Article

The impact of tourist hunting on large mammals in Tanzania: An initial assessment

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

In Tanzania, where tourist hunting is employed as a conservation tool for habitat protection, information on population sizes and hunting offtake was used to assess the impact of tourist hunting on mammal densities. In general, tourist hunting pressure was unrelated to local population sizes, but for most species, animals were removed at a level of less than 10% of the local population size, suggesting that over-exploitation was unlikely. Eland, however, and perhaps small antelope, bushbuck, kudu and reedbuck were hunted at levels which may be unsustainable in the long term. Analyses also identified areas of Tanzania with high levels of tourist hunting pressure, showed that, in certain areas, species with small population sizes such as eland could be declining as a result of tourist hunting, and suggested that current levels of lion and leopard offtake are too high. These findings, although preliminary, allow recommendations to be put forward for changing hunting quotas for certain species in particular areas of Tanzania.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus), Grant's gazelles (Gazella granti) and Thompson's gazelles (G. thomsonii), within the ecosystem (Caro et al. 1998;Tanzania Wildlife Conservation Monitoring-TWCM 2000;Kideghesho et al. 2000). The ecosystem also hosts some rare and endangered species, like greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), lesser kudu (T. ...
... In addition, issuing of permits to Tanzanian citizens and residents, against payment of a modest fee for hunting of common game species for their own consumption and/or trophies, provides no economic returns both to the government and to the local communities (Baldus and Cauldwell 2004). Moreover, although concessions for tourist and hunting by residents are based on quotas, planned harvest of wildlife is only rarely based on reliable estimates of population size of the various game species (Caro et al. 1998;Baldus and Cauldwell 2004;Whitman et al. 2004). ...
... Nevertheless, it must be accepted that direct monitoring of wildlife populations, in particular the aerial census counts, is costly, given the extent of wildlife areas, but represents a crucial approach of population monitoring and remains the best method to yield reliable information on population trends. The study has shown that such a two-step approach will be essential for sustainable management of carnivores and rare ungulates, as in most of the direct surveys (primary data), the species were not observed (see also Caro et al. 1998). As a first step, presence/absence of carnivore species in each hunting block should be verified using game damage reports and questionnaires to villagers, game scouts, and hunters. ...
Article
Cost–benefit considerations of wildlife monitoring are essential, particularly, in areas outside national park boundaries, where resources for conducting wildlife censuses are scarce, but that, at the same time, are subject to high pressure for wildlife utilization, such as hunting. Large mammal survey data from various sources were collated and analyzed to investigate which methods are best suited for monitoring purposes at low cost in the Tarangire–Manyara ecosystem, northern Tanzania. Our results indicate that primary data (from aerial and road transects counts) that involve direct species observations, although sometimes very expensive, are required for establishing the status of the target species in terms of density or population size. Concomitantly, secondary data from various sources, such as interviews, hunting quota, and damage reports, obtained over wide areas and over longer periods of time, can provide important information on presence/absence and distribution of species within an area. In addition, the study revealed that hunting quotas set did not correlate with species abundance/numbers from the primary data surveys for most of the large mammals hunted within the ecosystem. For a better conservation and management of wildlife, in particular with respect to the forthcoming formation of Wildlife Management Areas, we propose an integrated approach to wildlife monitoring using primary and secondary data sources through the involvement of local people’s knowledge.
... However, few studies on impacts have been carried out in tourism destinations in developing countries (eg. Caro et al., 1998). ...
... Impacts on the long-term genetic fitness of a species may occur if, for example, trophy hunting is highly selective towards mature, large-sized, and often male, individuals. Theoretical papers claim negative consequences (Caro et al., 1998;Caro, 1994;Geist, 1988), and practical studies suggest impacts such as a change in sex ratio or in age distribution (Adamic 1997;Ginsberg and Milner-Gulland, 1994;Bauer, 1989;Bauer & Pflieger, 1989). ...
... The majority of countries in Africa, which have incorporated hunting into their management strategies, make healthy profits. Still, problems remain, as benefits for rural communities are sometimes negligible (eg. in Tanzania and Zambia there is still a tendency for central control (Caro et al., 1998;Lewis and Alpert, 1997)), but such schemes have changed community attitudes from hatred of wildlife towards its potential as a major resource (eg. Child, 1993). ...
... The combined estimated legal and illegal off-take is also given a Data on hippopotamus from minimum count (see methods). (Caro et al., 1998b). If overexploitation of these species through tourist hunting in Rukwa GR already led to population declines, we would expect these commonly hunted species to have lower densities there than in the NP. ...
... Compared with bushbuck and greater kudu, which usually prefer rather dense habitats, the eland is more frequently found in open areas such as floodplains (Estes, 1991but Watson & Owen-Smith, 2000, which cover large parts of the NP, and a potential effect of hunting could be masked at least partly by the different habitat composition. Thus, although we did not find a clear habitat preference in the eland in our study, it is still possible that eland hunting is responsible for the observed density differences (sensu Caro et al., 1998b). In this species, the combined off-take amounted to 8.6% of the estimated population size, yet, a relatively large margin of error in the GR population estimate (CV = 1.11) indicates the level of uncertainty about the eland population size in the GR. ...
... Four ungulates of which three (greater kudu, sable antelope and puku) are being considered threatened (The World Conservation Union, 2007) were exclusively encountered in the GR. Thence, GR considerably contribute to species conservation in this ecosystem if sustainable levels of legal hunting are maintained (Caro et al., 1998b). ...
Article
Full-text available
Game reserves (GR) in Tanzania have been found to support similar or lower densities of large mammals compared with National parks (NP). But as these areas usually differ considerably not only in regard to management but also to environmental factors, we assessed the relative importance of vegetation cover, species-specific habitat preferences and legal (trophy hunting) and illegal off-take for observed differences in species-specific densities. In the Katavi ecosystem, open habitats were characteristic elements of Katavi NP, while Rukwa GR was dominated by miombo forest. In an inter-specific comparison, density differences were moderately correlated with preferences for open habitats, and with estimates of combined legal and illegal off-take but not with one of these separately. In a multiple linear regression, open habitat preference was found to explain 39.6% of the density differences between the two protected areas. This analysis suggests that the broad-scale pattern of most species’ distributions is governed by differing vegetation cover but that several species are overexploited by illegal (elephant, giraffe, buffalo, bush pig, warthog) or combined off-take (hippopotamus, eland, waterbuck), thus emphasizing the need for quota readjustments and a more efficient anti-poaching control.
... Increased hunting along with contraction of wildlife habitats undermines the plains' ecological importance and threatens the hunted populations (Kahurananga, 1981; Stoner et al., 2007; Rija, 2009). Legal tourist hunting has been partly implicated for the observed large mammal population declines over many Tanzanian reserves including the Simanjiro areas (Caro et al., 1998; Stoner et al., 2007). A recent report shows that wildebeest population in Tarangire ecosystem has declined by 88% within the last 13 years because of reasons such as habitat loss (TAWIRI, 2001 in Bolger et al., 2008) and hunting (Caro et al., 1998; Rija, 2009). ...
... Legal tourist hunting has been partly implicated for the observed large mammal population declines over many Tanzanian reserves including the Simanjiro areas (Caro et al., 1998; Stoner et al., 2007). A recent report shows that wildebeest population in Tarangire ecosystem has declined by 88% within the last 13 years because of reasons such as habitat loss (TAWIRI, 2001 in Bolger et al., 2008) and hunting (Caro et al., 1998; Rija, 2009). Understanding trends in exploitable ungulate populations is crucial for sustainable utilization of resources and for improving the management of protected areas. ...
... Data were collected on the Simanjiro plains (between 3°52¢ and 4°24¢S and 36°05¢ and 36°39¢E) in February 2008, at the start of the wet season, when visibility was good. Distance sampling method (Buckland et al., 2001) was used to survey the four most hunted species, both legally and illegally (Caro et al., 1998; Rija, 2009), i.e. zebra (Equus burchellii Matschie), impala (Aepyceros melampus Matschie), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus Thomas) and Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii Gü nther ) in the area. Using a map (scale, 1: 500,000) of the study area (Tarangire National Park GIS laboratory) and random numbers, we randomly took 21 transects (196.2 km) that faced different directions. ...
... As human demand on land grows, protected areas become increasingly entrenched, and of greater value to conservation and for other uses. In Tanzania many areas rely on sport hunting for revenue that is used in conservation efforts (Caro et al. 1998). Trophy fees for the most desirable species are high, and in Tanzania such species (e.g. ...
... In the absence of these, short-term profit interests might cause overexploitation of animal populations. For example, in some areas of Tanzania, lion and/or leopard quotas are thought to be too high (Creel and Creel 1997;Caro et al. 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
The sex ratio of leopards, Panthera pardus, taken by trophyhunters in Tanzania is examined. We used sex specific molecularmarkers to analyze 77 samples collected from animals shot betweenthe years 1995–1998 and found that 28.6% were females, despitethe fact that only males are allowed on licenses and all skinswere tagged as males. The model used for quota setting assumesthat only males are shot, but the effect of this violation ofquotas is unknown. Off-take in Tanzania does not currently fillquotas, but when off-take approach maximum levels, compliancewith set quotas and regulations will be critical for sustainableharvest.
... Trophy hunting may contribute to declining lion numbers. Hunting quotas were found to be unsustainable for Game Reserves in Tanzania (Creel & Creel, 1997;Caro et al., 1998), whereas actual offtake was considered sustainable (Creel & Creel, 1997;Whitman et al., 2007). A case study from Zimbabwe showed that unsustainable offtake outside Hwange National Park resulted in a skewed sex structure and increased rates of infanticide after territorial males were replaced by new male coalitions inside the National Park (Loveridge et al., 2007). ...
... Caro (2005) showed that waterbuck are significantly less abundant in areas outside Katavi National Park, possibly because of inadequate habitat, and thus low abundance of lions there could be at least partly attributed to low availability of suitable habitat. Caro et al. (1998) suspected that trophy hunting of lions was unsustainable in Katavi National Park. Hunting quotas in adjacent areas amounted to 29 male individuals per hunting season (TANAPA/WD, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
We present a study from Katavi National Park and surrounding areas that assessed the size and structure of the lion population as a baseline for wildlife management. We assessed lion and prey species density directly by sample surveys that incorporated specific detection probabilities. By using three prey-biomass regression models we also indirectly estimated lion density based on the assumption that these indirect estimates represent the Park's carrying capacity for lions. To identify key factors influencing lion abundance we conducted Spearman Rank correlation and logistic regression analyses, using prey species abundance and distance to Park boundary as explanatory variables. The mean size of the lion population was 31–45% of the estimated carrying capacity, with considerably fewer subadult males observed than expected. Lions generally avoided areas of up to 3 km from the Park boundary and were not observed outside the Park. Abundance of common prey species was significantly correlated with distance to the Park boundary and lion abundance. Lion abundance was most strongly associated with waterbuck abundance/presence. Based on observed lion demography, an evaluation of hunting quotas in adjacent hunting blocks, and anecdotal information on traditional lion hunting, we hypothesize that anthropogenic mortality of lions outside Katavi National Park is affecting lion abundance within the Park. Our results suggest that estimating lion densities with prey-biomass regression models overestimates densities even inside protected areas if these areas are subject to natural and anthropogenic edge effects.
... For Bovids, for example in oryx (Oryx gazella) and eland (Taurotragus oryx), female horns are often also valued by trophy hunters being longer (though thinner) than male horns. Indeed, the best case of unsustainable sport hunting reported by Caro et al. (1998) was for eland. If trophy hunting was driving extinction in cases where females possess horns, we would expect a different effect in Cervids and Bovids, as female Cervids do not possess antlers (apart from reindeer). ...
... Palazy et al. (2012) report no difference in pricing between Cervids and Bovids, and pricing increased rather than decreased with male size. However, such factors may explain why the two case studies of detrimental trophy hunting come from carnivores having less marked sexual dimorphism and often a different mating system (Caro et al., 1998;Packer et al., 2011). ...
... Analyses of such aerial survey data have shown that differences in wildlife densities between national parks (unhunted) and game reserves (hunted) are small (Caro et al. 1998a). However, at the same time, an analysis of aerial population data with current hunting quotas suggested that game reserve (tourist) hunting of various antelopes (i.e., eland [ (Caro et al. 1998b). Such conclusions can be drawn only with reliable estimates of population sizes, which are not easily obtained for many smaller and cryptic species because of the difficulties to detect them from the air (Jachmann 2002). ...
... Our main aims were 1) to test the feasibility of such an approach to assess herbivore populations, using resources regularly available to the local authorities and 2) to provide baseline information on wildlife populations in NP and GR, especially data on density, biomass, and population sizes of large herbivores. We especially intended to provide reliable population estimates of eland, reedbuck, bushbuck, and greater kudu, which were formerly considered to be managed unsustainably on a national scale (Caro et al. 1998b). ...
Article
Reliable assessments of large mammal population sizes are crucial for the management of protected areas. We tested feasibility of foot surveys for population assessments of large mammals in western Tanzanian woodland, comparing estimates of herbivore densities from line-transect data from a National Park with those from an adjacent Game Reserve (GR). We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System—supported field design, consisting of systematically distributed closed-circuit transects, and recorded sighting distances and angles. Total survey effort was 1,032 km, conducted within the dry season. We fitted detection functions to distance data with the help of DISTANCE 4.1, using the 3 habitat categories woodland, grassland, and swamp as covariates for detection probability. We found estimates of density and abundance to be reliable for 19 out of 20 larger mammalian herbivores and found significant differences in density between the Park and the GR for 5 species, of which 4 had a higher density in the Park and one had a higher density in the GR. Our results show that, using GIS support and modern navigation methods, foot-transect surveys can be effective in providing accurate data on woodland herbivore populations even in large study areas. (JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 72(3):603–610; 2008)
... Today, there is a variety of uses for wild animals. In many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, trophy hunting, an exclusive form of ecotourism, is one of them used as a conservation tool to provide an economic incentive to conserve and manage areas (Caro et al. 1998) for the conservation of animal populations (Hudson et al. 1989;IUCN 1980;Kyle 1987). Another form of utilization is the managed, consumptive use of wildlife as a sustainable protein resource, both locally and for the export market. ...
... As opposed to the temperate-zoned ungulates, like red deer (C. elaphus) and other cervids, which typically invest much time and energy in reproductive behaviour (Bützler 1974;Clutton-Brock et al. 1982;Dunbar et al. 1990;Geist 1970), male kudu invest little time and energy and fight especially infrequently during the rutting season. ...
Article
Full-text available
Observations were made on two populations of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Namibia to investigate the influence of differing management strategies (trophy hunting vs. venison production) on the population structure, behaviour and ecology of these antelope with regard to population persistence. The population structure on both study sites was similar despite different management strategies. However, the percentage of males in respective age classes differed significantly. All sex ratios were clearly female-biased, even though at birth they are close to parity, indicating sex- and age-specific mortality. Matriarchal groups were larger than groups led by bulls. The group size reached a maximum during the breeding season (rut). The male age classes accompanying females in this season differed strongly between the two study sites. The behavioural patterns shown by kudu over the course of a 12-h period (esp. feeding and locomotion) were also significantly different for the two populations. The results suggest that the management strategies can have an impact on behaviour and population structure of T. strepsiceros and may affect the overall fitness of the population. KeywordsGreater kudu–Trophy hunting–Sociobiology–Wildlife management
... In the early 20 th century, the respective colonial governments in various African countries outlawed unlicensed hunting, and the practice of illegal hunting acquired the name poaching. Despite the ban on illegal hunting, i.e. poaching, some countries have legally regulated domestic and touristic hunting, but these activities have also been blamed for the decline of some populations (Caro et al., 1998). Elephants that had extra-large tusks that would touch the ground while the elephant was in a standing position, i.e., the "great tuskers", were the prime targets for poachers (Hubbard, 1928, Brooks and Buss, 1962, Irwin, 1964. ...
... Attention has invariably been drawn to the impact of over-exploitation on population sizes for many species (Clark, 1973, Fa et al., 1995, Caro et al., 1998, Hutchings, 2000. However, less effort has been given to the direct effect of the disturbances on the animals' behaviour and the existing studies have given more attention on movement in the corridors and dispersal areas , Kioko and Seno, 2011. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The illegal killing of elephants, i.e. poaching and human-elephant related mortality, is the greatest immediate threats to elephants. They have led to declining of many populations of elephants in Africa. The Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) program of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) was set up in the year 2002 as a framework of monitoring trends in illegal killing in 57 African sites. MIKE program seeks to establish the relationships between the levels of illegal killing of elephants and various possible explanatory variables within and beyond the monitoring sites. The effort in implementing MIKE program vary from site to site, and to make the results comparable; a metric referred to as the Proportion of Illegally Killed Elephants (PIKE) out of all recorded deaths in a site has been adopted as the standard measure of severity of illegal killing. Loss of habitat due to the expansion of agriculture and infrastructural developments are the largest long-term threats to elephants. The migratory corridors of elephants and other wildlife in many landscapes have been cut off. The majority of wildlife resides outside formally protected areas on private and community lands. In the landscapes shared by wildlife and humans, competition for resources influences the spatial-temporal distributions of wildlife. Efforts to win the goodwill of private and community landowners regarding hosting of wildlife on their lands are ongoing in many sites across the elephant range. Despite the numerous studies on the nature of risk faced by elephants, fewer studies have focused on the behavioural adaptations of elephants living in those risky landscapes. This thesis sought to understand the site level drivers of illegal killing and how elephants adapt to the threat in Africa’s most intensively monitored site, the Laikipia-Samburu MIKE in northern Kenya. Using field verified records of causes of elephant mortality, the distribution of live elephants, and, the cadastral attributes of land parcels in the ecosystem, the thesis established that land use type is the most important correlate of levels of illegal killing and not its ownership. The study analyses the movement of elephants at hourly, day and night, and overall 24 hr activity cycle in relation to the spatial and temporal variation of the levels of illegal killing. Past studies have given a lot of attention to movement behaviour along corridors. The research in this thesis focusses on movement within core areas. At the hourly time interval, the research showed that elephants walk with lower tortuosity when they are in core areas with higher levels of illegal killing, i.e., higher risk. The study found that elephants move more at night when they are in core areas with higher risk, than when they are in safer core areas. Based on this finding, the research presents a new metric for inferring the levels of risk, i.e., night-day sped ratio. When elephants move from a core area to another one with a different level of risk, they alter their daily activity pattern to include a longer resting phase during the mid-day hours, and this is even more pronounced in core areas closest to permanent human settlements. The study found that as a result of the alteration of activity cycle within 24-hour periods, elephants loose approximately one hour of activity time. The results have the potential use as a remote means of assessing the spatial and temporal variation of risk by analysing elephant movement behaviour remotely thus complimenting patrol based anti-poaching efforts. The study provides new insight into the ecology of elephants living in fear. The confirmed increase of night-time movement potentially predisposes calves to the savannah predators, who are more active at night.
... trap survey in the region covering over 1,500 camera trap days. Historically, the species has been hunted and/or sighted in Ugalla and Burigi Game Reserves (Caro et al. 1998b;Thomas 1962) and there is a record of a serval to the east of lake Victoria, just south of Minziro Forest. ...
... There are records of the species being killed by tourist hunters in Burigi and Ugalla Game Reserves (Caro et al. 1998b) and occurring in Gombe and Rubondo Island National Parks (McColaugh 1989). There are also historical records from Tabora and Ugalla Game Reserves (Swynnerton 1951). ...
... Trophy hunting has been shown to reduce horn size with time (Coltman et al., 2003;Crosmary et al., 2013). However, offtakes from trophy hunting supposedly represent only a small fraction of the male segment in hunted populations (Cumming, 1989;Caro et al., 1998), so that the impact on population dynamics appears rather limited in polygynous ungulates (Mysterud, 2012). In Africa, longterm monitoring is rare (Caro, 2011), particularly outside national parks (but see Stoner et al., 2007;Western, Russell & Cuthill, 2009). ...
... It is likely that at this level of harvest, the impact of trophy hunting on population densities was minimal. For instance, Caro et al. (1998) found few significant differences in mammal densities between hunting areas and national parks in Tanzania, and suggested that harvest rates below 10% per year were unlikely to impact population sizes. Examples in other ecosystems revealed no impact of trophy hunting on ungulate dynamics (Milner et al., 2007;Mysterud, 2012; but see Palazy et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The persistence of large African herbivores in trophy hunting areas is still unclear because of a lack of data from long-term wildlife monitoring outside national parks. We compared population trends over the last 30 years in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, and the neighbouring Matetsi Safari Area where large herbivores were harvested at an average yearly rate of 2%. We investigated whether trophy hunting altered densities and the proportion of adult males in several large herbivore species. Large herbivores generally thrived as well, or even better, in the hunting areas than in the national park. The proportion of adult males did not differ between the two zones, except for species with higher harvest rates and proportionally more males harvested. Densities were not lower in the hunting areas than in the national park, except for elephant and impala. Large herbivores generally declined throughout the 30-year period in both zones, particularly selective grazers. This is probably because of their greater sensitivity to variation in rainfall compared with other herbivores. Rainfall indeed declined during the study period with droughts being particularly frequent during the 1990s. Browsers, mixed feeders and non-selective grazers generally declined less in the hunting areas than in the national park, possibly because of lower densities of natural predators and elephants outside the park. Our study highlighted that large herbivores may persist in trophy hunting areas as well as in national parks. When rigorously managed, trophy hunting areas may be relevant conservation areas for large herbivores, particularly under the current global decline of wildlife abundance across Africa.
... Sin embargo, para garantizar la sustentabilidad a largo plazo de esta actividad, el aprovechamiento de los recursos faunísticos debe realizarse en niveles apropiados. Para esto es necesario conocer el número de animales que se están explotando (Caro et al., 1998). ...
... No obstante, en los países desarrollados, este tipo de cacería tiene cada vez menor importancia, ya que la caza se ha convertido en una actividad tradicional y de ocio. Por otra parte, existen ejemplos bien documentados que demuestran que en áreas de caza, cuando ésta se realiza correctamente, se conservan mejor los hábitats (Pelkey et al. 2000;Duckworth et al. 2003), se protegen las poblaciones de fauna silvestre (Woolf & Roseberry 1998;Caro et al. 1998;Geisser & Reyer 2004;Delibes-Mateos et al. 2009) y además, se generan beneficios para las poblaciones locales (MacKay & Campbell 2004;Frost & Bond 2008). Del mismo modo, se reconoce que en aquellos sitios bien gestionados, es decir, donde las tasas de extracción son moderadas y sustentables, el uso de los recursos silvestres vivos representa un importante instrumento de conservación ya que los beneficios sociales y económicos que generan sirven como incentivo para conservarlos. ...
... Globally, trophy hunting has been shown to be detrimental to several species (Swenson et al. 1997;Caro et al. 1998;Packer et al. 2011). Hunting can, on the other hand, generate substantial income that, at least in part, is directed towards the conservation of hunted species and their habitats (Lewis & Alpert 1997;Leader-williams 2009). ...
... They also claim that the high fees generated by trophy hunting lead to difficulties to control corruption in countries with high levels of poverty, and that trophy hunting is less economically profitable than photographic tourism. Opponents to trophy hunting point out as well that even the most threatened species are potential targets for trophy hunters and, in many cases, quotas are inappropriately designed or not respected (Caro et al. 1998;Lindsey et al. 2007a). ...
Article
Trophy hunting, which is a form of recreational hunting with the main objective of collecting a trophy of interest, is a controversial subject. This activity could potentially generate an anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE). This demographic process states that the valuation of rarity could drive rare species exploitation and even lead to their extinction. Our project aims at testing the potential for an AEE in trophy hunting. We demonstrate that rare species have a high financial value, regardless of the trophy size, indicating that there is a high demand for those species. We also show that the number of trophies traded internationally and the number of recorded trophies by the Safari Club International (one of the largest clubs for international trophy hunters in the USA) rises as the degree of rarity (as measured by a rarity index) increases. Trophy hunting of rare species has been proposed as a tool to fund their conservation. However, our results indicate that there is a risk of an AAE for rare species. Furthermore, the combined effects of trophy hunting, illegal hunting, corruption as well as the lack of population knowledge and of management controls have potential to result in the unsustainable exploitation of rare species of high financial value. Nonetheless, trophy hunting has potential to generate strong financial incentives that are necessary for wildlife preservation. Such incentives are only likely to be effective if strict measures are required and enforced to prevent overexploitation of rare trophy species
... Moreover, trophy hunting has also been shown to modify the behaviour of individuals and the spatial structure of populations (Davidson et al., 2011). Globally, trophy hunting has been shown to be detrimental to several species (Swenson et al., 1997; Caro et al., 1998; Packer et al., 2011). Hunting can, on the other hand, generate substantial income that, at least in part, is directed towards the conservation of hunted species and their habitats (Lewis & Alpert, 1997; Leader-Williams, 2009). ...
Article
The size and shape of a trophy constitute major determinants of its value. We postulate that the rarity of a species, whatever its causes, also plays a major role in determining its value among hunters. We investigated a role for an Anthropogenic Allee effect in trophy hunting, where human attraction to rarity could lead to an over-exploitative chain reaction that could eventually drive the targeted species to extinction. We performed an inter-specific analysis of trophy prices of 202 ungulate taxa and quantified to what extent morphological characteristics and their rarity accounted for the observed variation in their price. We found that once location and body mass were accounted for, trophies of rare species attain higher prices than those of more common species. By driving trophy price increase, this rarity effect may encourage the exploitation of rare species regardless of their availability, with potentially profound consequences for populations.
... Simulation modelling has suggested that trophy hunting can be sustained by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring [8][9][10]. Such an approach eliminates the need for numerical quotas typically derived from unreliable population estimates [11]. Here, we explore the practical application of age-based hunting regulations for leopards Panthera pardus. ...
Article
Full-text available
In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males
... Traditionally, it is hunted with bow and arrow (Grayson et al. 2007). Hunting by tourists has been increasing, and in some areas the L. walleri populations have been fairly heavily affected (e.g., Mkomazi in Tanzania up to 10% of the population- Caro et al. 1998). The skin of L. walleri is exported from Somalia (Funaioli and Simonetta 1966). ...
Article
Litocranius walleri (Brooke, 1878) is a bovid commonly called the gerenuk. It is a medium-sized antelope closely related to gazelles and springbok, but unlike these it has low-crowned teeth. L. walleri is the only species in the genus Litocranius. It is commonly found in dry thornbush savannah in northeastern Africa, where it feeds almost exclusively on thorny shrubs and trees while frequently using a bipedal stance. L. walleri is classified as “Near Threatened” (NT) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) because its population trends are decreasing.
... Whilst quotas for some antelope species are thought to be too high in Tanzania (e.g. eland Taurotragus oryx; Caro et al. 1998b), the KGCA puku population is not threatened by high legal off-take. In fact, as the trophy hunters mainly target buffalo, their presence during the dry season (July-December) may be beneficial to puku by acting as a deterrent to illegal hunters. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although there are populations of puku antelope Kobusvardoni (Livingstone) scattered throughout eastern and centralAfrica, it is estimated that 75% of the total population is now restricted tothe Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. The Kilombero Valley is an area rich inagricultural potential and natural resources; wildlife populations are also highand the inner valley is a Game Controlled Area, although this only provideslimited protection. Aerial surveys during the 1989, 1994 and 1998 dry seasonsshowed the puku population to be stable at around50000–60000 animals. Livestock populations fluctuated, butincreased from 17309 ± 6487 to 54047 ±17247 over the same period. Signs of human activity (e.g. huts, fieldsand livestock) were highest around the edge of the Game Controlled Area,indicating intense pressure on 'boundary-zone' habitats at thefloodplain–woodland interface. Puku use 'boundary-zone'habitats during the wet season when large areas of grassland are flooded.Potential threats to the puku population are therefore likely due to habitatdegradation through over-grazing by domestic herbivores, agriculturalencroachment, and the expansion of human settlements. Licensed trophyhunting probably has a negligible impact on puku because of very low off-take, but illegalhunting represents a serious threat near human settlements during thewet season and in accessible parts of the floodplain during the dry season.
... desafortunadamente, este es el método usado en muchos países del mundo (Caro et al. 1998b). Además es importante incorporar otro tipo de información ecológica y biológica para establecer tasas de extracción sostenibles (Hurtado- ...
Thesis
Los Planes Técnicos de Caza (PTC) representan una herramienta mediante la cual la Administración regula la actividad cinegética. Los PTC incluyen información detallada sobre los terrenos cinegéticos que abarca, en la mayoría de las ocasiones, un número de años considerable por lo que se puede disponer de datos históricos y actuales tanto de especies cinegéticas como no cinegéticas en una superficie amplia del territorio nacional. Hasta el momento, y salvo en escasas ocasiones, la información contenida en dichos documentos ha sido utilizada exclusivamente por parte de la Administración, no estando a disposición de la comunidad científica. Un problema añadido es el mantenimiento de esta información, ya que en numerosas ocasiones no existen bases de datos que permitan analizar conjuntamente una superficie de terreno mayor que la de cada acotado. En esta Tesis Doctoral se muestran los resultados de la evaluación de la utilidad de los PTC en la gestión y conservación de las especies cinegéticas de Castilla-La Mancha utilizando como herramienta la informatización de los mismos. Por un lado, se ha empleado la información en bruto contenida en los PTC para realizar la caracterización de los aprovechamientos cinegéticos de Castilla-La Mancha, resultando que más del 90% de los acotados pretende realizar alguna actuación de mejora del medio, siendo las medidas de gestión más empleadas la construcción de comederos y aguaderos, el control de depredadores y las repoblaciones. Asimismo, se realizó la comarcalización cinegética de esta comunidad (un trabajo dirigido a la mejora de la gestión en Castilla-La Mancha). Se establecieron doce comarcas cinegéticas que se diferencian notablemente en los rendimientos de captura y las especies que forman parte de la dominancia cinegética. Además, para mostrar las posibilidades de empleo de los datos contenidos en los documentos administrativos se realizó la caracterización del control de las poblaciones de conejo en Castilla-La Mancha, donde se ha comprobado que la proporción de municipios que actualmente solicitan controlar las poblaciones de conejos es mayor que hace 40 años, aunque esto no indica un aumento en sus poblaciones sino que posiblemente obedece a otras razones. Finalmente, y con la intención de mejorar en el futuro la calidad de la información, y por tanto la utilidad de los datos contenidos en los PTC para ser empleados con fines científicos, se expresan las primeras aproximaciones para la mejora del modelo de solicitud de los PTC de Castilla-La Mancha y se propone un nuevo modelo de PTC. En conclusión, los PTC son una fuente de información muy valiosa que muchas veces permanece desaprovechada por los investigadores, de la que pueden extraerse datos muy útiles para conocer de forma global la situación de la caza, permitiendo aplicar nuevas medidas de gestión y corregir prácticas y situaciones inadecuadas.
... One such area is the Kilombero Game Controlled Area (KGCA) in Tanzania, where regulated trophy hunting concessions appear to offer protection to large mammals against poaching and livestock encroachment (Jenkins, Maliti & Corti, 2003). Although there are a number of potentially negative issues surrounding this consumptive activity (see Caro et al., 1998; Milner, Nilsen & Andreassen, 2007), trophy hunting is a highly profitable industry and can generate large sums of money, which can be put towards local conservation projects (Leader-Williams & Hutton, 2005). One of the main justifications for trophy hunting is its potential to provide benefits to local communities (Baker, 1997) and the subsequent change in perception that these communities have towards wildlife as it becomes a valuable commodity (Balmford et al., 2002). ...
Article
Within the Kilombero Game Controlled Area (KGCA) of Tanzania, protection is offered to large mammal populations by trophy hunting concessions that maintain natural habitat through the prevention of extensive human encroachment. The opinions of local communities to wildlife management operations such as trophy hunting play an important role in their long-term viability. This study addresses the influence of socio-demographic factors on the opinions of local communities to trophy hunting in areas that are not part of community-based management projects, which is where most research of this type has previously been conducted. Semi-structured questionnaires were conducted in 24 villages within the Kilombero Valley (fifteen interviews per village) in August-December 2007. The extent to which socio-demographic factors including location (e.g. village of residence) and individual respondent characteristics (e.g. gender and age) influenced the respondents' opinions was analysed. Of these socio-demographic factors, all, except age and district of residence, were found to influence the opinions of local residents. Socio-demographic factors play an important role in determining local communities' attitudes towards trophy hunting, and this must be taken into account during the design and assessment of wildlife management conservation strategies, both locally in the KGCA and in similar national and international initiatives.
... In Africa, for example, several mammals are of conservation concern but cannot be counted from the air (Caro, Rejmanek & Pelkey, in press). As illustrations, hippopotamus populations are decreasing in many African countries (Eltringham, 1993); lions are hunted at high levels by tourists in many areas of Africa (Leader-Williams, Kayera & Overton, 1996;Creel & Creel, 1997); and many species of small ungulate are hunted for meat and sport throughout the continent (FitzGibbon, Mogaka & Fanshawe, 1996;Caro, Pelkey et al., 1998). Ground-based methods enable scientists to monitor these species, as well as other species that are not visible from the air. ...
Article
Conservation and ecological monitoring programmes often estimate animal densities over time, but in wooded and forested areas practical techniques are still poorly developed. Here I have examined five simple methods of deriving densities of large and medium-sized mammals using line transects driven through miombo woodland habitat in Africa. These methods calculated area by dividing the number of individuals seen by (i) an average of each species' sighting distances, (ii) a fixed 200 m belt width, (iii) the area visible from the centre of the transect, (iv) visible area weighted by species' vegetation preferences, and (v) by dividing the number of groups seen by area visible from the transect. Individual-based methods produced quite divergent estimates of species' densities and overall biomass with belt transects giving the lowest values. The group method and corresponding individual-based method gave similar values, however. Most of these calculations yielded considerably higher density estimates than aerial surveys conducted in the same area over a similar time period. Sightings of species were not distributed evenly across vegetation types although the majority of mammal species were observed more often in open habitat. These findings indicate that ground-based conservation monitoring programmes should set transects through several vegetation types, restrict comparisons to those studies that use the same methodology, and refrain from comparing ground and aerial surveys.
... In addition to ethical and animal welfare issues, there are a number of problems that limit the conservation role of trophy hunting in Africa (Baker, 1997). These include social problems such as the inequitable distribution of hunting revenues, inadequate involvement of communities, corruption (Mayaka et al., 2004; Lewis & Jackson, 2005) and ecological problems such as setting quotas in the absence of adequate population data and overshooting of quotas (Baker, 1997; Caro et al., 1998). The emphasis placed on trophies by the safari industry may also limit the conservation role of trophy hunting. ...
Article
There is a lack of consensus among conservationists as to whether trophy hunting represents a legitimate conservation tool in Africa. Hunting advocates stress that trophy hunting can create incentives for conservation where ecotourism is not possible. We assessed the hunting preferences of hunting clients who have hunted or plan to hunt in Africa (n=150), and the perception among African hunting operators (n=127) of client preferences at two US hunting conventions to determine whether this assertion is justified. Clients are most interested in hunting in well-known East and southern African hunting destinations, but some trophy species attract hunters to remote and unstable countries that might not otherwise derive revenues from hunting. Clients are willing to hunt in areas lacking high densities of wildlife or attractive scenery, and where people and livestock occur, stressing the potential for trophy hunting to generate revenues where ecotourism may not be viable. Hunting clients are more averse to hunting under conditions whereby conservation objectives are compromised than operators realize, suggesting that client preferences could potentially drive positive change in the hunting industry, to the benefit of conservation. However, the preferences and attitudes of some clients likely form the basis of some of the problems currently associated with the hunting industry in Africa, stressing the need for an effective regulatory framework.
... Our results suggest that both impala and kudu in the hunting area were more wary which is consistent with other findings, for example impala in Serengeti (Setsaas et al. 2007) and other large mammals in Tanzania (Caro et al. 1998). ...
Data
Full-text available
Sport hunting may have severe behavioural consequences, and possibly conservation implications for wildlife populations. We used flight initiation distances by two herbivores, impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) to assess the impacts of sport hunting on their flight behaviour. We compared Gwaai, a designated hunting area adjacent to Hwange National Park, a protected area in Zimbabwe. We aimed to estimate flight initiation distances (FIDs) for impala and kudu as this can be a good measure of hunting effect on behaviour. Our results suggest that impala and kudu are more flight prone in hunting areas than in non-hunting areas. We propose habituation to explain the shorter FIDs in the protected area, and the risk of being shot by hunters the higher FIDs in the hunting area. We concede that more field observations are needed to estimate the distance at which animals will always trigger an immediate flight response from approaching predators (D-min) and the distance above which prey will not move away from an approaching predator as it is not perceived to be dangerous D-max) in our study area. However, we suggest that D min is a useful index for wildlife managers to assess predation risk.
... While conditions for the typical habitat of the sable are well documented (Gagnon and Chew 2000;Macandza et al. 2012), the amount of cover they prefer under conditions of hunting risk largely remains unknown. This is despite recent increased trophy hunting in southern Africa A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t (Lewis and Alpert 1997;Caro et al. 1998;Holmern et al. 2002;Naidoo et al. 2011). Thus, understanding of hunting-induced habitat use changes is critical in the conservation of the species. ...
Article
Full-text available
From remotely sensed woody cover, we tested whether sables under hunting pressure preferred closed woodland habitats and whether those not under hunting preferred more open woodland habitats. We applied a two factorial logistic regression analysis to model the probability of occurrence of sable antelope in hunted and non-hunted areas of northwest Zimbabwe as a function of vegetation cover density (estimated by a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)). We validated the results by high-spatial resolution imagery derived tree canopy area. We subsequently compared the predictions from the two models in order to compare sable cover selection between hunted and non-hunted areas. Our results suggest that hunted sables are likely to select closed woodland, while non-hunted ones would prefer more open woodland habitats. We also established a significant positive relationship between NDVI and tree canopy cover, thus emphasizing the importance of remote sensing in studies that measure the impact of hunting on habitat selection of targeted species.
... The animal declines are mostly related to illegal hunting, land use changes, droughts, and isolation of protected areas through fencing181920. However, trophy hunting promotes off-takes of a supposedly small proportion of males from a population [21] and the associated impacts on population dynamics of most polygamous ungulates are expected to be minimal [22]. Trophy hunting refers to hunting by paying clients, who select animals with exceptional phenotypic attributes such as horns, tusks, body size, and skull length, usually in the company of a professional hunter [23]. ...
Article
Long term monitoring of population estimates and trophy size trends is requisite to ensure that trophy hunting is sustainable. We explored the influence of trophy hunting on population size and trophy quality of impala (Aepyceros melampus), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and sable (Hippotragus niger) antelopes from 1997 to 2014 in Cawston Ranch, Zimbabwe. Population estimates of the three species showed a cyclical declining trend, albeit being statistically insignificant for the three species. Hunting pressure had no significant effect on the population estimates of the three species for the period 1997-2014. Impala population declined (-30 %) between 2003 and 2008 possibly due to increased illegal hunting pressure associated with land invasions during this period. Trophy size of all species declined over time, 2004-2014, (impala (-1.3 %), kudu (-3.9 %), sable (-2.6 %) possibly due diet quality and loss of genetic variability in these populations. However, trophy size for greater kudu and sable were within the minimum score range of the Safari Club International. We recommend research on genetic variability and inbreeding levels of hunted populations in closed ecosystems to inform adaptive management as a way of ensuring sustainability of trophy hunting as a conservation tool in small isolated parks in Africa.
... In Kenya the wildlife has declined by 30%-50% during the last decades (Western 2009, Norton-Griffiths and Said 2010, Ogutu et al. 2011. Similar declines have been reported in Tanzania (Caro et al., 1998, Caro andScholte 2007). ...
... This concurs with observations by Tarakini et al. (2014) on kudu and impala in Hwange National Park and surrounding areas, suggesting that individuals in hunting areas are more nervous than those in nonhunting areas. Similar observations of flight bahaviour have been observed elsewhere, for example, for impala and other large herbivores in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania (Caro et al. 1998;Setsaas et al. 2007;Nyahongo 2008); for impala, kudu and sable in Hwange National Park and adjacent hunting areas (Crosmary et al. 2012); for deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Netherlands (de Boer et al. 2004), among others. The repeated and frequent occurence of lethal encounters in the hunting area compared with the tourist area is supposedly responsible for the low tolerance levels to approaching humans, whereas tolerance of human presence is high in the tourist area as a result of low frequency of lethal encounters . ...
Article
Full-text available
Although being an important conservation tool in Africa, trophy hunting is known to influence risk perception in wildlife species, thus affecting the behaviour and fitness of most targeted species. We studied the effects of trophy hunting on the flight behaviour of impala (Aepyceros melampus), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and sable (Hippotragus niger) in two closed ecosystems, Cawston Ranch (hunting area) and Stanley and Livingstone Private Game Reserve (tourist area), western Zimbabwe. Using standardized field procedures, we assessed the flight behavioural responses of the three species in two seasons: non-hunting (December–March) and hunting (April–November) between March 2013 and November 2014. We tested the effect of habitat, group size, sex, season, start distance and alert distance on flight initiation distance using linear mixed models. Habitat, group size sex and alert distance did not have any effect on flight initiation distance for the three species. The three species were more alert and displayed longer flight initiation distances in the hunting area compared with the tourist area. Flight initiation distances for the three species were higher during the hunting season for the hunting area and low during the non-hunting season. Flight distances of the three species did not differ between the hunting area and the tourist area. We concluded that trophy hunting increased perceived risk of wild ungulates in closed hunting areas, whereas ungulates in non-hunting areas are less responsive and somehow habituated to human presence. Management plans should include minimum approach distances by tourists as well as establishing seasonal restrictions on special zones to promote species viability. Research aimed at integrating behavioural responses with physiological aspects of target species should be promoted to ensure that managers are able to deal with the behavioural trade-offs of trophy hunting at local and regional scale.
... Quantitative assessment of the performance of such indicators is therefore difficult and often absent (Weinbaum et al. 2013). For example, annual harvest rates (i.e., fraction of population harvested) have sometimes been used to indicate sustainability of harvests by comparing spatial or temporal trends in harvest rates, or by comparison to specific reference values that are believed to indicate harvests that are sustainable (Caro et al. 1998, Hurtado-Gonzales and Bodmer 2004, Weinbaum et al. 2013. Like many of such indicators, however, harvest rates have generally proven to provide ambiguous information about management performance (Weinbaum et al. 2013). ...
... The observed variation among species suggests that different species in the reserve respond differently to the intensity of wildlife utilization, which is also the case in previous studies elsewhere (Caro, 2008;Caro, 1999aCaro, , 1999cNaranjo & Bodmer, 2007;Reyna-Hurtado & Tanner, 2007). Therefore, reliable and up-to-date species-specific population density and other population parameters should be carefully considered when deciding hunting quotas and other conservation measures, as is also argued by Caro et al. (1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
In western Tanzania?s wildlife ecosystems, both commercial and subsistence uses of wildlife take place. Commercial use is largely through trophy hunting in designated hunting areas while subsistence use is predominantly carried out by local people for food and as a source of cash income. Assessing the status of wildlife populations in hunting areas is of supreme importance if unsustainable use is to be controlled. In this study, we carried out road transect surveys to estimate the density, group size and sex ratio of selected species of exploited wildlife in Ugalla Game Reserve, western Tanzania, to determine whether population characteristics differed between the Ugalla east and Ugalla west hunting sites. Overall, estimates of density and group size were higher at Ugalla east than Ugalla west. Of the individual species, the helmeted guineafowl had the highest population density, followed by impala and topi. Waterbuck had the lowest population density. When comparing our findings with population densities reported in other studies, especially in the more protected Katavi National Park in western Tanzania, our estimates were much lower. Sex ratios varied considerably among species although they were generally skewed towards females. Future studies should integrate data from subsistence and trophy hunting and evaluate the status of wildlife taking into account habitat characteristics.
... Our results suggest that both impala and kudu in the hunting area were more wary which is consistent with other findings, for example impala in Serengeti (Setsaas et al. 2007) and other large mammals in Tanzania (Caro et al. 1998). ...
... El turismo de caza, como exponen Caro et al. (1998) para el caso de Tanzania, puede ser una herramienta para la protección del hábitat, pues la evaluación de su impacto sobre las densidades de las especies aprovechadas sugiere que una sobrexplotación es improbable y, aunque en algunas especies puedan estar siendo aplicadas tasas de aprovechamiento insostenibles a largo plazo, la evaluación sistemática permite proponer las rectificaciones pertinentes de las cuotas de caza según sean requeridas. ...
Book
Full-text available
Is a well documented book on the sustainability of the hunting activity in Cuba during the last decades of XX siecle and his implications for nature conservation.
... However, there is a growing debate worldwide about trophy hunting and the people are arguing about legitimacy of the hunting programs and their impacts on rare wildlife species (Aryal et al., 2015;Challender and Cooney, 2016). There are generally two views exist about trophy hunting programs; one suggest that hunting programs are beneficial for local communities and in return they protect illegal use of animals (Gunn, 2001;Edwards et al., 2006;Naidoo et al., 2016) while the other group showed serious concern about trophy hunting and argue that it badly affects the viability of the population (Caro et al., 1998;Wilson, 2008;López-Bao et al., 2017). ...
Article
Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Pakistan) has a rich diversity of wild caprinae and is one of key area for caprinae community-based conservation programs. In this program, selective hunting of small proportion of adult males with large horns is done on annual basis to generate money for the conservation, habitat improvement and livelihood of local communities. The current study aimed at collecting reliable data about population status of Astor markhor (Capra falconeri falconeri). For this purpose, fixed-point direct count method was used for estimation of Astor markhor population in 16 catchments including 15 Community-controlled Hunting Areas (CCHAs). A total of 1087 animals were counted, comprising of 266 (24%) males (including sixty-two (6%) trophy-sized males), 388 (36%) females, 227 (21%) yearling and 206 (19%) kids. Population density of Astor markhor was estimated 0.13 individuals/km², with male to female ratio 0.69:1, yearling to female 0.54:1 and kids to female 0.51:1. CCHA/catchment wise assessments showed that Kargah area have highest population (211 animals). It is suggested that consequences of trophy hunting should be strictly contingent upon population data obtained through robust methods, duly verified by a panel of conservation experts and may be extended to other areas also for fruitful results.
... The increase of density inside a protected area as a consequence of hunting activities is well known in diverse species and natural areas (e.g. Caro et al., 1998). Di Bitetti et al. (2008) showed that hunting may affect the abundance and the activity patterns of sympatric game species. ...
Article
The impact of hunting on wildlife is a complex phenomenon which varies in space and across time, and yet limited knowledge is available on it. This is especially the case of the indirect effects of hunting on the behaviour of target as well as non-target species. Here we analyze how hunting affected the spatial behaviour of 62 radiocollared roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a protected area adjacent to areas where hunting with hounds (target species: wild boar and hares) and stalking with rifles from high seats without dogs (target species: roe deer) were permitted during the hunting season. Our results showed that hunting caused a significant increase in the home range size of monitored deer, as well as a ‘‘reserve effect’’, whereby roe deer used the protected area as a refuge from hunters. These behavioural responses were significant only at times when hunting with hounds was conducted, even though roe deer was not the target species of this technique. Reactions to the perceived risk of predation varied among age and sex classes, with yearling being more sensitive and using the protected area more than adults. As shown in our study, hunting harassment provoked by drives with hounds significantly affects the behaviour of non-target species. Therefore, the use of long-legged hounds represents a variable that should be carefully evaluated by wildlife managers in their management plans and conservation policies, especially when endangered or vulnerable species are present.
Article
Ground transects were used to determine densities of 24 larger mammals in Katavi National Park. The Park consists of miombo woodland habitat and two seasonal lakes. Mammalian biomass was extremely high due primarily to large numbers of buffalo. The highest mammal densities were found around Lake Chada to the south-east of the Park. Contrary to earlier reports, species’ densities did not differ significantly between dry, wet and intermediate seasons, suggesting that, aside from elephant and warthog, mammals did not enter or leave the Park in large numbers. Similarly, aside from zebra and waterbuck, sightings of species in different vegetation types did not change markedly between seasons. Thus, seasonal lakes in Katavi National Park support very high local concentrations rather than acting as dry season refuges for mammals outside the Park. On a déterminé la densité de 24 grands mammifères du Parc National de Katavi au moyen de transects terrestres. Le parc présente un habitat forestier à Miombo et deux lacs temporaires. La biomasse de mammifères est extrêmement élevée à cause surtout du grand nombre de buffles. On a relevé les plus fortes densités de mammifères autour du lac Chada, au sud-est du parc. Contrairement à ce que disent des rapports antérieurs, le nombre d’espèces ne change pas significativement entre la saison sèche, la saison des pluies et les saisons intermédiaires, ce qui laisse entendre que, à part les éléphants et les phacochères, les mammifères n’entrent pas ou ne quittent pas le parc en grand nombre. De même, à part les zèbres et les waterbucks, l’observation des espèces dans différents types de végétation ne varie pas vraiment entre les saisons. On peut donc dire que les lacs saisonniers du Parc National de Katavi soutiennent des concentrations locales très élevées plutôt que de servir, en saison sèche, de refuges pour les mammifères de l’extérieur du parc.
Article
Full-text available
Umbrella species are ‘species with large area requirements, which if given sufficient protected habitat area, will bring many other species under protection’. Historically, umbrella species were employed to delineate specific reserve boundaries but are now used in two senses: (1) as aids to identifying areas of species richness at a large geographic scale; (2) as a means of encompassing populations of co-occuring species at a local scale. In the second sense, there is a dilemma as to whether to maximize the number or viability of background populations; the umbrella population itself needs to be viable as well. Determining population viability is sufficiently onerous that it could damage the use of umbrella species as a conservation shortcut. The effectiveness of using the umbrella-species concept at a local scale was investigated in the real world by examining reserves in East Africa that were gazetted some 50 years ago using large mammals as umbrella species. Populations of these species are still numerous in most protected areas although a few have declined. Populations of other, background species have in general been well protected inside reserves; for those populations that have declined, the causes are unlikely to have been averted if reserves had been set up using other conservation tools. Outside one reserve, Katavi National Park in Tanzania, background populations of edible ungulates and small carnivores are lower than inside the reserve but small rodent and insectivore abundance is higher. While we cannot compare East African reserves to others not gazetted using umbrella species, the historical record in this region suggests that umbrella species have been an effective conservation shortcut perhaps because most reserves were initially large and could encompass substantial populations of background species. It is therefore premature to discard the local-scale umbrella-species concept despite its conceptual difficulties.
Article
1. In Africa the majority of conservation areas sanction some sort of human activities within their borders but few of them are part of community-based conservation schemes. The effectiveness of these state-owned, partially protected areas in conserving mammalian fauna is largely unknown. 2. Large and medium-sized mammal densities in three different sorts of partially protected area were compared to mammal densities in an adjacent national park in western Tanzania by driving 2953 km of strip transects over a 14-month period. 3. In a Game Controlled Area that permitted temporary settlement, cattle grazing and tourist big game hunting, mammal diversity and mammal densities were relatively high. In a Forest Reserve that permitted limited hardwood extraction and resident hunting, most large species were absent. In a third, Open Area that allowed settlement, cattle grazing, firewood collection and beekeeping activities, mammal diversity and densities were again low but some large ungulates still used the area seasonally. 4. The chief factors responsible for lowered mammal densities outside the Park were illegal hunting, especially in close proximity to town, and to a lesser extent, resident hunting quotas that were too high. 5. These data suggest that state-owned conservation areas permitting human activities within their borders cannot be relied upon as a means of conserving large and middle-sized mammals in Africa. 6. Two methods are being employed to ameliorate this problem in Africa: excluding people from conservation areas while upgrading ground protection effort, and initiation of community-based conservation schemes. As yet, however, very few quantitative data are available to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in enhancing mammal populations.
Article
Human exploitation of wildlife is driving some species to severe population decline but, few studies examine the combined effect of hunting, environmental variability and demographic traits on population dynamics of hunted species, making it difficult to design sustainable hunting practices. In this study forty-five model scenarios defined by varying levels of hunting, female breeding and mortality rates, were used under Vortex population viability modelling program to assess performance of impala and wildebeest populations and to explore the management options to improve their population persistence. The resident impala population was predicted to suffer severe decline under most hunting scenarios when >2% per year of its population is killed, resulting in local population extinction within 15 years. In contrast, the wildebeest population did not decline at 5% current hunting rates due perhaps to its migratory behaviour that buffers the hunting impact but could go extinct within just 40 years when hunting rate in increased. Further, <10% environmental variability associated with the female breeding and mortality rates had considerable impacts on the population change and size under most hunting scenarios. Improving habitats and reducing hunting could improve female breeding rates thus ensuring the long-term survival of the ungulates in the Simanjiro plains, Tanzania.
Article
Full-text available
High cattle densities, expanding human settlements and the conversion of miombo woodland into farms and teak plantations are threatening wildlife populations in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania, and conservation research on this internationally important wetland is required as part of an integrated approach to its future management. The effect of land-use change on antelopes (family Bovidae) was investigated by surveying tracks and dung during three seasons over 1999–2000 in an area of mixed land-use. Use of miombo woodland, grassland and farmland habitats by antelopes was highest during the wet season (April–May), probably representing the movements of animals away from the floodplain. Duiker, puku Kobus vardoni and reedbuck Redunca spp. predominantly used the farmland during the wet season, at which time buffalo Syncerus caffer were more common in the miombo woodland. The findings of this study have three main implications for the conservation of the valley. Firstly, the inadvertent provision of suitable wet season habitats for puku and other small-medium antelopes by rice farmers could lead to higher levels of illegal hunting, and may increase the potential for conflict between agriculture and wildlife. Secondly, the loss of miombo vegetation will most strongly affect the larger species of antelope (sable Hippotragus niger and waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus), which favour open-woodland habitats; future work should therefore determine levels of habitat use by antelopes in and around maturing teak plantations. Thirdly, any management prescriptions to conserve the Kilombero Valley should include the land on the edge of the floodplain.
Article
The unsustainable harvest of wildlife is a major threat to global biodiversity and to the millions of people who depend on wildlife for food and income. Past research has called attention to the fact that commonly used methods to evaluate the sustainability of wildlife hunting perform poorly, yet these methods remain in popular use today. Here, we conduct a systematic review of empirical sustainability assessments to quantify the use of sustainability indicators in the scientific literature and highlight associations between analytical methods and their outcomes. We find that indicator type, continent of study, species body mass, taxonomic group and socio-economic status of study site are important predictors of the probability of reported sustainability. The most common measures of sustainability include population growth models, the Robinson & Redford (1991) model and population trends through time. Indicators relying on population-specific biological data are most often used in North America and Europe, while cruder estimates are more often used in Africa, Latin America and Oceania. Our results highlight both the uncertainty and lack of uniformity in sustainability science. Given our urgent need to conserve both wildlife and the food security of rural peoples around the world, improvements in sustainability indicators are of utmost importance.
Article
In the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem of western Tanzania, aerial censuses carried out between 1988 and 2002 show that populations of several large ungulate species had declined. Five competing factors that could be responsible for these changes were investigated. (i) Rainfall increased slightly over 25 years and (ii) no obvious outbreaks of disease were witnessed, suggesting that populations are not suffering food shortages or disease. (iii) Large predators live at low densities and are not increasing, and estimates suggest that that predation is unlikely to impact larger prey species. (iv) Some assessments of illegal hunting indicate little influence on herbivore populations but one measure points to giraffe, hippopotamus, warthog and perhaps other species being adversely affected. (v) Tourist hunting quotas of lions and greater kudu in hunting blocks appear high and there are indications that both may be declining. Preliminary data, approximate calculations and elimination of hypotheses point to anthropogenic factors being partly responsible for changes in this ecosystem and constructive recommendations are made to alter these. More generally, this study highlights the importance of monitoring in conjunction with collecting diverse data when trying to stop population declines before they become too serious.
Article
Full-text available
The northern Tarangire-Manyara Ecosystem in Tanzania is among the richest areas in the world for large mammal diversity and abundance, and Manyara Ranch provides crucial wildlife habitat for migratory and resident species between the Tarangire River and Lake Natron. This area is essential to the survival of migratory wildlife populations in the area, and sustains the ecological viability of both Tarangire and Lake Manyara National Parks, two of the highest income earning parks in Tanzania. We conducted ungulate surveys in Manyara Ranch in 2012 and early 2013 to determine seasonal spatial distribution, density, and abundance of wild ungulate species and livestock. Surveys used distance sampling methods on fixed-route road transects, and were conducted near the end of each precipitation season (vuli = short rains, masika = long rains, and kiangazi = dry). Most species had some seasonal variation in density and distribution. Species in rank order of average annual abundance were: cattle (11,271), zebra (2,393), sheep and goats (2,154), impala (1,103), wildebeest (881), dik-dik (404), Grant’s gazelle (292), giraffe (242), Thomson’s gazelle (166), eland (80), lesser kudu (30), elephant (14), steenbok (11), waterbuck (11), horse (4), gerenuk (1). Cattle densities increased 11 fold between the wet and dry seasons 2012 (1,566 to 17,131). Any stakeholder with interest in these data or the ongoing surveys should contact the authors of this report at Derek@WildNatureInstitute.org or +255 686 037 481.
Article
Full-text available
Validating and improving field-sampling techniques for estimating wildlife community composition and population size is essential for wildlife management and conservation. We conducted ground distance sampling surveys along line transects and block counts from a small aircraft in Manyara Ranch in Northern Tanzania and contrasted estimates of species richness and species-specific densities from both sampling techniques. We used regression analyses (logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models) and model selection to investigate whether a species’ body size, group size, body color, as well as vegetation cover explained the variation in species presence/absence and relative density differences in aerial vs. ground-based sampling. Ground surveys detected significantly more species than aerial surveys. However, aerial surveys detected three species that were missed by ground surveys (African lions, African buffalo, and spotted hyena). Model selection suggested that species with smaller body mass and small group sizes were more likely to be missed in aerial surveys. Densities estimated from the aerial surveys were generally but non-significantly lower than the densities estimated from the ground surveys, with the exception of density estimates for African elephants which were slightly higher from aerial surveys. Density differences between the two methods were greater for species with small group size, light body color, and in areas with denser vegetation cover; these variables explained 75% of the variation in density differences between the two survey methods. Albeit being similar in operational costs in our relatively small study area, ground surveys yielded (1) more complete information with respect to wildlife community composition and (2) density estimates were mostly higher and (3) more precise and (4) appear more feasible to be implemented in community-based conservation schemes.
Article
Full-text available
Ticks and associated pathogens pose serious threats to the health of livestock. To assess the efficacy of acaricide dip treatment (cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, piperonyl butoxide, citronella), we assessed post-treatment tick acquisition and tick mortality of free-ranging Boran cattle inhabiting a wildlife-cattle ranch in Northern Tanzania. Because host intrinsic variables and exposure to ticks may substantially affect tick acquisition, we incorporated host sex, body mass, health condition, and distance traveled in models of tick acquisition. Using generalized linear mixed models that accounted for non-independence of individuals, we found that tick species richness increased with host body mass but was not significantly related to other factors. In contrast, tick abundance increased with time since acaricide treatment, was positively correlated with host body mass, and was higher in female than male cattle. Distance traveled and health condition did not predict tick acquisition. Overall, these patterns were similar when separately analyzing acquisition of the more common tick species (Rhipicephalus pulchellus, R. sanguineus sensu lato, and R. praetextatus). Logistic regression models suggested that tick mortality was high for a few days after acaricide dip treatment but declined steeply post-treatment; 3.5 days after treatment, only 50% of ticks were dead, and mortality declined further thereafter. Our results provide new information regarding tick acquisition patterns in this system including female-biased tick parasitism and support for the hypothesis that increased host body mass provides greater resources and thus supports higher ectoparasite abundance and species richness. The limited acaricide duration of action and effectiveness on all tick species calls for adjusting tick management practices.
Article
We compared population structure and trophy hunting statistics of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in two community-controlled hunting areas (CCHAs) of northern Pakistan with varying duration of trophy hunting and isolated populations of C. sibirica. Based on fixed-point direct count method during winter 2016-2017, 939 ibexes were counted in Khyber and 346 in Hussaini, with a density of 7.5 and 3.2 animals km-2 , respectively. Though the populations of C. sibirica at both the study sites have increased compared to the past estimates, we found variations in population structures and horn sizes, presumably as a result of trophy hunting. The sex ratios are skewed toward females in Khyber (87 males/100 females) and towards males in Hussaini (115 males/100 females). The trophy size males were 7% of the population in Khy-ber and 11% in Hussaini. Mean group (herd) size in Khyber was 28 (range = 1-117) and Hussaini was 20 (range = 1-79). Mean horn size of the trophies harvested in Khyber was 102 cm (± range = 91-114) compared to 108 cm (range = 99-121) in Hussaini. Stringent regulatory measures are suggested to determine the number of permits.
Article
We compared population structure and trophy hunting statistics of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in two community-controlled hunting areas (CCHAs) of northern Pakistan with varying duration of trophy hunting and isolated populations of C. sibirica. Based on fixed-point direct count method during winter 2016–2017, 939 ibexes were counted in Khyber and 346 in Hussaini, with a density of 7.5 and 3.2 animals km-2, respectively. Though the populations of C. sibirica at both the study sites have increased compared to the past estimates, we found variations in population structures and horn sizes, presumably as a result of trophy hunting. The sex ratios are skewed toward females in Khyber (87 males/100 females) and towards males in Hussaini (115 males/100 females). The trophy size males were 7% of the population in Khyber and 11% in Hussaini. Mean group (herd) size in Khyber was 28 (range = 1–117) and Hussaini was 20 (range = 1–79). Mean horn size of the trophies harvested in Khyber was 102 cm (± range = 91–114) compared to 108 cm (range = 99–121) in Hussaini. Stringent regulatory measures are suggested to determine the number of permits.
Technical Report
Full-text available
In this report, I investigate these changes and the current management of trophy hunting in Mongolia. Is trophy hunting now better protecting Mongolia’s wildlife? After performing an extensive literature review and speaking with government officials, conservationists, and hunting company representatives in Ulaanbaatar, I visited Tsetseg soum (district) in Khovd aimag (province) to investigate the real-world implications of trophy hunting by speaking to local community members and government officials. In total, I performed twenty-four interviews. Over the course of this research, I found that while the 2012 revisions to Mongolia’s trophy hunting significantly improved the system’s potential to support wildlife conservation, reducing the potential for corruption, increasing its ecological sustainability, and linking it more closely to local communities, it will not effectively support wildlife conservation until stakeholders’ capacity increases, local community members feel involved and valued, and local governments properly redirect revenue back to wildlife conservation.
Article
We examined the effects of protection from human activities and effects of tourist hunting on densities of 21 large mammal species in Tanzania. Aerial censuses revealed that mammal biomass per km2 was highest in National Parks. Densities of nine ungulate species were significantly higher in National Parks and Game Reserves than in areas that permitted settlement; these tended to be the larger species favoured by poachers. The presence of tourist hunters had little positive or negative impact on ungulate densities, even for sought-after trophy species; limited ground censuses confirmed these results. Our analyses suggest that prohibition of human activity, backed up by on-site enforcement, maintains ungulate populations at relatively high densities, and challenge the idea that enforcement is only effective when spending is high.
Article
Focuses on research on natural ecosystems, largely National parks and game reserves, highlighting research in Tanzania's Serengeti National Park as a case history approach. Most long-term ecological research in Africa has an explicit management responsibility. It is performed in national parks and other reserves, is financially supported, at least in part, by African governments, and is explicitly charged with advising management personnel and formulating management plans. Among the principal sites of the programs are Kenya's Amboseli National Park, South Africa's Kruger National Park, Uganda's Queen Elizabeth National Park, Ivory Coast's Lamto Research Station, and Tanzania's Serengeti National Park. -from Authors
Article
Production of large mammals has earned respectability as an agricultural strategy and its evaluation listed as a priority requirement in the World Conservation Strategy. The 25 papers chronicle the changing role of wildlife and reflect on the implications of the trends. They are arranged in sections covering: subsistence hunting; recreational and commercial hunting; herding; extensive containment systems (game ranching); intensive containment systems (game farming); experimental systems; environmental and socioeconomic implications. -M.A.Bass (after Editors)
Article
The consumptive use of wildlife, in particular trophy hunting and game ranching of ungulates, has been advocated as a tool for conservation in Africa. We show that these methods of harvesting differ significantly from natural predation, with trophy hunting showing extreme selection for adult males and game ranching leading to disproportionate harvests of young males. Little information, either theoretical or empirical, exists concerning the effect of these harvesting regimes on the long-term population dynamics of ungulate populations. Despite that, the potential effects of sex-skewed harvests are numerous. In this paper, we investigate one potentially deleterious effect of sex-skewed harvests. Both theory and experimental data suggest that male ungulates are limited in their absolute ability to inseminate females. Using a Leslie-Matrix model and published data on impala, we show that the interaction between sperm limitation and harvests with highly male-biased sex ratios can lead to greatly reduced female fecundity (defined as the number of young born) and population collapse. These results are robust and suggest that present methods of harvesting may not be optimal, or viable, in the long term.
Article
We examined the effects of protection from human activities and effects of tourist hunting on densities of 21 large mammal species in Tanzania. Aerial censuses revealed that mammal biomass per km2 was highest in National Parks. Densities of nine ungulate species were significantly higher in National Parks and Game Reserves than in areas that permitted settlement; these tended to be the larger species favoured by poachers. The presence of tourist hunters had little positive or negative impact on ungulate densities, even for sought-after trophy species; limited ground censuses confirmed these results. Our analyses suggest that prohibition of human activity, backed up by on-site enforcement, maintains ungulate populations at relatively high densities, and challenge the idea that enforcement is only effective when spending is high.
Article
In 1992, tourist hunting in the Selous Game Reserve generated 1.28 million dollars for the Tanzanian government, of which 0·96 million dollars were returned to wildlife conservation. Lions (Panthera leo) are one of three critical species for tourist hunting, consistently generating 12%–13% of hunting revenue from 1988 to 1992. Because of their ecological and economic importance (and intrinsic value), it is important that lion quotas be set so that offtake is sustainable. The population density of lions in Selous ranges from 0·08 to 0·13 adults km−2, comparable to unhunted ecosystems. The adult sex ratio (36–41% male) and the ratio of cubs to adults (29% cubs) are similar to those of unhunted populations. The ratio of lions to hyaenas is lower in heavily hunted areas (0·17 lions/hyena) than in unhunted areas (0·43 lions/hyena). Hunting levels between 1989 and 1994 took 2·7–4·3% of adult males annually, which is sustainable. The current quota is 10–16% of the adult male population, which exceeds natural mortality rates for male lions. To remain stable if the quota was filled, the population would have to compensate via increased fecundity, increased juvenile survival, or an altered sex-ratio. Compensation occurs in Selous by producing (or raising) more male than female cubs (66–81% of juveniles are male). Only 28% of the Selous quota was filled in 1992. The percentage of quota filled (both in Selous and nationwide) has dropped since 1988 as quotas have increased. The current intensity of lion hunting in Selous is sustainable, but the quota cannot be filled sustainably.
Article
From 1967 to 1969 the age and sex composition of Bohor Reedbuck groups encountered randomly in the Serengeti region had been recorded. In September and October 1972 the composition of the complete population in an area of about 2,5 km2 and the behaviour of the animals relevant to their social and spatial organization was recorded. 1. Of the 41 animals representing a density of 16 animals/km2, 56% were female female, 49% adult, 29% subadult and 22% immature animals. 2. Adult female female lived on their own -- together with their immature offspring, at most one fawn of either sex and one female of up to subadult age, the previous fawn -- inoverlapping home ranges of 15 to 40 ha. The subadult female female started to develop a home range in parts different from that of their mothers. 3. The ranges of 1 to 5 mature (subadult + adult) female female were defended by the same adult buck, their common ranges thus becoming a territorial area of 25 to 60 ha. The animals of one such area sometimes moved together for some hours, rarely days. 4. The territorial buck defended the territorial area only if female female were near. 5. The home ranges of female female who were defended by different bucks overlapped but much less than those of the female female of the same buck. 6. The territorial bucks chased male fawns off before they reached maturity (before the tips of their spike-like horns started to bend forward). The female fawns stayed in the territorial area. 7. 56% of the adult male male were territorial (26% of all male male), no subadult male was territorial. 8. Immature, subadult and the nonterritorial adult male male lived between the territorial areas in bachelor areas, in one case 6 bucks on 48 ha. Although the bachelor bucks did not defend their range its boundary line was set by the neighbouring territorial areas. The social and spatial organization of the Bohor Reedbuck is compared with that of the Southern Reedbuck (Jungius 1970, 1971). The social and spatial organization of the 3 Redunca species is compared with that of the other Reduncinae species.
A preliminary investigation of the population dynamics of sable antelope in the Matesi Safari Area, Zimbabwe. MSc thesis Sex-biased harvesting and population dynamics in ungulates: implications for conservation and sustainable use
  • R F
  • Zimbabwe
  • K J G
  • Chapman
  • Hall
  • London
  • J R G
  • E J M-G
F, R. (1990) A preliminary investigation of the population dynamics of sable antelope in the Matesi Safari Area, Zimbabwe. MSc thesis. University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. G, K.J. (1994) Rarity. Chapman and Hall, London. G, J.R. & M-G, E.J. (1994) Sex-biased harvesting and population dynamics in ungulates: implications for conservation and sustainable use. Cons. Biol. 8, 157–166.
Observations on a population of bohor reedbuck, Redunca redunca
  • T Caro H
T. Caro). Oxford University Press, New York. H, H. (1975) Observations on a population of bohor reedbuck, Redunca redunca (Pallas 1767).
Wildlife Production Systems: Economic Utilisation of Wild Ungulates Ecological Methodology
  • R J H
  • K R D
  • L M B
  • Cambridge
  • England
  • C J K
H, R.J., D, K.R. & B, L.M. (eds) (1989) Wildlife Production Systems: Economic Utilisation of Wild Ungulates. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, England. K, C.J. (1989) Ecological Methodology. Harper & Row, New York. L, J. & P, R. (1996) Studies of English red deer populations subject to hunting-to-hounds.
Historical and present-day anti-poaching efforts in Serengeti
  • P H
  • J C
References A, P., H, J. & C, K. (1995) Historical and present-day anti-poaching efforts in Serengeti.
Game Ranch Management Population trends and distribution of Serengeti herbivores: implications for management People and wildlife: spatial dynamics and zones of interaction Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains: Group Living in an Asocial Species
  • A R E Sinclair
  • P Arcese
  • J L Schaik
  • Pretoria
  • South Africa
  • K C
  • M B
  • Chicago
  • K C
  • H A R E H
  • P Sinclair
  • Arcese
In: Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem (Eds A.R.E. Sinclair and P. Arcese). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. B, J.P. (ed.) (1989) Game Ranch Management. J. L. van Schaik, Pretoria, South Africa. C, K. & B, M. (1995) Population trends and distribution of Serengeti herbivores: implications for management. In: Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem (Eds A.R.E. Sinclair and P. Arcese). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. C, K. & H, H. (1995) People and wildlife: spatial dynamics and zones of interaction. In: Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem (Eds A.R.E. Sinclair and P. Arcese). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. C, T.M. (1994) Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains: Group Living in an Asocial Species. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. C, T.M., P, N., B, M., C, K.L.I., W, B.L., F, B.P.,  K, J., H, S.A. & S, E. (1998) Consequences of different forms of conservation for large mammals in Tanzania: preliminary analyses. Afr. J. Ecol. 36, 303–320.
Tourist Hunting in Tanzania The impact of sport hunting: a case study
  • Chapman
  • Hall
  • London
  • N L-W
  • J A K
  • G L O
  • Cambridge Iucn
  • D W Md
  • P J J
Chapman & Hall, London. L-W, N., K, J.A. & O, G.L. (1995). Tourist Hunting in Tanzania. IUCN, Cambridge. MD, D.W. & J, P.J. (1996) The impact of sport hunting: a case study. In: The Exploitation of Mammal Populations (Eds V.J. Taylor and N. Dunstone).
Long-term ecological research in African ecosystems The Zimbabwe communal areas: management programme for indigenous resources (CAMPFIRE)
  • Chapman
  • Hall
  • London
  • S J Mn
  • K L I C
Chapman & Hall, London. MN, S.J. & C, K.L.I. (1991) Long-term ecological research in African ecosystems. In: Long-term Ecological Research (Ed. P.G. Risser). John Wiley & Sons, London. M, S. (1994) The Zimbabwe communal areas: management programme for indigenous resources (CAMPFIRE). In: Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community-based Conservation (Eds D.
The African Buffalo: a Study of Resource Limitation of Populations Population limitation of resident herbivores Katavi-Rukwa Conservation Project
  • Sinauer Associates
  • Sunderland
  • U S A Ma
  • A R E S
  • Chicago
  • A R E S
Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, U.S.A. S, A.R.E. (1977) The African Buffalo: a Study of Resource Limitation of Populations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. S, A.R.E. (1995) Population limitation of resident herbivores. In: Serengeti II: Dynamics, Man-agement, and Conservation of an Ecosystem (Eds A.R.E. Sinclair and P. Arcese). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. S, M. (1995) Katavi-Rukwa Conservation Project. Project proposal. Kreditanstalt fur Wider-aufbau. (Manuscript accepted 2 September 1997) © East African Wild Life Society, Afr. J. Ecol., 36, 321–346
The ecology and epidemiology of rinderpest virus in Serengeti and Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In: Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem Drastic decline in bohor reedbuck (Redunca redunca Pallas 1977) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Afr
  • D 
  • Salaam
  • A A R E D
  • P Sinclair
  • E L Arcese E
  • J M K
D  W (1995) Selous Game Reserve General Management Plan. Tanzania Department of Wildlife, Selous Conservation Programme, Dar es Salaam. D, A. (1995) The ecology and epidemiology of rinderpest virus in Serengeti and Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In: Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem (Eds A.R.E. Sinclair and P. Arcese). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. E, E.L. & K, J.M. (1985) Drastic decline in bohor reedbuck (Redunca redunca Pallas 1977) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 23, 53–55.
Animal breeding systems, hunter selectivity, and consumptive use in wildlife conservation
  • C G
  • J U
  • M M
  • T C
G, C., U, J., M, M. & C, T. (1998) Animal breeding systems, hunter selectivity, and consumptive use in wildlife conservation. In: Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology (Ed.