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How Context Mediates Policy: The Implementation of Single Gender Public Schooling in California

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In this article, we present findings about the implementation of single gender public schooling in California - a movement that signifies a growing interest in school choice and private sector solutions to public education problems. we analyze qualitative data gathered in a study of 12 single gender academies (6 boys; 6 girls). As well-meaning educators responded to California's single gender academies legislation, they designed schools and used resources to address the pressing needs of students in each community, such as low achievement, poverty, or violence, rather than to address gender bias. The impetus for single gender schooling in each context affected the organization, curriculum and pedagogy in each academy, as did educators' ideologies about gender. In the end, the politics surrounding the legislation, the resource interests of district and school administrators, and the lack of institutional support for this gender-based reform coalesced to structure the demise of most of the single gender academies. We consider the implications of these findings for the viability of single gender schooling as a public school option.

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... They do not, however, cite that unlike Brown v. Board of Education, single-sex education is a choice. Datnow, Hubbard, and Conchas (2001) found that in order for single sex programs to be successful, parents and students must choose to be a part of the program and not forced into it. ...
... emerge. In studies completed in the United States and abroad, researchers have found that in some cases gender stereotypes are reinforced and boys display inappropriate behavior (Jackson and Smith, 2000); therefore, intense professional development is necessary to avoid this situation (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001;Warrington & Younger, 2003). ...
... She argued that single-sex programs are often instituted to assist girls in courses that are dominated by males; however, it can not be assumed that it will be beneficial for boys as well. Datnow, Hubbard, and Conchas (2001) present their findings from a study of the impact of legislation on single-sex public schooling in California. In this study, the authors analyzed qualitative data from 12 single-sex academies and focused on the influence of policy makers" and educators" values and agendas in the schools. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate how an all-girls' urban public school has built capacity and sustained itself. Through this study, the researcher interviewed faculty and staff in their natural setting to identify the capacity building strategies the school has developed and used to sustain itself as a reform model. By presenting the data in narrative form, the researcher exposes the reader to a culture and climate that she experienced during her visit to the school.By analyzing the data collected, the researcher found that a nurturing environment built on collaboration, building relationships and high expectations by a dedicated faculty are necessary components to building capacity at an all-girls' public school. These characteristics have sustained this school for more than a decade, and it has become a standard that other schools and districts attempt to replicate.
... To echo and expand upon a point made by Datnow, Hubbard, and Conchas (2001), we saw "evidence of how teachers' ideologies about gender"and here we would add race and social class-"and the interactions between teachers and students in the classroom mediated the implementation of singlegender public schooling" (p. 23). ...
... As we stated earlier, there are no guarantees that simply separating the sexes creates an equitable learning environment or one that interrupts stereotypical gender and racial arrangements (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001). It was not unusual in the all-girl classrooms to see them essentially reproduce what had transpired in a typical coeducational classroom, but this time with some girls now taking the lead roles: A few girls would dominate, taking much of the "air time" in class, garnering a lot of teacher attention, both positive and negative. ...
... Much of the research on single-sex schooling indicates that single-sex classes alone cannot address the structural barriers to gender equity. As indicated earlier, there are no guarantees that simply separating the sexes creates an equitable learning environment or even one that would be considered "better" in terms of interrupting stereotypical gender relations (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001;Zwerling, 2001). Without a careful and consistent interrogation of racialized, social-class-based, and gendered relations in a classroom and school, these innovative schools are in danger of perpetuating rather than interrupting stereotypes that damage students' educational and future possibilities. ...
Article
This ethnographic study documents how accountability measures skewed the implementation of gender equity reform at one California public middle school serving low-income students of color. In creating single-sex classes throughout the school, the Single Sex Academy (SSA) became the largest public experiment with single-sex schooling in the country, but pressure to raise its standardized test scores diverted the school away from the exploration and implementation of the gender reform. The chronicle of SSA is particularly relevant in light of (a) a recent call to relax Title IX standards and increase the numbers of public single-sex classes and schools, and (b) the provision of monies mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 for single-sex classes and schools, along with the act's imposition of accountability standards and testing.
... Governor Pete Wilson spurred a move to open single-sex schools in the late 1990's (e.g., Lewin 1997; Rothstein 1996). Datnow et al. (2001a) ...
... ), is no longer available at the link provided by NASSPE but can be obtained from the Internet Archive via the now-dead NASSPE link (Datnow et al. 2001b). Datnow and Hubbard reported: Students received mixed messages about gender. ...
... Segments of Datnow and her colleagues' report were published in journals and an edited book (Datnow et al. 2001a; Hubbard and Datnow 2002, 2005). Although they were critical of many aspects of the California program, they also had positive things to say about the experience of the students (in particular, see Hubbard and Datnow 2005). ...
Article
The number of single-sex schools in the United States has climbed steadily in recent years, despite a lack of consensus that such schools lead to academic or psychological outcomes superior to those of coeducational schools. In this introduction to the first part of a special issue on the topic, we review the history of single-sex education in the U.S. and factors that have led to its recent rise. We then review ideological and methodological controversies in the field. Finally, we summarize the eight empirical studies that appear in the issue, highlighting the contributions of each paper to a body of work that we hope will inform educational practice and policy. KeywordsSingle-sex education–Children–Adolescents–Achievement–Social development
... ducation policymakers currently advocate enhancing achievement for diverse populations while taking steps toward long-term educational reform (Raudenbush, 2005). Achieving educational reform or advancing social agendas, while improving academic achievement (Dillon, 2005), is the goal of legislation, school districts, and teachers (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001). One prominent reform alternative is grouping students according to sex. ...
... This male dominance and the corresponding suppression of female participation persist into high school. Both junior-high school and high school girls have reported that boys in their mixed-sex classrooms harassed them and dictated the flow of class (American Association of University Women, 1998; Datnow et al., 2001;Martino, Mills, & Lingard, 2005;Orenstein, 1994). This boy-dominated classroom culture stifles girls' academic risk-taking (Parker & Rennie, 2002;Streitmatter, 1997Streitmatter, , 1998 and inhibits their participation in asking and answering questions. ...
Article
The authors used mixed methods to evaluate over 2 years the effectiveness of single-sex instruction (SSI) on achievement outcomes, instructional practices, teacher efficacy, student behaviors, and classroom culture in an urban, at-risk high school primarily composed of individuals from disadvantaged populations. Students grouped according to sex in algebra and English classes were compared with coeducational students by assessment of course grades, standardized test scores, classroom observations, surveys, teacher interviews, and a focus group discussion. Achievement results associated with SSI were inconsistent, with gains shifting between groups. The authors observed gains in algebra achievement for SSI in Year 1 but not in Year 2. Differences in English achievement were not observed between SSI and coeducational groups. Standardized test results indicated superior performance for coeducational students. SSI provided a supportive environment for girls, inducing greater participation and academic risk-taking. Teachers believed that the SSI environment was conducive to learning, whereas students denounced both the social and the academic benefits of SSI.
... A review of the literature for single-sex schooling in the U.S. (Datnow et al., 2001) concluded that it provided a stronger academic environment, free from social distractions, for both boys and girls than do coeducational settings. Benefits for girls in self-esteem and leadership engagement in math and science have been documented. ...
... Also in the U.S., a three-year study of 12 single-sex schools created in California in the late 90s interviewed teachers, administrators, parents, and students and observed academic and elective classes. Some schools were found to promote gender equity in the treatment of students while others displayed gender stereotyped practices (Datnow et al, 2001). Accounting for the differential performance of these schools, the researchers noted that they had not been created on the basis of informed gender knowledge but rather as a form of school choice to increase the diversity of the public school offerings. ...
Article
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Abstract This monograph,reviews key findings in the international research literature from 1995 to the present on five dimensions of the gender socialization process in schools: (1) Teacher-based dynamics,such as teacher attitudes and expectations and their interactions with students in the classroom evince different patterns toward boys and girls, generally to the disadvantage of girls. (2) Within the formal curriculum, sex education continues to miss important aspects of sexuality affecting adolescent students, despite changes in social mores. (3) The school environment,contains aspects of gendered violence that are slowly being recognized ,as contributing ,to polarized ,conceptions ,of femininity ,and masculinity. Single-sex education is found to play a positive role if designed with explicit gender transformational objectives. (4) Peer influences play a significant but not easily visible gate-keeping role in reproducing ,gender ideologies. (5) Teachers—key actors in the everyday life of schools—do not have access to training in gender issues and, consequently, tend not to foster gender equity in their classrooms. While the studies were conducted in different countries, with varying levels of economic development and modernization, the findings do not show major differences across world regions. Implications from ,the research findings suggest a much ,more proactive engagement,by educational decision-makers if gender,practices in schools are to be substantially modified. 2 ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Contents
... Part of the hope offered by single-sex classrooms was that in all-female spaces, girls would more fully emerge into confidence and positive leadership skills. As we stated earlier, there are no guarantees that simply separating the sexes creates an equitable learning environment or one that interrupts stereotypical gender and racial arrangements (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001). It was not unusual in the all-girl classrooms to see them essentially reproduce what had transpired in a typical coeducational classroom, but this time with some girls now taking the lead roles: A few girls would dominate, taking much of the " air time " in class, garnering a lot of teacher attention, both positive and negative. ...
... Much of the research on single-sex schooling indicates that single-sex classes alone cannot address the structural barriers to gender equity. As indicated earlier, there are no guarantees that simply separating the sexes creates an equitable learning environment or even one that would be considered " better " in terms of interrupting stereotypical gender relations (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001; Zwerling, 2001 ). Without a careful and consistent interrogation of racialized, social-class-based, and gendered relations in a classroom and school, these innovative schools are in danger of perpetuating rather than interrupting stereotypes that damage students' educational and future possibilities . ...
Article
This ethnographic study documents how accountability measures skewed the implementation of gender equity reform at one California public middle school serving low-income students of color. In creating single-sex classes throughout the school, the Single Sex Academy (SSA) became the largest public experiment with single-sex schooling in the country, but pressure to raise its standardized test scores diverted the school away from the exploration and implementation of the gender reform. The chronicle of SSA is particularly relevant in light of (a) a recent call to relax Title IX standards and increase the numbers of pub-lic single-sex classes and schools, and (b) the provision of monies mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 for single-sex classes and schools, along with the act's imposition of accountability standards and testing. A s we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, a decision that desegregated schools by race, some African American historians of education have questioned the extent to which Black chil-dren benefited from that landmark case (Siddle Walker, 2000). A gifted Black child in a pre-desegregation school was known and nurtured by Black teach-ers and a Black community. The same child, bussed to a nearby White school, KATHRYN HERR is a member of the faculty in the College interests include issues of equity and education, youth studies, and practitioner and action research.
... Clearly if the move to single-sex schools comes with an influx of new resources, as was the case in the California schools studied by Hubbard and Datnow (2005), as well as in the Pittsburgh reconfiguration, there may be some remediation of past inequities and positive effects. Indeed, Datnow et al. (2001) concluded that it was the resources available to those who agreed to pilot single-sex schools that made this model attractive to communities, who abandoned the model when the resources were no longer available. ...
... Needed also is ethnographic research, which can address questions about how presumed differences in learning are accommodated. In their study of the California single-sex schools, Datnow et al. (2001) found that the same curriculum was being used with boys and girls but that teachers selected different instructional techniques based on their perceptions of the gender-specific needs of youth. They concluded that some single-sex schools were able to foster greater gender equity, while others reinforced problematic stereotypes. ...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a widespread increase in single-sex public schooling in the U.S. following 2006 amendments to Title IX stipulated by the No Child Left Behind Act. As its inclusion in No Child Left Behind demonstrates, single-sex public schooling is viewed as a means to improve the educational experiences and performance of low-income youth of color. Yet little is known about the effects and efficacy of single-sex public education, particularly for these populations. This piece provides a critical theoretical review of this issue. It examines the three main rationales offered by proponents of single-sex education for low-income youth of color, who contend that it will 1) eliminate distraction by and harassment from the other sex; 2) address the different learning styles of girls and boys; and 3) remedy past inequities experienced by low-income populations of color by offering them opportunities afforded to more privileged youth. The review reveals no documented benefits to single-sex public education for low-income youth of color and a number of concerns. Thus, it recommends that policy makers reconsider devoting scarce resources to this practice, which ultimately has the potential to further marginalize low-income youth of color by reinforcing racialized stereotypes of hypersexuality, reproducing narrow and restrictive definitions of gender, invalidating the experiences and identities of GLBTQ youth, and diverting attention from the need to address poverty and racism.
... A qualitative study of a short-lived experimentation with single-sex public schools for low-income youth of color in California is the most extensive examination of single-sex public education in the U.S. to date (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001;Hubbard & Datnow, 2005;Woody, 2003). The schools studied were instituted in response to a state initiative that provided generous funding to school districts that wanted to try the single-sex model. ...
... 15). In the California study,Datnow et al. (2001)express concern about how low-income, low-achieving students of color were encouraged to attend these schools, suggesting that single-sex education could become a new form of tracking or segregation rather than a choice akin to those made by more privileged families. Further, Fergus, Sciurba, Martin, and Noguera (2009) note that the promotion of single-sex education as a solution to the low academic achievement of low-income youth of color seems to be based more on assumptions about their needs than on empirical research. ...
... In this paper, I argue that gender is one of those obvious and natural discourses deployed in news, a powerful heuristic employed to push particular education agendas and particularly gendered ones too that do not necessarily reflect the rhetorical goals of global education reform for democratizing educational decision-making or improving equity. Gender politics, in particular, are waged in news discourse similar to what educational researchers have found in studies of the practice of education reform (André Bechely, 2005;Datnow, 1998;Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001;Rhoten, 2000) limiting the possibilities for change. ...
Article
Education reform continues around the globe, though questioned and critiqued in relation to goals of democratizing educational decision-making. Newspapers are one site of contestation and negotiation where struggles over global reform discourses are contextualized in ‘obvious’ and ‘natural’ local language. In this article, I argue that gender discourses are a powerful heuristic employed to push particular education agendas and particularly gendered ones that do not necessarily reflect education reform goals for democratizing educational decision-making or improving equity. I analyzed Argentina's education reform in two national newspapers from 1 November 2001 to 1 November 2002 to reveal the role of gender in reform mediation at the national level. The findings and their interpretation illustrated how educational institutions and actors were situated in a gendered hierarchy with responsibilities and authority. Evoking masculine and feminine roles, representations, and identities in everyday ‘natural’ language lent a familiarity to seemingly abstract and neutral global education reform goals, replicating context-specific educational decision-making processes.
... Single-sex education has been proposed as a means for meeting the academic needs of at-risk students Conchas, 2001, Datnow andHubbard, 2000;Streitmatter, 1997Streitmatter, , 1999. However, the issue of single-sex education has rarely been explored for exceptional students. ...
... A growing body of research indicates that districts can be important agents of instructional improvement (Hightower et al., 2002). Districts are instrumental in the implementation of state-level policy (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001;Fairman & Firestone, 2001;Firestone, 1989;Spillane & Thompson, 1997) and the development of strategies for districtwide improvement (Elmore & Burney, 1999;Firestone, Mangin, Martinez, & Polovsky, 2005;Honig, 2003;McLaughlin & Talbert, 1993;Supovitz, 2006). For a recent review of this literature, see Rorrer, Skrla, and Scheurich (2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study examines the outcomes of one regional intermediate school district’s effort to promote literacy coach role implementation in its 20 constituent districts. The findings from this study provide information about the kinds of district-level contexts that influenced literacy coach role implementation and how those contexts were influential. Research Methods: Data were collected from 20 districts that participated in a literacy coach training program provided by the regional intermediate school district. Interviews were conducted in spring 2007 with assistant superintendents or their designees. Findings: Districts’ implementation of literacy coach roles was influenced by four contextual factors: state and national reform, finances, student performance data, and existing roles and programs. Variations in these factors were associated with differences in districts’ implementation of literacy coach roles. Implications: This study has implications for how districts understand their role in relation to schools and the implementation of reforms.
... 14 See, for example: Baker (2002); Blair and Sandford (1999); Campbell and Evans (1997); Crombie et al. (2002); Crombie (1999); Derry and Philips (2004); Dunlap (2002); Granleese and Joseph (1993); Jackson (2002); Jackson and Smith (2000); Madigan (2002aMadigan ( ), (2002b; Monaco and Gaier (1992); Mulholland et al. (2004); Parker and Rennie (2002); ; Streitmatter (1997Streitmatter ( ), (1998Walter (1997); Watson (1997). 15 See, for example: Datnow et al. (2001); Lee (1998); Lee et al. (1994); Marino and Meyenn (2000); Yates (1998) ...
... The American Association of University Women Educational Foundation (1998), synthesizing research undertaken on single-sex education over the past 25 years, concluded that although single-sex classes appeared to produce positive results for some students, researchers had questioned whether such outcomes resulted from single-sex classes in themselves or were linked to teacher, pedagogical, and context-specific effects. Major reviews by Campbell and Sanders (2002), Datnow et al. (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001;Datnow, Hubbard, & Woody, 2001), Woody (2002), Riordan (2002), Herr and Arms (2004), and Hubbard and Datnow (2005) all concluded that initiatives attempting to develop single-sex classes in coeducational public schools in the United States have been inconclusive and equivocal in their outcomes. Herr and Arms (2004), for example, in their study of California's Single Sex Academy, concluded that although gains in standardized test scores might suggest that single-sex teaching was successful, the lack of interrogation of appropriate pedagogies and of structural barriers to gender equity meant that "these innovative schools are in danger of perpetuating rather than interrupting stereotypes that damage students' educational and future possibilities" (p. ...
Article
The gender agenda in many North American, Western European, and Australasian countries has undergone a “boy turn” in the past decade amid growing concerns about boys’ apparent “underachievement” relative to girls. One aspect of this turn has been the resurrection of interest in single-sex classes in coeducational public state schools. This article reviews these developments from an international perspective, particularly focusing on the experiences of a number of United Kingdom secondary schools involved in the 4-year Raising Boys’ Achievement Project. The article suggests that, while single-sex classes have the potential to raise the achievement levels of both boys and girls and to have a positive impact on the atmosphere and ethos for learning, these gains will be achieved only if the initiative is developed within gender-relational contexts rather than situated within recuperative masculinity policies.
... This topic has been addressed by authors such as , Martino and Meyenn (2000), and who discuss what they deem to be an ill-founded and constructed concern about the 'underachievement of boys'. Taking it a step further, , Mills (2004), and Datnow et al. (2001) have addressed the issue of the role of media on influencing public education policy relative to single-sex classrooms and the importance of creating policies which reflect sound research and analysis. They argue that too many education policies and programs are the result of ad hoc initiatives that are reactions to public pressure structured by media attention. ...
... A focus on local application is key in exploring, and in our case evaluating, the implementation of policy (Datnow et al. 2001). The mere act of inviting and funding a 3-year developmental evaluation reflects a recognition on the part of the Nova Scotia government that drawing on evidence and a reflexive process throughout the implementation of this type of policy is a high priority. ...
Article
This article aims to explore the context of inclusive education policy in Canada, and to highlight the particular case of inclusive education policy reform in the province of Nova Scotia. As with most other provinces and territories, inclusive education policy in Nova Scotia has broadened to include a lens of equity, with a focus on not only students with special education needs, but all students - particularly those most often marginalized by and within Canadian school systems. The article reflects on the first phase of the developmental evaluation process which took place prior to full implementation of the policy. Four interconnected key themes emerge: 1) the shifting roles and identities for educators and specialized staff; 2) the changing roles of classroom teachers; 3) the importance of support to ensure effective universal and differentiated classroom practices; and 4) the professional learning of school staff. Although situated within the Nova Scotian and the national Canadian context, the discussion and implications can readily be applied to international systems engaged in developing and implementing broad inclusive education policy.
... However, how were these outcomes achieved? Policies are part of a socio-cultural process (Sutton & Levinson, 2001) and mediated by context (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001); policies do not achieve an outcome. And all policies are not successful. ...
Article
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Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study examined ethnographically 10 teachers’ decision-making processes regarding whether to take up The Rural Program [ La Ruralidad ] in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which rewarded qualified educators with bonus pay to work in hard-to-staff schools, to address the question: How does gender mediate teachers’ decision-making process to take up an incentive reward? I isolate three conditions: safety, transportation, and community, to show how gendered relations, identities, and roles incentivize teachers. I argue that masculinities and femininities mediated teachers’ approach to taking up incentives. Rather than a simplistic, one-time-only decision, the study shows an on-going policy process that involves women and men in “rational economic decision making” mired by gender. </p
... Although some studies in this comprehensive review were well conducted and followed acceptable research standards, virtually none of the studies were conducted on public school populations in the United States. The fact that most research to date utilizes parochial, private, or international samples has been cited by various researchers regarding the need for public sector research in single-sex education (Bracey, 2006;Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001;Salomone, 2006). ...
Article
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This article focuses on the findings of a single-sex public education experiment, adapted from a dissertation study. The rationale for conducting this research focuses on the renewed and unprecedented interest in single-sex public education as a strategy for increasing student performance. According to various educational theorists and researchers, single-sex education is an effective instructional strategy for improving student performance. However, little is known about the impact of single-sex public education. This quantitative ex post facto research analyzes the impact of single-sex education on academic achievement, discipline referral and attendance for public school first and second grade students. The findings suggest that single-sex education may be an effective instructional strategy for facilitating math and reading improvement for female students. Also, based upon the findings of this study, single-sex education may have a positive impact on attendance for males and females.
... Although numerous researchers have put forth suggestions for how to best serve racially diverse classrooms and schools, AA children continue to lag behind their peers on educational and socio-emotional outcomes (Davis, 2003;Ladson-Billings, 2006). In the face of continuing failure to decrease racial achievement gaps, single-sex education is increasingly being adopted as a strategy for addressing the challenges facing AA boys, particularly within low-income areas (Klein, 2012;Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001;Hubbard & Datnow, 2005). Single-sex schools have garnered support in many different quarters of the country, including Florida, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Wisconsin. ...
Article
African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys.
... This topic has been addressed by authors such as , Martino and Meyenn (2000), and who discuss what they deem to be an ill-founded and constructed concern about the 'underachievement of boys'. Taking it a step further, , Mills (2004), and Datnow et al. (2001) have addressed the issue of the role of media on influencing public education policy relative to single-sex classrooms and the importance of creating policies which reflect sound research and analysis. They argue that too many education policies and programs are the result of ad hoc initiatives that are reactions to public pressure structured by media attention. ...
... esearch field (Daly, 1996;Marsh, 1989). Riordan's (2000) review of research on private single-sex schools in the USA concluded, somewhat ironically, that students from disadvantaged backgrounds, notably in social class and racial terms, were more likely than their more privileged peers to benefit from such schooling arrangements. Recent studies by Datnow et al . (2001), Salomone (1999), and by contributors to Datnow and Hubbard (2002), including an Australian study by Ainley and Daly (2002), are reawakening interest in these matters in the USA and beyond. Spielhofer et al . (2002) investigated performance differences between students attending single-sex and coeducational schools, using a national dat ...
Article
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This is a preliminary report on an aspect of single-sex education British secondary schools. It is based on a reanalysis of data on students' performance in mathematics in the General Certificate of Secondary Educaiton (GCSE) in 2001. Students' attitudes to mathematics were also investigated. Girls' achievement within girls' schools was slightly higher than for girls in mixed schools, after adjustment for a range of factors. On average, the difference was about one tenth of a standard deviation. Boys, on average, performed less well in boys' schools than in mixed schools by about the same amount. In terms of girls' attitudes to mathematics, attendance at a girls' school was associated with more positive attitudes, again by about a tenth of a standard deviation. Boys' attitudes to mathematics were not significantly different between those attending boys' schools and those in mixed schools, however.
... This had been adopted first at the secondary and post secondary levels. This practice had started more strongly in the United States [32]. However, despite of this there is a resistance in many parts of the world where women rights are rigidly discriminated against. ...
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Education is the fundamental right of every individual. Today, those societies have excelled in every field of life where man and woman are provided equal opportunities for education. This research study focuses on various socio-cultural and political impediments to co-education in Pakistani society. The main research question was that how Pakistani social structure is a hurdle to co-education. For this purpose, this study critically analyzed the socio-cultural, religious and politico conditions of Pakistani society in the context of co-education. The main findings of the study were derived from critical review of literature. As a result of investigation into the existing literature, the study found some socio-cultural, political, economic and religious barriers to co-education in Pakistani society. For example, the study discovered some hurdles to co-education such as patriarchic system, male dominancy, conservatism, rigid customs and traditions, stereotyped social codes, acute and chronic poverty, male insularity towards women role, complex social structure, Pardah (veil) system, religious misperceptions, illiterate Mullah (clergymen), gender disparities, female segregation, domestic affairs and lack of women political empowerment. On the basis of the findings, this study concludes that removal of these hurdles would pave the way for promotion of girl's education.
... A review of the literature for unisex schooling in the U.S. (Datnow, Hubbard & Conchas, 2001) concluded that the stronger academic environment, free from social distractions, for both boys and girls than do coeducational settings. Benefits for girls in self-esteem and leadership engagement in mathematics and science have been documented. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decades very few studies have conducted on unisex and co-education in Bangladesh in terms of female role perception, emotional intelligence and interpersonal problem. But these psychological traits of any students need to explore massively for scientific understanding of variation of students in their own environment. In order to achieve this end, the study was carried out on a composite number of 120 participants (boys = 60, girls = 60) of Grade nine (9) and ten (10). The samples were selected by using random and purposive sampling. In order to assess the variable of the study, Female Role Perception (FRP) scale, Adapted Bangla version of Emotional Intelligence Scale and Adapted Bangla version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problem were used. The findings revealed that there is a significant differences in the interpersonal problem between unisex and coeducational institution (t = 0.930, df = 118, p < .05). However there is no significant differences in the perception of female role (t =-.773, df = 118, p < .05) and emotional intelligence (t = 0.951, df = 118, p < .05) between unisex and coeducational institution. A separate partial correlation-coefficient (r) was performed to ascertain that there is no significance correlation among the above mentioned three psychological inventories between unisex and co-education students. It was concluded that the students in the unisex schools are less stereotypes, although only slightly, they perceive the female role more non-traditional way.
... Similarly, both Lingard (2003) and Ailwood (2003) comment on the national retreat from gender-inclusive policies in Australia. In the USA, the moral panic remains in full swing, with amendments to federal legislation to permit single-sex schooling in co-educational public schools despite evidence which suggests that the impact of such initiatives is inconclusive and equivocal (Datnow, Hubbard, and Conchas 2001;Datnow, Hubbard, and Woody 2001;Herr and Arms 2004;Hubbard and Datnow 2005). Likewise, we have the Boys' project: Helping boys become successful men (Kleinfeld 2007) committed across the American nation to addressing the issue of 'driven young women and directionless guys', and to combating: ...
Article
The debate in the UK about gender equity and equal opportunities for girls and boys has been ‘captured’, in the last two decades, by an overriding concern with the issue of boys’ apparent under‐achievement. More recently, however, there has been a reaction to essentialist approaches related to ‘boy‐friendly’ pedagogies and strategies, and attempts to return the debate to consider gender relational and gender‐inclusive approaches. This article focuses upon these issues within the context of the initial training and education of primary school teachers in the UK, exploring the gender awareness and perceptions of one cohort of trainee teachers, to establish their emerging beliefs about pedagogy, curriculum and whole school strategies. On the basis of our findings, we argue that there is a need to re‐activate debates about gender identity and inclusivity within initial teacher education and training in the UK, and to reconnect research within the academic community and teaching on such courses, if the seductive discourse about the need to defeminise primary schooling is to be effectively challenged.
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The Australian media's interest in education, as in many Anglophone countries, is frequently dominated by concerns about boys in schools. In 2002, in a country region of the Australian State of Queensland, this concern was evident in a debate on the merits of single sex schooling that took place in a small local newspaper. The debate was fuelled by the inclusion in this newspaper of an advertising brochure for an elite private girls' school. The advertisement utilized the current concerns about boys in schools to advocate the benefits of girls' only schools. Drawing on research that suggests that boys are a problem in school, and utilising a peculiar mix of liberal feminism alongside a neo-liberal class politics, it implicitly denigrated the education provided by government co-educational schools. The local government high and primary school principals, incensed at this advertisement, contacted the paper to refute many of its claims and assumptions and to assert the benefits, to both boys and girls, of their particular schools. A letters to the editor debate then followed an article representing these government school principals' views. These letters were from two private school principals. This country newspaper thus became a medium through which various school principals engaged with the current boys' debate, and research associated with it, in order to market their schools. This paper examines this particular newspaper debate and argues that, in the absence of nuanced, research based, and thoughtful policy responses to gender issues, many school policies on gender are being shaped through and by the media in ways that elide the complexities of the issues involved.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Louisville, 2005. Department of Teaching and Learning. Vita. "December 2005." Includes bibliographical references (leaves 343-356).
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The The purpose of this study is to investigate gender roles in vocational high schools. Hence, this study attempted to determine whether gender distributions in schools are influential in the gender roles of students. The sample included 423 students studying in five different types of high schools (vocational, health, multi-program, girls’ vocational, and boys’ religious). The study was designed in the survey model. Bem’s Gender Role Inventory was used to collect the data. The results of the research revealed the differences between sex and gender roles. In addition to that, there was a significant difference in the gender role ratios of male and female students, depending on the type of high school. To conclude, gender weight in the vocational school affects gender roles, primarily vocational high schools. Keywords: Bem’s gender role, coeducational schools, gender, gender roles, gender role inventory, vocational high schools
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This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys’ schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that separating boys from girls exacerbated the problems of coeducational schools while generating additional difficulties and dilemmas specific to sex-segregated schools. With the restoration of coeducation in 1954, single-sex schooling, and boys’ schools in particular, had been decisively repudiated. For educators, policymakers, and parents engaged in the current debate on sex-separated schooling, this case study involving more than a million male pupils can serve as a cautionary tale about the possible difficulties and potential consequences of a large-scale gender segregation policy.
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The purpose of the study was to investigate adolescents' longitudinal development of intrinsic motivation in learning English and mathematics, focusing on gender differences and school characteristics. We used the five-year panel data of the Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS) from middle school 7th grade to high school 11th grade. English intrinsic motivation decreased during the middle school years but increased during high school years whereas math intrinsic motivation continually decreased across the whole of the years. Gender differences by subject existed in intrinsic motivations: girls' higher intrinsic motivation in English and boys' higher intrinsic motivation in math; boys' faster decrease in intrinsic motivations during middle school years; boys' slower increase in English intrinsic motivation during high school years. School characteristics only had an effect on intrinsic motivations for high school students: higher math intrinsic motivation of high schools in small-medium cities; higher intrinsic motivations of students on elite academic tracks.
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Education is the fundamental right of every individual. Today, those societies have excelled in every field of life where man and woman are providedequal opportunities for education. This research study focuses on various socio-cultural and political impediments to co-education in Pakistani society. The main research question was that how Pakistani social structure is a hurdle to co-education. For this purpose, this study critically analyzed the socio-cultural, religious and politico conditions of Pakistani society in the context of co-education. The main findings of the study were derived from critical review of literature. As a result of investigation into the existing literature, the study found some socio-cultural, political, economic and religious barriers to co-education in Pakistani society. For example, the study discovered some hurdles to co-education such as patriarchic system, male dominancy, conservatism, rigid customs and traditions, stereotyped social codes, acute and chronic poverty, male insularity towards women role, complex social structure, Pardah (veil) system, religious misperceptions, illiterate Mullah (clergymen), gender disparities, female segregation, domestic affairs and lack of women political empowerment. On the basis of the findings, this study concludes that removal of these hurdles would pave the way for promotion of girl’s education.
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This article reports the findings of a multiyear investigation of school district central office directors of diversity and equity in Minnesota, who play an important role in school desegregation/integration policy implementation. Ethnographic and survey data were collected to examine a range of leadership activities and perspectives in communities across the state that received state funding for integration programming. In this article, I present findings that illustrate the role of integration leaders as boundary-spanning policy intermediaries who navigate competing frames of meaning about the purpose and value of diversity in learning environments. Learning from these school district leaders’ focus on educational equity in the context of changing demographics offers opportunities to address local community needs more directly.
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Data from 44 societies are used to explore sex segregation by field of study. Contrary to accounts linking socioeconomic modernization to a "degendering" of public-sphere institutions, sex typing of curricular fields is stronger in more economically developed contexts. The authors argue that two cultural forces combine in advanced industrial societies to create a new sort of sex segregation regime. The first is gender-essentialist ideology, which has proven to be extremely resilient even in the most liberal-egalitarian of contexts; the second is self-expressive value systems, which create opportunities and incentives for the expression of "gendered selves." Multivariate analyses suggest that structural features of postindustrial labor markets and modern educational systems support the cultivation, realization, and display of gender-specific curricular affinities.
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The role of coeducation versus separate-sex schooling in the academic, socioemotional, interpersonal, and career development of adolescents is discussed. Arguments and research support for both types of schooling are reviewed. Separate-sex schooling seems to provide potential academic and attitudinal benefits for at least some students. The limitations of current research are discussed, and directions for further research are offered.
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This paper examines single‐ and mixed‐sex elementary schooling in its effects upon the well‐being of girls and boys. Well‐being is defined in terms of adaptation to school life as reflected by affective characteristics such as self‐esteem, sense of mastery, stress, fear of failure, sense of belonging in school, study‐ and school commitment. Use was made of data concerning 2095 sixth‐grade pupils‐‐1130 boys and 965 girls‐‐in 60 private elementary schools. The results indicate that it is not the gender composition of the pupil population in se that exerts an influence but the gender composition of the teaching staff. Particularly, it is found that primary school boys are negatively affected by a school environment characterised by a preponderance of female teachers. Girls do not seem to be affected by the gender organisation of the school.
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Laws that regulate the employment relation tend to set forth broad and often ambiguous principles that give organizations wide latitude to construct the meaning of compliance in a way that responds to both environmental demands and managerial interests. Organizations respond initially by elaborating their formal structures to create visible symbols of compliance. As organizations construct and institutionalize forms of compliance with laws, they mediate the impact of those laws on society. The author uses data from a nationwide survey of 346 organizations to develop models of the creation and institutionalization of organizationally constructed symbols of compliance following the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
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This research report argues for viewing the complex, often messy process of school reform implementation as a "conditional matrix" coupled with qualitative research. As illustration, two studies (of six reform efforts in one county and of implementation of an untracking program in Kentucky) are reported. Preliminary analysis reveals that the reform implementation process is marked by several important considerations: (1) reform efforts in schools do not succeed on simple technical considerations alone, nor in a linear fashion; (2) consequences of actions taken in one context become the conditions for actions taken in other contexts, as part of a complex dynamic shaped by the structural and cultural features of school and society; (3) the implementation process is viewed differently from different perspectives; (4) school culture mediates educators' actions and structural constraints; and (5) school site educators do not respond to design team or government actions passively and automatically. The actions of educators in Kentucky and Florida in the face of state mandates suggest that the way in which power is interpreted must be examined as well as the way in which it is imposed. Contains 39 references. (MSE)
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A key consideration in the policy debate on the appropriate role of single-sex education in predominantly coeducational school systems is relative benefit for male and female students. This paper analyzes the relative performance of single-sex education and coeducation in Thailand in enhancing eighth-grade male and female student scores on standardized mathematics tests, holding constant student background, peer, and school characteristics. Its main conclusions are that (a) single-sex schooling is more effective for female students and coeducational schooling is more effective for male students in improving student performance in mathematics and (b) these differentials are largely due to peer effects rather than to specific characteristics of single-sex and coeducational classrooms or schools.
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This article looks at women teachers' involvement in educational reform from a gendered perspective. Using qualitative data collected in interviews with secondary level educators, the authors show how women teachers' beliefs and actions towards reform efforts were influenced by their gender identity. Socialization of women as nurturers and caretakers created in many women particular notions regarding the appropriate role they should play as teachers. When an educational reform effort 'fitted' with these conceptions, women teachers became advocates for and participated in the reforms. The support and commitment by women teachers in turn facilitated the success of the reforms. However, it was also found that the overrepresentation of women in a reform effort had the potential of creating negative political ramifications. When the character or profile of the reform took on a gendered identity, it ran the risk of facing resistance by men teachers in the school, ultimately thwarting implementation.
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This article presents the story of our research team's efforts to conduct a multisite case study of 10 racially mixed schools engaged in effort to reduce ability grouping or tracking. Although the politics of education research and our own theoretical frame work told us that detracking reform is strongly influenced by the politics and norms in the local school community, we were not sure how to study a school-level change while examining the broader context of that change. We learned over the course of our study to build outward from the school site into the local community, and co-construct the boundaries of our cases with the help of our respondents. As a result, we discovered that the boundaries of each case and the differences in the shape and size of each case are as much a finding as they are a methodological consideration.
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An instructional program designed specifically for African American male adolescents was examined to determine its impact on participating students' school adjustment and achievement. Participants in the study were 20 African American male students (Grades 6 through 8) who attended a specialized, self-contained program located on a middle school campus and a matched group of 20 students who remained in the mainstream academic setting. Self-report data on students' perceived competence and perceptions of support from significant others were collected, as well as archival data on students' attendance and course grades. Consistent with a goodness-of-fit model, experimental class participants perceived themselves more academically competent, rated their teachers and classmates as more supportive, and attended school on a more regular basis when compared to students in the mainstream program. Results were discussed in terms of the need for more effective academic interventions for at-risk youth and the concomitant need for broader social change.
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Recent reports have confirmed that boys, not girls, are increasingly on the unfavorable side of the gender gap in education and developmental matters. This paper provides an analysis of trends in the gender gap among students in Catholic and public schools during the period from 1972 to 1992 for a select set of variables. Although the gender gap on test scores has received considerable attention in recent years, Catholic/public school comparisons have not been made, and very little attention has been given to variables other than test scores. Data are from three national surveys of high school students, the National Longitudinal Study (1972), the High School and Beyond Study (1980), and the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1992). The gender gap across Catholic, single sex, and coeducational schools is also considered, as well as several important demographic trends in Catholic schools. There is no evidence for a one-way gender gap favoring males beyond 1992 in either Catholic or public schools. As of that time, females possess an advantage on most central educational outcome indicators, on average. Movement towards this 1992 state of affairs can be observed in the trend results as early as 1980. At the same time, females have lost a gender gap advantage that they previously held on two other variables that are indirectly related to educational outcomes. All of this suggests that the broad nationwide efforts to bring about gender equity in schools has been effective. As a result of these trends, however, boys rather than girls are now on the short end of the gender gap in many school outcomes. Two appendixes describe the national survey data sets and list the variables studied. (Contains 8 figures, 3 tables, and 55 references.) (SLD)
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Single-sex schooling, in some form, is offered by many feminists as one strategy for overcoming sexist educational practices. The purpose of this paper is to indicate flaws in the evidence, the logic and the politics of this ‘strategy’. The empirical evidence in favour of single-sex schooling is of questionable value. Furthermore the strategy is limited because it focuses almost exclusively on changing the attitude and behaviour of girls and shows little potential for changing teachers, the curriculum or boys. The final section of the paper provides a less optimistic scenario of the effects of single-sex settings than is generally offered and, finally, a more appropriate focus of activity is suggested for those who wish to improve the educational experiences of girls.
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Among the intervention strategies designed to increase the participation and achievement of girls in mathematics and science education, the establishment of single-sex classes in Australian coeducational postprimary schools seems to be growing faster than the substantive evidence to justify it. This paper reports the findings from the first three stages of a longitudinal case study designed to examine the effects of single-sex and mixed-sex classes on student achievement, confidence and participation in mathematics, at a large Victorian postprimary school. Despite some limitations in the data, the results indicated nonsignificant gender differences and a putative causal relationship between confidence and achievement. While the change in students' mathematics achievement over time, independent of confidence, was similar for all students, regardless of class type, there was a significant class-type intervention effect on students' confidence in learning and using mathematics, independent of achievement. Moreover, for those students concerned, being placed in single-sex classes was associated with greater confidence which, in turn, significantly increased the likelihood of their subsequent participation in senior mainstream mathematics education.
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Recently developed school programs for African-American male students give strong gender and cultural identity; strengthen social skills, discipline, and self-esteem; and redefine the "manly" African American. Some programs have faced legal and political obstacles. Early evidence of modest success is clear, but the long-term efficacy is unclear. (JB)
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Compared the effects of single-sex and coeducational secondary schooling, using a random sample of 1,807 students in 75 Catholic high schools, 45 of which were single-sex institutions, drawn from the dataset of High School and Beyond study conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (1980). Whether concerning academic achievement, achievement gains, educational aspirations, locus of control, sex-role stereotyping, or attitudes and behaviors related to academics, results indicate that single-sex schools deliver specific advantages to their students, especially female students. In the recent focus on American secondary education, the relation between school organization and students' academic performance had been looked at critically. What has been considered by some to be an anachronistic organizational feature of schools may actually facilitate adolescent academic development by providing an environment where social and academic concerns are separated. It is suggested that a 2nd look at this disappearing school type is warranted. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The sociological investigation of public policy continues to be plagued by scholarly adherence to a conventional framework that reifies the policy process as a set of segmented and sequential stages. To overcome this problem, policy is presented as the processual, ongoing practical accomplishment of the transformation of intentions. Within this framework, the realization of intentions is shown as both constrained and enabled by (1) organizational context and conventions, (2) linkages between multiple sites and phases of the policy process, (3) the mobilization of resources, and (4) a dynamic and multifaceted conceprualization of power.
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Through their organization and curricula, schools either promote separate roles for males and females or operate to minimize differences. This study describes sex differences in science and reading achievement and attitudes for nationwide samples of 14-year-old children in the United States, Sweden, and England. There are largely the same sex differences in all three countries: Male and female pupils have similar reading skills, while girls have more positive reading habits; males outperform females in science, with the smallest difference observed for biology; males have more positive attitudes toward science, except that females believe science to be at least as important a topic as boys do. There is no noteworthy increase in sex distinctions with one more year of schooling, from grade 8 to grade 9. However, in English coeducational schools, girls show a deceleration in science and vocabulary achievement relative to their male peers. Girls in English one-sex schools exceed their male counterparts in reading and several science subjects. It is hypothesized that the role of successful female teachers and peers, and the absence of social pressure from boys, may facilitate girls' learning in these areas. A study is proposed of specific school practices and the ways in which they determine sex discrepancies.
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Incl. biographical notes on the authors, bibliographical references, index We also have:The meaning of educational change,1st ed. (1982) and 2nd ed.(1991)
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The study examined young people's self-esteem measured using a multidimensional measure of self-esteem, Harter's Perceived Competence Scale, as well as a measure of locus of control, in relation to the type of school they attended--single-sex or co-educational. A sample of students (N = 2295) from both academic and less academic schools was employed. The results indicated that among children (N = 577) attending the more academic grammar schools only, those who attended single-sex schools had higher levels of academic self-esteem and were more inner oriented in terms of locus of control. There were no differential sex effects, however. Additional analyses suggested that this effect was not likely to be due to selection in terms of socio-economic status.
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. This paper explores the notion that the type of school attended will affect adolescents' self esteem, locus-of-control orientation, and affiliation needs. It proceeds to examine the view that these are in turn linked to success in particular subject areas, assessments of achievement in these same subjects, perceptions of the importance of school life and future career options. A sample of 1,675 school children, 896 males and 779 females from sixteen non-government schools was employed. The majority (79 per cent) attended single-sex schools while the remainder attended co-educational schools. Major results indicated that type of school attended did have consequences in terms of adolescents' stated preferences and rated achievement in subjects. Students attending co-educational school were found to have more traditional subject preferences and assessments of achievement in those subject areas than students attending single-sex schools. Students attending co-educational schools were also found to have lower self esteem, and greater affiliation with peers than students from single-sex schools. However, these relationships were not simple. Sex differences mediated the major associations reported between type of school attended and adolescent self perceptions. Interpretations of these and other results and suggestions for further exploration of associations are given.
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