Article

Advances in basic and clinical research in laminopathies

Cardiomyology and Medical Genetics, Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy
Acta myologica: myopathies and cardiomyopathies: official journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology / edited by the Gaetano Conte Academy for the study of striated muscle diseases 05/2013; 32(1):18-22.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Lamins (LMNA) are the main proteins of the nuclear lamina considered to be the ancestors of all intermediate filament proteins. They form complex protein assemblies with integral proteins of the inner nuclear membrane, transcriptional regulators, histones and chromatin modifiers. During recent years, interest in lamins has greatly increased due to the identification of many distinct heritable human disorders associated with lamin mutations. These disorders, collectively termed laminopathies, range from muscular dystrophies to premature aging. They may affect muscle, fat, bone, nerve and skin tissues. The workshop was addressed to understand lamin organization and its roles in nuclear processes, mutations in lamins affecting cell and tissues functions, the biology of the nucleus and laminopathic disease mechanisms, all aspects important for designing future therapies.

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Available from: Luisa Politano, Jun 23, 2014
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    • "Most patients develop proximal leg weakness, followed by cardiac arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy, with sudden death 20-30 years later. However, there is a continuity between LGMD1B and EDMD (8). Usually the more severe forms of EDMD with a childhood onset have missense mutations, whereas the milder LGMD1B is associated with heterozygous truncating mutations: this may arise through a loss of LMNA function secondary to haploinsufficiency, whereas dominant-negative or toxic gain-of-function mechanisms may underlie the EDMD phenotypes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a highly heterogeneous group of muscle disorders, which first affect the voluntary muscles of the hip and shoulder areas. The definition is highly descriptive and less ambiguous by exclusion: non-Xlinked, non-FSH, non-myotonic, non-distal, nonsyndromic, and non-congenital. At present, the genetic classification is becoming too complex, since the acronym LGMD has also been used for a number of other myopathic disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Today, the list of genes to be screened is too large for the gene-by-gene approach and it is well suited for targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) panels that should include any gene that has been so far associated with a clinical picture of LGMD. The present review has the aim of recapitulating the genetic basis of LGMD ordering and of proposing a nomenclature for the orphan forms. This is useful given the pace of new discoveries. Thity-one loci have been identified so far, eight autosomal dominant and 23 autosomal recessive. The dominant forms (LGMD1) are: LGMD1A (myotilin), LGMD1B (lamin A/C), LGMD1C (caveolin 3), LGMD1D (DNAJB6), LGMD1E (desmin), LGMD1F (transportin 3), LGMD1G (HNRPDL), LGMD1H (chr. 3). The autosomal recessive forms (LGMD2) are: LGMD2A (calpain 3), LGMD2B (dysferlin), LGMD2C (γ sarcoglycan), LGMD2D (α sarcoglycan), LGMD2E (β sarcoglycan), LGMD2F (δ sarcoglycan), LGMD2G (telethonin), LGMD2H (TRIM32), LGMD2I (FKRP), LGMD2J (titin), LGMD2K (POMT1), LGMD2L (anoctamin 5), LGMD2M (fukutin), LGMD2N (POMT2), LGMD2O (POMTnG1), LGMD2P (dystroglycan), LGMD2Q (plectin), LGMD2R (desmin), LGMD2S (TRAPPC11), LGMD2T (GMPPB), LGMD2U (ISPD), LGMD2V (Glucosidase, alpha ), LGMD2W (PINCH2).
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Acta myologica: myopathies and cardiomyopathies: official journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology / edited by the Gaetano Conte Academy for the study of striated muscle diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in lamins, which are ubiquitous nuclear intermediate filaments, lead to a variety of disorders, described as laminopathies or nuclear envelopathies, that include both X-linked and autosomal dominant forms of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction system defects (DCM-CD), limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1B (LGMD1B) with atrioventricular conduction disturbances, Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD), and autosomal recessive forms of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (ARCMT2, CMT2B) and progeria syndromes. Cardiac involvement in laminopathies can be isolated or more frequently associated with muscle involvement. The vast majority of patients develop dysrhythmias after the age of 30 years, and many undergo pace maker (P.M.) or cardioverter defibrillator implantation; heart failure is relatively frequent after the age of 50 but it occurs less commonly than dysrhythmias. Both tachy-arrhythmias and brady-arrhythmias may occur also in LMNA mutated patients presenting a congenital or early onset of the disease. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the modality of exitus most frequently observed even in implanted patients, indicating that subjects carrying LMNA gene mutations are at high risk of sudden death and that P.M. implantation is unable to protect them against this dramatic event. The identification of parameters able to stratify the patients at risk is of considerable utility in clinical practice.
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations on the LMNA gene are responsible for an heterogeneous group of diseases. Overlapping syndromes related to LMNA gene alterations have been extensively reported. Study scope is to perform a systematic analysis of the overlapping syndromes so far described and to try to correlate the clinical features to the associated genetic alterations. We evaluated all the dominant overlapping syndromes reported by means of a PubMed search and by the analysis of the main databases containing the pathogenic LMNA gene variations and the associated diseases. Metabolic alterations in association to skeletal and/or cardiac alterations proved to be the most frequent overlap syndrome. Overlapping syndromes are mostly associated to inframe mutations in exons 1, 2, 8 and 9. These data further improve the understanding of the pathogenesis of laminopathies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Acta myologica: myopathies and cardiomyopathies: official journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology / edited by the Gaetano Conte Academy for the study of striated muscle diseases
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