleabilidad percibida, como la iniciativa personal de los jóvenes predicen positivamente su satisfacción con los aspectos extrínsecos, intrínsecos y sociales del trabajo. Asimismo, tales resultados mostraron que los jóvenes con una alta empleabilidad percibida y que también poseen una iniciativa personal alta, presentan una satisfacción aún mayor con los aspectos extrínsecos e intrínsecos de su trabajo. El segundo estudio de la tesis pretendió analizar si los jóvenes que se perciben empleables obtienen empleos con bajos niveles de sobrecualificación tanto cuantitativa, como percibida y si este hecho afecta positivamente su satisfacción laboral. Adicionalmente, este segundo estudio pretendió probar si la satisfacción laboral derivada por los jóvenes que se perciben empleables les permite derivar una mayor satisfacción con su vida en general. Los resultados del estudio 2 mostraron que la empleabilidad percibida predice negativamente tanto la sobrecualificación percibida como la cuantitativa, las cuales a su vez predicen negativamente la satisfacción laboral global, que tiene un efecto positivo en la satisfacción con la vida. Asimismo, los resultados apoyaron un modelo en el cual la relación entre la empleabilidad y la satisfacción laboral está mediada parcialmente por la sobrecualificación percibida y en el que la satisfacción laboral predice la satisfacción de los jóvenes con su vida en general. Tomados en su conjunto, los resultados de estos dos estudios sugieren que las personas que se perciben empleables tienen la posibilidad de elegir los mejores empleos de un abanico de alternativas, lo cual les permite obtener empleos ajustados a sus cualificaciones y a sus expectativas. Lo anterior también les permite abandonar los empleos que no les resultan satisfactorios o que no ajustan a sus expectativas y, por tanto, a buscar empleos con mejores condiciones laborales (Berntson y Marklund, 2007). En este sentido, el cambio a un empleo de mejor calidad sería una solución que estaría al alcance de las personas empleables teniendo en cuenta que tienen la posibilidad de elegir un mejor empleo ya que cuentan con un conjunto de alternativas laborales a su disposición (De Cuyper et al., 2008; De Cuyper et al., 2009). La posibilidad de elección de la mejor alternativa laboral puede deberse al hecho de que las personas empleables son altamente valoradas en el mercado laboral al contar con el capital humano y las características personales necesarias para mostrar un alto rendimiento laboral y para contribuir de manera importante a la productividad de las organizaciones. La segunda pregunta de investigación indaga si las dimensiones de empleabilidad facilitan la obtención de empleos de calidad por parte de los jóvenes. Dicha pregunta de investigación fue abordada por medio de los estudios 3 y 4. El estudio 3 pretendió identificar si las dimensiones personales de empleabilidad propuestas por Fugate et al. (2004), esto es, el capital humano, la adaptabilidad personal y la identidad de carrera, contribuyen significativamente a predecir la calidad del empleo de los titulados universitarios jóvenes. Los resultados de este tercer estudio mostraron en términos generales que las dimensiones personales de empleabilidad propuestas por Fugate et al. (2004), contribuyen significativamente a predecir la calidad del empleo de los titulados universitarios. En este sentido, los titulados que se dedican o piensan dedicarse a ejercer su titulación (identidad de carrera), que presentan una alta autoeficacia generalizada (adaptabilidad personal) y que han cursado una titulación universitaria determinada (capital humano) obtienen empleos que se ajustan a su nivel educativo, a la titulación obtenida, están asociados a categorías profesionales altas y resultan satisfactorios a nivel de contenidos, de salario y de contrato. En base a lo anterior, cabe destacar que el capital humano, medido a través de la titulación cursada, es la dimensión más importante en la predicción de los diferentes indicadores de calidad del empleo, según los resultados obtenidos. Finalmente, el estudio 4 pretendió analizar en profundidad la relación entre la dimensión de capital humano de la empleabilidad y la calidad del empleo a través del análisis de los componentes específicos del capital humano de los titulados universitarios jóvenes que les facilitan la obtención de empleos de calidad. En términos generales, los resultados del estudio 4 mostraron que los componentes del capital humano de los universitarios predicen diferencialmente los indicadores de calidad del empleo. Tomados en su conjunto, los resultados de los estudios 3 y 4 sugieren que diferentes componentes del capital humano, así como de la identidad de carrera y de la adaptabilidad personal constituyen características personales que conforman la empleabilidad de los titulados universitarios y que les facilitan la obtención de empleos de calidad. Los resultados de la tesis apoyan la teoría del capital humano (Becker, 1964), en el sentido de que las inversiones realizadas por los jóvenes en el desarrollo de su capital humano, y por tanto en su empleabilidad, son recompensadas con aspectos no monetarios, como la calidad de los empleos obtenidos (Vila, 2005). Por otra parte, la relación positiva de la empleabilidad con los indicadores de calidad del empleo apoya la teoría del mercado laboral dual (Doeringer y Piore, 1971), en el sentido que las personas con una empleabilidad alta y un capital humano desarrollado formarían parte del mercado laboral primario, caracterizado tanto por empleos estables y bien pagados, como por empleos de alto nivel que se ajustan a las características educacionales del empleado y que presentan características intrínsecas y extrínsecas satisfactorias para el individuo. Así, los resultados obtenidos en la tesis resaltan la importancia del desarrollo de la empleabilidad y del capital humano para la transición de los jóvenes del mercado laboral secundario al primario o para su inserción directa en el sector primario del mercado laboral. En términos generales, los resultados obtenidos en la tesis presentan una gran relevancia práctica debido a que indican que los jóvenes pueden desarrollar las características personales implicadas en la empleabilidad con el fin de aumentar sus posibilidades de obtener empleos de calidad, esto es, satisfactorios y ajustados a sus características educacionales. Es importante destacar que el alcance de los modelos de empleabilidad centrados en la persona y de las variables personales en la predicción de la calidad del empleo está condicionado por el importante efecto de la situación del mercado laboral en la disponibilidad y acceso a los empleos de calidad por parte de los jóvenes, lo cual implica que la rentabilidad de la educación y el aprovechamiento del capital humano están condicionados por las características del tejido productivo (Pérez et al., 2012). En este sentido, es razonable esperar que dichos modelos centrados en la persona predigan porcentajes moderados de varianza de los indicadores de calidad del empleo, como los obtenidos en la presente tesis y en la literatura relacionada.
... Another important contribution that differentiates this study from previous research is our focus on the linkage between education and quality of employment. 1 While there are numerous empirical studies on the wage premium of education, the influence of education on quality of employment remains largely unexplored, a lack that may be due to the limitation in the available datasets. Better education offers non-monetary gains due to a variety of work-related sources, such as stable, interesting jobs, jobs granting a high level of autonomy, better working conditions, good relationships with colleagues, etc. (Vila, 2000). In addition, education has positive externalities or social benefits, such as intra-family productivity, childcare, family healthcare, care for teenage pregnancy, long life expectancy, crime reduction, social cohesion and charitable giving (Dziechciarz-Duda & Król, 2013;Tan, 2014;Venniker, 2000;Vila, 2000). ...
... Better education offers non-monetary gains due to a variety of work-related sources, such as stable, interesting jobs, jobs granting a high level of autonomy, better working conditions, good relationships with colleagues, etc. (Vila, 2000). In addition, education has positive externalities or social benefits, such as intra-family productivity, childcare, family healthcare, care for teenage pregnancy, long life expectancy, crime reduction, social cohesion and charitable giving (Dziechciarz-Duda & Król, 2013;Tan, 2014;Venniker, 2000;Vila, 2000). ...
... Specifically, employees with college or university education or above secure 5%-20% higher benefits, depending on the specific type of benefits, keeping other factors constant. The findings are partly in line with previous studies showing that higher education offers better gains resulting from a variety of work-related sources, namely stable and interesting jobs, better working conditions and good relationship with colleagues, etc. (Vila, 2000). Other studies also indicate that education has positive externalities or social benefits such as childcare, family healthcare, teenage pregnancy, long life expectancy (Dziechciarz-Duda & Król, 2013;Venniker, 2000;Vila, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a uniquely matched firm-worker panel dataset for 2013 and 2015, this study is the first to consider the effect of education on employee benefits in terms of wages and quality of employment. We find that only college or university education has a positive influence on employee wages when taking into account worker characteristics alone but the wage premium declines when both firm and worker characteristics as well as time-invariant unobservable factors are controlled for. While there are many studies on the wage premium of education, the role of education on the quality of employment remains largely unexplored. Our results show that in fact, only college or university graduates benefit from a statistically significant difference in quality of employment in comparison with their colleagues without such education. The findings suggest that higher education programs play an important role in employee benefits.
... Rising levels of overall education at the state level are also linked to higher levels of social capital (Helliwell & Putnam, 2007) and well-being (Vila, 2000(Vila, , 2005 within societies. Yet how increased levels of tertiary education at the state level change the interrelations between social capital and subjective well-being is unclear. ...
... Tertiary credentials are associated with a range of individual life outcomes, including enhanced physical and mental health (Delhey, 2010;Field, 2009;Groot & Brink, 2007;Lynch & Hippel, 2016;Tuijnman, 1990), and benefits inside and outside of the labour market (Grossman, 2005;Haveman & Wolfe, 1984;McMahon & Oketch, 2013;Oreopoulos & Salvanes, 2011;Vila, 2000). Although the link between education and life satisfaction and/or personal happiness is well established (Woessmann & Schuetz, 2006), the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. ...
Chapter
Social capital is instrumental to personal well-being; yet, this relationship may differ by educational level. Using data from the European Social Survey (ESS), the present study explores the interconnection between tertiary education, social capital, and subjective well-being. Examining the nature of these relationships, we test the hypothesis that tertiary education moderates the relationship between two broad forms of social capital, social trust and social relatedness, and well-being. We predict a “trade-off” between individual human capital and interpersonal social capital, where either one or the other comes to play a dominant role. Furthermore, we test if overall levels of tertiary education at the national level change the strength of the relationship among individual-level forms of social capital and well-being. Although connected occupation and employment factors are also important, we find that tertiary education functions as a non-pecuniary moderator changing the nature of the relationship between social capital and well-being. Respondents with tertiary education have higher levels of well-being regardless of their self-reported level of social capital, and—what is more—the extent to which social trust and social relatedness are associated with well-being is weaker among this highly educated group. In contrast, respondents without tertiary education experience greater well-being enhancement through social capital, “catching up” in self-reported well-being at higher social capital levels. This study provides preliminary evidence that social factors predicting well-being differ across the educational spectrum.
... Rising levels of overall education at the state level are also linked to higher levels of social capital (Helliwell & Putnam, 2007) and well-being (Vila, 2000(Vila, , 2005 within societies. Yet how increased levels of tertiary education at the state level change the interrelations between social capital and subjective well-being is unclear. ...
... Tertiary credentials are associated with a range of individual life outcomes, including enhanced physical and mental health Field, 2009;Groot & Brink, 2007;Lynch & Hippel, 2016;Tuijnman, 1990), and benefits inside and outside of the labour market (Grossman, 2005;Haveman & Wolfe, 1984;McMahon & Oketch, 2013;Oreopoulos & Salvanes, 2011;Vila, 2000). Although the link between education and life satisfaction and/or personal happiness is well established (Woessmann & Schuetz, 2006), the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. ...
Chapter
Do knowledge workers have a higher level of subjective well-being (SWB) when compared to other types of employees and if it is so, why? Using the fifth round of the European Social Survey, we explore cross national differences in the effect of occupation on SWB. Specifically, we examine the mediating role of income, autonomy and work-life conflict and overall job satisfaction in the links between occupation and SWB. We find that knowledge workers have higher life satisfaction than service and manual workers but only in countries with a less developed knowledge economy. Job satisfaction and income partially explain these differences. The intervening effect of work autonomy is less straightforward. In the knowledge economies, work autonomy is strongly related to SWB but the differences between professionals and manual workers are not large. In less developed countries, knowledge workers have higher level of work autonomy than other types of occupations, but it is less important for their life satisfaction. The negative mediating impact of work-life conflict has not been confirmed, but an alarming tendency of less balanced life of professionals in comparison with blue collar workers in the knowledge economies have been observed.
... Rising levels of overall education at the state level are also linked to higher levels of social capital (Helliwell & Putnam, 2007) and well-being (Vila, 2000(Vila, , 2005 within societies. Yet how increased levels of tertiary education at the state level change the interrelations between social capital and subjective well-being is unclear. ...
... Tertiary credentials are associated with a range of individual life outcomes, including enhanced physical and mental health Field, 2009;Groot & Brink, 2007;Lynch & Hippel, 2016;Tuijnman, 1990), and benefits inside and outside of the labour market (Grossman, 2005;Haveman & Wolfe, 1984;McMahon & Oketch, 2013;Oreopoulos & Salvanes, 2011;Vila, 2000). Although the link between education and life satisfaction and/or personal happiness is well established (Woessmann & Schuetz, 2006), the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. ...
Chapter
Individuals born within one generation are assumed to share a common identity resulting in similar personal values throughout their impressionable pre-adult years. Specific political, economic, social, technological, ecological, and legal conditions leading to common experiences characterize these pre-adult years. The resulting beliefs and values are perceived to remain relatively stable throughout human lifetimes. Simultaneously, social and technical changes in the last decades turned out to be exponentially proportional to the rate at which humans exchange information. Humans increasingly experience rapidly changing living conditions, which holds for regions with a high net inward migration. This confrontation raises the question of the extent to which personal values are changed by experiencing rapid modernization after the impressionable pre-adult years. Our results are the first longitudinal evidence for an accelerated shift towards post-materialism associated with migration from East to West Germany. The duration until a transition to post-materialism is shorter for East–West Movers compared to East Stayers. We find the confrontation with more available social capital and related social norms to result in leaps in post-materialism on an individual level. Consequently, drastic changes in living conditions can be assumed to alter an individual’s value orientation.
... Subsequently, a large number of studies have used a variety of different techniques to determine more precise estimations of the rate of returns to education [3][4][5][6]. However, the rate of returns to education may be underestimated when the non-monetary benefits of education are not taken into account [7]. Thus, more recently, economists have shifted their focus to the effect of education on many non-monetary outcomes, such as health [8], marriage [9], and subjective well-being [10]. ...
... A higher value of this index indicates a higher level of eudaimonic well-being. However, the data is only available in waves 7,9,11,13, and 15, leading to a smaller sample for estimation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the relationship between women’s education and their level of well-being, using data from the Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA). To take into account potential endogeneity, the instrumental variables (IV) approach is employed, with partners’ education as an instrument. The findings show that higher education levels lead to a higher level of eudaimonic well-being, hedonic well-being, positive affect, and reduced psychological distress, highlighting a non-monetary benefit of education. Thus, policymakers should continue to widely promote education, in order for women to achieve higher levels of future well-being. Additionally, the findings show that the connection between education and well-being is mediated by healthy behaviors, such as engaging in physical activity, abstaining from drinking and smoking, social interactivity, and higher income. Therefore, public health campaigns which promote healthy behaviors among women should potentially mitigate gaps in formal education.
... Education as a formalised system (Jarvis 2004) should equip those who participate in it with the confidence to enhance their abilities and to develop the capabilities to make informed decisions about life's issues. This happens when schools are enabling environments where equitable opportunities exist for children to develop and become socially and economically empowered (Vila 2000). The literature, however, identifies societal power relations as an influencer of educational benefits -both at school and at home. ...
... Parents expect schools to be enabling environments where equitable opportunities exist for children to develop and become socially and economically empowered (Vila 2000). However, what the Covid-19 pandemic did was expose the academic injustices and weaknesses in our formal school system. ...
Article
Full-text available
Amidst the Covid-19-inspired rethinking of education, this article appeals for the recognition of the township school-going learner as a playful child and playing citizen for whom the world is an imaginative play world. It deliberately places under a microscope, a township boychild named Kabelo, who is labelled in the formal education system as underperforming, learning-disabled and cognitively challenged. Kabelo epitomises the pattern of boy academic underperformance in South Africa and worldwide, particularly in reading and literacy. This pattern feeds a dominant narrative about systemic learning deficits that risks the stigmatisation of academically underperforming children whose lives intersect with stubborn structural inequality, and renders them invisible as capable, playful children. Through a third-generation Engeströmian activity theory lens, it illuminates the interactions between Kabelo’s worlds of academic performance and play, before and during the Covid-19 lockdown, as a portal of complex contradictions. It proposes that the contradictory interplay of his worlds opens up opportunities for socially just recognition of his play capabilities as decisionmakers deliberate over education system reengineering during and beyond the pandemic.
... Education as a formalised system (Jarvis 2004) should equip those who participate in it with the confidence to enhance their abilities and to develop the capabilities to make informed decisions about life's issues. This happens when schools are enabling environments where equitable opportunities exist for children to develop and become socially and economically empowered (Vila 2000). The literature, however, identifies societal power relations as an influencer of educational benefits -both at school and at home. ...
... Parents expect schools to be enabling environments where equitable opportunities exist for children to develop and become socially and economically empowered (Vila 2000). However, what the Covid-19 pandemic did was expose the academic injustices and weaknesses in our formal school system. ...
Article
Full-text available
Amidst the Covid-19-inspired rethinking of education, this article appeals for the recognition of the township school-going learner as a playful child and playing citizen for whom the world is an imaginative play world. It deliberately places under a microscope, a township boychild named Kabelo, who is labelled in the formal education system as underperforming, learning-disabled and cognitively challenged. Kabelo epitomises the pattern of boy academic underperformance in South Africa and worldwide, particularly in reading and literacy. This pattern feeds a dominant narrative about systemic learning deficits that risks the stigmatisation of academically underperforming children whose lives intersect with stubborn structural inequality, and renders them invisible as capable, playful children. Through a third-generation Engeströmian activity theory lens, it illuminates the interactions between Kabelo’s worlds of academic performance and play, before and during the Covid-19 lockdown, as a portal of complex contradictions. It proposes that the contradictory interplay of his worlds opens up opportunities for socially just recognition of his play capabilities as decisionmakers deliberate over education system reengineering during and beyond the pandemic.
... e. HC), through education and training. This inevitably develops HC and makes the individual gain economic (productivity) and non-economic benefits (Becker, 1964;Vila, 2000). ...
... The theory also recognises the non-monetary benefits that accrue to the individual as a result of the investment in education. It suggests that individuals and society derive economic and non-economic benefits from investments in people (Vila, 2000;Tan, 2014). This theory thus fits well in discussing the phenomenon under this study by concentrating not only on the economic benefit but also on a non-economic or socio-cultural value obtained through secondary education. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is commonly presumed that schooling, including secondary education, is among the important contributors to human capital development (HCD) in terms of skills, knowledge and self-esteem acquisition. Information concerning the effect of demographic and student-parent-related factors on HCD among secondary school students is scarce, specifically in Tanzania. Thus, the aim of this chapter is to assess the effect of those factors on HCD among secondary school students in Rombo District in Tanzania. The study employed a cross-sectional research design and involved 385 form four (F4) students from eight secondary schools together with some key informants. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire and key informants' interviews. Association between variables was determined by using Pearson's Chi-square (χ 2) test and ANOVA, while the strength of the association was interpreted using Cramer's V score. The study findings show that there was a significant association between students' poor home learning environment and HCD level (χ 2 = 15.486; p < 0.01) and parents' marital status and human capital (HC) scores (F = 5.119; p < 0.05). A positive significant association was also observed between the two variables, with Cramer's V score = 0.201 at a 5% level. It is concluded that secondary education is useful to students' present and future lives, thus it is important to deal with the factors that influence their HCD. It is recommended that government education planners and policy agents need to come up with strategies to alleviate the effects of demographics and other factors on the development of students' HC. This can be done by educating parents on how to improve the home learning environment through provisioning of books to their schooling children. Correspondingly, wherever possible, the government should supply enough books to the schools for the students to borrow and read at home.
... This article focuses on the individual returns to education in 30 European countries. Dickson and Harmon [2011] and Vila [2000] distinguish between monetary and non-monetary individual returns to education. Monetary returns are expressed by income; non-monetary returns include the quality of occupation. ...
... 9 The data come from 30 European countries (Figure 1). Because we are interested in the school-work connection, which is conceptualised as a non-monetary benefit of education [Vila 2000], we limit our analysis to the 25-34 age group. These are the individuals who have already left the education system and are working. ...
... For example, maternal mortality ratio is 7.1 deaths per 100,000 Australian women who gave birth in 2008-2012 (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015) while 52 percent of females are reported to have one or more of eight selected chronic diseases between 2014 and 2015 (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2017). Lastly, women's return to educations may contain non-monetary benefits of educations which are not likely to be put in consideration (Vila, 2000), including better childcare, higher children's mortality rate or reducing the rate of arranged marriage. ...
... One possible explanation is that employed women can earn higher returns to education in term of monetary benefits (e.g. higher salary or social status) while women who are not in the labor force appear to enjoy non-monetary benefits, such as health in this case. Thus, we confirm the fact that the returns to education of women can be underestimated if I don't take into account other non-monetary benefits which is consistent with conclusions of Vila (2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between education and health amongst Australian women. Design/methodology/approach This study uses the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia data set. Spouse’s education is employed as an instrument to solve the potential endogeneity of educational attainment. Findings The results indicate that an additional year of schooling can lead to an increase in self-reported health, physical health, mental health and a reduced likelihood of having long-term health conditions. Women who are not in the labour force are likely to enjoy higher benefits of education compared to their employed counterparts. The findings also suggest that the relationship between education and health can be explained by the extent of positive health behaviours and social capital as mediators. Research limitations/implications The conclusion from the results might be different in the case of men, reducing the generalisability of the results. Several objective health variables should be used to provide further aspects of health on which education has an impact. Practical implications As the positive effect of education on women’s health is empirically found, investment in women’s education should be seriously considered and reevaluated. Originality/value This paper focuses on Australian women which not only reduces the heterogeneity between genders but also adds to the rare number of studies on this topic in Australia. This paper also employs a formal mediation analysis to examine what are the mechanisms explaining the relationship between education and health.
... Disentimos por ello de quienes evalúan la inversión en materia de educación superior, estrictamente en términos individuales o de su aporte al crecimiento del flujo potencial de ingresos financieros del estudiante, pretendiendo derivar de este análisis limitado "evidencias" que soporten una menor inversión pública en educación superior, sustitutiva de un incremento de la inversión en otros niveles de educación 208 , motivándola en la supuesta existencia de diferencias entre las "tasa de retorno" individual y social de los diferentes niveles educativos (ver, especialmente, los trabajos de Psacharopoulos), pues la metodología para hacer tales mediciones no está protegida contra fallas ni disensos 209 (véanse Sharp y otros, 2000; Vila, 2000;Birdsall, 1996;Colclough, 1996;Nafziger, 1990;Stiglitz, 1988). En particular, estas formas de evaluación subestiman las externalidades 210 (efectos económicos cuyos beneficios -o costos-son imposibles de apropiar por el individuo o agente particular que las genera), e "impactos cruzados" que la formación en educación superior tiene sobre los otros niveles educativos, el aparato productivo e, incluso, sobre otros sectores de la actividad social en general. ...
Book
Full-text available
ESTE LIBRO CONTIENE UN INTENTO DE EXPLICACIÓN DE LA GLOBALIZACIÓN DE LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR, INDAGANDO EN LAS CAUSAS DE ESTE FENÓMENO, LAS CUALES SE UBICAN PRINCIPALMENTE EN LOS PAÍSES DESARROLLADOS, ASÍ COMO APORTA ELEMENTOS PARA UNA EVALUACIÓN SU IMPACTO DESIGUAL SOBRE LAS REALIDADES DE LOS PAÍSES DESARROLLADOS Y SUBDESARROLLADOS.
... Monetary incentives may be the most compelling reason why students choose to continue. Unlike completing general education courses, completing a credential allows the student to benefit immediately by obtaining better employment or scholarships to offset tuition costs [28]. Bank [29] suggested that students with a postsecondary education that provides professional certificates and credentials will advance in their careers and have higher persistence rates. ...
Article
Full-text available
While access to higher education has grown over the past few years, significant barriers exist for nontraditional students attempting to prepare for and complete postsecondary education. For these students, the traditional methods for acknowledging student achievement do not always work. This research explored the impact of earning professional certificates on nontraditional students’ confidence, motivation, and persistence. Specifically, this study evaluated the matriculation rates between two cohorts of students who participated in the online PathwayConnect program. The mixed-method study found that matriculation rates for students who were encouraged to earn a certificate increased compared to those who followed a traditional path. Analysis of these results suggests that earning a certificate increased students’ confidence and motivation to persist in school. Students reported that (a) earning certificates represented a significant achievement and encouraged them to earn more, (b) the certificate allowed participants to obtain better employment, and (c) the satisfaction of this accomplishment improved their desire to acquire new skills. This approach seemed to positively impact on the development of a strong support network that helped diminish some of the traditional barriers to matriculation. Institutions seeking to improve matriculation rates and student persistence might consider providing professional certificates programs in addition to current academic offerings.
... Because of the rising expectations for public sector performance, the publicly funded agencies, including HEIs, are being exposed to a deeper scrutiny (McMillan and Chan 2006). As the monetary and non-monetary benefits from HE present strong external effects over the entire society (Vila 2000), and as good performance in HE is believed to produce growth effects, inefficiency in HEIs raises a concern among policymakers and institutional administrators (Blanchard 2004). Furthermore, as the institutions can differ in their levels of efficiency, "it is important to study differences in efficiency because this offers lessons about good practice" which "can lead to improvements in the performance of the HE system as a whole." ...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from the Brazilian Higher Education Census and other public institutions, this study aims to obtain and compare efficiency scores from stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) models for 56 Brazilian federal universities for the period of 2010 to 2016. The output distance function includes financial and human resources as inputs, and teaching, research, patents and third mission activities as outputs. The research is innovative considering: (i) the estimation of SFA for Brazilian universities as whole institutions, (ii) its comparison with DEA; and (iii) the inclusion of patents and third mission variables. The findings suggest there is inefficiency in Brazilian higher education production, with a very small increase through time and with some influence from universities and environmental characteristics. Thus, consolidated traditional institutions with university hospitals tend to be more efficient than the younger ones. The values and the rank of the efficiencies are sensitive to the model/method employed, presenting highly significant although modest correlations. In general, the inclusion of third mission activities improves the efficiencies for both approaches, mainly for DEA. Hence, as advised in other international comparative analyses, caution is required when deriving management and policy recommendations from the analytical results.
... A well-educated population is a path to development and prosperity (Rodriguez and Sanchez 2012). Education benefits the individual but also has positive spillovers to the rest of society (Vila 2000). The benefits of education, both economic and social, are many and varied. ...
Article
Education has wide-ranging benefits to both the individual and wider society. This article investigates the consequences of terrorist incidents on whether households can further their children’s schooling. Using both the Global Terrorism Database and Pakistan’s Social and Living Standards Measurement, we find that persistent exposure to terrorism significantly reduces the likelihood that parents will continue their children’s education. The result suggests, that for every million people, an increase in terrorist incidents causes 26,501 fewer children to continue their education at the primary school education level. We also examine the results by various demographic segments and types of terrorism attacks.
... Despite the lack of evidence of the effect of education health among women in rural provinces in Vietnam, the benefit of education might exist in other forms such as better employment chances or their children's health. Therefore, the return on education might be underestimated if other non-monetary benefits of education are ignored (Vila, 2000). ...
Article
Understanding the health benefits of education is vital in setting policy priorities, especially in lower-income countries. Using the instrumental variable with panel data estimation approach, this study utilizes data from the Thailand Vietnam Socio Economic Panel to provide comparative evidence of the health benefits of education in two countries. The findings indicate that highly educated people are likely to report better current health status, reduced probability of having serious diseases in both countries, increased body mass index (BMI) in Vietnam and decreased BMI in Thailand. Additionally, the benefits of education on health are significant among Vietnamese men, Thai women, and Vietnamese ethnic minorities. The results also suggest that the positive effect of education on health can be explained by higher household income. Thus, promoting education among vulnerable groups, including women and ethnic minorities, should be particularly prioritized to mitigate the gaps in health inequities.
... Therefore, given the positive correlation between education and earnings (supra), highly educated -and therefore high-earning -women have a disadvantage on the dating market, as it makes them less desirable to (some) men. 68 See Vila (2000) and Hout (2012) for more extensive reviews of the literature on the non-monetary returns to education. Bertrand et al. (2015) and Hwang (2016) indeed found that marriages where the wife earns more than the husband are substantially less common compared to the reversed situation. ...
... The general public is visualizing education in terms of economic or monetary perspective. However, a whole lot of non-monetary benefits exist in the education process (Vila, 2000). The fundamental notion of education is not to equip you to get the monetary benefits out of your education process but it should enlighten you to cope up with the situations one is facing. ...
Book
Full-text available
The world is advancing at a rapid rate and there has been an explosion of information. The schools and higher education institutions are more or less functioning on the lines of factory model, which is failing miserably. Reports by government agencies are reflecting an ever increasing widening gap between the education being imparted in the educational institutions and its ultimate purpose of ‘preparing the students for life’ and providing an education which is ‘meaningful’. There were many intriguing questions that the editorial team pondered upon for long. The answers to some questions were found, and some needed more exploration; for which the idea of this book came into existence to create a platform for educationists, researchers, policy makers and administrators across nations to come together to share their views. The book “Meaningful Education”, is an endeavour to understand the purpose of education in light of sustainable development goals; focusing on the kind of education which is meaningful for the learners, paving way to prepare global citizens. In the contemporary times, the meaning of education has become a synonym of academic achievement and is diffusing the very essence of education. This book is an effort to look deep into understanding the meaning and need of Meaningful Education, tools and techniques to impart education along with diving deep into the kind of changes needed in policies for the implementation of the same. It is a compilation of papers from educationists from different parts of the world, sharing their perspectives. The book embodies the following four well crafted themes: Preparing global citizens, Innovative classroom practices, Reaching out with Educational Technology and Bringing about the change – The road ahead. The editorial team feels pleased and proud to share that this book is totally self-funded. It is a collection of research papers by educators, researchers and administrators across nations; is a representative voice in unison of all those who passionately feel for education. The factory model is failing miserably and there is a dire need to focus on our education system and put the spotlight on meaningful education with the aim of preparing global citizens. This book is an attempt to put “meaningful education” under a magnifying glass of critical analysis and to come up with a holistic understanding about the same.
... The general public is visualizing education in terms of economic or monetary perspective. However, a whole lot of non-monetary benefits exist in the education process (Vila, 2000). The fundamental notion of education is not to equip you to get the monetary benefits out of your education process but it should enlighten you to cope up with the situations one is facing. ...
Chapter
Teaching-learning process is a two-way process. Wherein, both teacher and pupil will be getting into the dialogue. During the process, both of them will get the benefit of knowledge of the given subject. Especially in the life sciences stream, the practical or hands on experience is often important for the learning process. But during the pandemic periods, how these learning processes have changed or affected is a matter of concern. The year 2020 is a year of changes, a year of whole lot of opportunities for some and for many it’s a year of depression, year of suppression in their economic as well education spheres. The paradigm shift from offline/classroom physical classes to online classrooms brought a lot of changes in the way of teaching as well as the learning process. The life sciences teachings have taken a new plethora of opportunities as well setbacks. In this chapter, I would like to elucidate the meaningful education during the time of pandemics in the field of life sciences teaching-learning process.
... Market economies increase the importance of skills acquired through formal education and training [40,41]. Among other things, education is positively associated with income, and is a primary means for social and economic mobility in market economies [42,43]. However, school fees, supplies, uniforms, and transportation carry direct costs that can present heavy economic burdens for parents and households [44,45], as well as indirect opportunity costs in limiting the ability of children to contribute to the household production, and provide allocare [46,47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed economies provide a unique context for testing theories of fertility change. Because they have a stake in two traditions, mixed-economy households balance the demands of both a labor-based subsistence economy, which benefits from a large family, and a wage-labor economy, which benefits from reduced fertility. Additionally, household size changes over the course of its life-cycle and shapes available economic opportunities. Here we argue that in mixed economies, fertility may reflect opportunities for livelihood diversity rather than simply responding to the restricted socioeconomic benefits of small families. While low fertility may in some cases have an economic benefit, low fertility can also limit the livelihood diversity of a household which is a key strategy for long-term economic success. We test this prediction with longitudinal data from a Maya community undergoing both a sustained decline in fertility and rapid integration into the market economy. Using household-level fertility, number of adults, and livelihood diversity at two time points, we find that household size is positively related to livelihood diversity, which in turn is positively related to household income per-capita. However, household size also has a negative association with income per capita. The results reflect a balancing act whereby households attempt to maximize the economic diversity with as few members as possible. Broadly, these results suggest that theories of fertility decline must account for how households pool resources and diversify economic activities in the face of increasing market integration, treating fertility as both an outcome and an input into economic and reproductive decision-making.
... La literatura en un esfuerzo por mejorar el conocimiento del valor económico de la educación ha realizado una serie de análisis referente a impactos de la educación sobre la calidad de vida de los individuos y otra serie de variables, uno de estos es el estudio que analiza los efectos directos e indirectos de la educación sobre la satisfacción laboral, puesto que para los economistas los beneficios de la educación son definidos como los impactos de la escolarización que desplaza la función de posibilidades de utilidad hacia afuera (Vila, 2000) y además señalan que los niveles más altos de educación se relacionan con una búsqueda de trabajo más corta y eficiente y con expectativas más ajustadas en cuanto a opciones ocupacionales (Arrow, 1997); dados estos diversos efectos que pueden ser monetarios o no monetarios, surge la necesidad de re plantear diferentes modelos de análisis no tradicionales como la Ecuación de Mincer, si no por el contrario dar paso a análisis más complejos como el planteado por Fabra y Camisón (2009) de donde se obtiene que la educación formal al hacer parte de la dotación de capital humano de un individuo tiene un efecto significativo en su nivel de satisfacción laboral, cuya satisfacción laboral puede ser traducida en una forma de éxito en el mercado laboral, ya que esta se compone de expectativas frente a un empleo seguro, mejores niveles salariales y mayor nivel de habilidades. capital humano basado en modelos macroeconómicos que tienen en cuenta esta variación donde demuestran efectivamente la relación que tiene el conocimiento individual con el desarrollo económico de un país. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Resumen: Este documento tiene como objetivo suministrar información sobre algunas características (desigualdad de oportunidades, rendimiento académico, etc.) y patrones encontrados en los resultados obtenidos de la prueba nacional Saber 11 en matemáticas en Colombia, en la última década. Además de esto se hizo un apartado para los departamentos de Antioquia, Boyacá y Cundinamarca que evidencia la presencia de efectos heterogéneos. Se proporciona evidencia de la evolución y permanencia de la desigualdad sobre los logros académicos, mostrando esta un aumento de 17% a 29% entre 2010 y 2019, también un mayor aumento en el crecimiento indicó para algunos departamentos un aumento menos acelerado en la desigualdad injusta, adicional el acceso a Tics creció del 30% al 46% a nivel nacional. Palabras Clave: educación, desigualdad de oportunidades, matemáticas, Prueba Saber 11, Colombia.
... Expansion in learning opportunities educational equity is still highly elusive (OECD, 2001). Equity in education ensures the spreading of fair education applying resources and sources (Centre for Public Education, 2016; Christie, 2010) for poverty-reducing and paves the way to inconsistence inhabitants earnings (Serneels et al., 2017;Vila, 2000) and demands of being equal in position, rank, value, equality, fairness and spreading of education at all level developing learners similar aptitude and behavioural traits rather than equal education for all (UNICEF, 2010; UNESCO, 2017). Equity refers to fairness in need, potential, Resilience recuperates individuals from stress, depression and is a miracle remedy that heals from wounds (Cohen, 2018), an ability that acts as a catalyst for students shelter facing upheavals since eras (Ager et al., 2010) prevent wellbeing and mental health disorders (Awan & Sitwat, 2014;Hao, 2008; Inter-Agency Standing Committee, 2007; Pardeller et al., 2020), pointed guns towards strengthening learners mental health (Prime et al., 2020), assist in promoting students authoritative uniqueness ability (Poloni et al., 2018) and put attenuating influence focusing anguishing risk experience for learners devastating transformation (Bethell et al., 2014) towards social identities (McAdams & McLean, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the current research was to determine the effect of equitable education, resilience, and psychological well-being on promoting student's mental health. The researchers eagerly explored everyday situations happening in male elementary schools of district Lahore, focusing on pandemic situations with zeal and zest. Methodology: The researchers structured causal-comparative research focusing positivist paradigm on a sample of randomly selected 980 respondents enrolled in male elementary schools of district Lahore of Punjab-Pakistan. The authors collected the data after administering Scott (2006) Educational Equity and school reforms Scale, Prince-Embury (2013) Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents, Ryff’s (1989) Psychological Well-beings Scale, and Lukat et al. (2016) Positive Mental Health Scale. After ensuring ethical considerations, the researchers run regression technique, one way; ANOVA and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) on the participants data. Main findings: The findings revealed that educational equity effect 81%, resilience 87.10%, and psychological well-being affect 66.60% in promoting students mental health. Educational equity, resilience, and psychological well-being have the same effect on 6th, 7th, and 8th grades students in promoting their mental health. Further a significant strong association between educational equity and mental health (r = .900**, n = 985, p < .05), resilience and mental health (r = .946**, n = 984, p < .05) and psychological well-beings and students mental health (r = .815**, n = 985, p < .05). Applications of this study: The results of the research will be applicable for headteachers, teachers, and parents to get aware of the worth of equitable education, resilience, and psychological well-being that play an enormous role in promoting students mental health. The debatable constructs of the current research will provide capable stakeholders to know the entire magnitude of mental health that drastically instigate and enhance student's vigour, attentiveness, dependability, intellectual ability, and optimism. Novelty/originality of this study: It is evident from the literature that less work is conducted inequitable education, resilience, and psychological well-being that play a massive role in promoting students mental health. In the case of Pakistan, the situation is very alarming and the meager because none of the researchers took initiative to framed research on these burning constructs. However, this research will opened new dimensions for the future researchers that will raise their intentions to explore the effect of primary, secondary, higher secondary, and tertiary level students equitable education, resilience, and psychological well-being on their mental health.
... Education is an important tool for achieving gender equality and poverty reduction. It improves overall social welfare by extending life expectancy, reducing crime and promoting social cohesion (Vila, 2000). Female education is critical for breaking the cycle of poverty and balancing wealth distribution, which in turn helps to maintain social stability. ...
... Despite poverty, Filipino parents are willing to make enormous sacrifices to send their children to school and to invest their entire resources to finish their college education. Moreover, the Filipinos' concept of education goes beyond the economic returns from education [71]. It is instead viewed as a cultural and symbolic capital as it does not only provide monetary rewards but also higher taste, self-esteem, prestige, confidence, and social status in the community [72]. ...
Article
Full-text available
span>Guided by the lens of Bourdieu, this study examined the relationship of the students' economic capital (parents' monthly income and students' weekly allowance) and cultural capital (parents' highest educational attainment and students' community involvement) to their college readiness. The study utilized a descriptive-correlational design, and data were collected from 6,626 K-12 graduates enrolled in one state-university in Cagayan Valley Region, Philippines. The results reveal that the respondents have parents who have income below the Philippine poverty threshold level and have obtained a secondary level of education. They, too, are college-unready, implying that the competencies they obtained from their basic education need further enhancement. Moreover, economic and cultural capital becomes significant resources that are valuable in explaining the college readiness of Filipino Senior High School (SHS) graduates. Those who come from families with higher economic and cultural capital tend to have higher college readiness. Remarkably, the low economic and cultural capital of the students possibly explains their lack of college readiness. As they have less economic and cultural capital, they tend to have fewer competencies to capacitate them in hurdling tertiary education. Hence, these disadvantaged students generally struggle to achieve more and to be successful in life .</span
... Eğitim, fiziksel ve zihinsel çaba gerektiren, gündelik yaşam ve çalışma hayatı konusunda deneyim kazanılmasını sağlayan bir kültürleme sürecidir. Eğitimin bireysel, toplumsal ve ekonomik yararları (Hanushek ve Luque, 2003;Vila, 2000) bulunmaktadır. Eğitimin kalitesindeki artışların ülkelerin kalkınmalarına, örgütlerin etkililiğine önemli katkıları olduğu görülmektedir (Arabacı, 2011;Schultz, 1988). ...
... For instance, Garrido-Yserte and Gallo-Rivera (2010) assess the economic value of a Spanish university, University of Alcalá. In actual fact, few are the articles that assess the social value created for society, and most articles deal with the theoretical framework (Vila, 2000;DeClou, 2014). In this regard, Ayuso et al. (2020) quantify the social value generated by Pompeu Fabra University by means of an integrated social value analysis, considering both the economic and the social value that has been created by this university for its stakeholders, using the polyhedral model based on the social accounting methodology (Retolaza et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to measure both the economic and social value of Tecnocampus, a Science and Technology Park in its region of influence (Mataró city in the Maresme region of Catalonia, Spain). Our results show that the impact of Tecnocampus has a socioeconomic cost–benefit ratio of 2.39. Measuring the impact of this multifaceted centre requires a diverse approach. Although the methods used are not new, the combination of them presents a novel approach to measure the impact of an institution of this nature. We have measured the economic value with the Input–Output model, including the Social Accounting Matrix. On the other hand, for social value calculations, we have used cost–benefit analysis adding measurements of firm localisation to estimate externality effects. Our main results present an economic value of more than 0.054% of the Catalan GDP, whereas the employment impact represents almost 0.37% of total employment in the region. The total economic multiplier of Tecnocampus activity is estimated to be 1.89. Social value generates an additional 0.50 euros to the multiplier according with our analysis. This additional social value represents an increase of productivity estimated in 20 million euros of operational income for Catalan firms and the creation of seven additional firms in the Maresme region as a result of knowledge spillovers. The social value also includes reduction of over-education caused by a better matching between graduates and enterprises, a more direct application of research, and an increase in consumer surplus. Finally, we discuss the policy implications of our findings to promote investments in this kind of infrastructures.
... For example, economists are interested in how socio-economic variables such as education can foster higher levels of SWB (Dolan et al. 2008). In this context, it has been postulated that the returns of education have a positive effect on the possibility to satisfy human needs through better material and non-material living conditions (Vila 2001). In this regard, the outcomes of education can be viewed as human capital that likely impacts individual lives way beyond economic productivity (Becker 1993). ...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has shown a positive association between education and well-being. Much of this research has focused on the cognitive component of well-being (i.e., life satisfaction) as outcome. On the other hand, the affective component, that is, how often and intensively people experience positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in their everyday lives, has received far less attention. Therefore, we examined the association between education and PA and NA in everyday life, with a particular focus on affective experiences at the sub-facet level (based on a structure of NA with multiple factors). We used data from a nationally representative sample (N = 1647) of the German Socioeconomic Panel Innovation Sample (SOEP-IS), employing the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) to capture affective experiences of everyday activities. Multilevel structural equation models revealed that (1) education was not related to PA, but (2) was positively associated with two sub-facets of NA (mourning/worries and loneliness/boredom); (3) income might in part explain the association between education and NA; (4) education does not particularly seem to serve as a resource in times of unemployment or retirement (i.e., there were no interactions between education and unemployment/retirement regarding well-being) In essence, higher educated people reported fewer negative emotions in everyday life than their lower educated counterparts, but not more positive emotions. The findings underline that different facets of NA, in addition to life satisfaction, are relevant variables related to education and should receive more attention in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of non-monetary correlates of education.
... Въпреки малкия си брой ученици тези училища постигат резултат в горните 50% от извадката по успеваемост, задминавайки и значително по-големи училища.За нуждите на настоящото изследване по-подробно ще бъдат разгледани следните две училища: точки) в регресионната група, който го доближава до горната граница на трети квартил (P73). Училище 1-С -училището с най-малък брой ученици(71), което постига резултат от 37,23 точки, който го поставя на 53-ия персентил, т.е. резултат по-добър от 53% от общата извадка.Училище 1-А се намира в Район "Надежда", кв. ...
Book
Full-text available
The book presents an attempt for interpretation of some practical questions in school education from the perspectives of both education and economic. Market mechanisms have been part of Bulgarian school system since 2008. The idea of "power of demand" is quite appealing and seems useful in different fields. Still, the research presented in the book creates some alarming questions about the incentives schools have in providing quality education in quasi-market conditions.
... Generally, studies assessed the effect of qualification level on one's job satisfaction is indecisive. There is strong evidence implying that people with higher level of education have better levels of job satisfaction because of better opportunities that come along [45]. This might stand true for pharmacy professional as well particularly for those who achieve higher education than Bachelor degree. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Poor job satisfaction has been associated with less productivity and high staff turnover. Various factors are thought to contribute for job dissatisfaction among pharmacy professionals and very limited studies have been conducted in eastern part of Ethiopia. Therefore, the current study was aimed to assess the level of job satisfaction among pharmacy professionals and its predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 232 pharmacy professionals to assess level of job satisfaction in public hospitals located in the eastern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self- administered semi-structured questionnaires. Data were entered into Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version 14.2 for analysis. Associations between the dependent and independent variables were assessed by multivariate analysis using an Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: A total 220 questionnaires were found complete and included in the analysis. The mean age of participants was 27.6(SD + 4.1). More than half of the respondents (55.4%) had a bachelor degree and the majority (86.4%) were working less than 40 h per week, mostly in dispensing units (75.4%). About one third of the participants (32.7, 95% CI; 26.8-39.2) were found to be satisfied with their job. Age category of 20 to 25 years in reference to age greater than 30 years (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI; 1.1-9.7), holding a bachelor degree in reference to having diploma (AOR = 4.2, 95% CI; 1.8-10.00), working for more than 40 h per week (AOR = 6.2, 95% CI, 2.4-16), and working in dispensing units (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI; 1.1-5.5) were found to have strong association with job dissatisfaction. Conclusion: In this study, the job satisfaction levels of pharmacy professionals were found to be very low. The age category of 20 to 25, holding a bachelor degree, working for more than 40 h per week, and working in dispensing unit were found to be strong predictors of job dissatisfaction. Hence, pharmacy directors and hospital administrators should work to reduce unnecessary workload on the staffs and create good working climate.
... In relation to the financial values, in the XXI century the Brazilian public higher education expenditures have increased by a mean of 2.5% a year, representing approximately 0.8% of the GDP in each year and an equivalent value of USD $ 14 billion in 2016 (INEP, 2017 Efficiency can be generalized as the use of the fewest resources to produce the most results. Considering that the monetary and non-monetary benefits from education present strong externality effects overall in the entire society (VILA, 2000) and also that good performance in higher education is believed to produce growth effects, inefficiency in higher education institutions raises a concern among policymakers and institutional administrators (BLANCHARD, 2004). Furthermore, as the institutions can differ in their levels of efficiency, "it is important to study differences in efficiency because this offers lessons about good practice" which "can lead to improvements in the performance of the higher education system as a whole." ...
Article
Full-text available
Efficiency can be defined as the ratio of a firm’s observed output to the maximum output which could be achieved given its input levels and available technology. It became a critical topic when considering the importance of Public Institutions to the Brazilian Higher Education system and its regional idiosyncrasies. Thus, this study applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate the relative efficiency of all 56 Brazilian Federal Public Universities for the period of 2010 to 2016 considering some aspects of its regional distribution. The data come primarily from INEP Higher Education Census, CAPES and INPI. The results showed that 26 (47%) of the universities were efficient, with a general mean efficiency of 87%. Although the values by region diverge, they ended up converging to efficiencies between 75% (North) and 90% (Southeast). Through time, the Malmquist index suggests improvements higher than 30% but with different characteristics to the financial and the human resources and among regions. Results also suggest that R$ 2.96 billion by year were wasted due to inefficiency or that an additional 10% of outputs could be obtained. link: https://www.rbgdr.net/revista/index.php/rbgdr/article/view/5385
... Good quality education has implication on reducing poverty and income disparity among the global population (Serneels, Beegle, & Dillon, 2017;Vila, 2000). The netreturns on investments in education is noted to contribute significantly to development (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2009;Becker 2002;Becker, 1975;McMahon 2009;Stacey, 1998). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess how Ghana’s educational system is promoting educational equity. In terms of data collection, the study relied on secondary sources whilst Scott’s goals of educational equity served as the theoretical basis for data analysis. The results show marked disparities in Ghana’s educational system that manifest in terms of gender, geographic location, and income levels. In the area of gender, the results show that gender parity worsens as the educational level increases. This fuels the variations in literacy rates between the male and female population in Ghana. In terms of geographic location, a performance gap was observed between urban and rural Ghana, which could be explained by the uneven distribution of educational facilities and resources. It was further observed that the current educational system is skewed more towards formal academic development to the neglect of vocational and technical training, especially in the informal sector. To address this form of educational inequity, policies should be put in place to expand Ghana’s educational system to areas such as sports development, the creative arts, vocational, and technical education.
... Educational inequality is a key issue of educational research because it is one of the central mechanisms behind the (re)production of inequalities. Educational disadvantages translate into disadvantages in labour market opportunities, income, political participation, subjective well-being, health and even life expectancy Becker, 2009, 2016;Vila, 2000). While one can think of various axes of inequality, students' social origin and gender are most frequently studied (Breen et al., 2010;Hadjar and Uusitalo, 2016), with students' ethnic origin receiving increasing attention in the social sciences (Dronkers and Korthals, 2016;Kristen et al., 2008;Van de Werfhorst and Van Tubergen, 2007). ...
Article
What is the role of students’ language background in school success within the multilingual and highly stratified education system in Luxembourg? Considering achievement differences in terms of the primary effects of social and ethnic origin, we assume that students of a disadvantaged social origin (e.g. working class), with an immigrant background, who speak languages at home other than Luxembourg’s official languages show lower school achievements and are placed into lower school tracks. Analyses are based on the data of Luxembourgish primary (grades 4/5) and secondary students (grades 7/8) from two consecutive survey waves in 2016/2017 (for the international project SASAL – School Alienation in Switzerland and Luxembourg). The results indicate language background has only marginal effects, but social and immigrant origin has stronger effects.
... Education directly enhances people's agency, capacity, capabilities and wellbeing. Indirectly, education enhances health and wellbeing, through both economic and intangible benefits, such as creativity, tolerance and community cohesion (Vila, 2000). Both the people who are educated, especially children, and their communities benefit from education (Robeyns, 2006). ...
... Aufmerksam- keit geschenkt (vgl. dazu zusammenfassend Geske 1995; Vila 2000;Mc Mahon 2000;WEI? 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aus bildungsökonomischer Sicht interessiert das Schulwesen als ressourcenverbrauchendes und qualifikationserzeugendes ("humankapitalschaffendes") System. In diesem Abschnitt wird ein Überblick über dazu in der Schul- und Finanzstatistik vorliegende deskriptive Informationen gegeben: (1.1) Indikatoren des Ressourcenverbrauchs, (1.2) Indikatoren des Ergebnisses schulischer Leistungserstellung und (1.3) daraus gebildeter Effizienzindikatoren.
Chapter
This contribution introduces sequence analysis to higher education research, an explorative technique aiming at detecting patterns, regularities and resemblance in time-ordered data. Thereby, it enables a holistic perspective on over-time developments and processes such as educational pathways or academic careers. In this contribution, the foundations and general logic of sequence analysis will be described. As an example, referring to the life course as a framing paradigm, sequence analysis is applied to reconstruct the study trajectories of a cohort of bachelor students in Germany. The potential of sequence analysis in three specific higher education research areas is outlined, that is, to study post-secondary education trajectories, academic careers and the development trajectories of higher education organizations. The conclusion discusses advantages and disadvantages, challenges and practicalities.
Article
After the fall of communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe, the returns to education were substantially growing over time. We summarise the existing literature conducting a meta-analysis of returns to education for economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and test for several mechanisms, which can explain the evolution of the returns over time and differences between countries of the region. The average estimated rate of return basing on more than 600 estimates is around 7%, but it shows variation depending on the methodology adopted, but also on countries’ characteristics. We find out a positive impact of the unemployment rate and negative impact of the enrolment rates into tertiary education. The first observation suggests we observe a countercyclicality of education returns while the latter shows that the dominance of supply of tertiary graduates reduced returns to schooling.
Article
Full-text available
Among the most fundamental problems today are environmental problems. As people earn higher incomes as a result of getting a good education, their sensitivity to environmental problems increases. As the income level of both the consumers who have received quality education and the producers who make conscious production increases, their demand for environmental quality and their sensitivity to environmental problems will also increase so it is thought that educational expenditures and policies can affect the number and cost of environmental problems. On the other hand, economic activities comprehensively consume natural resources and impact the ecological quality adversely. Therefore, GDP and the educational expenditures variables are used in the model. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between environment, education, and economy during the period of 1998–2017 from selected EU countries (Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, and Slovakia). As a result of the panel data analysis, according to the Durbin-Hausman cointegration test result, a long-run relationship between the variables was determined at the level of 1%. According to the results of the Dumitrescu-Hurlin causality test, a unidirectional causality relationship from educational expenditures to ecological footprint at the level of 5%, a unidirectional causality relationship from ecological footprint to renewable energy at the level of 1%, and a bidirectional causality relationship at the level of 1% between ecological footprint and GDP were determined. According to the results of Granger causality test based on the VEC model, a unidirectional causality relationship from ecological footprint to educational expenditures at the level of 5%, and bidirectional causality relationship between ecological footprint and renewable energy (from ecological footprint to renewable energy at the level of 10%; from renewable energy to ecological footprint at the level of 1%) were determined. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that economic and educational policy makers should be aware that they have important consequences on environment.
Thesis
This thesis proposes to explore the academic inquiries of economic science into education by focusing on its evolution over time and the associated theoretical implications. It will then provide a chronological study of the notions of well-being and aspirations from the standpoint of economic theory while attaching importance to highlight when these notions meet each other in these theoretical formulations (Part I). Findings of Economics of Education and its disregard of pupils well-being and aspirations will lead to the exploration of the Capability Approach as an alternativetheoretical framework (Part II). Finally, this thesis proposes an application of the Capability Approach to the French secondary schooling system. It does so by constructing a questionnaire through focus groups and evaluating its outcomes with multidimensional statistics (Part III).This operationalization allows establishing a link between well-being and school-related aspirations through a new methodology.
Article
Full-text available
In Saudi Arabia, education has been transformed in light of the Corona pandemic into distance education through digital platforms, and the state has secured a good technical infrastructure for this. And it became the compulsory educational style for all groups of students with a large number of different requirements and mandatory daily attendance. The research team noticed the inability of some groups of students to keep pace with the requirements of distance education, which reduces the opportunities for justice in education for students, especially at the primary level. Accordingly, the research team used the qualitative method between analyzing UNESCO documents on education fairness and applying the interview tool to seventeen interviews of primary school leaders who were randomly selected (one school from each school district). A full year of learning about each other under the pandemic. The study found that not all students were able to obtain the same educational opportunities, and they were classified according to two categories: The first category is students who suffer from difficulty accessing the Internet, or their parents' ignorance of technology, or their poor social level, which hinders them from securing educational supplies. distance. As for the second category, they are outstanding students with special social conditions between the separation of parents or orphans and others, so that the student can master learning at home, but he cannot attend daily on the platform or follow up on the submission of mandatory distance education requirements. The research team suggested adopting home education at the primary level for those who wish to it, and providing community partnership as solutions to achieve justice in education for all groups of students at the primary level.
Book
Les col·laboracions recollides en aquest Anuari 2020, a càrrec de deu experts coordinats per César Coll i Bernat Albaigés, aborden alguns dels desafiaments educatius més punyents que compartim amb els països del nostre entorn. I ho fan partint de la realitat del sistema educatiu català, de les seves fortaleses i febleses. D’acord amb aquest plantejament, els continguts s’organitzen en dos blocs. El primer revisa els principals indicadors sobre l’estat de l’educació a Catalunya. La revisió posa de manifest que, malgrat els esforços que s’han fet i els avenços assolits, el nostre sistema educatiu té encara assignatures pendents: estancament de les trajectòries educatives i abandonament, bretxa digital, desigualtats d’accés a l’educació 0-3 anys i al lleure, o dèficits en la cobertura de beques i en la despesa educativa, entre d’altres. Partint d’aquesta realitat, en el segon bloc de l’Anuari, els autors analitzen i ofereixen propostes al voltant dels desafiaments que planteja la necessitat d’avançar cap a un sistema educatiu capaç de satisfer les necessitats d’aprenentatge de l’alumnat en aquestes primeres dècades del segle xxi: innovació educativa, noves necessitats d’aprenentatge, temps i espais educatius, formació docent, TIC, equitat. Un darrer capítol, a càrrec dels directors de l’Anuari, esbossa un seguit de propostes per afrontar i superar tant les febleses i mancances que arrossega el nostre sistema educatiu com els nous desafiaments a què s’enfronta. Finalment, s’hi inclou una addenda amb la relatoria del debat mantingut pels autors el juliol del 2020 sobre les conseqüències educatives de la crisi de la covid-19.
Article
Full-text available
This work aims to find out the safety and security services provided to secondary school teachers and find the difference in supplying these services to the teachers based on job status and their experiences. A selfmade questionnaire was used to collect data from hundred teachers that include both genders (male & female). The aim of the study was Data shows that there is a significant gender wise difference in the provision of safety and security services, particularly female need more security. The interview was also used, and data were collected from 10 teachers through interviews. Most of the teachers responded that there is a lack of these services in schools. Further suggestions were given to improve the condition of such services.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the text is to analyse the relationship between educational expansion and suicide rates. To examine this relationship, we analyse data from 24 European countries from 1994 to 2014. First, we analyse data from an age-period-cohort (APC) perspective using the intrinsic estimator (IE) approach to identify all three effects separately. The results show that the changes in suicide rates are driven by the birth cohort effect rather than the period effect, with each successive cohort born after 1960 having a lower suicide rate than its predecessor. This finding implies a cohort replacement explanation in suicide trends. Second, we approach our data from a multilevel (hierarchical) perspective using a three-level negative binomial regression model (suicides, nested in years, nested in countries) and analyse the direct effect of educational expansion on suicides by age groups. The results show that the decline in suicide rates in European countries does not occur because of a change in suicidal behaviour, but because of a change in the educational composition of populations. Educational expansion increases the proportion of young people with higher education who have a lower propensity to commit suicide; this mechanism decreases the suicide rates in European countries between 1994 and 2014.
Article
This study examines the linkages between on-the-job training and employee benefits in terms of wages as well as non-monetary gains. Based on a uniquely matched employer-employee panel dataset for the 2011–2015 period in Vietnam, we find that on-the-job training has a positive but insignificant effect on wages. However, wage returns for on-the-job training are recorded for young workers only. Also, our results reveal that on-the-job training improves employee working conditions. These findings suggest that on-the-job training plays an important role in employee benefits, especially for young employees.
Chapter
Education is one of the key domains of human capital. Besides improving the well-being of the individuals and building on cognitive skills, it acts as a catalyst for the closely interrelated economic, social, cultural and demographic changes in the population. A regional description of educational differences informs about the potential for convergence in this vital dimension of human capability towards addressing the visible north-south development divide in India. While regions in India remain divided in terms of attainment in literacy, such a divide is wider with reference to a range of educational outcomes in terms of districts.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examine the impact of an individual's education level on her/his mating success on the mobile dating app Tinder. To do so, we conducted a field experiment on Tinder in which we collected data on 3,600 profile evaluations. In line with previous research on mating preferences from multiple fields, our results indicate a heterogeneous effect of education level by gender: while women strongly prefer a highly educated potential partner, this hypothesis is rejected for men. In contrast with recent influential studies from the field of economics, we do not find any evidence that men would have an aversion to a highly educated potential partner. Additionally, in contrast with most previous research – again from multiple fields – we do not find any evidence for preferences for educational assortative mating, i.e. preferring a partner with a similar education level. *** THIS STUDY IF FREELY DOWNLOADABLE AS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE HERE: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2019.101914
Article
Full-text available
Using the updated data from the 2016 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, this study examines the role of education in the livelihood of households in the Northwest region, the poorest region in Vietnam. Our micro-econometric analysis shows that education has a positive effect on choosing better livelihoods, household income and poverty reduction, even after controlling for all other factors in the models. However, our quantile regression analysis reveals that the returns on education are substantially heterogeneous across percentiles of income distribution and tend to be higher for better-off households. This implies that education has an increasing effect on within-level income inequality. The finding suggests that a conventional approach employing only mean regression to study the effect of education on income could miss heterogeneity of interest to policymakers.
Article
This article investigates the role of human-capital investment in the development of lower-income countries. It provides a preliminary empirical analysis of the relationship between how much a typical country invests in its secondary education, and the rate at which it develops. Our findings suggest that without accounting for regional fixed effects, secondary education statistically explained differences in real per-capita GDP across lower-income countries during the later half of the 1980s when measured in levels, not growth indexes. However, when controlling for fixed effects, secondary education loses its explanatory power in levels. Regarding fertility rates, our results indirectly confirm the Subbarao and Raney and the Barro and Lee findings that in a typical lower-income country aggregate enrollment (i.e., enrollment of both males and females) is uncorrelated with fertility. We extend these studies' results by finding that, in general, macroeconomic variables do a poor job of explaining cross-country variation in fertility when greater variability is accounted for in the time domain. Finally, we find that, similar to the results for per capita GDP, secondary school enrollment is significant in explaining life expectancy only in the levels specification, and only when regional fixed effects are not controlled for. In the next section we present the analytical framework and econometric models used to test the hypothesis that secondary education explains human development in lower-income countries. We then discuss the data and its limitations, the methodology used to perform our empirical tests, and the results of our analysis. A summary concludes the article.