ArticlePDF Available


World demand for paper has increased at an average annual rate of 4.7% over the past 40 years. Although future growth will reduce to 2–3% the existing wood resources may be inadequate to meet this growing demand for paper especially in the Asia-Pacific region and Eastern Europe. In addition, logging is coming under increasing pressure from environmentalists concerned about habitat destruction and other longer-term impacts of forest harvesting. It is, therefore, necessary to consider alternative fiber sources to meet the possible shortfall of wood fiber for papermaking. Suitable nonwood fibers are abundantly available in many countries and are the major source of fiber for papermaking in some developing nations.
Nonwood FibersA Potential Source of Raw Material
in Papermaking
Alireza Ashori
Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran, Iran
World demand for paper has increased at an average annual rate
of 4.7% over the past 40 years. Although future growth will reduce
to 2–3% the existing wood resources may be inadequate to meet this
growing demand for paper especially in the Asia-Pacific region and
Eastern Europe. In addition, logging is coming under increasing
pressure from environmentalists concerned about habitat destruc-
tion and other longer-term impacts of forest harvesting. It is, there-
fore, necessary to consider alternative fiber sources to meet the
possible shortfall of wood fiber for papermaking. Suitable nonwood
fibers are abundantly available in many countries and are the major
source of fiber for papermaking in some developing nations.
Keywords Forest; Nonwood fibers; Paper; Pulp; Strength
Paper plays a vital role in the social, economic, and
environmental development of any country. However, for-
ests are declining at the alarming rate of 13.0 million hec-
tares per year in developing countries
. Population
growth has increased dramatically since 1960, adding 1 bil-
lion people per 15 years leading to the present 6 billion
the world population could double to 12 billion by
. Rising population, better literacy, improving com-
munication, and industrialization in developing countries
are expected to increase the demand for paper and paper-
boards by 4.3% per annum as compared to 1.2% in
developed countries
. New legislative regulations enacted
in response to the demand of environmentalists, environ-
mental groups, and nongovernmental organizations
(NGOs) in various countries are restricting the logging of
trees, which is expected to affect the supply and price of
wood to the international pulp and paper industry
During 1963 world consumption of paper and board
was 165 million tons; in 1993 it had risen to approximately
253 million tons and current forecasts indicate that by 2010
consumption will rise to above 400 million tons per year
predicts that the total global consumption of
papermaking fibers will increase from the current level of
about 300 million tons in 1996–1997 to approximately
425 million tons by 2010, an increase of 125 million tons.
It is expected that by the year 2010, an additional
50–100 million hectares of forests will be needed to
maintain the projected demand for wood in developing
countries alone
. Kaldor
estimated that the global fiber
requirement for pulp would almost double to 23 million
hectares in the year 2010. It is evident that the supply of
wood for the pulp and paper industry will be restricted in
the future
. Moreover, the cost of delivered wood is
increasing because of higher demand, more costly means
of harvesting, and rising stumpage fees
. The question
arises of how to meet the increasing global demand for
paper and paperboard of 2–3 % . The increased demand
for paper is likely to be met by one or more of a number
of potential supply sources including
a) Increased harvest of the world timber supply,
b) Increased yield by better control of pests and fire,
c) Increased utilization of nonwood fibrous plants,
d) Increased utilization of forest waste,
e) Increased utilization of waste paper,
f) More environmen tally sound pulping process alterna-
tives such as bio-pulping and=or,
g) More efficie nt production of timber through forest=
plantation improved management practices.
Due to the rising global demand for fibrous material,
worldwide shortage of trees in many areas, and increasing
environmental awareness, nonwoods fibers have become
one of the important alternative sources of fibrous material
for the 21st century.
Address correspondence to A. Ashori, Iranian Research
Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), P.O. Box
15815-3538, Tehran, Iran. E-mail:
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 45: 1133–1136, 2006
Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 0360-2559 print/1525-6111 online
DOI: 10.1080/03602550600728976
The term nonwood fiber encompasses a range of plants
with widely differing characteristics. Nonwood fibers, also
referred to as ‘‘alter nate fibers’’, are nonwoody cellulosic
plant materials from which papermaking fibers can be
extracted. The most widely used nonwoods for papermak-
ing are straws, sugar cane bagasse, bamboo, kenaf, hemp,
jute, sisal, abaca, cotton linters, and reeds. Most nonwood
plants are annual plants that develop full fiber potential in
one growing season.
There is a wide variety of nonwood plant fibers that can
be used for papermaking
. Nonwoods such as bagasse,
wheat and rice stra ws, bamboo, and kenaf are being used
in the manufacture of pulp and paper all over the world
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), for example, is being explore d
as a useful raw material for papermaking in developing and
developed countries. Total kenaf production in 1999–2000
was 0.51 million tons, a mong which production from
China accounts for 44%, India for 39%, Thailand for
12%, and the remainder coming from Indonesia, Vietnam
and elsewhere
Table 1 lists the physical and chemical properties of
some nonwoods in comparison to those of wood. The
dimensions of nonwood fibers are between those of hard-
woods and softwoods. The cellulose content of most of
nonwoods listed in Table 1 is comparable to that of woods
commonly used for papermaking, while the lignin content
is much lower than for woods. Hence, the delignification
of nonwoods is relatively easy and consumes less chemicals.
Nonwoods are a critical fiber resource in regions with
inadequate forest resources, and will continue to play an
increasingly important role in these regions. Environment al
pressures, restrictions on forest uses and significant
increases in wood and recycled fiber costs are also forcing
many paper companies in the traditionally forest-rich
countries to take a renewed look at nonwoods. Nonwoods
are abundantly available in many countries and are the
major source of fiber for papermaking in some developing
countries, particularly China and India. Approximately 2.5
billion tonnes of nonwood raw materials are available each
year worldwide, however, most of this raw material is cur-
rently untapped for pulp and papermaking
In 1970, the total worldwide capacity for production of
nonwood fibers papermaking pulp was only 7 million met-
ric tons compared with the total papermaking pulp
capacity of 113 million metric tons. This amount repre-
sented only 6.7% of the total. However, since that time
there has been a dramatic increase in nonwood fibers pulp-
ing capacity. By 1993, total papermaking pulp capacity
based on utilizing nonwood fibers amounted to almos t 21
million metric tons out of a total papermaking pulping
capacity of 197 million tonnes, equivalent to 10.6%.From
1970 to 1996, nonw ood fiber pulping capacity on a global
basis increased 2-3 faster than the capacity for production
papermaking wood pulp. For example, during the period
from 1988–93, nonwood papermaking pulp capacity
increased on average 6% annually, or three times faster
than papermaking wood pulp capacity
. There is scope
for 10–15% of wood pulp being replaced by nonwood pulp
without significantly affecting strength, optical, and sur-
face properties of most paper grades
There is scope for 10–15% of wood pulp being replaced
by nonwood pulp without affecting much of the strength,
optical, and surface properties of paper
. The percentage
annual increase in the nonwood plant fiber pulp capacity is
more than double the average annual increase in the wood
pulp capacity, i.e., 4.7% vs. 2.0%
Comparison of physical and chemical properties of nonwood fibers with those of wood raw materials
Properties Kenaf
Fiber length, mm 1.3
1.3 1.7 2.3 1.0 1.9 3.6
Fiber width, mm27
12.9 20 14.4 18 25 35
Felting factor
102 85 161 51 58 101
Holocellulose, % 76.5 78.1 77.8 76.6
Hemicellulose, % 32.6 24.1 27.9 19.5
Lignin, % 16.2 18.4 20.8 23.4
Dimensions for whole stem kenaf from bast and core in the ratio of 35% and 65%, respectively.
The ratio of fiber length to fiber width.
Expressed on dry matter.
Extractive free basis.
1134 A. ASHORI
Some nonwood fibers used as raw mate rials for paper-
making have high annual yields per hectare. As can be seen
in Table 2, the average annual yield per hectare of kenaf is
about twice that of fast-gr owing softwoods. Nonwoods
have lower lignin content than do woods and generally it
is easier to delignify nonwoods, as they have lower acti-
vation energies. Another advantage of non-woods includes
lower raw material cost (for bagasse and wheat straw).
It may be surprising that nonwood plant fibers have not
been embraced by the pulp and paper industry, given the
positive attributes described previously and the speculation
that worldwide fiber supply will tighten significantly in the
next years. The industry does understan d some apprehen-
sions over using nonwood fibers for papermaking. In
a) The use of annual plants represents a real culture
change for the industry, with significant implication
for capital costs, operating costs, products unifor mity,
quality, and reliability.
b) The availability of a constant, year-round supply of
fiber is a primary concern for paper mills. Given that
most nonwood fibers are annual plants, a large storage
capacity must be developed to ensure a constant supply.
This is further complicated by the fact that most
nonwood fiber sources are high in volume and low in
density when compared with wood.
c) The fact that most nonwood fiber sources are high in
volume and low in density when compared with wood.
Besides, transportation can be different due its bulky
d) High silica content is a problem with nonwood fibres
generally. Most nonwood pulp mills are small and do
not have adequate chemical recovery faci lities to deal
with the large volumes of silica that must be removed.
e) A disadvantage of using certain nonwood fibers (e.g.
kenaf) can be the high inputs required for growth and
harvesting of these annual crops.
World demand for paper has increased at an average
annual rate of 4.7% over the past 40 years. With the rapid
growth of economies in the Asia-Pacific region and Eastern
Europe, it is likely that similar growth in demand will con-
tinue in these regions for the forseeable future. The existing
wood resources in these regions may be inad equate to meet
this growing demand for paper. In addition, logging is
coming under increasing pressure from environmentalists
concerned about habitat destruction and other longer- term
impacts of forest harvesting. It is, therefore, necessary to
consider alternative fiber so urces to meet the possibl e
shortfall of wood fiber for papermaking.
1. Anonymous. State of the World’s Forests, FAO: Rome, p 200, 1997.
2. Hartmann, T. The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight, Mythical Books:
Northfield, Vermont, p 3, 1998.
3. FAO. FAO production yearbook. Vol. 49. FAO Statistics Series 1999,
130, 68–85.
4. Anonymous. Pulp and Paper Capacities, Survey 1995–2000, FAO:
Rome, pp 161–165, 1996.
5. Hurter, R.W. Agricultural residuals. Non-wood Fibers Short Course.
Tappi Press: Atlanta, GA, p 13, 1997.
6. Paavilainen, L. Non-wood fibers in paper and board grades European
perspective. Non-wood Fibers Short Course. Tappi Press: Atlanta, GA,
p 23, 1997.
7. Kaldor, A.F. Kenaf, an alternate fiber for the pulp and paper industries
in developing and developed countries. Tappi J. 1992, 75 (10), 141–145.
8. Ince, P.J. Recycling of wood and paper products in the United States.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Forest Products Laboratory, Madi-
son, USA; General Technical Report FPL-GTR-98, p 10, 1996.
9. McCloskey, J.T. What about non-woods? In: Proceedings of 1995
TAPPI Global Fiber Supply Symposium. 5–6 Oct. Chicago IL,
pp 95–106, 1995.
10. Anonymous. State of Canada’s Forests. Natural Resources Canada.
Canadian Forest Service: Ottawa, p 112, 1996.
11. Touzinsky, G.F. Kenaf. In: Secondary Fibers and Non-Wood Pulping,
Vol. 3, Hamilton, F.; Leopold, B., Tech. Eds., 3rd Ed., Pulp and paper
manufacture; Joint Textbook Committee of the Paper Industry:
Atlanta, GA, Montreal, pp 106–109, 1993.
12. Pande, H.; Roy, D.N. Delignification kinetics of soda pulping of
kenaf. J. Wood Chem. Technol. 1996, 16 (3), 311–325.
13. Fu-Wang, H.; Chin, H.; Zhi-bin, H.E. The characteristics of tobacco
stem. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Non-wood Fiber Pulp-
ing and Papermaking Conference. Beijing, China, pp 81–90, 1996.
14. Agarwal, A.K.; Upadhyay, J.S.; Ansari, M.N.; Jain, M.C. Spectro-
scopic studies on lignins of some non-wood fibrous plants. Cellul.
Chem. Technol. 1992, 26 (3), 327–332.
15. Pande, H.; Roy, D.N. Recycling potential of kenaf fibers. In: Kenaf
Properties, Processing and Products. pp 342–320, 1999.
Average annual yields of different papermaking
raw materials
Fiber yield
Pulp yield
Scandinavian softwood 1.5 0.7
Fast-growing softwood 8.6 4
Temperate softwood 3.4 1.7
Fast-growing hardwood 15 7.4
Wheat straw 4 1.9
Rice straw 3 1.2
Bagasse 9 4.2
Bamboo 4 1.6
Kenaf 15 6.5
Hemp 15 6.7
Elephant grass 12 5.7
Canary grass 8 4.0
Source: Pierce
16. Foekel, E.B.; Zvinakevicius, C. Hardwood pulping in Brazil. Tappi.
1980, 63 (3), 39–42.
17. Rowell, R. The Chemistry of Wood, American Chemical Society:
Washington, D.C., pp 114–118, 1984.
18. Panshin, J.; Zeeuw, C. de The minute structure of coniferous woods
(softwoods). In: Textbook of Wood Technology. McGraw Hill: New
York, pp 127–160, 1980.
19. Sabharwal, H.S.; Akhtar, M.; Blanchette, R.A.; Young, R.A. Biome-
chanical pulping of kenaf. Tappi J. 1994, 77 (12), 105–118.
20. Atchison, J.E. Twenty-five years of global progress in non-wood plant
fiber repulping. Tappi J. 1996, 79 (10), 87–95.
21. Liu, A. World Production and Utilization of Jute, Kenaf, and
Allied Fibers.
htm. Accessed on 21 February 2002.
22. Mohta, D.C. Refiner mechanical pulping of kenaf. PhD thesis,
University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. pp 4–8, 2001.
23. Pierce, B. Recycled how many times? Timber Producer 1991, (April),
1136 A. ASHORI
... Softwood tracheids are usually the opposite of hardwoods. Non-wood bers show a considerable variation of these characteristics and may be completed different from those presented by softwoods and hardwoods [5]. ...
... These bers have already been used in many countries, but are still incipient in Brazil [5]. A great example is sisal, which has immense possibilities due to its ber morphologic properties and production cycle [17]. ...
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different fiber blending in the physical-mechanical properties of papers and understand to what extent the fiber blending influence produced paper quality. Three different commercial cellulosic pulps were used: eucalyptus, sisal, and pine pulp. Fiber morphological analyses were performed after refining in each pulp. The pulps were blended two by two in 5/95%, 25/75%, and 45/55% ratio in all possible combinations. Handsheets were formed (2% consistency) in a lab papermaking machine and tested by physical and mechanical properties. Virgin pulps (without blending) were also used for handsheet production. Fibers presented different features regarded to morphological properties and indexes. Most significant differences were related to fiber length. Statistical differences occurred in all physical and mechanical properties. Differences were due to morphological features. The highest and lowest values were pointed out for each property. Thickness tended to decrease with fiber blending in all proportion. Thickness and grammage were not related. For all mechanical properties, the lowest values were obtained in eucalyptus treatment and blending involving it. The highest values were obtained in pine, sisal, and blending treatments. A small addition of sisal (5%) in eucalyptus pulp improved the tensile strength, tensile index, stretch, bursting index, tear index, and fold endurance in approximately 41.5, 54.8, 51.4, 28.9, 37.5, and 33.3%, respectively. The same addition using pine resulted in an improvement of 15.9, 22.7, 22.7, 37.4, 46.7, and 133.3%. Fiber blending presented a synergetic effect for physical and mechanical properties.
... 10 Various plants are used for paper production worldwide, such as bagasse, bamboo, kenaf, rice straw, flax, hemp, and banana leaves. [11][12][13][14] In this research paper, our focus has been on straw obtained as residue after harvesting the most commonly grown cereals in Croatia: wheat (Triticum spp.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and triticale (Triticale sp.). 15 In order to be used as long as possible in the printing industry, especially in the packaging industry, such paper must ensure adequate chemical and mechanical print stability, among other properties. ...
The aim of this research has been to demonstrate the use and applicability of substrates containing non-wood fibres in the printing industry, with an emphasis on flexographic printing for packaging. To obtain such substrates, laboratory papers were produced with the addition of 30% non-wood fibres (wheat, barley and triticale), in combination with recycled wood pulp. These substrates were tested for chemical and mechanical resistance after flexographic printing with conventional and ultraviolet curing inks. The results showed that all laboratory papers with the addition of 30% non-wood fibres, printed with water-based inks, had fairly good chemical and mechanical resistance, except for the prints treated with sodium hydroxide. Thus, such papers should not be used as packaging materials for alkaline products. UV-curable inks on these substrates showed low chemical resistance, thus should only be used on substrates intended for secondary packaging. The mechanical resistance of UV prints was very good, thus papers containing straw pulp could be used for various applications.
... A total of 500 different chlorinated organics collectively called Adorbable Organic Halides (AOH) are discharged in water bodies, viz., chloroform, chlorinated hydrocarbons, syringols, chlorate, resin acids, phenols, furans, catechols, guaiacols, dioxins, vanillin, etc. (Badar and Farooqi, 2012;Haile et al., 2021). Therefore, to meet the increasing global demands for paper, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) or non-wood fibers have turned out to be an important source of fibrous materials for the 21 st century (Ashori, 2006). NTFP or non-wood fibrous sources exclusively overcome the resource (wood) shortage and mitigate the environmental issues associated with the paper and pulp industry. ...
Full-text available
The paper and pulp industry (PPI) is one of the largest industries that contribute to the growing economy of the world. While wood remains the primary raw material of the PPIs, the demand for paper has also grown alongside the expanding global population, leading to deforestation and ecological imbalance. Wood-based paper production is associated with enormous utilization of water resources and the release of different wastes and untreated sludge that degrades the quality of the environment and makes it unsafe for living creatures. In line with this, the indigenous handmade paper making from the bark of Daphne papyracea, Wall. ex G. Don by the Monpa tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India is considered as a potential alternative to non-wood fiber. This study discusses the species distribution modeling of D. papyracea, community-based production of the paper, and glycome profiling of the paper by plant cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies. The algorithms used for ecological and geographical modeling indicated the maximum predictive distribution of the plant toward the western parts of Arunachal Pradesh. It was also found that the suitable distribution of D. papyracea was largely affected by the precipitation and temperature variables. Plant cell walls are primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, and glycoproteins. Non-cellulosic cell wall glycans contribute significantly to various physical properties such as density, crystallinity, and tensile strength of plant cell walls. Therefore, a detailed analysis of non-cellulosic cell wall glycan through glycome profiling and glycosyl residue composition analysis is important for the polymeric composition and commercial processing of D. papyracea paper. ELISA-based glycome profiling results demonstrated that major classes of cell wall glycans such as xylan, arabinogalactans, and rhamnogalacturonan-I were present on D. papyracea paper. The presence of these polymers in the Himalayan Buddhist handmade paper of Arunachal Pradesh is correlated with its high tensile strength. The results of this study imply that non-cellulosic cell wall glycans are required for the production of high-quality paper. To summarize, immediate action is required to strengthen the centuries-old practice of handmade paper, which can be achieved through education, workshops, technical know-how, and effective marketing aid to entrepreneurs.
... So far, lignin produced in the pulp and paper industry has mainly been used internally in order to produce thermal process energy [9]. Since lignin is a by-product of paper mills, process optimization mainly focused on the qualitative and quantitative yields of cellulose [10]. The valorization of lignin to improve the economics of the process is a current aim of the industry [9]. ...
Full-text available
The transformation from a fossil-based economy to a sustainable and circular bioeconomy is urgently needed to achieve the climate targets of the Paris Agreement, reduce air pollution and ensure a long-term competitive economy. Due to its carbonaceous and aromatic basic components, lignin has the potential for material valorization within bioeconomy. So far, lignin produced in the pulp and paper industry has mainly been used internally to generate thermal process energy, as it is difficult to extract it from biomass in a pure and unaltered form. The valorization of lignin to improve the economics of pulp mills is a current aim of the industry. Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) of a partial flow from the lignin stream to produce a functional filler for use in polymer blends is one valorization option. The environmental assessment of the lignin-based HTT filler, conducted using life cycle assessment (LCA), shows that substitution of the conventional fillers carbon black and silica could be associated with significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants. Depending on the allocation methodology and the reference filler considered, approx. 5 kg CO2 eq./kg filler, 80–93% SO2 emissions, 27–79% PM emissions, and 88–98% PAH emissions can be saved.
... This has put a focus also on non-wood fibres, which have become one of the most abundant alternative sources of fibrous material despite the current low share in overall paper production. This surge in interest is owed to rising demand for fibrous material, a worldwide shortage of trees in many areas (due to rapid deforestation), and increased sustainability awareness (Ashori 2006). Big companies continued to develop wood-based pulp mills due to overall efficiency (and partly redesigning them to bio-refineries), the growth of non-wood pulp mills also has not slowed (Abd El-Sayed et al. 2020). ...
Full-text available
Countries with scarce soft and hardwood resources have been utilizing the non-wood based lignocellulosic biomass (mainly straw or bagasse), besides for bioenergy also for paper production. The increasing demand for wood-based bio solutions (energy and chemicals like lignin) have put cellulose for paper making under pressure. Paper producers are actively looking for alternatives for these purposes, especially for fibre-based packaging. In this study we have tested the flexo printability of six different papers partly made from invasive plants: Japanese Knotweed, Black Locust, Canadian Goldenrod, dedicated crop Miscanthus, and agro-residue Tomato stems and from industrial waste jute bags fibres. All the papers were produced on a pilot-scale paper machine. Fibre and paper properties were analyzed to determine the flexo printability, runnability and durability parameters. We have measured the paper smoothness and roughness, fibre orientation, formation index, surface energy, penetration dynamics and coefficient of friction were determined for runnability and additionally print gloss, mottling and ink rubbing were determined to test printability and durability. From the measured paper properties surface roughness/smoothness, surface energy and short time limit liquid absorption had the largest correlation with printability parameters, while the coefficient of friction and formation index did not correlate with the printability and convertibility parameters. All samples were printable with water-based flexo printing technology. Samples with lower surface energy had lower porosity and liquid penetration was slower, while samples with higher surface energy were more porous, which resulted in higher print gloss. These characteristics influenced the colour differences where consequently where the highest colour difference after ink rubbing had the Jute fibre paper which had low surface energy and porosity. Graphical abstract
Full-text available
Lignin is a component of the third wood macromolecule that binds covalently to cellulose and hemicellulose. The molecular structure of lignin composed of aromatic system that is composed of phenyl propane units. Lignin can be obtained from biomass from agricultural residue, forestry waste, waste paper, and others, and involves a series of three biopolymers: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Lignin can be used commercially as binders, adhesives, fillers, surfactants, polymer products, and other sources of chemicals. In the use of wood as a raw material for pulp, lignin is separated from cellulose as the waste is mixed with other components in the form of black liquor (black liquor). This experiment is to increase the extra value of the lignin by converting it to a surfactant. In the lignin isolation process, there are several methods that can be used: kraft, steam explosion, alkaline extraction process, Soda-anthraquinone, and Organosolv process. The method used in our study is kraft. The materials used in this research are black liquor, distilled water, H2SO4 (15%, 20%, 25%, 30%), and NaOH 1 N. The tool that used are the scales, glass beaker, funnel, burette, stative, clamps, pipette, filter paper, corresponding cuvettes, FT-IR instrument , etc. The workings of this study was the isolation of lignin which uses the principle of titration with H2SO4 titrant at various concentrations, followed by cluster analysis using a FT-IR. The result obtained is the best Yield at 20% H2SO4 concentration which is 35,4% (17,84 gram). However, at 25% and 30% H2SO4 concentration there was a decrease in lignin yield. This is caused by different cooking processes (Pulping), Lignin isolated using H2SO4 20% has higher lignin content than other concentrations. FT-IR results obtained absorption bands at 2937,96 cm-1 (in pure lignin), 2939,57 cm-1 (in lignin), 2941,01 cm-1 (in clean lignin) of waves indicating a stretch of CH in the cluster methyl.
Full-text available
Improving bagasse pulp and paper properties using forest-byproduct biomass, native Acorn starch (NAS), was compared with conventional wet-end additive cationic corn starch (CCS). The extracted acorn starch was characterized by SEM, XRD, and GPC. The results clearly showed irregular granular shape (6–12 μm) with rough surfaces, CA-type XRD pattern, and 436.2 kDa molecular weights for NAS. The bagasse pulp retention and drainage as keys of operation performance and runnability were superior by NAS in comparison with CCS, while the lowest dosage of NAS (0.5%) showed superior results than the highest dosages of CCS (1% & 1.5%). The higher NAS adsorption onto the fiber surfaces compared to CCS could be concluded by higher water retention value (WRV) of the pulp together with higher density (up to 20%) and mechanical properties of the produced paper, e.g., tensile (up to 63%), burst (up to 37%) and tear (up to 11%) indices. NAS exploiting naturally as a papermaking additive would provide performance higher than commercial chemically-modified starch. Graphical abstract
Due to stringent environmental pollution, development, and implementation, green technologies have a challenge for technology developers. The handmade paper industry emerged as a green and sustainable enterprise for the high demanding paper industry. The paper industry uses raw materials containing cellulose fibers, generally wood, recycled paper, and agricultural residues. Nonwood raw materials (bagasse, cereal straw, etc.) comprise approximately 60% of cellulose fibers. The industrialized process for paper manufacturing involves many stages like raw material preparation, pulping, screening, chemical recovery, bleaching, stock preparation, and paper-making—the paper industry facing challenges of availability of raw material and environmental protection. Due to the pressure on forests, conventionally wood-based resources became scarce and uneconomical. Their scarceness has already led to a decline in capacity utilization in the Indian paper industry. Researchers try to enhance the level of sustainable development, economy, and societies. Therefore, the handmade paper industry must be developed to meet the increasing demand for paper products in an environment-friendly way. The handmade paper industry has untapped potential for environment-friendly products and production systems. Therefore, in social, environmental, and economic scenarios, papermakers must find new market opportunities while balancing their sustainability and profitability. This chapter describes sustainability and challenges for the paper industry and explains how to face this situation.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nigeria paper industry has not reached the optimum performance level expected of it by planners despite the huge money spent on the inputs. This paper examines the problems militating against pulp and paper production in Nigeria and highlights the pathway for leading to complete dependence on importation of paper and paper products. In 2006, the mills were privatized, and, currentlymore sustainability of industrial growth most especially in the pulp and paper industries. and 66.17% in the 1960’s.In 1996, The Nigeria Newsprint Manufacturing Company (NNMC), Oku Iboku alsostopped production 1970s performed optimally except The Nigerian Paper Mill, Jebba in the 1980’s as pulp and paper importation reduced drastically as a result of high capacity utilization in the mills. In 1985 and 1986, capacity utilization in Nigerian Paper Mill was 62.3% in 1960’s arborea, Pinus caribaea,etc. are threatened due to high rate of deforestation and increasing demand of their wood for other promoting optimal pulp and paper capacities locally. Commonly used tree species for pulp and paper production like Gmelina machinery for massive sustainable wood production. Likewise, the use of indigenous wood species and agricultural residues should be establishment of pulp and paper mills in the country before it finally stop production in 1994 due to the high dependence on foreign encouraged for long fiber pulp production. Efforts should further be made for a stable power supply from national grid to ensure the economic purposes. Hence, none of the three primary pulp and paper mills established in the country by government within 1960s to than 500 billion naira is expended on importation of paper products annually. The only and urgent remedy is to put in place Keywords: Forest product,pulp and paper, newsprint, manufacturing, industry
Full-text available
The source of strength in solid wood is the wood fiber. Generally, cellulose is responsible for strength in the wood fiber because of its high degree of polymerization and linear orientation. Hemicellulose acts as a matrix for the cellulose and increases the packing density of the cell wall. The actual role of hemicellulose in wood strength is unknown, but hemicellulose and lignin are closely associated. Lignin not only holds fibers together, but also holds cellulose molecules together within the fiber cell wall. The chemical components of wood that are responsible for mechanical properties can be viewed from three levels: macroscopic (cellular), microscopic (cell wall), and molecular (polymeric). Mechanical properties change with changes in the chemical environment. Changes in temperature, pressure, humidity, pH, chemical adsorption from the environment, UV radiation, fire, or biological degradation can have significant effects on the strength of wood.
Global supply of industrial round wood is expected to continue to exceed consumption in all major world markets except Asia, according to State of the World's Forests (SOFO), the widely read report by the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization. Concentrating on significant global events and developments effecting timber supply in 1997-1998 and beyond, SOFO's ten-year projection shows only Asia relying on imports to make up a domestic fiber shortage in 2010.
There will be negligible growth in world mechanical wood pulp. No growth is planned for the developed countries as a whole. Asia is still expected to experience fastest growth for wood pulp as well as paper expansion, but slowest in Africa (excluding South Africa). Semi-chemical pulp is expected to be the fastest growing type of pulp and printing grade for paper.
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is being promoted as a raw material for papermaking because of rapidly decreasing forest areas, the rising cost of pulpwood, and increasing demand for pulp and paper. Attempts have been made to produce refiner mechanical pulp (RMP) from kenaf bark fibre, procured from Mississppi State University, by using a 300-mm Sprout-Bauer pilot refiner. The factors controlled during refining were consistency, multistage refining (number of passes), and spacing of refiner plates. The spacing of refiner plates and number of passes are very important parameters in controlling fibre/fines ratio, and determining strength and optical properties of paper. The results indicate that the bark and bark22 (containing 22% core) RMP is not only suitable for newsprint manufacture but can also be used for higher grade applications such as lightweight coated papers.
Cut kenaf bast strands, untreated and treated with a CZ-3 strain of white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (for two weeks), were refined in a laboratory single-disc refiner under atmospheric conditions. First-stage refining and second-stage refining were carried out at various clearance levels to several degrees of freeness. The energy consumption in refining was substantially lower, and the strength properties were higher for the fungal-treated kenaf. The opacity and drainage properties were also superior for biomechanical kenaf pulp; however, the brightness level was lower. Scanning electron microscopy of fungal-treated kenaf bast strands after refining showed that fibres appeared to separate more readily from adjacent fibers than with noninoculated treatments.
Kenaf is examined as a feasible alternative to the use of forest resources in the production of paper. A summary of kenaf fibre production costs is given for the USA, Australia, Thailand and India. The demand for pulp and paper products up to 2010 is examined.
This report describes the current status of wood and paper recycling in the United States and predicts the production and market consequences of increased recycling. The results suggest that the rate of paper recycling will rapidly rise in the 1990s, mainly as a result of the competitive evolution of fiber markets and papermaking technologies. The consump-tion and export of paper and paperboard are also projected to grow, but imports are projected to generally decline. In the context of increased paper recycling, the production of lumber and structural wood panels is projected to increase. However, the greater demand for sawtimber, coupled with projected declines in timber harvest on National Forests, will result in higher softwood sawtimber stumpage prices. The information presented here was prepared for the United Nations Economic Commission in June 1994. Historical data were derived from various sources, including government agencies and industry trade associations. Economic projec-tions were developed by the author and others in the USDA Forest Service. A limited number of free copies of this publication are available to the public from the Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53705–2398. Laboratory publications are sent to more than 1,000 libraries in the United States and elsewhere. The Forest Products Laboratory is maintained in cooperation with the University of Wisconsin. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimi-nation in its programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, and marital or familial status. Persons with disabilities who require alternative means of communication of program information (braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact the USDA Office of Communications at (202) 720–2791. To file a com-plaint, write the Secretary of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250, or call (202) 720–7327 (voice), or (202) 720–1127 (TTD). USDA is an equal employment opportunity employer.
This is a revision of a Book Review of EE to increase the readability of its original work. To cite this article, please cite: Chen, L.F., 2012, Book Review: The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight, Thom Hartmann, Three Rivers Press, New York, USA, ISBN 1-4000-5157-6, Ecological Economics (DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.06.005).
Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabihus) is an alternative, non wood fiber source for pulping and papennaking. Delignification kinetics of extractive free samples from three fractions of kenaf procured from Mississippi State University, U.S.A have been studied. The extractive free samples were cooked at three different temperatures: 140° C, 155° C, and 170° C with soda cooking liquor. The results indicate that the activation energies for the bark, core, and whole kenaf are 68 kJ/mole, 91 kJ/mole, and 75 kJ/mole respectively. These are significantly lower than the reported values for the conifers. The delignification selectivity for the three samples was also investigated.