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Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes With Promise for Worldwide Cultivation

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Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. National Research Council. Washington: National Academy Press, 1989. xii + 415 pp., figures. $24.95 (paper). ISBN 0–309–04264-X.

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... Cherimoya is an underutilized new world tropical fruit tree belonging to the Annonaceae, a family included within the Magnoliales in the Eumagnoliid clade among the early-divergent angiosperms (Bremer et al. 2009 ). It is still in the initial stages of domestication (Escribano et al. 2007) and is considered at high risk of genetic erosion (Popenoe et al. 1989). Cherimoya fruits are widely praised for their excellent organoleptic characteristics, and the species is therefore considered to have high potential for commercial production and income generation for both small and large-scale growers in subtropical climates (Van Damme and Scheldeman 1999). ...
... In Peru, the local cultivar 'Cumbe' is already sold for retail prices significantly above the prices of unselected cherimoya fruit types ( Van Damme 2009, 2013). Most early chroniclers and scientists have proposed the Andean region, more precisely the valleys of southern Ecuador and northern Peru, as cherimoya's centre of origin (Popenoe 1921; Popenoe et al. 1989). The existence of isolated putatively wild cherimoya forest patches in the inter-Andean valleys of Ecuador and northern Peru supports this hypothesis. ...
... comm.), and that high genetic diversity is found in cherimoya genotypes there (Hormaza et al., unpublished data). In any case, cherimoya fruits have been consumed in the Andean region since antiquity (Popenoe et al. 1989) and movement of germplasm across southern Mexico, Mesoamerica and the Andes probably took place in pre-Columbian times. Wolters (1999) indicated that the ceramic cherimoya-shaped vases found in the remains to the Ecuadorian Valdivia culture (3,500–1,600 A.C.) may testify to the important role this early culture played in the exchange of cherimoya germplasm (as well as other crops) between the Andean region and Mesoamerica. ...
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There is a growing recognition of the need to evaluate the diversity status and trends of plant genetic resources’ use and maintenance in natural populations, farmers’ fields, home gardens and in other in situ settings to prioritize and optimize conservation actions and link these effectively with ex situ preservation approaches. The recent development of new powerful molecular tools that reveal many genome-wide polymorphisms has created novel opportunities for assessing genetic diversity, especially when these markers can be linked to key adaptive traits and are employed in combination with new geo-spatial methods of geographic and environmental analysis. New methods to prioritize varieties, populations and geographic areas for in situ conservation, and to enable monitoring of genetic diversity over time and space, are now available to support in situ germplasm management of annual crop and tree genetic resources. We will discuss concepts and examples of application of molecular markers and spatial analysis to optimize in situ conservation. We present a case study on the distribution and genetic diversity of the underutilized new world fruit tree crop cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) in its Andean distribution range to exemplify the usefulness of combining molecular marker and spatial data to inform in situ conservation decisions.
... This study focuses on cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), an underutilized fruit tree species that belongs to the Annonaceae, a family included within the Magnoliales in the Eumagnoliid clade among the early-divergent angiosperms [10]. This Neotropical tree species still is in its initial stages of domestication [11] and it is considered at high risk of losing valuable genetic material from its genepool [12]. Cherimoya fruits are widely praised for their excellent organoleptic characteristics, and the species is therefore considered to have a high potential for commercial production and income generation for both small and large-scale producers in subtropical climates [13]. ...
... At present, advanced commercial production is found in Spain, the world's largest cherimoya producer, with around 3000 ha of plantations, while small-scale cultivation occurs throughout the Andes, Central America and Mexico. Most early chroniclers and scientists proposed the Andean region, and more specifically, the valleys of southern Ecuador and northern Peru, as cherimoya's centre of origin [12], [15], [16]. The existence of natural cherimoya forest patches, which are scattered across the inter-Andean valleys in Ecuador and northern Peru, supports this hypothesis. ...
... comm.). In any case, cherimoya fruits were consumed in the Andean region in antiquity [12] and the movement of germplasm across Mesoamerica, southern Mexico and the Andes probably took place in pre-Columbian times. The conservation status of cherimoya genetic resources has improved considerably in recent years. ...
... Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is an Andean pseudocereal cultivated since 5 000 B.C. in its native area. During the European colonization of South America, quinoa was scorned by the Spanish conquistadores, and even actively suppressed because of its status within indigenous non-Christian ceremonies (Mujica et al., 2001). Recently, it has been introduced in the United States of America and Canada and also in Europe, where it is a candidate crop for agricultural diversification. ...
... The species is an annual Amaranthacea with good adaptability to different environmental conditions. It is drought resistant, and tolerant to frost, saline soils, diseases and pests (Mujica et al., 2001;Jacobsen et al., 2003;Jacobsen et al., 2005). ...
... The name tamarillo was developed in New Zealand as recently as 1970 ( Morton, 1987). The exact origin of tamarillo is at present unknown ( Popenoe et al. , 1989), but it can be found in the Andean regions of Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia ( Morton, 1987) and is categorised in the same Solanaceae family as tomato, eggplant and capsicum ( Sale and Pringle, 1999). The plant has spread to Central ...
... Although named cultivars seem to exist only in New Zealand, two to four types of tamarillo are distinguished according to their skin colour: purple-red (often divided into purple and red) and yellow (often divided into amber and gold) ( Popenoe et al. , 1989;Sale and Pringle, 1999;Prohens and Nuez, 2000). Growers often relate the yellowish green leaf colour to the production of yellowish fruit and the purple-green foliage with the production of orangey-red fruit. ...
Chapter
The tamarillo is a subtropical non-climacteric fruit that produces fruit throughout the year, with fruit production peaking in late summer or autumn. The fruit has an attractive deep red skin and flesh, and a distinctive somewhat acidic flavour. Tamarillos are optimally stored at 3 to 4.5. ®C, and 90-95% relative humidity. Lower temperatures will increase the risk of chilling injury. As the fruit mature, the colour changes from green to purple, red, amber and gold, while firmness and titratable acidity decline and the juice yield, soluble solids content (mainly sugars) and pH increase. Stem and calyx quality are important factors from a commercial marketing perspective although they do not affect flavour.
... Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is an Andean pseudocereal cultivated since 5 000 B.C. in its native area. During the European colonization of South America, quinoa was scorned by the Spanish conquistadores, and even actively suppressed because of its status within indigenous non-Christian ceremonies (Mujica et al., 2001). Recently, it has been introduced in the United States of America and Canada and also in Europe, where it is a candidate crop for agricultural diversification. ...
... The species is an annual Amaranthacea with good adaptability to different environmental conditions. It is drought resistant, and tolerant to frost, saline soils, diseases and pests (Mujica et al., 2001;Jacobsen et al., 2003;Jacobsen et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is to provide information on improving food crop production in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in the semi-arid Medi-terranean region of Turkey, which is influenced by multiple abiotic stresses. In particular, the authors focus on the diversification of crop production and introduction of new climate-proof crops and culti-vars with improved stress tolerance, such as quinoa. The stresses are becoming even more pronounced under the changing climate, which is predicted to bring drier conditions, increasing temperatures and greater variability, resulting in desertification. As quinoa is drought resistant, it is traditionally cultivated under rainfed conditions, even in semi-arid locations. However, when researchers started to study the impact of additional water on quinoa production, they found that deficit irrigation (DI) was highly beneficial in various experimental locations. On the other hand, quinoa is rarely cultivated under full irrigation, as in tests it performed only slightly better than quinoa cultivated under DI (in addition to the fact that sufficient water for full irrigation is mostly unavailable). Studies carried out in the Mediterranean region of Turkey indicated a positive response of quinoa to full irrigation – both with saline water and with freshwater – compared with DI. Quinoa is a facultative halophyte and can grow in non-saline to extremely saline conditions, depending on the cultivar. Seed production is enhanced by moderate salinity (EC in the 5–15 dS/m range) and some cultivars can still produce relatively good yields at an EC of 40–50 dS/m. This chapter also deals with problems of introducing quinoa in this part of the world, genetic resources used, the current state and perspectives of cultural dissemination in Turkey, uses and markets, and questions and problems about its dissemination.
... Es posible que la primera percepción de los fenómenos glaciares viniera de las propias culturas andinas que se asentaron en la Cordillera hace más de 8000 años (Salaverry Llosa 2006) a juzgar por los enterramientos y santuarios incaicos posteriores descubiertos en los nevados (Chávez 2001). Este mismo autor cita junto al nevado Coropuna la infraestructura de riego más alta del mundo (5600 m), tal vez relacionada con el cultivo de la papa amarga ( " shiri-pappa " : Solanum x ajanhuiri, S. x juzepczukii , S. x curtilobum) (Popenoe et al. 1989), siendo ésta la actividad agrícola realizada a mayor altitud en el esquema de uso de los pisos ecológicos de las comunidades pre-hispánicas (Murra 2009). Numerosos autores han intentado clasificar las geoformas glaciares en el Tibet (Shangmin et al. 2008), África (Young & Hastenrath 1987), Mongolia (Lehmkuhl et al. 2003), Europa mediterránea (Palacios et al. 2003), Alpes (Cavallin et al. 1997) y otras partes del mundo (Harris 1994, Fitzsimons & Veit 2001) y relacionarlos con la vegetación (Brancaleoni et al. 2003, Bussmann 2006, Roig et al. 2007, Deil et al. 2014). ...
Article
The Andean Cordillera is the second highest mountain range in the world after the Himalayas and therefore, one of the places where the cryogenic manifestations are more prominent. Tropical Andean glaciers usually present an ice-cap form, and various geomorphological forms rock glaciers, block streams, morainic deposits, cryoplanation surfaces (sometimes mixed with volcanic pumices) with polygon soils, and solifluction terraces can be distinguished in the surroundings. The study was carried out in the main glacial zones of Peru: Cordillera Blanca, Cordillera Central, Department of Puno (Allincapac and Yuracjasa), Department of Arequipa (Coropuna, Huarancante, Ampato and Imata plains), and Department of Tacna near the Tutupaca volcano. Above 4000 m (oro- and cryorotropical bioclimatic belts) we documented 152 plots using the Braun-Blanquet method, adding 287 releves from other authors from Peru, and also from Venezuela to southern Argentina and Chile. To interpret the variability, geographical distribution and vertical continuum of the associations, the concepts of basal community (BC), derived community (DC), altitudinal form and geographic race were used. Field and bibliographic tables were synthesized, and arranged using two dendrograms as a result of applying the Sorensen index to compare glacial vegetation between Peru and other regions of South America. Rock glaciers support a rupicolous vegetation dominated by Valeriana nivalis, and Saxifraga magellanica on the more humid rocks. Block streams contain specific plant communities with Xenophyllum species (X. ciliolatum, X. dactylophyllum, X. decorum, X. digitatum and X. poposum), but Chaetanthera is also very important in these biotopes across the Andes. Cryoplanation surfaces, with more stable and deep soils, present a greater diversity of plants, such as Anthochloa lepidula, Dielsiochloa floribunda, Lachemilla frigida, Mniodes coarctata, Nototriche obcuneata, N. pedicularifolia or N. turritella. On solifluction terraces and flood surfaces, communities with Festuca rigescens and Trkhophorum rigidum can be distinguished respectively. Deep clayey soils, support small pasturages of Deyeuxia minima and Aciachne pulvinata sometimes grazed, while the cushion vegetation caused by snowbreak streams is represented by Deyeuxia ovata and Werneria aretioides. From a syntaxonomical point of view, 32 Peruvian plant communities were recognized. Rock communities are the Senecio bolivarianus community mono-specific plant community on humid rocks distributed form Huancayo to Cusco, the Asplenio triphylli-Melpomenetum moniliformis ass. nova a rupiculous association installed on granitic rocks of the Cordillera Blanca, the Senecio algens community associated with the basal part of the rocks of the humid puna, and the Senecioni culcitioidis-Valerianetum nivalis a characteristic rock community usually present on andesites and basalts from Lima to Cordillera El Barroso (Tacna) [this association includes the subassociation saxifragetosum magellanicae, found on semi-permanent humid rocks, the geographic race with Draba cryptantha (Cordillera Central), the geographic race with Draba brackenridgei (near Cotahuasi Canyon, Arequipa), the geographic race with Draba cuzcoensis (near Colca Canyon, Arequipa), and the thermic ahitudinal form with Woodsia montevidensis (Callalli, Arequipa)]. The Xenophyllo-Englerocharion peruvianae alliance is represented by the following communities: Xenophyllo ciliolati-Plettkeetum cryptanthae a humid puna association present on block streams and morainic deposits with superficial stones from the Cordillera Blanca to Allincapac (Puno) [this association includes an altitudinal form with Anticona glareophila, from the limits of the vegetation of the Cordillera Central, a variant of semi-fixed blocks with Xenophyllum digitatum, a variant of mobile blocks with Xenophyllum ciliolatum, a derived community (DC) with Chaetanthera cochlearzfolia from Central Peru, found on clayey places that will evolve to the polygon soils colonized by the Stangeo rhizanthae-Weberbaueretum rosulantis association, and a DC with Valeriana globularis and Anthochloa lepidula on the same environments from southern Peru], and the Foci gymnanthaCerastium peruvianum community, documented on volcanic conglomerates from Callalli (Arequipa). Nototricho obcuneatae-Xenophylletum poposi installed on semi-fixed blocks of the altiplano of Peru and Bolivia in drysubhumid climate (its variability presents the sub-associations valerianetosum nivalis as a rupiculous aspect, and mniodetosum coarctatae on lightly sloping polygon soils), Nototricho-Mniodetum coarctatae ass. nova cryorotropical vegetation on flat polygon soils enriched with the volcanic pumices of the altiplano, and the Belloo piptolepis-Dissanthelietum calycini that indicates wetter soils without volcanic pumices in the altiplano belong to the Nototrichion obcuneatae alliance. The Deyeuxion minimae alliance indicates deeper and more humid soils, where we can differentiate five associations: Nototricho pinnatae-Lachemilletum frigidae present on the rock cornices and polygon soils coming from intrusive geologic materials of the Cordillera Blanca, Pycnophyllo mollis-Festucetum rigescentis very typical on solifluction terraces of the humid puna of Peruand Bolivia, Deyeuxio minimae-Trichophoretum rigidae on flooded surfaces of the humid Peruvian Andes, Azorello diapensioidis-Deyeuxietum minimae on humid, deep and clayey cryogenic soils, sometimes with very little superficial stones [this association includes an altitudinal form with Deyeuxia rigida, an ahitudinal form with Pycnophyllum molle, a variant on incipient solifluction terraces with Dissanthelium macusaniense, and another variant on deep and humid soils with Werneria nubigena], and Gnaphalio badii-Aciachnetum pulvinatae grazed vegetation in the orotropical belt. Finally, Deyeuxio ovatae-Wernerietum aretioidis ass. nova is a cushion association belonging to the Plantagini-Distichietea class occurring between 4800 and 5000 m a.s.l. To study the relationships between plant communities and some selected climatic parameters (T, M, m, It, P, Pm and Hm see abbreviations of the Table 6), we have made a biplot from a Principal Component Analyses for each plant community group (rock communities, Xenophyllo-Englerocharion, Nototrichion obcuneatae, and Deyeuxion minimae and other syntaxa. Plant communities placed at high altitude or in dry puna (Oruro-Arequiperia biogeographic province) are linked with the smaller values of the lowest mean temperature of the coldest month (m), while those placed in the humid puna (Ancashino-Paceria biogeographic province) are linked with the highest values of the highest mean temperature of the coldest month (M). Finally, the syntaxa Empetro rubrum-Balecetea gummiferae, Hamadryo kingii-Oreopolion glacialis, Leucherio hahnii-Nassauvietum juniperinae and Empetro rubrum-Oreopoletum glacialis, described earlier from Southern Patagonia, are typified.
... In addition , palaeobotanical evidence from Peru (Pozorski and Pozorski 1997) and recent molecular diversity studies in Central America (Hormaza et al. unpublished data) seem to corroborate a Mesoamerican origin of the species. In any case, cherimoya was domesticated in antiquity and the movement of plant material throughout the Americas took place in pre-Columbian times (Popenoe et al. 1989). Commercial cherimoya production worldwide is small, with Spain being the main world producer, followed by Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Portugal (mainly in Madeira), Bolivia, USA (mainly California), Argentina and Mexico. ...
Chapter
Production and commercialization of tropical and subtropical fruits have strongly increased in the last decade, particularly in countries with subtropical and Mediterranean climates, with important developmental advances due to significant research efforts, including control of flowering, intensive cultivation systems and use of growth regulators. This chapter covers general aspects such as the definition, classification and importance of tropical and subtropical fruits and their environmental requirements. Due to the different growth behaviour of monoaxial and polyaxial species different case studies covering some of the main tropical and subtropical fruits, i.e. bananas and papayas (monoaxials) and avocado, mango and cherimoya (polyaxi-als) are treated separately regarding their edaphoclimatic requirements for production and crop management, making special emphasis in reproductive biology, a key factor on the adaptation of tropical and subtropical fruits to different environments.
... Despite its high yield potential it has not achieved the success of other like tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Only in the recent times pepino fruits have raised an increasing interest in the exotic fruit market in Europe and America [7] . The pepino is usually grown up as an annual crop, but in frost free areas, it is sometimes grown as perennial [8] . ...
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This paper reports the findings regarding morphology, DNA markers and fruit quality of Solanum muricatum L., a newly introduced fruit in Hazara University, Pakistan, and other locally grown members of the Solanaceae family. In this study, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic NA) based PCR report on phylogenetic affinities of pepino with brinjal, chilies, potato and tomato was also included. Total genomic DNA was isolated and 120 arbitrary decamers were applied to the ge-nomic DNA of all these species. Only five out of the 120 decamers produced 27 polymorphic loci with the range of 400 -1400 bp. We observed the specificity of markers, and primer B-08 ampli-fied 700 bp locus linked to Solanum muricatum L., (Pepino), which could be used to identify this particular species of this family. Cluster analysis was also performed using the DNAMAN software (version 5.2.2.0) against the bivariate data collected from the products of several decamers. The UPGMA (Unweighted pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) analyses depicted three distinct groups, i.e. group I sorted out brinjal-tomato, group II sorted out chili-potato and pepino sorted out into its independent group III. Though on the basis of morphological traits pepino clustered with tomato, its DNA analyses proved it as a distinct species, far more related to the tomato. Moreover a total six parameters in biochemical analysis were studied, which revealed that pepino is a juicy fruit with maximum 93.25% moisture. This study could be helpful to maximize the new crop pepino in Pakistan.
... This plant can outlive long dry periods; nevertheless it leads to a significant decrease in yield. In terms of the root tubers formation, yacon was described as a crop with a negative reaction to photoperiod (Popenoe et al. 1989). ...
Article
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Yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poeppig Endlicher) H. Robinson, Asteraceae] is a tuber plant originated in Andes. In contrast to other root crops, which store the carbohydrates in the form of starch, yacon cumulates the carbohydrates in the form of fructooligosaccharides. They are not metabolized in the digestive tract and thus the consumption of yacon does not increase the level of glucose in the blood. This is one of the reasons why yacon is considered to be nourishment with a high potential for diabetics and overweight and obese people. As yacon leaves contain up to 25% of proteins in dry mass, it can be also used as forage. In the years 2001–2005, the meteorological conditions in the Czech Republic and their influence on biomass production (yield of root tubers, rhizomes and aboveground parts) were studied on yacon landraces originated in Bolivia, Ecuador, Germany and New Zealand. Yields of root tubers reached up to 35 t/ha, rhizomes up to 33 t/ha, and aboveground parts up to 54 t/ha. In terms of root tubers formation, the landrace with the highest yield (29.18 t/ha) was the one coming from New Zealand; in terms of overall biomass production, the landrace with the highest yield (92 t/ha) originated in Bolivia. The crucial factor for the root tubers yields is the precipitation; the length of vegetation period and the temperature are secondary.
... In recent times, the intrinsic value of the consumption of a broad repertoire of edible plant species has been pinpointed, and international recognition of the potential of minor crops has been encouraged by several plans of action involving worldwide participation, e.g., the FAO's " Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources " and " Rome Declaration on World Food Security " [5,6]. Further interest in neglected, underutilised, or " forgotten " species has been demonstrated in various local, regional, and general accounts, as well as in coverage of individual species7891011121314151617. There has thus been a growing awareness of the vital role of a diversity of wild, semi-domesticated and underdeveloped species in food and livelihood security and their potential for further development and wider use.However, it is generally anticipated that changes in land use will limit the area available for agriculture and increase the pressure on populations of crop wild relatives (CWR) and wild food plants [18]. ...
Article
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Over the last fifty years there has been a continual reduction in horticultural and agricultural biodiversity of nutritionally important plants, including those of the Solanaceae family. To add to this, the broad range of traditional crops, previously grown on a sustainable scale in some parts of the world, has been replaced by a narrow range of major crops grown as large-scale monocultures. In order to counteract this trend, and to help maintain a broad wealth of genetic resources, conservation is essential. This, in turn, helps to safeguard food security. A taxonomic inventory, covering the diversity of species in a plant group, is an important first step in conservation. The Solanaceae is one of the major plant families providing food species. A survey of the biodiversity, ethnobotany and taxonomy of subfamily Solanoideae was undertaken and is presented here as an inventory of food species. Fifteen genera provide species that are utilised for food across the world. Of these, only four genera contain economically significant cultivated food cropspecies. The majority of these are in the genus Solanum, whilst Capsicum, Physalis and Lycium contribute the remainder of cultivated crop species. These genera and others also comprise species that are semi-cultivated, tolerated as useful weeds, or gathered from the wild.
... The Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) is an exotic fruit from the Solanaceae family native to the Andean region which has spread to other parts of the world including Africa and India [1,2]. In addition to its high contents of vitamin A, C, B-complex [3] and minerals like iron and phosphorous [4,5], this tropical fruit is also known for its antioxidant [6], anticancer [3,7] , anti- inflammatory [8,9], as well as diabetes and hypertension control properties [10]. ...
Article
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The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance.
... Cherimoya fruits are eaten as daily consumption of vitamin C and it also contains approximately 15% of sugar around 60kcal/100g [20]. Previous test revealed that high consumption of Cherimoya fruits may cause atypical Parkinsonism in Guadeloupe [21,22]. ...
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The Annonaceae family is rich in potential as a source of therapeutic agent for the development of novel pharmaceutical drugs. Several species belonging to Annonaceae genus have been well studied and have provided numerous therapeutic substances which able to use for the treatment of many illness. In this paper, four therapeutic potential of many species derived from some Annonaceae genus will be discussed based on previous published research for future testing usage.
... En la región sur de América, principalmente en la región de los Andes, hace aproximadamente 7000 años se domesticaba principalmente el cultivo de la papa, además la coca que sigue siendo importante en la actualidad, variedades de frijol y entre los principales animales domados estaban las alpacas, conejillos de india y las llamas (Lyon 1992;Spooner et al. 2005). ...
... (A. Rajchl). the U.S.A and other countries [6][7][8][9][10]. The Czech Republic has 26 accessions; it is the largest collection outside of the Andean region. ...
Article
Yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. et Endl.) H. Robinson] is a plant grown worldwide originating in the Andes region. Yacon is grown for its sweet tuberous roots and leaves used for the preparation of herbal infusions. Twenty-six yacon landraceś leaves and roots (both peeled and unpeeled) have been analysed by DART-TOF/MS. The method has been optimised and the fingerprints of the mass spectra have been statistically processed by PCA and LDA statistical analysis. The DART method has succeeded in differentiating between the yacon landraces according to their genotype and geographical origin.
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Ulluco have recently been re-introduced into New Zealand from South America and are currently undergoing growing trials with a view to release as a new vegetable crop. This crop produces highly variegated coloured small tubers which can been eaten both cooked and raw. Colours include yellow, red, magenta, and green, sometimes in the same tuber. The leaves can also be eaten. Proximate analysis in New Zealand has shown that the tubers contain high levels of carbohydrate (84-94%), moderate levels of protein (9-12%), low levels of fat (0.7-0.9%), and some vitamin C (5-9 mg/100 g). They compare well with other staple crops eaten in this country. Some tubers contain mucilage which can either been removed by soaking or left specifically to thicken the food.
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In this work, we provided a Tropaeolum tuberosum hydroalcoholic extract to male mice (780 mg kg-1) for 7, 14 and 21 days treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight gain, testes, epididymides and prostate weight (p> 0.05), nevertheless progressive motility decreased and immobile sperm count increased significantly after 21 days treatment (p <0.05). The sperm count in the epididymis cauda decreased in the 3 three assessments, concentration on 21 days treatment was significantly lower than those of 7 and 14 days treatments (p <0.05). Our results suggest, that T. tuberosum has a direct action on the male reproductive system decreasing spermatic parameters without exerting toxic effects on mice.
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A robust, reproducible method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for Lupinus mutabilis Sweet (tarwi), a large-seeded Andean legume. Initially, a regeneration and transformation protocol was developed using a plasmid which contained a bifunctional fusion gene conferring both β-glucuronidase (gus) and neomycin phosphotransferase activities, under the control of a constitutive 35S35SAMV promoter. The tissue explants consisted of longitudinal slices from embryonic axes of imbibed, mature seed. Using a series of tissue culture media for cocultivation, shoot initiation, shoot elongation, and rooting, kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were recovered from approximately 1% of the explants. This transformation protocol was further used with a construct that contained the human adenosine deaminase (hADA) gene under the control of a legumin seed-specific promoter, also with a kanamycin resistance cassette for chemical selection. Changes made during the course of this study, which included adjustments to the antibiotic concentration during the shoot elongation and rooting phases plus the incorporation of techniques to improve ventilation in the tissue culture system, resulted in major improvements in shoot quality and, most significantly, rooting. The outcome was an increased frequency of transgenic plant recovery (7.4%), with a low (9.6%) rate of plants that escaped selection. The inheritance of the hADA gene was documented and showed the expected Mendelian segregation pattern. The produced hADA protein was a fully functional enzyme and localized only in the seed, as expected. Thus, this legume species is an excellent candidate for a nonfood plant host platform for the production of plant-made proteins.
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In this study, the effects of convective, microwave and microwave–convective drying methods on the drying characteristics, colour, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of goldenberry fruits were investigated. To select the most appropriate thin-layer drying model for drying treatments, nine mathematical drying models were fitted to the experimental data. Based on the statistical tests used for evaluation, the Midilli et al. and Wang and Singh models were considered the best models to describe the drying behaviours of goldenberry fruits in all drying methods. The colour values (L*, a* and b*) of fresh fruit were decreased by drying. Compared with the fresh sample, the dried samples exhibited a 64–75% and 65–75% decrease in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Among the different drying treatments, the values closest to those of fresh samples with respect to colour values, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were achieved with the 160 W microwave drying method.
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Rhizome with fibrous roots
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18.1 Introduction Decision making in agriculture is based on knowledge of the behavior of crops under site-specific growing conditions at any given moment in time. For many tropical crops, research is limited, and there is a dearth of readily available information on where to grow many crops and how to manage them effectively. Small growers create informal models of their crops based on their personal experience and traditional knowledge, and they use these models to guide their decisions on how to better manage their crops. Formal research to model site-specific crop responses to variation in growing conditions and management is frequently based on small plot experimentation. The particularity of this approach is that a small number of individual factors that affect the variable under study are
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This publication aims at shedding light on the use, nutritional properties, market potential and contribution to local livelihoods of Andean grains (quinoa, cañahua and amaranth). It addresses some of the research gaps regarding knowledge of the use, as well as the market and non-market values of quinoa, cañuhua and amaranth, and the associated traditional knowledge, taking into account local livelihood assets of people living in a difficult environment. It also investigates what effects the change from subsistence to market production has on the farming community and their environment. This publication looks in particularly at quinoa in Southern Bolivia, where this indigenous crop has great potential to contribute to local livelihoods.
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In the inter-Andean valleys of central Perú, two species of tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) and Symmetrischema tangolias (Gyen), often occur simultaneously in stored potatoes. Traditional farming communities in the region produce a variety of native potatoes for local consumption. These include Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena, the presumed predecessor of commercial potatoes, S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum. In this study, we examined resistance against P. operculella in ten native Peruvian potato varieties (Casa blanca, Chispiadita, Madre de vaca, Mamaco negro, Misha, Chorisa, Mamaco rosado, Occa papa, Vacapa jayllo, and Yana tornasol). We also compared resistance in the first five of these varieties against S. tangolias. Varieties with pigmented periderms showed moderate resistance (30-40% against P. operculella in Mamaco negro, Mamaco rosado, and Yana tornasol and 55% against S. tangolias in Mamaco negro). All the other varieties were susceptible to both moth species. Small tubers tended to be the most resistant to the attack by both moths; however, this was not related to the availability of food for developing larvae, since pupal weight and development time were unaffected by the size of tubers. Similar responses by the two moths to native potatoes indicate that tuber resistance could be used to control the complex of tuber moths that damage potatoes in the Andes. We suggest that native potatoes, which are often easily introgressed with commercial potatoes, are a potential source of resistance against tuber moths.
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Andean farmers have traditionally adapted and selected varieties of quinoa and potatoes to reduce their vulnerability to a range of environmental risks. Data suggest that this strategy is being undermined. Market pressures, particularly the requirements for consistency and quantity along with the import of subsidised wheat products, are leading to the displacement of quinoa and indigenous potato varieties. This paper explores the feasibility of maintaining crop diversity while ensuring that farmers benefit from market opportunities. For potato, the most promising approach is one of ‘conservation through use’, whereby development practitioners identify market niches for local rather than cosmopolitan varieties. Meanwhile, quinoa production and consumption has been enhanced by government-sponsored initiatives that use quinoa in food-support programmes. The success of these efforts to enhance livelihood security requires an enabling policy environment that encourages extension approaches, where the emphasis is on farmers' active participation, and supports public and private interventions in remote rural areas.
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Analysis of the polar extracts from kancolla seeds led to the isolation of five betaines: glycine betaine, trigonelline, trigonelline methylester, trigonelline glucosylester and 3-carboxy-1-(2-sulfoethyl)-pyridinium, the last two of which have not previously been reported in the literature. All structures were elucidated from spectroscopic [NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HOHAHA, HMQC, HMBC)] and mass spectrometric data (ESI-MS).
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Traducción integral del artículo en inglés publicado en J. Agron. Crop Sci. Analizando la situación de la producción de quinua en el altiplano sud de Bolivia, Jacobsen (2011, J. Agron. Crop Sci. 197: 390) sostiene que el auge del mercado de exportación tiene un impacto negativo sobre el medio ambiente y el consumo nacional de la quinua, lo que lleva a un desastre ambiental en la región. Considerando la escasez de estudios científicos y las dinámicas social y ambiental muy rápidas en esta región, consideramos que la reseña de Jacobsen deforma la situación de la producción de quinua en el sur de Bolivia. Específicamente, sostenemos que: i) los datos presentados por Jacobsen (2011) no demuestran ninguna caída en los rendimientos de quinua que, supuestamente, tendrían que reflejar una degradación de los suelos, ii) la demonstración de Jacobsen (2011) respecto al consumo interno de quinua es infundada tanto del punto de vista nutricional como cultural. Sugerimos que la difusión de estos argumentos, aunque científicamente inconsistentes, puede tener graves impactos negativos sobre los que se preocupan por la producción sostenible de alimentos y el comercio justo con países en desarrollo. Concluimos que la creciente competición en el mercado internacional de la quinua necesita, más que de reforzados controles agrotécnicos sobre los productores locales, de nuevos ajustes hacia una economía y una cooperación científica más éticas.
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• Premise of the study: Permanent tetrads are the most common form of pollen aggregation in flowering plants. The production of pollen in monads is plesiomorphic in angiosperms, but the aggregation into tetrads has arisen independently different times during the evolution of flowering plants. The causes behind the recurrent evolution of pollen aggregation from monads remain elusive. Permanent tetrad pollen is quite common in the Annonaceae, the largest family in the early-divergent order Magnoliales. In some genera, such as Annona, both tetrad- and monad-producing species can be found. • Methods: In this comparative study of pollen development, we use immunolocalization, cytological characterization, and enzymatic assays of four species in the genus Annona and one species in its closely related genus Asimina that release pollen in tetrads and two species in the genus Annona that release pollen in monads. • Key results: The main difference between species with tetrad and monad pollen is a delayed digestion of callose and cellulose at the pollen aperture sites that resulted in nonlayering of the exine in these areas, followed by a rotation and binding of the young microspores at the aperture sites. • Conclusions: Small changes in development resulted in clear morphological changes on pollen dispersal time and open a window on the possible selective advantage of the production of aggregated pollen.
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Variously coloured oca tubers (CIP)
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Production and commercialization of tropical and subtropical fruits have strongly increased in the last decade, particularly in countries with subtropical and Mediterranean climates, with important developmental advances due to significant research efforts, including control of flowering, intensive cultivation systems and use of growth regulators. This chapter covers general aspects such as the definition, classification and importance of tropical and subtropical fruits and their environmental requirements. Due to the different growth behaviour of monoaxial and polyaxial species different case studies covering some of the main tropical and subtropical fruits, i.e. bananas and papayas (monoaxials) and avocado, mango and cherimoya (polyaxials) are treated separately regarding their edaphoclimatic requirements for production and crop management, making special emphasis in reproductive biology, a key factor on the adaptation of tropical and subtropical fruits to different environments. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
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Pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruits from 15 accessions of cultivated pepino as well as six accessions from wild relatives were evaluated for contents in dry matter, protein, β-carotene, chlorophylls and seven minerals. Several-fold differences among accessions were found for most traits. Average values obtained were similar to those of melon and cucumber, but the phenolic contents were much higher. Wild species had significantly higher average contents for all traits vs. the cultivated pepino accessions. And, the comparisons among the cultivated pepino varieties showed that the modern varieties were more uniform in composition, and they possessed significantly lower concentrations of protein, P, K, and Zn than local land races. Most of the significant correlations among composition traits were positive. Our studies show that regular consumption of pepino fruits could make a significant contribution to the recommended daily intake of P, K, Fe and Cu as well as to the average daily intake of phenolics. Furthermore, the higher values for most nutrients measured in the wild species and in the local land races indicate that new pepino varieties with improved fruit contents in nutrient and bioactive compounds can be developed.
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Productivity of most improved major food crops showed stagnation in the past decades. As human population is projected to reach 9–10 billion by the end of the 21st century, agricultural productivity must be increased to ensure their demands. Photosynthetic capacity is the basic process underlying primary biological productivity in green plants and enhancing it might lead to increasing potential of the crop yields. Several approaches may improve the photosynthetic capacity, including integrated systems management, in order to close wide gaps between actual farmer’s and the optimum obtainable yield. Conventional and molecular genetic improvement to increase leaf net photosynthesis (PN) are viable approaches, which have been recently shown in few crops. Bioengineering the more efficient CC4 into C3 system is another ambitious approach that is currently being applied to the C3 rice crop. Two under-researched, yet old important crops native to the tropic Americas (i.e., the CC4 amaranths and the C3-CC4 intermediate cassava), have shown high potential PN, high productivity, high water use efficiency, and tolerance to heat and drought stresses. These physiological traits make them suitable for future agricultural systems, particularly in a globally warming climate. Work on crop canopy photosynthesis included that on flowering genes, which control formation and decline of the canopy photosynthetic activity, have contributed to the climate change research effort. The plant breeders need to select for higher PN to enhance the yield and crop tolerance to environmental stresses. The plant science instructors, and researchers, for various reasons, need to focus more on tropical species and to use the research, highlighted here, as an example of how to increase their yields.
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Cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule) is grown in the Altiplano of Bolivia and Peru, between 3810 and 4200 m a.s.l. Rural indigenous households have cultivated the cañahua as a subsistence crop for millennia. The seeds have a high content and quality of protein. We studied the relation between the following: (i) temperature and seed germination and (ii) the effect of temperature and sowing depth on seedling emergence of five cultivars and one landrace. Three experiments were conducted as follows: (i) seeds of a cultivar were germinated in Petri dishes at six temperatures (3, 5, 10, 14, 20 and 24 °C), (ii) sown at five depths (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mm) in a mixed peat soil substrate at three temperatures and (iii) one landrace (Lasta) and 5 cultivars (Lasta and Saihua growth habit) were sown in 6 depth (0, 5, 10, 25, 35 and 50 mm) in a sandy loam at two temperatures (5 and 15 °C). Temperature had significantly effect on the germination percentages of the plants (P < 0.001). Seeds germinated at the lowest temperature (3 °C). The estimated base temperature was close to 0 °C. A polynomial function described well the relation between time to 50% germination (t50) and temperature in the interval from 3 to 24 °C resulting in a linear relationship between germination rate and temperature. Shallow sowing depth (5–25 mm) resulted in 80% germination at 15 °C. There were significant differences of emergence in relationship to burial depth (P < 0.001). Only few seedlings emerged when seeds were sown at 50 mm depth. We did not find significant differences in emergence of seedlings between Lasta and Saihua at 15 °C. Nevertheless, at 5 °C, seedlings of cañahua belonging to the Lasta growth habit form did have higher germination rate as were shown for the Kullaca cultivar and the Umacutama landrace. This may be attributed to larger seed size of these cultivars.
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Since the post–World War II “discovery” of global malnutrition and the concomitant rise of the development apparatus, various “miracle foods” have been proposed by international development organizations as solutions to chronic undernourishment in developing countries. This article draws on media analysis, development literature, and interviews to explore the “miracle food narrative” (MFN) in three cases: high-lysine corn, Golden Rice, and quinoa, which as the incumbent miracle food is the focus of the paper. The essay contends that miracle food narratives depoliticize hunger through a “curative metaphor.” This trope bolsters a paternal logic that blames malnutrition on the undernourished, and blurs problems of access and dispossession, locating “the solution” in Western philanthropy or economic development. The essay argues that quinoa’s interpellation as a global miracle food is directly related to the rise of “multicultural” and “sustainable” development paradigms, and corresponding changes in the roles of “culture/tradition” and “environment” in development discourse. While quinoa’s insertion in the MFN departs in some ways from the fable of the Western scientist designing the hunger antidote by representationally displacing authority in science with authority in “traditional ways,” this recasting of the actors leaves the broader narrative and underlying curative metaphor in place. As malnutrition alleviation programs integrate cultural difference, critical food scholars must pay close attention to the ways in which tradition and culture are invoked. To conclude, I draw attention to the fraught interaction of the politics of indigeneity and the politics of global malnutrition that arises with the shifting roles of science and tradition in quinoa’s adaptation of the miracle food narrative, as well as scale disjunctures between simple miracle food stories and complicated realities, a dynamic that underscores the need for agrifood and food policy scholars to pay close attention to complex interactions of scale.
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The genetic diversity of Venezuelan Caricaceae family collection was studied using 15 random primers of the series OPA, OPK, OPM, OPY, OPO and OPW from Operon Technologies Inc, and the amplification fragments linked with the discrimination among Carica papaya L. and three species of Vasconcellea genera: V. cundinamarcensis Linden, V. cauliflora Jacq and V. microcarpa Jacq (subspecies microcarpa and pilífera) were identified. The 15 RAPDs markers produced 403 polymorphic amplification fragments with sizes between 186-2550 base pairs (bp), a reproducibility >90%, and allowed a clear separation of the four species, using the simple matching coefficient and the groups obtained from the UPGMA cluster algorithm applied to the first three principal axes. After external logistic biplot fitting, nine amplification fragments were selected: OPA- 07(466pb), OPY-07(640pb), OPY-09(390pb), OPO-10(680pb), OPW-06(230pb) and OPW-06(420pb), directly involved in the classification of the two genera; and OPA-02(1111pb), OPA- 07(675pb) and OPW-06(740pb) allowing to distinguish among Vasconcelleas species. The analysis did not detect any pattern associated with the geographic origin of the entrances. The results obtained for Venezuelan Caricaceae collection using RAPDs markers are similar to those reported by several authors in morphological, biochemistry and molecular studies, and in intergeneric crosses, and generated information to facilitate the handling of the collection, choosing of parentals and selection in breeding programs.
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Quinoa has a relatively recent history of commercial cultivation in North America. Cold temperatures are an important limiting factor for quinoa cultivation in many areas of North America. The occurrence of frosts places limits on the planting date of spring planted quinoa, which is of particular importance where the long time to maturity for quinoa is an issue. Soil salinity is a significant agricultural problem for large parts of temperate North America. The majority of these saline-affected soils are confined to arid and semi-arid regions of the West. In areas where quinoa seed set is not threatened by high temperatures, other major challenges, both abiotic and biotic in nature, exist and pose potential threats to successful quinoa cultivation. The high level of abiotic stress tolerance in quinoa may give it a distinct advantage in areas with marginal agricultural lands, specifically those affected by soil salinity.
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This book continues as volume twelve of a multi-compendium on Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. It covers such plants with edible modified storage subterranean stems (corms, rhizomes, stem tubers) and unmodifed subterranean stem stolons, above-ground swollen stems and hypocotyls, storage roots (tap root, lateral roots, root tubers) and bulbs that are eaten as conventional or functional food as vegetables and spices, as herbal teas, and may provide a source of food additive or neutraceuticals. A list of such edible plant species from families Acanthaceae to Zygophyllaceae are presented in a tabular form and 32 such edible species from the families Alismataceae, Amaryllidaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asparagaceae, Asteraceae, Basellaceae, Brassicaceae and Campanulaceae had been covered in detail in preceding volume nine. Twenty edible species from the families Amaranthaceae, Cannaceae, Cibotiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cyperaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae had been covered in detail in volume ten and eighteen edible species in the families Iridaceae, Lamiaceae, Marantaceae, Nelumbonaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Orchidaceae, Oxalidaceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae and Simaroubaceae in volume eleven. This present volume twelve covers in detail 21 edible species from the families Solanaceae (1), Tropaeolaceae (1), Typhaceae (2) and Zingiberaceae (17). Other species from these families with edible modified stems, roots and bulbs are listed in Table 1. Many plants with such edible plant parts that are better known for their edible fruits or flowers have been covered in earlier volumes and for those better known for other non-reproductive plant parts will be covered in latter volumes.
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Ahipa roots (Olivia Lopez)
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Mauka tuberous root (Frank Van Keirsbilck)
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Resumen La modificación del almidón de semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd.) para fines cosméticos siguió una metodología de Simila-Similb, donde, en primer lugar, se obtuvo el OSA (octenil succinico anhidro) de almidón de quinua a partir del OSA y almidón de quinua, y luego obtener la sal de aluminio octenil succinato alumínico de almidón de quinua, siendo este último la materia prima para un producto grado-cosmético. Simila es una metodología que opta por establecer el mismo procedimiento usado para la modificación del almidón de arroz (Early Indica Rice), donde los parámetros tenidos en cuenta fueron: tiempo de reacción de 4 horas, temperatura de reacción de 33, 4 ºC, pH de reacción 8,4, concentración de almidón de 36,8% (en proporción de agua, w/w), cantidad de OSA 3% (en proporción de almidón, w/w). El grado de sustitución fue de 0,0188 para el patrón en arroz y 0,31 para el encontrado experimentalmente en quinua y una eficiencia de la reacción de 81,0% para el patrón en arroz y 95% para el encontrado experimentalmente en quinua. Similb, grado-cosmético, basados en el Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, fue usado el 2% de sulfato de aluminio, teniendo en cuenta que el producto obtenido iba a ser aplicado en la preparación de cremas cosméticas. Abstract The modification of starch from seeds of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) for cosmetic purposes followed a methodology Parallel-a and Parallel-b, where, first, was obtained the OSA (Octenyl Succinic Anhydride) of quinoa starch from OSA and quinoa starch, and finally the aluminum salt octenyl succinic aluminun of quinoa starch, being the raw materials for cosmetic grade product. Parallel-b is a method that uses the same procedure for rice starch modification (Early Indica Rice); parameters were: reaction time (4 hours); reaction temperature (33,4 ºC); reaction pH 8,4; starch concentration (36,8%) (w/w basis), 3% OSA amount (starch proportion, w/w) Substitution degree was 0.0188 for rice pattern, and 0,031 for quinoa starch, with a 95% reaction efficiency. Parallel-b, cosmetic grade, based in the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, 2% aluminum sulfate was used, taking into account that the obtained product will be used in cosmetic creams preparation.
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This study examines farmers’ agro-biodiversity decision-making through an Andean case study, and expands upon earlier approaches in two ways. First, it incorporates cultural variables into an econometric analytic framework encompassing the influence of demographic, farm physical and market factors on agro-biodiversity. Second, it encompasses a suite of different richness measures of inter- as well as intraspecific agro-biodiversity. Data are drawn from interviews with the heads of 89 farm households in Cotacachi, Ecuador. ANOVA and poisson regressions are used to analyze the relations between explanatory variables and agro-biodiversity measures. Results show that culture and subsistence play key roles in fostering diversity maintenance; those who strongly identify with local Kichwa cultural traditions and those whose production is mainly subsistence-oriented grow the most diverse fields. The findings indicate that initiatives supporting cultural revitalization and agriculture oriented at home consumption will likely enhance in situ diversity maintenance.
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