Article

The impact of mobile learning on students' learning behaviours and performance: Report from a large blended classroom

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Abstract

Abstract Chinese classrooms, whether on school grounds or online, have long suffered from a lack of interactivity. Many online classes simply provide recorded instructor lectures, which only reinforces the negative effects of passive nonparticipatory learning. At Shanghai Jiaotong University, researchers and developers actively seek technologic interventions that can greatly increase interactivity in large blended classes. They developed a cutting-edge mobile learning system that can deliver live broadcasts of real-time classroom teaching to students with mobile devices. Their system allows students to customise means of content-reception based on when and where they tune into the broadcast. The system also supports short text messaging and instant polls. Through these venues, students can ask questions and make suggestions in real time, and the instructor can address them immediately. This article describes this system in detail, and also reports results from a formal implementation of the system in a blended English classroom of 1000 students (with about 800 being online). As the data reveal, m-learning activities can much better engage students in the learning process. Students in this class changed from passive learners to truly engaged learners who are behaviourally, intellectually and emotionally involved in their learning tasks.

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... Despite the abundance of mobile devices, the usage of new technologies in higher education is sporadic, uneven and rigid (Selwyn, 2007). The readiness to incorporate m-learning is discussed (Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009) and mixed views are shared among educators. Some studies show that many learners are inclined to use their mobile device for music, social media/network, and games instead of for educational purposes (Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009). ...
... The readiness to incorporate m-learning is discussed (Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009) and mixed views are shared among educators. Some studies show that many learners are inclined to use their mobile device for music, social media/network, and games instead of for educational purposes (Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009). WeChat, Twitter, WhatsApp, and other instant messages are exchanged among family and friends members (Pew Research Center, 2015). ...
... In education, text messaging is incorporated into classes for content learning (Cifuentes & Lents, 2010), class discussion (Hou & Wu, 2011) and team support (Timmis, 2012). On the flip side, researchers have found that m-learning including text messaging could disrupt regular in-class teaching (Corbeil & Valdes-Corbeil, 2007;Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009). Their concern was that the focus of the class might be carried away when mobile device activities were implemented. ...
Conference Paper
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Mobile learning (m-learning) challenges the traditional definition of teaching and learning. M-learning concept is gaining popularity because it enables learning across multiple contexts and disciplines by using portable mobile devices. In recent years, it has attracted increasing attention at the tertiary level as some institutions adopt Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD) in classrooms. While m-learning is becoming ubiquitous as educators often hear about it at conferences and encounter it in literature, one might assume that many educators know about and use it in teaching. It is not, especially in theater arts classrooms. In Dance and Drama education, for instance, the use of mobile teaching and learning is extremely limited both in literature and in practice. This study looks at 146 undergraduate students in three General Education (GE) classes (two Drama and one dance) over fourteen weeks at a comprehensive university in Southern China. During lectures, in class and online, smartphones were integrated in learning and they were used in a variety of class related activities including ZOOM, virtual presentations, online polls, and video making to further engage students in deep learning. This study finds that though challenges exist, the fusion of the multichannel teaching approach (m-learning, blended learning, in class/online lectures) has enhanced teaching and learning experiences among theatre arts students.
... Despite the abundance of mobile devices, the usage of new technologies in higher education is sporadic, uneven and rigid (Selwyn, 2007). The readiness to incorporate m-learning is discussed (Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009) and mixed views are shared among educators. Some studies show that many learners are inclined to use their mobile device for music, social media/network, and games instead of for educational purposes (Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009). ...
... The readiness to incorporate m-learning is discussed (Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009) and mixed views are shared among educators. Some studies show that many learners are inclined to use their mobile device for music, social media/network, and games instead of for educational purposes (Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009). WeChat, Twitter, WhatsApp, and other instant messages are exchanged among family and friends members (Pew Research Center, 2015). ...
... In education, text messaging is incorporated into classes for content learning (Cifuentes & Lents, 2010), class discussion (Hou & Wu, 2011) and team support (Timmis, 2012). On the flip side, researchers have found that m-learning including text messaging could disrupt regular in-class teaching (Corbeil & Valdes-Corbeil, 2007;Park, 2011;Wang et al., 2009). Their concern was that the focus of the class might be carried away when mobile device activities were implemented. ...
... Previous studies discuss the potential of blended learning to increase higher order thinking skills, provide a productive learning environment, and better manage daily responsibilities and learning (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008;Keengwe & Kang, 2013;Lzzio, Wilson, & Simons, 2002;Littlejohn & Pegler, 2007). Although multiple research studies on different aspects of blended learning in the classroom in K-12 and higher education settings are available, there is relatively limited empirical research on the blended learning approach in teacher education programs (Wang et al., 2009). The majority of research on blended learning examined nontraditional and graduate students (Martyn, 2003). ...
... It enhances students' ability to control their own learning pace and allows them to catch up on a course at their own pace (Garnham & Kaleta, 2002;Owston, Wideman, Murphy, & Lupshenyuk, 2008;Smyth, Houghton, Cooney, & Casey, 2012). Blended Learning promotes student satisfaction, enables them to become more motivated and involved in their learning, and enhances their perseverance (Donnelly, 2010;Sharpe et al., 2006;Wang, Shen, Novak, & Pan, 2009;Woltering, Herrler, Spitzer, & Spreckelsen, 2009). Some studies concluded that time management might sometimes be an issue in the blended course. ...
Article
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There is an increased need to examine how blended learning can be integrated in traditional preservice teacher education programs to support students' learning and meet the growing curricular demands of colleges and universities. This mixed methods study aimed to understand preservice teachers' perspectives towards blended technology integration courses that they participated in. Community of Inquiry Framework (CoI) and Activity Theory were used to design blended learning experience for students. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently and merged in the interpretation phase of the study. Preservice teachers perceived blended technology integration course as a beneficial way to learn because it enabled them to spend their time effectively and efficiently allowing them to be more productive, independent, and self-regulated learners with opportunities to experience innovative learning firsthand. The study has implications for higher education faculty, K-12 teachers, administrators, instructional designers, and technology specialists
... Ademais, a capacidade de aprender com a análise reflexiva e com a experiência tornam-se fundamentais para as instituições de ensino brasileiras que pretendem inovar em seus projetos de EAD (TIZIOTTO; CAZARINI; OLIVEIRA; OLIVEIRA, 2012). competências (ASONITOU, 2015;PAN;SEOW, 2016); ensino na era digital (ZHANG, 2018); implementação de tecnologias no auxílio da educação contábil (SEETHAMRAJU, 2010); ensino das Normas Internacionais de Contabilidade, no modo virtual, uma lacuna entre o ensino e a prática contábil (ASONITOU, 2015); falta de interatividade em turmas grandes, (WANG; SHEN, 2008;WANG et al., 2009); design de mensagens em diferentes tipos de aparelhos, para tornar a leitura mais acessível (WANG; SHEN, 2012); e papel da tecnologia na contabilidade (GÜNEY, 2014;SANTOS;CRUZ, 2020). ...
... A falta de interatividade em turmas grandes é um problema que afeta as disciplinas com alta demanda nas universidades. Foi com esse cenário que Wang et al. (2009) ...
Article
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O papel das ferramentas tecnológicas no ensino de contabilidade tem sido destaque, especialmente no processo da aprendizagem a distância. Este estudo objetivou analisar as percepções quanto ao uso dessas ferramentas no ensino a distância de contabilidade gerencial. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, quanto à abordagem do problema, e descritiva, no que se refere aos objetivos. Os dados foram coletados a partir de uma experiência com uso de tecnologias junto a graduandos de uma disciplina de Contabilidade Gerencial, oferecida a distância, de uma universidade federal da Região Sul do Brasil. Foram analisadas suas percepções por meio de questionários aplicados no início e no final do segundo semestre de 2019. Os resultados apontaram que 20% dos estudantes apenas concordaram que diferentes técnicas de aprendizagem auxiliam no desenvolvimento de habilidades essenciais para exercer a profissão, e 80% concordaram plenamente. Dentre as contribuições deste estudo, destaca-se o fomento à utilização da tecnologia nos processos de ensino e aprendizagem, aliados à necessidade de aplicação de tecnologias de informação exigidas do profissional contábil pelo mercado de trabalho. Os achados corroboram as afirmativas da literatura, que instigam que o uso dessas ferramentas não se limita à sala de aula presencial, pois a necessidade de inovação e a crescente expansão tecnológica impõem ao profissional o constante desafio da percepção e adaptação ao uso desses instrumentos. Palavras-chave: Ferramentas tecnológicas. Ensino a distância. Contabilidade gerencial. Percepções.
... It seems, however, that also in other cultural spaces the researchers support the same thing. Despite efforts for methodological renewal, didactic lecture or teacher-centered presentation is still the standard method of teaching in higher education (Senge et al., 2000;Wang et al., 2009). Mobile technologies have the potential to offer this innovation in terms of teaching methodology in the academic environment. ...
... They identified "the digitally-minded students" who have a strong need for control over the digital environment. Wang et al. (2009) present the results of some researchers from China who developed a cutting-edge mobile learning system that can deliver live broadcasts of real-time classroom teaching to students. In this case, students changed from passive learners to truly engaged learners who are intellectually, emotionally involved in their tasks. ...
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Exploring students' perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of mobile technologies (MT) is necessary in the dynamic context of their increasing use in learning. The data obtained from 532 students from a state university were analyzed. The students mentioned three advantages and three disadvantages of using mobile technology in the learning activity. Based on the content analysis, the main categories referring to the benefits and difficulties of using MT were identified. The main categories in terms of benefits are: technological advantages, information using mobile technologies, efficient communication, opportunities for educational process, personal development, facilities at the economic and environmental level. Referring to the difficulties of MT, there was identified: negative influence on personal development, technological difficulties, damaged information, diminishing communication and socialization abilities, the negative effects on the educational process, economic, ecological and ethical disadvantages. The novelty of the study consists in highlighting the importance of MT integration in achieving academic learning activity.
... Augmented reality is a technology that has already presented significant advances in areas such as architecture and design (Wang 2009), art (Chang et al. 2014) and medicine (Nicolau et al. 2011). The application of mobiles and AR in education has been successfully tested in game-based learning, field-trips, 3D learning experiences and skill acquisition (Wu et al. 2013), where AR provides a medium for understanding concepts and phenomena in context (Fominykh et al. 2015) and contributes to increase students' motivation (Bower et al. 2014). ...
... Several researchers have looked at the use of WhatsApp in educational settings in mostly descriptive studies of learning experiences and performance change (Church and Oliveira, 2013;O'Hara et al., 2014). Research has largely been focused on mobile learning's impact in generating greater interactivity to address the passive knowledge transfer modes of recorded lectures and elearning to make the case for adopting mlearning (Wang et al., 2009;Kinash et al., 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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Faculty members at an English Language Centre in the Central-North of Saudi Arabia were surveyed on their skills and attitudes using mobile technologies in teaching English as a Foreign Language. Results indicated that Faculty members had a good level of skill and positive attitudes towards the use of mobile devices in EFL teaching. A number of statistically significant effects were identified for the independent variables age and teaching experience. Moderate positive correlations were found between Faculty members‘ level of skill using mobile devices and both Faculty attitudes towards using mobile technology in English language teaching and intention to adopt mobile technology in English language teaching. Future use of ICT was predicted by attitudes towards the use of ICT. This relationship was moderated by a covariate: self-reported skills in ICT usage.
... As education evolves, the concept of active learning has been embraced by educators to promote higher-order thinking skills through discussions, case studies, roleplays, experiential learning, and other methods (Bonwell and Eison, 1991;Bonwell and Sutherland, 1996;Kolb, 2015;Queens University, 2020). Experiential education is a hands-on form of learning and transforms students from passive receivers to active learners (Wang et al., 2009). Unlike traditional lectures, it involves abstract thinking, observation and reflection, adventure and challenge, and application to life (Association for Experiential Education, 2020). ...
... The development of mobile technologies and the proliferation of smartphones have made context-aware learning possible, releasing students from the time and physical classroom confinement (Johnson et al., 2012;Rogers, 2008;Wang et al., 2009). In mobile learning, students can situate themselves in the field that embraces real and digital learning information (Hwang et al., 2018). ...
Preprint
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The COVID-19 pandemic has changed how millions around the globe are educated. The 2nd or 3rd waves of the disease have made learning in classrooms unsafe once again. Many schools are forced to send their students home to take online classes under their government's lock-down protocols. For many young learners, engaging with school is a significant part of their well-being, which has been compromised by the extended period of remote learning and low social interaction levels during the pandemic. New and innovative solutions to address learners' needs have been called during this pandemic. The Presentria GO system is an innovative solution that enables students from K-12 to higher education to learn experientially from their cars during a city excursion. Through a survey with 74 educators and a series of expert interviews and focus group discussions, insights into the feasibility of this active learning mode are explored. This paper proposes the concept of 'In-Car Location-Based Experiential Learning' as one of the methods to engage students during the pandemic and beyond.
... This approach allows students to learn anytime, anywhere, and can potentially minimize all the drawbacks of online and traditional learning systems coherently (Carman, 2002). The blended classrooms encourage more active classroom learning by promoting self-confidence and academic success by increasing students' behavioral, emotional, and intellectual participation in the learning process (Wang et al., 2009). For example, the flipped classroom, which is a popular form of BL, engages students more actively in solving complicated tasks and helps students to develop higher-order thinking skills in different disciplines such as engineering and medical science (Al Mamun, Azad, et al., 2022;M. ...
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Following COVID-19, the global educational landscape shifted dramatically. Almost every educational institute in Bangladesh undertook a strategic move to begin offering online or blended learning courses to mitigate the challenges created by the pandemic. The TVET sector, particularly the polytechnic institute of Bangladesh, endeavored to explore the blended learning approach as an immediate and long-term solution to address the educational dislocation caused by the pandemic. This study attempts to conceptualize a pedagogical design based on the ADDIE and rapid prototyping model to make a reliable and robust instructional design to be used in the blended learning context. A content validity index (CVI) was used to validate the proposed model; a technology acceptance model (TAM) was employed to examine its acceptability to students; and finally, students’ academic performances were analysed to evaluate the overall performance of the proposed instructional design. The findings reveal that the proposed instructional design can be a reliable and valid pedagogical approach to be implemented in the blended learning context for polytechnic students. The proposed instructional design may help TVET educators and course designers to create a robust blended learning environment in the TVET sector and in other similar disciplines, such as science and engineering education.
... Despite being less observed during the second period, in the affect category, the most studied outcome was satisfaction/interest (e.g. Wang et al., 2009), as it was assessed in 25% of the studies included in this review. Concerning other learning outcomes in this category, such as attitude/effort and technology acceptance (e.g. ...
Article
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Around the world, the number of English speakers and the significance of the English language are constantly increasing. Among various technology-supported instructional styles, Mobile Learning (M-Learning) has been recognized as a promising approach to enhance students’ competencies and skills in the English language. By examining previous literature, a number of reviews have been performed to investigate the role of M-learning in the English language. However, none of these studies has highlighted the trends, opportunities, and challenges identified in the most cited articles that focused solely on the English language. Therefore, to address these limitations, this study performed a review of the top 100 most cited articles, published between 2007 and 2020, indexed by the Web of Science, and addressing the English language only. The results revealed that most research in Mobile English Language Learning (M-ELL) followed an experimental design and employed a single mobile learning implementation. Additionally, the current study identified a number of research areas that require additional research attention. For example, further research is needed among students learning from home, more qualitative research is needed, and additional research is required to improve students’ higher-order thinking skills. The outcomes of this study provide a reference to researchers and educators who intend to use mobile technologies in the area of language education, especially in the context of the English language.
... Among the biggest challenges faced by educators and researchers is the restriction in size of the students' mobile devices (M. Wang, Shen, Novak, & Pan, 2009). Besides that, the lack of infrastructure in education and training institutes has hindered the development of m-learning as a new approach in the education industry (Ahmad & Jabor, 2014). ...
Article
Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) plays an important role in shaping human workforce to meet the requirements set by the job market. As to equip the manpower with necessary skills to perform in the job market, the education and training delivery system must be improved. Therefore, TVET institutions take up the challenge by changing the curriculum content and the delivery system to produce students who have both the knowledge and skills. Teaching and learning are not only practiced traditionally where teachers focus on activities in the classroom solely, but it must in accordance with the latest technologies. Therefore, teachers’ must be up-to-date with the latest technologies such as the use of mobile devices for the delivery of instruction and they also need to have the necessary knowledge to plan and deliver the content. Specifically, this paper discusses the concepts of mobile learning in technical and vocational contexts, devices used in Mobile Learning, benefits of Mobile Learning, and challenges that exist in the implementation of Mobile Learning. This paper is technically reviewed using document analysis. The documents reviewed are from journal article, conference proceedings, concept paper; accessed via Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Library web portal (www.psz.utm.my). From the review, the researchers provide insights to the need of implementing Mobile Learning in the context of TVET and at the same time improving the quality of education in the vocational context.
... To make this work for the private sector of higher education, an enhanced focus should be given to the LMS, which has become an integral part of higher education in both public and private sectors (Pomerantz et al., 2018). In blended learning that the LMS aims to support, students are more likely to take responsibility for their own learning instead of being passive learners (Baragash & Al-Samarraie, 2018;Wang et al., 2009). However, the implementation of the LMS is heavily influenced by the perceptions that student users have about the LMS. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research project was to measure the effects of the perceptions that students hold of the functionality of LMS and students’ self-efficacy specific to using LMS in their studies on student LMS acceptance and use. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), into which perceived functionality and LMS self-efficacy were incorporated as external variables. A web-based questionnaire was administered to students in a private higher education institution in Auckland, New Zealand. These responses were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation and linear regression. The results indicated that perceived functionality significantly influenced perceived usefulness. Similarly, it was found that LMS self-efficacy significantly influenced perceived ease of use. However, no evidence was found that attitudes towards using LMS predicted behavioural intention to use.
... At the level of clarifying ideas, Suggestions select ideas involving students in learning to turn on an interactive class atmosphere and do not seem passive. Student intersections in the training interactions to make students also active and interactive (Wang et al, 2009). Students are encouraged to be courteous with material, sometimes asking questions to invite students to be active in learning activities such as at 600. ...
Article
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This research aims to describe the decision-making of pre-service teacher in designing lesson plans and their implementation in learning mathematics. This type of research is qualitative research with a descriptive approach. Determination of subjects in this research using a purposive sampling technique. The subjects in this research are students of the Mathematics Education Study Program at one of the universities in East Java, Indonesia. The subjects is the winner of a microteaching competition at the university level. Learning activities are observed in the preliminary, core, and closing activities. Because this is qualitative study, the main instrument is the researcher and is assisted by observation sheets, video recordings, and interview guidelines. The conclusion is that subjects make decisions at each step of learning with the stages of building ideas, clarifying ideas, and assessing the fairness of ideas. At the idea-building stage, subjects build ideas with several/various ideas for activities to be carried out and adapted to the conditions and time of learning. Keywords: Decision Making, Microteaching Contest, Design Lesson Plan, Implementation Mathematics Learning
... As for the analysis of the NIS program of an advanced level in subjects of the natural science cycle, the developers took into account the following points, firstly, the transition of teaching from the native language (L1) to English (L2), therefore the sections and learning objectives were lined up as the complexity increased; secondly, the number of learning objectives testing high-order skills (HOTS) was 28% and 51%, respectively, in grades 11 and 12. In the work of Wang (Wang, 2009: 678) [3] the following conclusions were made: firstly, the traditional teaching process does not stimulate students to think more, 75% of teachers use the method when the teacher is the center of the educational process. The teacher should first monitor the pace of innovation so that students are motivated to change. ...
... Moreover, smart mobile devices are likely to promote learning due to features such as mobility, which makes learning accessible at any time and place, and a cheap price [21,43]. On the other hand, research has also shown that M-learning activities can improve the preparedness and achievement of students much better than conventional learning during the instruction and learning process [44]. ...
Article
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Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of mobile learning on students’ achievement in the grammar of the Arabic language, and their attitude towards the use of mobile learning. Methods/Analysis: The study was conducted using a quasi-experimental design, case study. The sample comprised 170 students, divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 87) and a control group (n = 83). An achievement test and a questionnaire were used to collect data, which was analyzed using SPSS. Findings: The findings revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups, with the experimental group showing better scholastic achievement on the test. The results also show that the students of the experimental group were more positive towards mobile learning. Novel contribution: The study recommends further studies on the use of mobile learning in universities and schools. It is necessary to emphasize and focus on further studies on the use of mobile learning within universities and schools to confirm and provide evidence of the significance of mobile learning in terms of facilitating, promoting, and enhancing the educational process. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-SIED-06 Full Text: PDF
... Additional teaching materials provide better understanding of the knowledge acquired in the class, as well as better students' motivation, thus improving and supporting their learning process [31]. Blended learning enables students to get more involved in the learning process [32]. On the other hand, certain authors state that blended learning has had a positive effect on students' satisfaction [16] which is reflected in their relationship with the teacher, teaching materials, and other educational activities [33]. ...
Conference Paper
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A new approach to language learning has arisen due to the Covid-19 pandemic. In order for classes to run smoothly, ICT has provided a new learning environment blended learning. This paper aims to highlight the importance of blended learning in teaching ESP at tertiary level. The research was conducted on a sample of 44 students with the aim to analyse students' overall perception of blended learning. The questionnaire specifically designed for this research included opinions and attitudes of students on implementation of blended learning in language classes, namely for the purposes of ESP. Descriptive analytics was used whereas the results were analysed by applying statistical methods. Apart from considering advantages and disadvantages of applying blended learning in language learning, the paper also offers proposals concerning the improvement of teaching methods and forms. The research suggests that blended learning has positive effects on learning outcomes. Moreover, the analysis showed that this form of teaching fully satisfies students' needs.
... Additional teaching materials provide better understanding of the knowledge acquired in the class, as well as better students' motivation, thus improving and supporting their learning process [31]. Blended learning enables students to get more involved in the learning process [32]. On the other hand, certain authors state that blended learning has had a positive effect on students' satisfaction [16] which is reflected in their relationship with the teacher, teaching materials, and other educational activities [33]. ...
... Distance education carried out in two major directions; the individual flexible teaching model with more self-paced, asynchronous content with a minimum level of communication and the extended classroom model done through video-conferencing and interactive technologies (Rekkedal & Dye, 2007). Today, English teaching is done with the assistance of both models, and related research about their efficiency on language skills development and technological assisting tools, is available (Bahari, 2020;Howlett, 2019;Lee, 2018;Wang et al, 2009;Watkins, 2019). ...
Article
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Teaching English has been one of the subjects deeply affected by the lockdown and physical isolation period caused by COVID-19, and schools around the world had to switch to online instruction at short notice. Students engaged in this distance learning process with different autonomy levels; some adapted to the new learning system easily, while others felt lost and depended solely on what the teachers said. This descriptive study aims to discover the perception of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers on learner autonomy levels of Turkish EFL learners during online instruction throughout the lockdown period; what the biggest barriers that blocked their students' autonomous study habits were; and what strategies teachers/ instructors followed to enhance the students' autonomy levels. In Turkey order to analyse the data collected through an online questionnaire from 66 teacher participants, a descriptive study design with a mixed method approach was adopted. Correlational analysis was performed on the quantitative data, EFLIJ Volume 25 Issue 6 November 2021 7 7 and qualitative data was open coded with content analysis. Findings showed that Turkish EFL learners were perceived to be autonomous at a rate of 55% by their teachers during the online instruction period, and self-access materials, technology, motivation, and the affective factors played a significant role in the development, degree, and perception of autonomy in online learning.
... Thus, despite its potential, technology has proved to be a mixed blessing in the classroom. Proponents can point to note taking, clickers, collaborating with other students, and access to course-related materials that improve or expand the classroom experience (Vogel et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2008), but technology has also made it equally easy for students to access non-related materials online. Rather than take notes, work with classmates, or surf the web about course material, bored students may also play games, interact with friends through messaging and email, and surf the web about non course material (Leach et al., 2007;Young, 2006). ...
Article
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Classroom response systems (i.e., clickers) have become increasingly popular to facilitate student learning. Unfortunately, the common practice of pausing a lecture to ask questions takes up precious time to cover content. Asking questions “on the fly” without pausing is a possible solution. But can students both attend to lecture and answer questions simultaneously? Is this multitasking detrimental to student learning? In three experiments, we examined the effects of relevant and irrelevant “on-the-fly” questions and note taking on lecture retention. Undergraduates watched a video of a classroom lecture while either taking notes or not and receiving 0, 6, 18, or 36 questions that were either relevant or irrelevant to the lecture and then took a test. Students performed better on the test when receiving relevant rather than irrelevant questions. As for an optimal number of questions or whether note taking should also be allowed, there were no obvious advantages. Thus, when considering using “on the fly” clicker questions during a lecture vs. having no such questions, our evidence indicates no clear interference. Rather, such activities such as clickers may counter lecture boredom by allowing students to multitask with relevant activities.
... They also believed that video streaming and video-on-demand (VoD) constitute new added values to educational videos. Hence, through educational videos, learners seem to enjoy this flexible, student-centred approach [12]. Several studies by [13] and [14] discovered that the usage of videos to learn English can make learning more meaningful and serves as an effective tool to enhance students' attention and motivation, as well as language skills. ...
Article
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To assist learning, preparation of suitable learning material is recommended along with a blended learning approach. Educational videos could be considered as a tool that can be adapted. This study aimed to develop educational videos for three (3) selected topics in Digital Illustration course offered to FirstYear Multimedia undergraduate students. ADDIE instructional design model was used to develop those educational videos. This study started with choosing a topic, designing storyboards, developing videos, uploading prototype videos to Google Drive for evaluation purposes, and conducting a usability evaluation on selected respondents. Finding from the user testing showed it was ascertained that the students agreed to use videos to enhance their understanding in selected topics in the Digital Illustration course. There should be continuous improvement in the educational videos specifically in including additional content to further enhance the videos.
... Much research was conducted, including Rosell-Aguilar (2017), Zhang and Pérez-Paredes (2021). They promoted the use of mobile tools in English language education, like WeChat-instant messaging applications (Wu, 2017(Wu, , 2018 and self-developed learning software (Wang et al., 2009). As various existing augmented reality software relies on the use of mobile technology, it is considered one type of mobile learning (Greenwood & Wang, 2018). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine a classroom action research about using augmented reality media to improve non-English students’ tenses mastery. The study was carried out in two cycles and each cycle consists of four stages, including plan, action, observation, and reflection. The participants of the study were a class of students of economic education study program, faculty of teacher training and education at a public university in Jambi who were taking English subject. The data of the study were taken from a test and observations in collecting the data. The results of the data analysis indicated that there was an increase from the first cycle to the second cycle. Moreover, the research results showed that: 1) augmented reality created a good atmosphere in the teaching and learning activities; 2) augmented reality made the students understand the use of tenses easily; and 3) the students became more active and attractive in the teaching and learning activities. It can be concluded that the use of augmented reality can improve students' tenses mastery.
... ML has significantly impacted the achievements, self-regulation [personalized LB (PLB)] (Zare Bidaki et al., 2013), and conversational skills of students (Elfeky and Masadeh, 2016). It has also led to significantly increased interactivity in large blended classes while helping learners become more behaviorally, intellectually, and emotionally engaged in learning activities (Wang et al., 2009). According to the above discussion of the extant literature, the following hypothesis is proposed: H 2 : ML has a positive effect on the LB of students. ...
Article
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The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic pushed almost all institutions to adopt online and virtual education. The uncertainty of this situation produced various questions that perplexed educationists regarding what implications the pandemic would have on educational institutions, especially regarding how the switch to online education would impact the behavior and performance of students. The vast importance of this matter attracted the attention of researchers and served as the motivation for this research, which aims to resolve this confusion by studying the use of mobile learning (ML) among students for educational purposes during the COVID-19 period. This study also examines how this situation has affected student learning behavior (LB) and performance (SP) in the higher education setting. This research is based on collaborative learning theory, sociocultural learning theory, and ML theory. This quantitative research employed the convenient sampling technique to collect data through structured questionnaires distributed to 396 students of higher education institutions who carry a mobile device. This study used descriptive and inferential statistics to make the data more meaningful. Structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS software was used for hypothesis testing. The results showed that ML was a significant and positive predictor of SP and LB. Moreover, student LB partially mediated the relationship between ML and SP. The findings suggest that the academic performance of students can be enhanced by building a ML environment that aligns with the LB of students. Nevertheless, content suitable for ML must be developed, and future research should be conducted on this topic.
... Georgiev et al. [29] proposed "Mlearning" (mobile learning) in addition to the widespread use of portable computer devices such as tablets, iPads, and smartphones. Wang et al. [30] studied the effects of mobile learning on overall student success. According to the authors, M-learning enhances student engagement in the classroom. ...
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Recently, there has been a substantial amount of research on smart classrooms, encompassing a number of areas, including Information and Communication Technology, Machine Learning, Sensor Networks, Cloud Computing, and Hardware. Smart classroom research has been quickly implemented to enhance education systems, resulting in higher engagement and empowerment of students, educators, and administrators. Despite decades of using emerging technology to improve teaching practices, critics often point out that methods miss adequate theoretical and technical foundations. As a result, there have been a number of conflicting reviews on different perspectives of smart classrooms. For a realistic smart classroom approach, a piecemeal implementation is insufficient. This survey contributes to the current literature by presenting a comprehensive analysis of various disciplines using a standard terminology and taxonomy. This multi-field study reveals new research possibilities and problems that must be tackled in order to integrate interdisciplinary works in a synergic manner. Our analysis shows that smart classroom is a rapidly developing research area that complements a number of emerging technologies. Moreover, this paper also describes the co-occurrence network of technological keywords using VOSviewer for an in-depth analysis.
... In contrast, a study conducted by [26] indicated most of the students at Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) who studied Diploma program (97.7 percent) used their mobile device for learning and they preferred smartphone than other mobile devices for learning. In the same way, as reported [27] around 178 students at Network Education College, Shanghai used mobile learning for discussing Mudiana Mokhsin: 5G Technology Readiness in Education among Malay Bumiputera Students in Shah Alam course content and exchanging questions and ideas among classmates about the course materials. As a result, there is still great potential and opportunities of mobile learning in education and the high educational organization have to be prepared in adapting and changing their curriculum so that educators and students can keep up with this fast pace of technology and also experience the benefits offered by mobile learning. ...
... As NSSE identified, collaborative learning is one of the main advantages of the utilization of m-learning. Collaboration includes conversation and data sharing, highlighting the use of networked connections and interactions between learners, teachers, and other people, as well as exchanging ideas and sharing resources through collaborative assignments (Wang et al., 2009). This complex system consists of multimodal, communicative aspects of m-learning, more specifically information searching, production, and sharing (Mills et al., 2014;Sharples, 2013). ...
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Mobile learning (m-learning) has the potential to vastly change and improve education as we know it. Its main advantage is in extending the educational contexts to any place and any time. This leads to possibilities of more active and experiential learning. Furthermore, it greatly improves the potential for communication and access to information. All of these improvements, if utilized properly, can lead to more meaningful learning and more internal motivation for learning. However, these changes are not easy to implement and require the overcoming of several obstacles. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes towards m-learning and its relationships with ubiquitous learning, experiential and active learning, meaningful learning, cooperative learning, internal motivation for learning, and demographic variables. In order to measure these constructs, questionnaires were completed by 200 participants. The results suggest that the youngest generations (15-17 years old) and those who used their mobile phones the most have the highest attitudes towards m-learning. There were no differences amongst genders or people with various levels of education. Furthermore, the effects of mobile and ubiquitous learning on meaningful learning were mediated by collaborative and experiential and active learning. Lastly, the effects of mobile and ubiquitous learning on internal motivation for learning were direct. The findings indicate the importance of utilization of mobile learning and its positive consequences on both academic and personal aspects of the students’ lives.
... The context of this inquiry is that attention to emotions, feelings and experience remains both minimal and insufficient in both Western and Chinese academic circles. Even though innovative teaching methods are employed in China in both face-to-face and online teaching , compared with western countries, many Chinese classes continue to lack student interaction and participation (Gao, 2020;Wang et al., 2009), and there is very little research on the emotional aspects of teaching in China (Wu et al., 2017;Zhou et al., 2018). ...
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Emotion is important in teaching and research but are rarely the focus of geographic scholarship. This article aims to bridge the gap between teaching geographic thought and teaching that considers emotion based on the case of a university class in China. Class sessions, supported with an English language textbook, were connected with different emotions and feelings in the unfolding stages of course and class delivery. We document and analyze the process of teaching with emotion through consideration of numerous approaches to the integration of emotion in teaching and observing student responses within individual class sessions and across an entire semester. At the beginning of the course, students’ feelings are most often detachment and apathy. During the semester students’ feelings change from confusion to knowledge, confidence and a sense of peace. We find it is important to let students and the professor speak their feelings. By teaching with emotion, most students gain the ability to confidently express their feelings and at the end of the course some students even said they love geographic thought. Affect including feelings, emotion, and even love are suitable for teaching geographic thought and may be applied to other aspects of teaching in the discipline.
... an emphasis on preparing students to work in real-life conditions through the teaching contents of their curricula [6]. Therefore, to encourage students' active participation in the learning process, the integration of mobile devices in teaching and learning has been extensively investigated [7]. This enhances students' overall competency levels. ...
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This study aims to identify the elements of implementing mobile learning based on Competency-based Education. The confirmation of elements was based on the opinions and consensus of experts. The consensus survey was constructed based on the emergent themes that experts raised during their interview sessions. Sixteen experts in Competency-based Education were included in the survey. The data was analyzed using the Fuzzy Delphi method (FDM). The results indicate that eight elements met the FDM requirements. Its threshold value is ≤ 0.2, the percentage expert consensus is ≥ 75%, and the average score of the Fuzzy number is over 0.5. These eight elements are students, teachers, technology, learning environment, content, assessment, learning strategy, and learning activity. The outcomes of this research will be useful for stakeholders within the educational sector to address student competency, including the Ministry of Education Malaysia, the Technical and Vocational Education Division, teachers, students, and developers and designers of mobile learning applications.
... Due to the development of new technologies and the pervasiveness of smartphones, mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) has developed rapidly within the past decades. Educators and researchers conducted empirical research on MALL (e.g., Rosell-Aguilar 2017; Zhang and Pérez-Paredes 2019) and promoted the use of mobile tools in English Language Education (ELE), such as instant messaging apps (e.g., WeChat, Wu , 2018b and self-developed learning software (Wang et al. 2009). As various existing AR software relies on the use of mobile technology, it is considered one type of mobile learning (Greenwood and Wang 2018). ...
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As a new and promising technology, Augmented Reality (AR) cannot merely benefit learners’ cognitive development but also may contribute to contextualised language learning (Cheng & Tsai, 2014; Godwin-Jones, 2016). Although the implementation of AR in language learning in mainland China is burgeoning, theoretical and empirical research is still limited. This study aims to explore how Chinese EFL teachers perceive AR in English language learning, especially comparing non-tertiary levels and the tertiary level, as well as Eastern China and other regions in China. As a mixed-methods study, we recruited 153 Chinese EFL teachers to complete a questionnaire. The design of the questionnaire draws on Traxler and Kukulska-Hulme’s (2016) context-aware mobile learning and Godwin-Jones’s (2016) conceptualisation of AR language learning and practice. The study was designed to collect teachers’ perceptions and expectations of AR in (1) language learning, (2) its effectiveness, (3) content, (4) curriculum and pedagogy and (5) future use. This study offers some insights into how Chinese EFL teachers conceptualise the role of AR in English language learning and allows us to theorise on how AR may contribute to both CALL and language education.
... This was supported by Baker, Dede and Evans (2014) and Kamarainen et al., (2013), which they stated the students were highly engaged with the use of mobile devices in the T&L process. Other research also agreed by reporting that students feel more excited and engaged in their learning (Rogers et al., 2010;Wang et al., 2009& Al-Fahad, 2009). ...
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This study aimed at identifying students’ perception in terms of motivation, learning and engagement in using mobile flipped classroom approach based on Kolb’s Learning Cycle (1984). This quantitative study was conducted using a questionnaire to collect the data. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive analysis (percentage, means and standard deviations) utilizing the SPSS 20. The research took place in one of the top private universities in Malaysia and equipped with adequate free internet access. The researcher applied homogenous purposive sampling by selecting 40 undergraduate students registered in multimedia and computer animation course. The result showed that students had positive perceptions in terms of students’ motivation, learning and engagement in multimedia and animation course using mobile flipped classroom approach. Future research is recommended to focus on different age and a group of participants to obtain in-depth information on the implementation of mobile flipped classroom approach in a different context.
... Learning activities with this device can involve students more in the learning process. Students in the classroom learn passively become learners who are really actively involved, intellectually and emotionally involved in their learning tasks [16]. The application of learning using a mobile device must be prepared and designed. ...
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... This opens up the possibility of integrating mobile technologies into teaching and learning. Previous studies have shown that mobile technology-supported learning has great potential to improve students' learning achievements (Bano et al., 2018;Han & Shin, 2016;Wang et al., 2009) and positively affects learners' learning attitude (Hwang & Chang, 2011). In addition, some studies have also shown that mobile learning facilitates the transformation of instructors' and learners' roles and helps learners to change from being passive to active learners (Hsia & Sung, 2020;Hwang & Chang, 2021). ...
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This study reviewed the mobile technology-supported music education (MTSME) studies published in several academic databases, namely Scopus, WOS, ERIC, and RILM, from 2008-2019. Based on the technology-based learning model, the application domains, research issues, sample groups, research methods, adopted devices, and learning strategies were examined. In addition, visual categorization analysis was conducted to further analyze the keywords adopted in the studies. The results show that the number of MTSME studies increased in the time period. It was also found that a majority of studies mainly focused on learner perceptions (e.g. learning reception, learning attitude, and learning motivation). Tablet computers were the most frequently adopted mobile devices. In terms of learning strategies, guided learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning were extensively used in the MTSME studies. In addition, the results of the keyword analysis showed three thematic clusters of MTSME studies, namely “mobile technology-supported teaching management and learning design,” “developing appropriate music educational resources for different educational levels,” and “mobile technology facilitated learning motivation in music education.” According to the research results, several suggestions for future research are proposed.
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Methodological framework introduces and integrates innovative student-centered phenomenon based, research based, blended learning and social leadership approaches. Constructivism is an umbrella concept of the framework.
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Abstract The goal of the study was to measures smart phones impacted Iraqi EFL learners' proficiency and their attitudes towards it. The study included (60) female students who were enrolled at AL-Motamizeen Secondary School for Girls during the first course of the academic year 2021-2022. The sample was divided into two groups at random: Group (A) was an experimental group of 35 students, whereas group (B) was a control group of 35 students. Independent sample T-test was used to investigate the impact of Smart Phones on Learners' Proficiency in EFL Education. Also, one-way between groups (ANOVA) was used to the four language skills aspects of language (writing, speaking, reading, listening) for the pre- and post-assessments. The post-test indicated substantial differences between the experimental group's mean scores and the control group's mean scores in favor of the experimental group. The study's findings also revealed that employing smart phones in education is an effective way to improve students' English language skills. Also, the questionnaires were adapted by the researcher, which based on the study of Biswas, Roy, & Roy(2020), to investigation learners' attitudes towards Smart Phones. The results of the study indicated that AL-Motamizeen Secondary School for Girls had a positive attitude towards the role of smart phones in learning English. The researcher presented conclusions and recommendations for additional research based on the study's findings. Keywords: Smart phones, Proficiency, attitudes and English Language.
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In this chapter we critique a range of literature related to digital technologies and their impact in the early years of schooling. First, we examine the impact of digital technologies on young children in general, including issues of access and the overall impact of digital technologies. We then turn our attention to a specific focus on tablets, the increasingly prevalent technology used by young children, to: analyse its impact on young children; discuss how pedagogically thoughtful app design can maximise the benefits of tablet use and then address the issue of screen time. In the second section of the chapter, we briefly examine computational thinking and how it can be supported by technology (tablets and robotics).
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The major purpose of this book is to present and discuss current thinking, theories, conceptual frameworks, models and promising examples of engaged learning with emerging technologies. Contributions come from distinguished academics in the USA, Canada, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, China, Korea and Singapore. Following from a constructivist orientation, coupled with social cultural dimensions of learning, this on the theoretical constructs of the learning sciences and thus the chapters in volume documents how emerging learning technologies are appropriated into meaningful and engaged learning and instructional situations. The field of learning technologies is grounded this book balance between theory and practice and prepositions and solutions.
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Distance education: a systems view Microlearning Encyclopedia of educational technology The ActiveClass project: Experiments in encouraging classroom participation
  • M G Moore
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  • R B Shapiro
  • T M Truong
  • W G Griswold
Moore, M. G. & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education: a systems view. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publ. Co. Novak, D. (2006). Microlearning. In R. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational technology. Retrieved December 22, 2007, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/microlearning/ index.htm Ratto, M., Shapiro, R. B., Truong, T. M. & Griswold, W. G. (June 2003). The ActiveClass project: Experiments in encouraging classroom participation. In B. Wasson, S. Ludvigsen & U. Hoppe (eds.), Proceedings of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2003: Designing for Change in Networked Learning Environments (pp. 477–486). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Mobile Learning: Small devices, big Issues Using mobile phones in English education in Japan
  • M Sharples
  • I A Sánchez
  • M Milrad
  • G Vavoula
  • P Thornton
  • C Houser
Sharples, M., Sánchez, I. A., Milrad, M. & Vavoula, G. (2007). Mobile Learning: Small devices, big Issues. Retrieved December 22, 2007, from http://telearn.noe-kaleidoscope.org/open-archive/ browse?browse=collection/30/publication&index=0&filter=all&param=30 Thornton, P. & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal of Computer-Assisted Learning, 21, 217–228.
expressing emotions, exchanging information, setting goals and encouraging oneself Putting 2.7 billion in context: Mobile phone users Active learning Encyclopedia of educational technology The Effects of spaced practice and spaced review on recall and retention using computer assisted instruction
  • T Ahonen
  • A Moore
Students' response (280): feedback from students to instructor, socialising, expressing emotions, exchanging information, setting goals and encouraging oneself. References Ahonen, T. & Moore, A. (January 1, 2007). Putting 2.7 billion in context: Mobile phone users. Retrieved February 5, 2008, from http://communities-dominate.blogs.com/brands/2007/01/ putting_27_bill.html Bailey, D. (2004). Active learning. In R. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational technology. Retrieved December 22, 2007, form http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/activelearning/ index.htm Caple, C. (1996). The Effects of spaced practice and spaced review on recall and retention using computer assisted instruction (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh).
Why learning professionals need to care about mobile learning
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Wagner, E. & Wilson, P. (2005, December). Why learning professionals need to care about mobile learning. American Society of Training and Development, 40-41.
Goin' mobile; learning circuits Ubiquitous learning – an application of mobile technology in education. Paper presented at the ED-MEDIA Culture's consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organiza-tions across nations
  • P Harris
  • P Hayes
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  • P Pathak
  • G Hofstede
Harris, P. (2001, July). Goin' mobile; learning circuits, Retrieved February 5, 2008, from http:// www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul2001/harris.html Hayes, P., Joyce, D. & Pathak, P. (2004). Ubiquitous learning – an application of mobile technology in education. Paper presented at the ED-MEDIA 2004, Lugano, Switzerland. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organiza-tions across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Putting 2.7 billion in context: Mobile phone users
  • T Ahonen
  • A Moore
Ahonen, T. & Moore, A. (January 1, 2007). Putting 2.7 billion in context: Mobile phone users. Retrieved February 5, 2008, from http://communities-dominate.blogs.com/brands/2007/01/ putting_27_bill.html
Goin' mobile; learning circuits
  • P Harris
Harris, P. (2001, July). Goin' mobile; learning circuits, Retrieved February 5, 2008, from http:// www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul2001/harris.html
Active learning Encyclopedia of educational technology
  • D Bailey
Bailey, D. (2004). Active learning. In R. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational technology. Retrieved December 22, 2007, form http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/activelearning/ index.htm
Encyclopedia of educational technology
  • D Bailey
Bailey, D. (2004). Active learning. In R. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational technology. Retrieved December 22, 2007, form http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/activelearning/ index.htm
Encyclopedia of educational technology
  • D Novak
Novak, D. (2006). Microlearning. In R. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational technology. Retrieved December 22, 2007, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/microlearning/ index.htm
The ActiveClass project: Experiments in encouraging classroom participation
  • M Ratto
  • R B Shapiro
  • T M Truong
  • W G Griswold
Ratto, M., Shapiro, R. B., Truong, T. M. & Griswold, W. G. (June 2003). The ActiveClass project: Experiments in encouraging classroom participation. In B. Wasson, S. Ludvigsen & U. Hoppe (eds.), Proceedings of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2003: Designing for Change in Networked Learning Environments (pp. 477-486). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Fogg