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Student Mobility and the Increased Risk of High School Drop Out

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Abstract

A variety of evidence suggests that students in the United States change schools frequently. But there has been relatively little research that examines the educational consequences of student mobility. This study examined the incidence of student mobility between the eighth and twelfth grades and its effect on high school completion using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey third follow-up data. Three models were tested on two groups of students. For eighth-grade students in 1988, we predicted (1) whether students changed schools or dropped out between the eighth and twelfth grades and (2) high school completion status two years after twelfth grade. For twelfth-grade students in 1992 we predicted high school completion status two years after twelfth grade. The models were developed from a conceptual framework based on theories of dropping out, postsecondary institutional departure, and student transfer adjustment that suggest school mobility may represent a less severe form of educational. disengagement similar to dropping out. The results generally support this idea. That is, measures of social and academic engagement, such as low grades, misbehavior, and high absenteeism, predicted both whether students changed schools or dropped out. The results further indicate that, controlling for other predictors, students who made even one nonpromotional school change between the eighth and twelfth grades were twice as likely to not complete high school as students who did not change schools. Together, the findings suggest that student mobility is both a symptom of disengagement and an important risk factor for high school dropout.
... Student mobility can also disrupt a child's social ties and peer group, and thus the corresponding support and social capital that these interpersonal relationships bring (Coleman, 1988;National College for School Leadership, 2011;Pribesh & Downey, 1999). Many studies have identified negative associations between mobility and academic performance, as well as other outcomes such as absences, exclusions, school dropout and behavioural issues (Dobson et al., 2000;Engec, 2006;Mehana & Reynolds, 2004;Pribesh & Downey, 1999;Rumberger, 2003;Rumberger & Larson, 1998;Strand & Demie, 2007;Temple & Reynolds, 1999;Welsh, 2017). Student mobility has potential spillover effects for schools and educational authorities. ...
... A recurring discussion in the literature on student mobility is to what degree moving school in and of itself is an influence on student outcomes, and to what degree mobility acts as a proxy for other unaccounted-for circumstances or characteristics which also relate to the same outcomes (Mehana & Reynolds, 2004;Rumberger & Larson, 1998;Wright, 1999). The associational effects researchers identify between student outcomes and mobility are likely to reflect selection as well as potential causal influences. ...
... Previous research regarding the relationship of student mobility with achievement is mixed, with some studies indicating negative associations, others positive, whilst some suggest associations are spurious due to confounding by pre-existing differences across student characteristics (Pribesh & Downey, 1999;Wright, 1999). Our results support the literature that has indicated mobility as a potential detrimental influence of achievement (Dobson et al., 2000;Engec, 2006;Mehana & Reynolds, 2004;Pribesh & Downey, 1999;Rumberger, 2003;Rumberger & Larson, 1998;Strand & Demie, 2007;Temple & Reynolds, 1999;Welsh, 2017), building further evidence through examining multiple movement types, all of which were shown to have significant negative associations with student achievement. ...
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Moving school is a major event for students, with potential impacts on both student and school performance. Students can experience a diversity of move types, including variation in timing, origin and destination, though this complexity is not always acknowledged in studies or educational policies, which tend towards binary distinctions of movers versus non‐movers. However, it is crucial to understand the vulnerabilities and outcomes associated with different mobility types, including to inform more effective and efficient targeting of support. We therefore study the extent, impacts and predictors of a diverse range of school moves during secondary schooling for a cohort of students completing their end‐of‐school examinations in 2018/2019 in England. We highlight a negative association between mobility and achievement for all movement types, however, we find substantial heterogeneity in the strength of their association with student performance and highlight the likelihood of making different types of school moves vary by student characteristics. Therefore, we recommend the wider consideration and examination of diverse mobility features by research and in educational accountability systems.
... Some scholars have viewed dropping out of school as the final stage in a dynamic and cumulative process of disengagement (Newmann, 1992;Rumberger, 1987;Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, Lesko, & Fernandez, 1989) or withdrawal (Finn, 1989) from school that is influenced by a variety of proximal and distal factors. Other scholars have characterized student mobility-the act of students making non-promotional school changes-as a less severe form of student disengagement or withdrawal from school (Lee & Burkam, 1992;Rumberger & Larson, 1998;Rumberger, 2003). ...
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This paper looked at the topic Eradicating Out-of-School-Children Phenomenon: a Tool for the Achievement of Education 2030 Agenda. To effectively do justice to this topic, the paper looked at; concept of out-of-school-children, causes of school drop-out, strategies for eradicating out-of-school-children phenomenon, it also made an analysis of strategies used by some countries, challenges, the paper discussed the prospect, some necessary suggestions and conclusion was drown.
... Researchers have found that the characteristics of students who change schools tend to differ from those who do not, and that student mobility can have a negative effect on student learning (Herbers, Reynolds, & Chen, 2013;Raudenbush, Marshall, & Art, 2011), as well as increase the likelihood of misbehavior, delinquency, and school dropout (Gasper, DeLuca, & Estacion, 2010). Moreover, highly mobile students are roughly twice as likely to have reported delays in growth or development, to have a learning disorder, to have repeated a grade, or to have recurring behavioral problems (Gasper et al., 2010;Rumberger & Larson, 1998). ...
... Nevertheless, most dropout students tend to score within the normal range on IQ, despite their lower levels of academic achievement [12,13], indicating that high school graduation may not exclusively depend on inherent cognitive ability. Staying in school may also depend on how children become motivated to appreciate and master educational challenges through experiences in the parent-child relationship. ...
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