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Social marketing for the environment: Using information campaigns to promote environmental awareness and behavior change

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This paper proposes social marketing as one approach for developing solutions to many environmental problems currently facing the global community. The social marketing approach applies generic marketing and marketing research strategies to the promotion of social programs or products (e.g., programs or products that benefit society). Diverse literatures have been synthesized to develop a set of guiding principles for pro-social communication These principles may be used pre-scriptively in developing environmental information campaigns. The proposed principles include adoption of a consumer orientation, mutual exchange between marketer and audience, analysis and segmentation of the audience, establishment of appropriate and realistic campaign objectives, application of formative research, analysis of channels of communication, use of behavioral theory, the creation of a marketing mix, application of process and outcome evaluation strategies, communication at the macro-social level, and establishing a time frame that facilitates institutionalization of the campaign goals. Attention to these principles will help campaign and policy planners translate growing environmental concern among the populations and governments of the world into effective environmental action.
... Cultural Programs In relation to peace and reconciliation, Maibach (1993) indicates the necessity of knowing community beliefs and practices. Local radio stations do that, and they carry programming to educate youth about community traditions and culture, thereby bringing much cultural development to community members. ...
... Religious Issues and Programs Research by Maibach (1993) concluded that audiences should be given information according to their preferences, beliefs, and habits. In furtherance of this, FM stations in northern Ghana serve the religious needs of their audience who are overwhelmingly Muslim, but with a very vibrant Christian minority. ...
... Poor Audience Research As previously mentioned, Maibach (1993) concluded that information should be provided according to audiences' preferences and habits. Additionally, Wimmer and Dominick (2011) state that audience research is critical in assessing a particular station's potency. ...
... The high level of environmental awareness is achieved through the implementation of measures for the sake of broadly understood environmental education (Paśko, 2011), where social campaigns play an important role (Fernandez et al., 2017;Maibach, 1993;Nycz-Wróbel, 2012). A social campaign is a type of social communication aiming at promoting socially appropriate and valuable behavior patterns, attitudes and values or to draw public attention to vital but often difficult and unsolved problems (Kicińska, 2012). ...
... There is a very rich literature on the areas in which the key environmental challenges facing the world in the near future are identified. Those most frequently mentioned (Albert et al., 2021;Dickens et al., 2020;Kassenberg, 2012;Maibach, 1993;Prandecki and Sadowski, 2010;Rockström et al., 2009;Steffen et al., 2015;Vörösmarty et al., 2010;World Economic Forum, 2019; World Wide Fund for Nature, 2020) are (in random order), air pollution, climate change, waste management, loss of biodiversity, ecosystems protection, deforestation, water resources management and energy management. Beside these key areas, other issues such as green transport (due to its impact on air pollution} and energy management are considered important for preventing environmental devastation (Mosaberpanah and Khales, 2012). ...
... At this point, the factors such as environmental policy, environmental awareness, and environmental interpretations of the hotel enterprises become rather influential. It is observed that the studies in the literature on environmental awareness and environmental interpretations has focused on customer preferences, education, informing and behavioral activities (Maibach, 1993 Marpa, 2020). The striking reality is that the majority of academic studies regarding environmental issues and covering hotel enterprises have been directed to the preferences of hotel customers. ...
... emphasize the importance of education and providing necessary information. Additionally, studies that deal with concepts such as marketing, consumer preferences, and experiences within the framework of environmental awareness(Maibach, 1993; Ballantyne et al., 2008; Xu et al., 2019; Rustam et al., 2020) also draw attention. ...
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Environmental problems, environmental awareness, and efforts to protect the environment are among the issues that concern the whole world and that need to be acted upon. Environmental concerns, which have come to the fore, especially in recent years, are closely related to the tourism sector. The main purpose of this research is to determine the moderator role of environmental interpretations in the relationship between planned behavior levels and environmental awareness perceptions of hotel employees. The sample of the research consists of 697 employees, who worked in five-star hotels in the Alanya region between the months of August and September 2020. As the data collection method in the research, the questionnaire technique has been preferred. As a result of the data obtained from the research, the Amos program was used to test the structural model. Respectively, these analyzes are reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant analysis, and regression analysis. As a consequence of the regression analysis conducted within the context of the study, it has been determined that the level of attitude, which is considered to be one of the planned behavior factors of the employees in the hotel enterprises, has a positive and significant effect on their environmental awareness. In addition, it has been determined that environmental interpretations have a moderating role in the relationship between the attitude levels and environmental awareness of the employees, participated in the research.
... The lack of evidence to support a change in behavior attributable to playing Save The Purple Frog is not entirely unexpected, and echoes findings from previous environmental serious games Dunn & Veríssimo, 2021). There is also comparatively little evidence documenting behavior change arising from playing serious games in other fields, and behaviors may be more resistant to change compared to other variables such as knowledge (Bamberg & Möser, 2007;Boyle et al., 2016;Maibach, 1993). However, the lack of evidence to support a change in ecocentric concern or nonanthropocentric motivations is more surprising, and contradicts the previous research on environmental serious games. ...
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Games have a wide range of potential uses, from mediating conservation conflicts to changing behaviors. However, there have been few impact evaluations of serious games published in the environmental field. We conducted the first cross‐cultural evaluation of an environmental mobile game, Save The Purple Frog. In a randomized control trial with both UK and Indian participants, we found very strong evidence that Save The Purple Frog had a positive impact on learning (effect size 0.62, p = 0.0001), but no evidence that it affected behaviors or attitudes. Our study contributes to the evidence base for environmental serious games, demonstrating their potential as an engaging tool for environmental education. We suggest examining the impact of longer gameplay as a future research direction, as well as exploring different gameplay styles. This is the first cross‐cultural evaluation of an environmental serious game, through a preregistered randomized control trial. There was a significant improvement in learning about the purple frog from playing the serious game.
... Hence, there is a need for future studies to extend our research across specific research domains such as the environment (e.g. Maibach, 1993). Further, the majority of the studies were conducted in Western countries, and we included only papers published in English, which potentially leads to publication bias. ...
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This paper analyses how social marketing scholarship engages with the concept of empowerment and reflects critically on its usage and conceptualisations. Based on a systematic literature review, the paper discusses the importance of empowerment theory for increasing the emancipatory potential of social marketing in pursuit of community betterment and social change. The paper offers a definition of empowerment for the social marketing discipline, constructs a conceptual framework of empowerment for social marketers, and clarifies the main aspects and principles of empow-erment theory relevant for the development of critical social marketing , thereby providing sources for future research, continuing critical reflections and critique.
... However, the same effect is difficult to achieve with individual consumers. In this regard, incentive programs have become particularly instrumental, serving as a potent means for persuading individual households and consumer communities to adopt pro-environmental behaviors and technologies [4][5][6][7][8][9]. For example, utilities and governmental agencies have used monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage private landowners to install green infrastructure as a measure to reduce the risk of flooding, decrease the occurrence of sewer overflow, and control runoff [10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
This paper presents a systematic review of the research literature that applies quantitative techniques to inform incentive programs and policies promoting pro-environmental behavior and technology adoption among individual consumers. The paper points out that, while the number of active incentive programs is large, there is a dire need for scientific advances that could increase their impact in calculated ways. The expertise of the operations research and management science community, as well as industrial, systems, civil, and environmental engineering experience, appears to be particularly well suited to support such effort. The review covers the research work performed in three areas of practical importance: efficient energy consumption, waste management, and stormwater management. The types of analytical models and data analysis techniques developed to support policy-making in each area are summarized, highlighting the imbalance between the descriptive versus prescriptive contributions made to date.
... • podporovanie zdravých stravovacích návykov (Finnell, John, Thomp son, 2017;Gwozdz Reisch, 2011), • podporovanie aktivít súvisiacich s ochranou životného prostredia (Sheau-Ting, Mohammed, Weng-Wai, 2013;Haldeman Turner, 2009;Dahl, 2010;Maibach, 1993;McGovern, 2005), • podporovanie aktivít súvisiacich s otázkami verejného zdravianávštevy lekárov, preventívne prehliadky atď. (Evers, Jones, Caputi, Iverson, 2013;Blitstein, a kol., 2016;Ramirez, Diaz Rios, Valdez, Estrada, Ruiz, 2016;Dahl, 2010;Smith, 2006), • boj proti nezdravým návykom -fajčenie a pitie alkoholu (Hastings, Angus, 2011;Dahl, 2010), • prevencia riskantného správania -bezpečnosť na cestách a pod. ...
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Thesis
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