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Academic Outcomes of Ability Grouping Among Junior High School Students in Hong Kong

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Abstract

Ability grouping is supposedly undesirable because it leads to deficits in academic self-concept and academic achievement. However, it appears to be justifiable for its improvement of teaching and learning in schools, perhaps more so in a collectivist culture. In view of the paucity of data examining the controversy in Hong Kong, the authors collected data from 2,720 junior high school students with a random sampling procedure and obtained teachers' reports about the students' subsequent academic achievement, ability grouping, and the ability level of the class. The authors maintained students' past academic achievement as a control variable in predicting their subsequent academic achievement and self-concepts. Results revealed no significant detrimental effect caused by the ability-grouped class and the ability level of the ability-grouped class. Rather, students in classes that were more homogeneous according to past academic achievement tended to have significantly higher subsequent academic achievement and self-esteem. Results revealed no variation attributable to each student's gender and IQ in the effects of ability grouping.

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... Hallinan (2012) further suggests the comparatively better performance of capable students in ability groups can be attributed to stronger learner motivation, more teacher time allocated to instruction, and membership of a group where academic performance and achievement are encouraged. Similar conclusions were determined from an interesting study by Cheung and Rudowicz (2003), who signalled the possibility that the effectiveness of ability grouping may vary according to the cultural context in which it is used. Their research surveyed nearly 3000 eighth and ninth graders and their teachers across 23 low, medium and high band Hong Kong schools, using multiple indicators (IQ, self-esteem, test anxiety, self-efficacy of study, examination results) to determine any influence ability grouping had on students' study behaviour and performance. ...
... They speculate that these cultural norms may mitigate any negative influence from stigmatisation associated with ability grouping in Western cultures. Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) also identified the important social role groups played in their study by facilitating cooperation, friendship and positive integration amongst students of similar ability. They commented that cooperative and social learning "may be essentially the key to success in ability grouping" (p. ...
... Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Gillies, 2004;Webb, 2008). Acknowledging limitations 15 The Influence of Grouping on Young Students' Learning … ...
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... In Hong Kong, the practice is prevalent in the form of ability grouping either within the school or between the school ability groups (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003). There, secondary students are assigned into one of the three bands based on the result of public placement tests at the end of the primary education (Salili & Lai, 2003). ...
... Numerous studies have ascertained the academic achievement gains of both the low ability learners and the high ability learners (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Liu et al., 2005;Mansor et al., 2016;Matavire, Mpofu, Maveneka, 2013;Yassin et al., 2015). The statistical inquiry carried out by Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) on the outcomes of ability grouping among the junior high school students in Hong Kong has shown that there is no significant detrimental effect caused by the ability grouping and the ability level of the ability grouping classes. ...
... Numerous studies have ascertained the academic achievement gains of both the low ability learners and the high ability learners (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Liu et al., 2005;Mansor et al., 2016;Matavire, Mpofu, Maveneka, 2013;Yassin et al., 2015). The statistical inquiry carried out by Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) on the outcomes of ability grouping among the junior high school students in Hong Kong has shown that there is no significant detrimental effect caused by the ability grouping and the ability level of the ability grouping classes. Rather, students in classes that were more homogeneous according to past academic achievement tended to have significantly higher subsequent academic achievement and self-esteem. ...
Technical Report
Need Assessment on Differentiated Curriculum in Science and Mathematics
... On the other hand, there are also studies revealing that the practice mediated bringing the students having low socio-economic status together and providing them less education in low ability classes via employment of inexperienced teachers or less comprehensive courses [6,8,33,42,50,53,66]. While there are lots of studies investigating the effects of tracking system on students' academic and affective qualities [1,5,6,7,11,13,14,27,29,31,34,35,36,38,41,60,63,64,69], there is only one research [27] examining teachers' opinions which are active agents in these practices and sometimes decision makers. In the light of these findings, the current study was focused on a school using tracking system, and a comprehensive investigation was done through the opinions of class and subject teachers. ...
... In the lower level classes, there is no positive role model for the students, and accordingly learning level decreases with the teachers who have lower expectations [6,53,66]. According to Cheung and Rudowicz [14], in the level based clusters, (with the anticipations of schools, teachers, or education authorities) regulations are made without considering the fact that abilities of students have been shaping by their personal preferences, decisions of parents, economical statuses, interests of other personal characteristics, historical and cultural reasons, and period of change. On the other hand, according to Argys, Rees and Brewer [3], level based clusters are based on an application in which "winner" and "loser" individuals are created, whereas it is an application which is implementing in the local schools in which minority groups inhabiting and those students are placed to the lower level classes according to Braddock [9]. ...
... From this point of view, characteristics of students and teachers factor can be thought as more effective than "implementing styles". On the other hand, according to Cheung and Rudowicz [14], the fact that students in higher success levels receive education in "good" schools is not an example of "level cluster application", but a product of an educational gap. This condition is observed more intense especially after students are placed in classes when the situations do not allow mobility. ...
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Under the different sides of discussion on the tracking, we attempted to understand how teachers and administrators evaluate tracking system in their school. We gathered data from teachers who employed in one of the government mandated schools in west part of Turkey. In this single case study, we collected data from 16 teachers, 1 administrator and 1 school counselor through the semi-structured interviews. The school that we gathered data has long term tracking experience on secondary level. We analyzed the data through a descriptive analyze method and discussed the results under the light of theoretical base. According to the findings, teachers usually define tracking as dividing students according to their abilities, intelligences, academic achievement levels or potential situations. The pros of the applications are improving upper class students’ success, while the cons’ are some of the psychological side effects and damages on students. Teachers also mentioned that relationship among classes is disconnected. And, usually there is more discipline problems in lower ability group class, while a teacher emphasized that there are different type of discipline problems in different ability classes.
... Park, 2011). Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) argue that the core of the controversy surrounding ability grouping is the conflict between rationality and egalitarian democratic ideals. They argue that the theory and policy of ability grouping in the West does not reflect the Asian context because 'Chinese people prize social responsibility, social harmony, and cooperation, and they downplay competition, self-achievement, individuality, and ambition for personal gain' (p.242). ...
... They argue that the theory and policy of ability grouping in the West does not reflect the Asian context because 'Chinese people prize social responsibility, social harmony, and cooperation, and they downplay competition, self-achievement, individuality, and ambition for personal gain' (p.242). The CHC that Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) depict could be updated. Asian collectivism, once regarded as its main characteristic, has been eroding, for example, by emerging nationalisms clearly visible in maritime-territorial disputes and post-war grievances (J. ...
... Asian education systems today extol the ideals of self-esteem and critical thinking (Lam & Park, 2016). The spirit of competition, self-achievement, individualism, and ambition for personal gain that Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) take as alien to CHC are both rampant and politicised in Asia. Post-Cultural revolution China is a case in point, where ability and special talent grouping, branding flagship education institutions and disproportionate funding (Epstein, 1993) further aggravate levels of inequality. ...
Article
This theoretical paper begins with a reflection on the dominant conceptions of ‘high ability’, based on psychometrics, and examines claims that the ethos of a particular cultural heritage is essential to what ‘high ability’ signifies. The article semantically distinguishes ‘giftedness’ from ‘ability’, using research on Confucian heritage culture with its thick and thin dimensions. ‘Giftedness’ here means an inherited quality or endowment. ‘Ability’, on the other hand, signifies an active process open to nurture through education and – what could account for the main contribution of this paper – the role played by an ‘epistemology of heart-mind’ in Confucian heritage. The article argues that this epistemology of heart-mind constitutes a generational collective programming of mind. Such a definition could lead to a sociocultural conception of intelligence and giftedness open to development, adding a new perspective to the conceptualisation of giftedness and high ability.
... In Hong Kong, the practice is prevalent in the form of ability grouping either within the school or between the school ability groups (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003). There, secondary students are assigned into one of the three bands based on the result of public placement tests at the end of the primary education (Salili & Lai, 2003). ...
... Numerous studies have ascertained the academic achievement gains of both the low ability learners and the high ability learners (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Liu et al., 2005;Mansor et al., 2016;Matavire, Mpofu, Maveneka, 2013;Yassin et al., 2015). The statistical inquiry carried out by Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) on the outcomes of ability grouping among the junior high school students in Hong Kong has shown that there is no significant detrimental effect caused by the ability grouping and the ability level of the ability grouping classes. ...
... Numerous studies have ascertained the academic achievement gains of both the low ability learners and the high ability learners (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Liu et al., 2005;Mansor et al., 2016;Matavire, Mpofu, Maveneka, 2013;Yassin et al., 2015). The statistical inquiry carried out by Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) on the outcomes of ability grouping among the junior high school students in Hong Kong has shown that there is no significant detrimental effect caused by the ability grouping and the ability level of the ability grouping classes. Rather, students in classes that were more homogeneous according to past academic achievement tended to have significantly higher subsequent academic achievement and self-esteem. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Need Assessment on Differentiated Curriculum
... According to the theory of the BFLPE, students in higher-ranked schools should develop lower academic self-concepts than their equally able counterparts in lower-ranked schools after controlling for students' initial abilities, and vice versa (Liu, Wang, & Parkin, 2005;Trautwein et al., 2006;Wouters et al., 2012). However, some research showed that students in higher track schools presented positive academic self-concepts while students in lower track schools presented lower academic self-concepts (van Houtte & Stevens, 2009), still other research showed that there was no BFLPE between different school tracks (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Ireson & Hallam, 2009). As the results from previous research seem to go against the general theory, the third purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of school tracking on the BFLPE. ...
... For example, several studies found that students in lower ranked schools/groups showed higher academic self-concepts than students in higher ranked schools/groups (Trautwein et al., 2006;Zeidner & Schleyer, 1998). However, some studies found that students in higher ranked schools/groups have higher academic self-concepts than their counterparts in lower ranked schools/ groups (Ireson & Hallam, 2009;Makel, Lee, Olszewki-Kubilius, & Putallaz, 2012), while still other studies (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Preckel & Brüll, 2010) did not find differences in academic self-concepts in different ranked schools/groups. ...
... Teachers take these differences in academic performance and socioeconomic background into account to customise curricula to meet students' learning needs (Wong and Watkins 2001). Despite the well-intentioned objective of customising teaching and learning via school banding (Chen 2005), studies have indicated that it does not improve students' learning capabilities (Cheung and Rudowicz 2003;Salili and Lai 2003). ...
... For example, band 1 schools and their students may not be particularly enthusiastic about mainstream examination-oriented strategies for teaching financial literacy, as they prioritise the development of students' critical thinking capabilities (Kwan and Wong 2014). Research shows that top-performing students tend to develop poor academic self-concepts if they are subject to examination-oriented teaching, even if these teaching methods do not negatively affect their academic performance (Cheung and Rudowicz 2003). School leaders of both band 1 and band 3 schools report that teachers relate poorly to centralised professional development initiatives, as the knowledge acquired may not be relevant to the specific learning needs of their students, particularly in terms of supporting students' emotional development (Lee and Chiu 2017). ...
Article
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A standardised financial literacy curriculum ensures that all students in a school system receive financial knowledge, which offers them the necessary support to make informed decisions about money management and practise appropriate financial behaviour. In Hong Kong, all secondary schools supposed to teach financial literacy via a standardised curriculum. This study attempts to examine how this standardised financial literacy curriculum variably impacts students whose performance in academic-based examinations differ. We use an extended framework based on extensions of Hargreaves and Fullan (Professional capital: transforming teaching in every school. Teachers College Press, New York, 2012) theory of professional capital (human, social, decisional and emotional capital; Lee and Chiu 2017) to analyse the influence of school banding (academic differentiation by school) on student financial literacy. We surveyed 1306 students from 20 secondary schools. Structural equation modelling analysis demonstrated that exposure to the curriculum had only a weak positive effect on students’ financial literacy, and only for those from ‘band 3’ schools, which typically enrol students with the weakest academic performance. Based on examination of the results, we draw conclusions as to how students’ professional capital is differentiated by school banding.
... In the absence of resources to conduct such an assessment, we argue in this study that young people's self-reports of their school, work, emotional and behavioral adjustment can be used as a proxy for developmental outcomes. Indeed, previous research shows that young people's self-reports provide reliable measures of academic success (Cheung and Rudowicz, 2003), work performance (Cheung, 2000), mental health (Cheung and Bagley, 1998), and pro-social and delinquent behavior (Ngai and Cheung, 2005). ...
... The measures used in our study were adapted from Chinese versions of a variety of pre-existing scales in the literature (Cheung and Bagley, 1998;Cheung 2000;Cheung and Rudowicz, 2003;Lau, 2003;Ngai and Cheung, 2005). The measures were pre-tested on a sample of five young people recruited from a secondary school and a community-based youth-service center. ...
Article
This study examines the ways in which service participation and hardiness interact to affect youth development in such areas as academic success, work achievement, mental health, behavioral adjustment and overall accomplishment. The basic premise is that these two factors may have main effects and an interaction effect on the outcomes. To test this, the present study employed survey data collected from 405 low-income young people recruited from 13 secondary schools and 18 community-based youth-service centers in Hong Kong. The results support the hypothesis that service participation and hardiness work jointly in affecting outcomes, although the individual effects differ across variables. On the other hand, no support is found for the possibility that hardiness might moderate the effect of services participation on the outcomes. Implications of the findings for further research and servicer provision are discussed.
... Wong and Watkins (2001), for example, found that high-ability students had lower self-esteem and higher test anxiety than students in a low ability groups. However, in a study by Cheung and Rudowicz (2003), no detrimental effects of ability groupings on self-concept and academic achievement among high school students were found. Also, a different study found form-level differences in academic support-based achievement relationships for Hong Kong students in Forms 3, 4 and 5 (ages 14-15, 15-16, and 16-17 years, respectively) (Chen, 2008). ...
Article
This study examined the relationship between motivational style and academic achievement among 2,220 secondary school males and females in Hong Kong. Respondents were classified into high, average, or low academic performance (AAP) groups based on a single average for academic subjects obtained from their schools. Respondents were also classified into top, middle, or bottom groups based on their perceived academic performance (PAP). Results indicated that only 42% of the students perceived their academic performance correctly. Compared to their lower AAP counterparts, high scoring AAP males were significantly more serious, conformist, and arousal-avoidant. The high scoring AAP female group was found to be more self-oriented than the other female groups. The top PAP male group was also found to be more serious, conformist, arousal-avoidant, and optimistic than the other PAP male groups. The top PAP female group was more self-oriented and optimistic than the other two PAP groups. The present findings suggest that the traditional Chinese cultural values of collectivism, diligence, and education are major influences on shaping the motivational style of Hong Kong Chinese high school students. The implications of the results for school psychologists and teachers are also discussed.
... In addition to the socioeconomic makeup of schools, also other school compositional features have been examined in relation to student achievement, such as the mean prior achievement level of a school, the gender composition (single-sex schools versus co-educational schools), and the proportion of ethnic minority students in a school. The majority of these studies have established that it is generally beneficial for all students to be a part of a school with a high average achievement level (e.g., Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Kang, Park, & Lee, 2007;, a high proportion of girls (e.g., Van de gaer, Pustjens, Van Damme, & De Munter, 2004;Van Houtte, 2004;Wong, Lam, & Ho, 2002), and a high average socioeconomic status (e.g., ...
Article
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Research and scholarship into educational effectiveness research (EER) is comprehensively reviewed from the UK, The Netherlands, the US, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, France, Germany, New Zealand, Australia, and other societies, dating from the field’s origins in the 1970s. Issues include its history, methodological and theoretical advances, scientific properties of school effects, processes at school and classroom level behind these effects, the somewhat limited translation of findings into policy and practice across the world, and future directions for research and practice in EER and for all of the discipline more generally. Future research needs are argued to be a further concentration upon teaching/teachers, more longitudinal studies, more work on possible context specificity, exploration of the cross-level transactions between schools and their teachers/classrooms, the adoption of “efficiency” as well as “effectiveness” as outcome measures, and a renewed focus upon the education of the disadvantaged, the original focus of our discipline when it began.
... The unexpected results were explained by the counterbalancing of a strong negative contrast effect (within-band comparison) and a weak positive assimilation effect (across-band comparison). In contrast, Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) did not find any evidence to suggest that being in a high-ability school, in terms of school banding, or being in an ability-grouped class has any significant impact on students' academic self-concept. ...
Article
The 3-year longitudinal study of a single cohort (N = 495, average age 13) in Singapore used cluster analytic approach to identify trajectories of adolescents' academic self-concept and their perceptions of home environment and classroom climate. Four trajectories were identified. They were (1) steeply decreasing, (2) consistently low, (3) moderate and maintaining, and (4) consistently high. Higher-ability stream students were more likely than lower-ability stream students to be in the steeply decreasing group, while adolescents with better Secondary 1 and 2 class positions were more likely to be in the consistently high group. The results suggest that there are unique groups of adolescents in Singapore secondary schools. Some adolescents may have difficulties in adjusting to changes in adolescence; others may have struggled to cope long before they reach adolescence. Some adolescents may face minor 'hiccups' during adjustments while others may cope adequately on their own. As such, the notion of a single theory of adolescence may be too simplistic. Presumably, competing or conflicting theories of adolescence such as Hall's (1904) 'storm and stress' theory and Rutter's (1987) resiliency model may in fact all be relevant, albeit for different subgroups of youth.
... Such characteristics are in line with the Confucian ethics, which could be seen as an ideology legitimizing a hierarchy dictating social division of labour dominant in Chinese societies: success in examinations is highly valued; scholarship is treated as the most admirable channel for upward mobility; and an academic achievement is not merely an individual's social success but glory to their parents and family (e.g. Cheung and Rudowicz 2003). And, most Chinese in Hong Kong believe that ability and effort are two essential components of an educational success and extra effort could even compensate for innate incapability; so, cram schools-focussing on training students for examinations-enjoy huge popularity in Hong Kong (e.g. ...
Article
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The theory of self-evaluation suggests that self-evaluation plays a part in social legitimation. This paper seeks to provide a contextualized illustration by comparing accounts of university and community–college students in Hong Kong on their self-evaluation, attribution, and perceived fairness. As the theory suggests, university and community–college students evaluate themselves according to their respective winner and loser positions. But, against what the theory predicts, instead of making a purely internal attribution for their educational success/failure, both university and community–college students seem equally analytical offering a structural analysis of their success/failure. This illustration suggests that social legitimation could actually be mediated through critical, albeit ambivalent, evaluations of the self and the social system and a pragmatic acceptance of the status quo. This leads us to view self-evaluation as a process of social legitimation that deprives individuals of power for imaging a fair system or bringing changes to the existing one.
... Abraham, 1989;Ball, 1981;Berends, 1995;Catsambis et al., 1999;Oakes, 1985;Page, 1991). Research has demonstrated quite consistently that lower-track students do manifest more negative attitudes towards themselves than higher-track students do (Catsambis et al., 1999;Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Ireson et al., 2001). Likewise, it can be assumed that students' sense of futility will be higher in technical/vocational tracks than in academic tracks. ...
Article
It has been established since the 1960s that tracking yields negative consequences for students in lower tracks. As this research has been carried out mainly in the USA and UK, the effects of tracking have been demonstrated in systems of within-school tracking mostly. However, in many European countries—such as Belgium (Flanders)—tracking is commonly organised between schools. The question then arises whether the specific system of tracking, within-school vs between-school tracking, might affect the impact of tracking on students. Although in Flanders between-school tracking is the norm, there are a number of schools offering a combination of academic tracks with technical and/or vocational tracks, allowing for a comparison of both systems. The present study investigates whether the association between feelings of futility and the specific track a student is enrolled in depends upon whether these tracks are organised between or within schools. Three-level multilevel analyses (HLM6) of 11,872 3rd- and 5th-grade students clustered in 146 tracks in a representative sample of 85 secondary schools in Flanders are carried out based on the Flemish Educational Assessment (FlEA) data gathered in 2004–2005. Within-school tracking appears to have a slightly greater impact on the association between track position and sense of futility. So, lower-track students who are directly confronted with higher-track students in the same school seem more likely to lose their faith in a meritocratic system, as they put luck above working hard or above merit.
... Its usage is related to segregation, which is inconsistent with democratic ideals. However, ability grouping enables to adapt instruction according to students' ability level, match work to students' needs and interests, provide appropriate tasks both for students with higher and with lower abilities, skills and knowledge (Cheung, Rudowicz 2003, Hallam, Ireson, Davies 2004. In this way, students can benefit from cooperation and mutual facilitation. ...
Article
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The paper deals with the questions of the quality of schooling and the effect of ability grouping on students' achievement. One hundred and forty seven children from five schools participated in the study. Two schools were usual mainstream town schools, one a usual rural school, one Step-by-Step school and one "elite" private school. All children were studied twice: at the beginning of the first (age 7) and third grade. First, children's cognitive abilities were assessed; second, their academic achievement in Estonian language and mathematics was assessed. Both the battery of cognitive tests and tasks in achievement test were developed specifically for this study. It was shown that attending an elite private school was related to abilities and higher academic performance of children. However, when both school and average cognitive ability of a school a child was attending were entered into the Multiple Regression analysis for predicting Academic Achievement, attending Elite school had negative impact on Achievement.
... In a meta-analysis of findings from 52 studies about ability grouping, studies in which highability students received enriched instruction in honors classes produced especially clear effects, while studies of average and below average students produced near-zero effects (Kulik & Kulik, 1982). Results of study by Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) revealed no significant detrimental effect caused by the ability-grouped class and the ability level of the ability-grouped class. Rather, students in classes that were more homogeneous according to past academic achievement tended to have significantly higher subsequent academic achievement and self-esteem. ...
Article
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There is ample research on student grouping at primary, middle and high school level but it is a controversial issue for universities educating the high and low achievers in the same classes, reflecting confusion about whether scholarship and tuition fee students should be taught together. This study aims to shed light on what the student population at university thinks about heterogeneous grouping after seeing effects of ability grouping, about which there is almost no evidence. Students in an undergraduate department who started the academic year at two different sections grouped according to their prior achievement took courses in mixed ability classes the following semesters. They were given a questionnaire in three intervals asking them about their expectations and opinions of grouping before and after mixing and then after one year of study. 45 students responded to any two questionnaires and 15 responded to all three questionnaires. For the repeated measures design, Friedman test was carried out to see the change of ideas from time1 to time3 and Mann-Witney U test was used to see the differences in ideas between scholarship students and tuition-fee students. MannWhitney U test was carried out to test whether there was a difference in the GPAs of scholarship and tuition-fee students between time1 and time3. Students expressed a change in their attitudes about achievement and how the other group influenced them. GPAs of high ability students increased after they started being in educated in mixed ability class, realizing the fears of low achievers.
... Ability grouping is placing the students into classes according to their skills by the teachers or educational administrators consciously (Cheung and Rudowicz, 2003). This grouping may be done by taking into consideration one or some of the criteria such as the intelligence level, academic success, ability, and readiness level of the students or by teacher's decision (Slavin, 1993, cited by Yılmaz, Çengel, Vural and Gömleksiz, 2009; Kulik, 1992). ...
Article
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Forming ability classrooms according to various criteria is one of the common applications in the field of education. This study, aimed at examining the views of the teachers regarding this application (method/strategy), was conducted by qualitative research method.Data was obtained from 61 teachers working in three state schools by structured interview forms prepared by the researchers. In the analysis of the data, “content analysis technique” was used.According to the results of the study, majority of the teachers thought that the ability grouping was negative for the low achievement group students, and positive for the other students. Teachers predominantly stated that the ability grouping application caused discrimination among the students and teachers; caused changes in the attitudes of teachers towards students; affected the relationship between teachers and administration negatively; affected the friendships of the students negatively; and damaged the personalities and self-respects of the students. ÖzetÖğrencileri çeşitli özeliklerine göre ayrıştıran seviye sınıfları, eğitim alanında sıkça rastlanan uygulamalardan biridir. Bu uygulamaya ilişkin öğretmen görüşlerini incelemeyi amaçlayan mevcut çalışma, nitel araştırma yöntemiyle gerçekleştirilmiştir.Araştırma da veriler, araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan yapılandırılmış görüşme formu ile üç devlet okulunda çalışan toplam 61 öğretmenden toplanmıştır. Görüşme formu ile elde edilen verilerin analizinde “içerik analizi tekniği” kullanılmıştır.Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, öğretmenlerin çoğunluğu, seviye sınıfları uygulamasının alt seviye grubundaki öğrenciler için olumsuz, diğer öğrenciler için olumlu olduğunu düşünmektedirler. Öğretmenler ağırlıklı olarak, seviye sınıfı uygulamasının öğrenci ve öğretmenler arasında ayrımcılığa sebep olduğunu; öğretmenlerin öğrencilere karşı tutum ve davranışlarında farklılaşmalara sebep olduğunu; yönetim ile öğretmenler arasındaki ilişkiyi ve öğrencilerin arkadaşlık ilişkilerini olumsuz etkilediğini; öğrencilerde kişilik ve benlik saygısına zarar verdiğini ifade etmişlerdir.
... Hung and Luou [2] also undertook a large-scale survey on the English education in vocational high schools to investigate the dilemma of English teaching and suggestions from teachers of English. The major findings illustrated a great number of teachers argued the diversity of English proficiency levels among students in a class, which brought a big challenge for efficient teaching [3]- [8]. As to the feasible solutions for work, the favorable suggestion was "the ability-grouping teaching." ...
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The problem of students with various English proficiency levels in a class has been a major obstacle for English teaching and learning. Therefore, educators and researchers have studied the effects of ability-grouping teaching on English teaching in recent years, but there are still few findings from research based on experimental teaching or real practice of English ability-grouping teaching. This study investigated a practical implementation in terms of program planning, instruction, and evaluation in a university of technology in central Taiwan, using a fuzzy competitive learning technique. The results indicated that the application of English ability-grouping teaching could solve the problems which had been challenging English teachers with the diversity of language proficiency levels of students in a class. Students accepted the new teaching strategy and felt intermediately satisfied with the ability-grouping teaching.
... Statistics consistently produce strong disparity in attainment scores between one "high ability" group and 'lower ability' groups where by lower ability groups usually score poorly in the Primary School Achievement Test (MOE, 2012). Further, streaming has been found to produce different affect towards students' academic achievement and to a certain extent mentioned as being unjust (Kilgour, 2007;Liu, 2009;Marks, 2011;Page, 2001;Pare, 2004;Rudowicz, 2003;Smith, 2011;Md Nor et al., 1998;Dukmak, 2009;Adam Gamoran, 1995). Based on our experiences, both as practitioners as well as researchers, we have personally encounter how streaming has actually produced annually one high ability group and about two to three lower ability groups in a particular school. ...
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The aim of this research is to present findings on the benefits and disadvantages of streaming practices, particularly in Malaysian schools that are recognized as an es- tablished management strategy that caters for ability differences among students in various educational settings. This study explores an application of streaming practic- es that engage permanent ability groupings of students into classes for the whole school year using previous year examination results as placement criteria. Imple- mentation of streaming is still highly debated, in terms of whether streaming benefits or problematizes educational delivery, and this study conducted at three elementary schools, using interview, finds agreement from nine teachers’ and ten students’ pers- pectives that the benefits of streaming outweigh its disadvantages. Results implicate the teacher perceptions of benefits of streaming that provide for standardized lesson planning, and reduced peer pressure that facilitates students to set achievable goals and increase motivation. Disadvantages present as a rooted school culture that ex- cludes inter-ability socialization of students according to academic ability and over- emphasis on exam orientation, resulting in low self-esteem and achievement motiva- tion. Implication of the study includes further research looking at strategies schools can employ to overcome these disadvantages.
... Ability grouping may impact on students' self-esteem as well, although here the evidence is less univocal (Ireson and Hallam, 2005). Nevertheless, research in different national contexts has demonstrated quite consistently that students in lower ability groups do manifest more negative attitudes towards themselves than those in higher ability groups (China: Cheung and Rudowicz, 2003;England: Ireson et al., 2001;Finland and Poland: Malmberg and Trempala, 1997;US: Vanfossen et al., 1987). These adverse effects of ability grouping are also demonstrated within Flemish secondary education (Stevens and Vermeersch, 2010; Van de Gaer et al., 2006;Van Houtte, 2005, stimulating debates on the usefulness of early Van Houtte et al.: Self-esteem of academic and vocational students 75 tracking, which is generally considered as the main cause of the unremitting social inequality in Flemish education. ...
Article
Research into the effects of ability grouping has usually been conducted within schools. In the British and North American context, where the bulk of this kind of research has been carried out, ability grouping commonly occurs within schools. In Flanders – the Dutch-speaking, northern part of Belgium – as in other European countries, there are not only tracks within schools, but schools themselves can be distinguished by the curriculum they offer. This study questions whether students’ global self-esteem is affected differently by processes of within-school tracking (multilateral schools) compared to processes of between-school tracking (categorial schools). Analyses are based on a subsample of the Flemish Educational Assessment, gathered in 2004–2005, encompassing 10 multilateral and 56 categorial schools with 3,758 academic and 2,152 vocational students. Multi-level analyses (HLM6) show that academic students have a significant higher self-esteem than vocational students and this difference is larger in multilateral schools. Academic students in multilateral schools have a slightly higher self-esteem than those in categorial schools. Conceivably, academic students compare themselves with the vocational track students, leading to a higher awareness of status gratification, resulting in a higher self-esteem.
... Other than being able to be internalized to mingle with a person's temperament and mind, and become habits, such as language, ability, behavior, habit, and taste in art, cultural capital is also observable in numerous institutionalized forms. For example, education background and social status may give parents different forms of capital and affect their involvement in their children's education, such as giving their children homework instructions and volunteering at schools (Broaded 1997;Cheung and Rudowicz 2003). ...
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Taiwan government has been executing the educational reform programs for more than two decades. However, the so‐called between‐class ability grouping which is prohibited by Taiwan government is still found in many places; and Taiwan’s cram schools are even more popular and diversified than before. The authors argue that, in addition to individual’s socio‐economic background, regional characteristics and school attributes also play important roles. Bringing these two factors back in, the causal relationships among ability grouping, cram schooling, and student academic achievement can be analyzed more accurately. Using data from Taiwan Education Panel Survey, the authors’ empirical results show that, first of all, in more urbanized area, between‐class ability grouping is less popular but cram school participation is wider spread these years. Secondly, the effects of family backgrounds on students’ cram school participation are not as critical as they were before. Thirdly, between‐class ability grouping and students’ performance are positively associated but the internal mechanism still needs further investigation.
... Ability tracking has long been the norm in junior high schools in China (Cheung et al., 2003;Ding and Lehrer, 2007;Lai, 2007;Wang, 2008). However, in recent years, international opinion has turned against ability tracking for the youngest age groups (Fiedler et al., 2002). ...
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The goal of this paper is to describe and analyze the relationship between ability tracking and student social capital, in the context of poor students in developing countries. Drawing on the results from a longitudinal study among 1,436 poor students across 132 schools in rural China, a significant lack of interpersonal trust is found and confidence in public institutions among poor rural young adults. We also find that there is a strong correlation between ability tracking during junior high school and levels of social capital. The disparities might serve to further widen the gap between the relatively privileged students who are staying in school and the less privileged students who are dropping out of school. This result suggests that making high school accessible to more students would improve social capital in the general population.
... Hattie (2009) also found that the level of ability group had an influence on the effect size obtained (high level d ¼ 0.14, low level d ¼ 0.09, and mid-level d ¼ À0.03). Despite the evidence for the minimal educational benefits of ability grouping, it is widely practiced and often considered necessary in the field of language teaching (see, e.g., Cross, 1988) and is a common practice in the second language classes of secondary schools throughout Asia, such as in Hong Kong ( Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003), Singapore (Liu, Wang, & Parkins, 2005), Korea ( Kim, 2012), and China ( Li et al., 2016). Interestingly, its practice is prohibited by the Taiwanese government ( Liu & Yang, 2016), even though Taiwan also has important entrance examinations, which effectively place students into schools based on their ability. ...
... It is possible that the effect of peer achievement and class heterogeneity on math may occur subsequently in secondary school. For example, some studies have demonstrated that academic class composition has an effect on math achievement and is not significant for language achievement among middle and high school students (Carman & Zhang, 2012;Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003). ...
Article
This study aimed to estimate the effects of two indicators of academic class composition (i.e., class heterogeneity and average class achievement) on students’ progress in mathematics and reading during the first grade in Russia. Using two-wave longitudinal data from the international Performance Indicators in Primary Schools (iPIPS), we examined a representative sample of 5118 first-graders (50% were girls, mean age was 7.3 years) to estimate the variability of these effects among students with different levels of initial academic ability. Multilevel regression analysis was performed, and the effects of average class achievements and class heterogeneity were significant and positive for reading but not significant for math. According to our analysis, the effect of average class achievement on reading was stronger for students with high initial academic ability, whereas the effect of class heterogeneity was higher for students with low initial academic ability. For math achievement, the effect of average class achievement was significant and positive only for students with high initial academic ability.
... The literature is equivocal with results including nil, negative, and positive associations between low-ability grouping and psychosocial wellbeing. There is some evidence to suggest that the relationship between psychosocial well-being and ability grouping is influenced by the structure of the selective education system and the cultural context (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;OECD, 2013b;Pallas et al., 1994;Reuman, 1989). ...
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Selective education research has demonstrated that students are aware of the low status of being allocated to a low-ability school. Recent data in Guyana has shown that low-ability school attendance is associated with low rates of student attendance, retention, and graduation. This study aims to understand the effects of ability grouping on students by comparing the psychosocial well-being of students from different ability schools. Data was collected from a sample of 193 adolescents (70 males and 123 females) aged 13-18 from four secondary schools; representing the four school ability rankings. It was hypothesised that student psychosocial well-being would be significantly lower in low-ability schools compared to high-ability schools. Unexpectedly, the results indicated that the highest ability school had significantly lower psychosocial well-being than the other lower ability schools. The results may be potentially explained by the theory of Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect, however confirmation in future research is warranted.
... In contrast, Duru-Bellat and Mingat (1998) reported that French secondary students achieve slightly, but significantly higher in French and mathematics when attending heterogeneous classes. Cheung and Rudowicz (2003) stated that in Hong Kong, students are grouped based on their ability and homogeneity results in higher achievement in mathematics and science. Similarly, Adodo and Agbayewa (2011) found that homogenous ability level grouping is superior for promoting students learning outcome. ...
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This study aims to analyse the relationship between students’ mathematics achievement in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 and the instructional climate-related factors in the index of principals’ perceptions (learning hindrance, teacher morale and teacher intention). As preliminary analysis procedure, the chi-squared automatic interaction detection analysis was performed with relevant independent variables. Teacher’s achievement expectation from students and achievement-oriented behaviours were other significant predictive indicators on PISA mathematics achievement. Based upon these independent variables and standard deviation estimates of PISA mathematics scores, the present research developed a theoretical model by means of confirmatory factor analysis, explaining how students’ PISA mathematics achievement is associated with classroom and within school homogeneity through teachers’ expectation and achievementoriented behaviours. Results showed that the developed model provided a great model-data fit. This model revealed that classroom achievement homogeneity and within school achievement homogeneity were the most important predictors on students’ PISA mathematics achievement. Keywords: PISA, CHAID, mathematics, homogeneity.
... Ability tracking was long the norm in junior high schools in China (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Ding & Lehrer, 2007;Lai, 2007;Shanmai Wang, 2008). However, in recent years, international opinion turned against ability tracking for the youngest age groups (Fiedler, Lange, & Winebrenner, 2002). ...
Article
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The goal of this paper is to describe and analyze the relationship between ability tracking and student social trust, in the context of low-income students in developing countries. Drawing on the results from a longitudinal study among 1,436 low-income students across 132 schools in rural China, we found a significant lack of interpersonal trust and confidence in public institutions among poor rural young adults. We also found that slow-tracked students have a significantly lower level of social trust, comprised of interpersonal trust and confidence in public institutions, relative to their fast-tracked peers. This disparity might further widen the gap between relatively privileged students who stay in school and less privileged students who drop out of school. These results suggest that making high school accessible to more students may improve social trust among rural low-income young adults.
... While Chau-Kiu Cheung and Elizabeth Rudowicz (2003) claim the local banding system has no significant harm for students' academic achievement, other researchers conclude that a significant pedagogical problem exists within lower-banded secondary schools (Crawford, Hui, & Heung, 2000;Wong, Chan, & Firkins, 2006). According to Nick Crawford, Len Hui, and Vivian Heung (2000), "ability grouping in Hong Kong means sorting lower ability students out of opportunities to succeed" (p. ...
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Extracurricular participation has displayed positive effects on student development; it is, therefore, worthwhile to investigate the factors that influence students’ willingness and ability to participate in extracurricular activities held by the school. Through a qualitative research design, this study hopes to reveal how school culture and other factors influence extracurricular participation among local high school students in Hong Kong. Focus groups were conducted with students from three local schools, and teachers and administrative staff were interviewed when available. The study focused on four main themes: school and student profile, participation requirements, activity availability, and school mission and academic emphasis. Hand coding and data analysis suggest that principal and school attitudes influenced the activities available, while timing and activity arrangement significantly affected student participation. Overall, there were mixed opinions toward extracurricular activities.
... Newton (2010), for example, found that students placed in a low-track classroom in middle school had lower achievement and an overall slower learning rates by their senior year. Similar results were reported in Cheung and Rudowicz (2003). In other words, once assigned, it may become difficult or even impossible for the student to leave the assigned track. ...
Article
http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/hUYz6y32XF3zfHgmgmiz/full This study examined contributions of academic ability tracking, disciplinary attitudes (science anxiety and self-efficacy), and discipline-specific literacy skills (science and academic vocabulary knowledge) to students’ science achievement in a sample of 104 Grade 8 students (78% current or former English learners [ELs]) enrolled in high- versus low-track (50/50) classrooms at a Pacific Northwest urban junior high school. The final regression model explained 46% of the variance in students’ science reading comprehension scores; 11% of the variance in reading scores was uniquely explained by science vocabulary knowledge, above and beyond anxiety, self-efficacy, and tracking. Similarly, the final regression model explained 41% of the variance in students’ end-of-the unit science test scores; 20% of the variance was uniquely attributed to science vocabulary knowledge above and beyond anxiety, self-efficacy, academic vocabulary knowledge, science reading comprehension, and tracking. From a practical perspective, the results suggest that students need more explicit science vocabulary instruction to perform better on reading and achievement tasks, regardless of their track designation. From a policy perspective, current ELs’ underrepresentation in higher-track classes calls into question the equity of instruction provided to students. Recommendations to increase ELs’ access to academic content are discussed.
... OECD, 2014, s. 13), a to navzdory vysokým příjmovým nerovnostem ve společnosti (měřeným prostřednictvím GINI koeficientu, blíže viz Lee & Manzon, 2014). Tento zdánlivý paradox vysvětlují někteří dříve zmínění autoři (Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Lee & Manzon, 2014) kulturními specifiky hongkongské, potažmo asijských společností. Znalost v komparativní pedagogice tolik zdůrazňovaného kontextu (Bray, Adamson, & Mason, 2007) vrhá na zjištěné statistické údaje o výsledcích v mezinárodních testech jiné světlo, neboť tyto výsledky se jeví být vykoupené vysokou mírou stresu, soutěživostí, společenským tlakem, obavami ze selhání či prakticky žádným volným časem hongkongských žáků. ...
... However, research in different national contexts has demonstrated quite consistently that lower track students do manifest more negative attitudes toward themselves than higher track students (Alexander & McDill, 1976;Catsambis et al., 1999;Cheung & Rudowicz, 2003;Ireson, Hallam, & Plewis, 2001;Malmberg & Trempala, 1997;Vanfossen et al., 1987;Van Houtte, 2005). The observation that lower track students suffer from status loss and are more likely to feel like failures (see differentiation-polarization theory) can explain why these students manifest lower self-concepts. ...
Article
Although a rich tradition of mainly U.S. and U.K. research focuses on the nature and effects of tracking students within schools, little research has investigated the importance of tracking students in the same or in separate schools. The authors used data from a unique, representative survey in Flanders (Belgium) to examine how students' study involvement varied between multilateral schools (in which all different tracks are offered) and categorial schools (in which only particular tracks are offered) and whether the relation between track and study involvement varied between these school types. Multilevel analyses of data gathered in 2004 and 2005 from academic and vocational third and fifth grade students in a sample of Flemish secondary schools showed that vocational students had slightly lower study involvement in multilateral schools. Although academic students were more study involved than vocational students, this difference was larger in multilateral schools than in categorial schools. The data suggest that in multilateral schools, vocational students compared themselves with academic-track students, consistent with the hypothesis of increased status deprivation, resulting in even stronger antischool attitudes. The implications of these findings for further research and social policy are discussed.
Article
Ability grouping is a common practice among Hong Kong primary schools. This study examines the effect of ability grouping on students' self-esteem, mood problems, and coping strategies. Eight hundred and ninety-two grades 3-6 primary school students completed a questionnaire that measured self-rated coping strategies, mood problems, and self-esteem. Students in high-ability classes showed higher self-esteem and reported using more emotion-oriented and problem-oriented coping strategies compared to students in regular classes. The differences in the use of emotion- and problem-oriented coping strategies or in self-esteem for high-ability versus regular classes were not attributable to differences in other variables, such as mood problems. Most of these ability-grouping effects disappeared after the students' self-rated academic performance or conduct was taken into account. The impact of ability grouping on Hong Kong primary school students differs from those discussed in the literature, which could be accounted for by cultural factors, such as pride.
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Against an expanded sector of higher education, inadequate empirical effort has been made to examine the experiences of middle-class students who fail to get straight into university rectify their situation. Such experiences, as well as their psychic/emotional aspects, are of increasing relevance to understanding the operation of class against a changing landscape of higher education and thus explaining the persistence of a class gap despite continuous educational expansion. In filling this empirical gap, this article examines the educational experiences of 16 middle-class community-college students in seeking a second chance in Hong Kong, and discusses how far the students could be seen as ‘angels falling from grace’. Their educational experiences showed that they were advantaged like ‘angels’ receiving an abundance of parental support in seeking this second chance; but, feeling negatively about community college, they saw themselves as ‘angels falling from grace’. Despite this, they finally successfully steered themselves to university.
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Accurate HBT I-V characterization using a precision VXI-based pulsed I-V system is presented. Narrow pulse (sub microsecond) characterization of HBTs minimizes the self-heating (thermal) effects, and trapping effects associated with I-V characterization. Long and short pulse width I-V measurements are compared, and observed thermal (conduction band and substrate) effects are discussed. This is the first accurate HBT pulsed (
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Objective In view of the values of individualism and competition embedded in neoliberalism and global capitalism, this paper seeks to illustrate empirically students’ instrumentalism in higher education, and to explore how far such instrumentalism could be conceptualized as student alienation. Method The illustration relies on experiences of community college students from an ethnographic study of students studying in a liberal-arts oriented community college in Hong Kong. The study begun in 2005 to 2006, continued in 2009, and followed up in 2010 to 2011. Eighty-five students in total were recruited and interviewed; 39 of them were interviewed twice. The interviews were analyzed together with the author’s observations and participation as a lecturer of that community college. Results Against an intensely competitive environment, community college students were rather instrumental in their studies. Their alienation was also manifested in the following aspects: being instrumental about their career planning, preferring surface and strategic learning to deep learning in their studies, and being strategic or even manipulative in dealing with their classmates or teachers. Conclusion This study provides a nuanced analysis of different aspects of student alienation. Student alienation is worrying, not simply because students are not learning what is required for becoming the educated workforce or citizens, but arguably because throughout the course of their studies, students acquire qualities that may make competitive employees for the cruel business world but do not necessarily make caring or critical citizens.
Article
Much research has been conducted into the poor life course outcomes among economically disadvantaged young people; however, little attempt has been made to examine the factors that help them gain autonomy and achieve a prosperous future. Given this consideration, the present study surveys low- income youth in Hong Kong to investigate their paths of development. Of particular concern is the exploration of the ways in which two key factors, public assistance reception and social service use, interact to affect youth development in the areas of academic success, work achievement, behavioral adjustment, and overall accomplishment. The basic premise is that these two factors may have main effects and an interaction effect on the outcomes. To test this, the present study analyzed survey data collected from 405 low-income young people recruited from 13 secondary schools and 18 community-based youth-service centers in Hong Kong. The results support the hypothesis that public assistance reception and social service use work jointly in affecting youth development, although their individual effects differ. However, no support is found for the proposition that social service use moderates the effect of public assistance reception on youth development. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Chapter
Referring to the concept of emotional capital, this chapter explores the emotional aspect of respondents’ experiences in rectifying their critical educational failure. Respondents all felt ashamed of failing to get straight into university through the public examination(s). And yet, middle-class respondents then gained academic confidence and even felt entitled to a university education, offering a heroic account of their rectifications; but working-class respondents continued to doubt their academic selves and did not see it legitimate for them to receive a university education, still feeling anxious about being seen as not deserving a place at university even when they succeeded in getting transferred. This exploration, then, provides an analysis of a mechanism for the reproduction of class inequality through education in the domain of emotion.
Article
This study was conducted to assess if the grouping of students into reading groups by ability would have an effect on the self-concept levels of above average, average and below average readers in third, fourth and fifth grades. Third (n = 56), fourth (n = 56) and fifth (n = 64) grade students from a Title I school participated in this study. The students were placed into reading groups by ability for a period of eight weeks. Independent t-tests were conducted to determine any significant changes in self-concept levels between pre and posttest scores. The level of .05 was set to retain or reject the null hypotheses. For the three categories of reading proficiency in 3rd grade, a significant change on self-concept scores was exhibited only for the average readers, as they scored higher on the posttest. For the students in 4 th grade it was found that a significant change from pretest to posttest was revealed for the below average readers, with them scoring higher on the posttest. With students in the 5th grade, it was found that there was no change from pretest to posttest for all three groups.^
Chapter
This chapter examines what sort of parental advice, financial assistance, and emotional support that respondents of the two classes received from their parents in coming to the same decision of taking an associate degree at community college so as to seek a second chance. This examination, then, provides an additional explanation for the perpetuation of class inequality through seeking a second chance. The newly available second chance was taken as another opportunity for rectifying a critical educational failure for middle-class respondents but it was regarded as the last resort for working-class respondents, meaning that the latter had to shoulder greater pressure in taking up the same option to seek a second chance.
Article
Ability grouping – defined as a practice that places students into classrooms or small groups based on an initial assessment of their readiness or ability – has received considerable attention in educational research for years in many countries (Ireson & Hallam, 1999, 2001; Slavin, 1987). In Korea, ability grouping has been implemented in elementary, middle, and high school settings for certain subjects such as English. The purpose of the current study was to determine how the ability grouping policy has been implemented in Korean middle school English classes and to examine the perceptions of teachers (n = 55) and students (n = 754) regarding this policy. The results showed that schools implemented the policy in a variety of ways (e.g. different number of grouping levels). Teachers and students indicated their concerns regarding students’ emotional problems and showed mixed attitudes towards ability grouping. They also argued that schools need large support to maximize the putative effectiveness of ability grouping in different areas such as curriculum design, materials development, and teacher training. The findings are discussed in terms of pedagogical recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of ability grouping in English classes and other options for future research to investigate this and relevant educational language policies.
Article
Objective: Educational expansion as a policy is believed to address the issue of the youth’s blocked social mobility. But, the argument that the transition to university is emotionally straining in a deindustrialized neoliberal context suggests an emotive aspect of neoliberalism in higher education. This article seeks to offer an illustration of such an emotive operation of neoliberalism through examining the emotional struggles of community-college students in Hong Kong. Method: This study draws on two qualitative analyses based on data collected from 83 community-college students in Hong Kong pursuing a bachelor’s degree through a newly available transfer function of an associate degree. Results: Given an emphasis of neoliberalism on individualism and competition, the respondents showed the following negative emotions: perverse feelings of inferiority about the new option, stress about the competitiveness of this pursuit and strategic/calculating in organizing their learning and dealing with their classmates, and anxiety of being seen as inadequate despite their successful transferals. Contributions: The emotional struggles of the respondents suggest that in view of a lack of well-paid prestigious professional or managerial jobs in a deindustrialized capitalist context, educational expansion as a policy—expanding the sector of community college in particular—wrapped up in a neoliberal discourse is not merely giving the youth a false hope but inflicting on them unnecessarily strained emotions. This suggestion urges policy makers to rethink the effectiveness of adopting an educational policy with a neoliberal approach to address an economic issue.
Article
There is a debate that ability grouping may have harmful effect on the self-esteem development of students, whereas there is also a counter argument that students' self-esteem could be enhanced through this kind of educational practice as their outstanding performance are being acknowledged. This article reported a study to address this issue. Three separate groups of students from Hong Kong (in Secondary 1 and 3) and Australia (in Grade 7 and 9) were sampled (N=1,015). Their levels of self-esteem and academic self-concept were measured by SDQ II (Marsh, 1992), an instrument that has been widely used for cross-culturally studies between Hong Kong and Australian adolescents. As our interest was the effect of ability grouping, data on school banding (for the Hong Kong participants) and school type (for the Australian participants) were also collected. Results found that there were no deleterious effects of ability grouping on self-esteem and academic self-concept for the Hong Kong and Australian samples. Findings were discussed with reference to a more recent re-conceptualization of the Big-Fish-Little-Pond effect and the ways of practicing ability grouping in Hong Kong and Australian education systems.
Article
This paper seeks to take advantage of the concept of emotional capital to analyse how class is lived out through a critical educational failure by referring to the experiences of 64 community-college students in Hong Kong from a longitudinal qualitative study. Arguably an analysis of the emotions of middle-class and working-class respondents and their respective parents could enrich our conceptualization of emotional capital and theorization of its roles in class inequality/reproduction through higher education. Their parents’ emotional responses to this educational failure were found to be essentially cultivating middle-class respondents’ sense of entitlement to a university education but mostly challenging working-class respondents’ sense of legitimacy of pursuing a bachelor’s degree. This analysis unpacks processes whereby ‘entitlement’ and (lack of) ‘legitimacy’ could be passed on from parents to their children as classed emotional capital and thus suggests a mechanism of class reproduction though emotion in the field of higher education.
Chapter
In the past, studies have been undertaken investigating the effects of different student groupings on achievement and learning processes. Some studies have indicated benefits from ability group methods, while others trialling social and cooperative groupings have signalled benefits from self-select arrangements. However, very little recent work has been undertaken studying different student groupings in schools, and almost none involving young children. This article reports results from a study involving 45 six year olds, completing a series of coding challenges working in three different pairings. The study used an adaptation of Mercer’s (J Computer-Assisted Learn 10:24–32, 1994) Talk-Type and Hennessy et al.’s (Learn Culture Social Interact 9:16–44, 2016) Classroom Dialogue analytical frameworks to evaluate the quality of oral discourse between the students, to determine any effect the different groupings had on learning progress and knowledge-building. Results suggested benefits from self-select methods, with students displaying higher levels of task engagement, relational trust and learning interdependence. These results are of high significance to early years’ educators using grouping as a strategy to improve students’ learning.
Article
Educational tracking in Chinese society is quite different from that in Western society, in that the allocation to either the vocational or academic track is based on a national entrance examination, which happens at ninth grade (age 14-15). Hence, students in many Asian countries (e.g., China and Taiwan) have to face academic tracking in early adolescence. Because of cultural emphasis on education in Taiwan, the impact of tracking on deviance is profound and can be seen as a crucial life-event. With this concept in mind, we examine how educational tracking influences adolescent deviance during high school. In addition, we also examine how educational tracking may indirectly influence deviance through other life domains, including depression, delinquent peer association, and school attachment. By using longitudinal data (the Taiwan Youth Project), we find that educational tracking increases deviance not only directly but also indirectly through delinquent peers and low school attachment. Some implications and limitations are also discussed.
Article
It is argued that social legitimation is possible through hegemony whereby people of a given social system see the system as legitimate through the naturalness of a way of thinking about issues of all kinds. But, how this naturalness is articulated against a certain context is empirically under-explored. This study attempts to address this issue by referring to the narratives of 39 students from a community college on their transferal experiences against the neo-liberal capitalist context of contemporary Hong Kong for an illustration. Community colleges in Hong Kong – unlike their counterparts in the USA serving multiple functions – are essentially viewed as an inferior institution where students who fail to get into university through public examinations seek a second chance through the transfer function of associate degree; consequently, an associate degree is basically not valued as a terminal degree but for its transfer function, serving to bridge community-college students to university, local, or overseas. Given this perceived role and view of community colleges, five plots – all operating with a ‘loser–winner’ framework – of the narratives of community-college students are distinguished. Moreover, three common themes emerging from the narratives are also discussed: education is naturally an instrumental means to social success; the talented and industrious will inevitably be rewarded; and, there is no fair system. The hegemonic aspect of instrumentalism, meritocracy, and the inevitability of inequality embedded in neo-liberalism is demonstrated in respondents being adaptive in a neo-liberal capitalist context and their pragmatic views on educational and/or social success.
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Forming ability classrooms according to various criteria is one of the common applications in the field of education. This study, aimed at examining the views of the teachers regarding this application (method/strategy), was conducted by qualitative research method. Data was obtained from 61 teachers working in three state schools by structured interview forms prepared by the researchers. In the analysis of the data, "content analysis technique" was used. According to the results of the study, majority of the teachers thought that the ability grouping was negative for the low achievement group students, and positive for the other students. Teachers predominantly stated that the ability grouping application caused discrimination among the students and teachers; caused changes in the attitudes of teachers towards students; affected the relationship between teachers and administration negatively; affected the friendships of the students negatively; and damaged the personalities and self-respects of the students. Özet Öğrencileri çeşitli özeliklerine göre ayrıştıran seviye sınıfları, eğitim alanında sıkça rastlanan uygulamalardan biridir. Bu uygulamaya ilişkin öğretmen görüşlerini incelemeyi amaçlayan mevcut çalışma, nitel araştırma yöntemiyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma da veriler, araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan yapılandırılmış görüşme formu ile üç devlet okulunda çalışan toplam 61 öğretmenden toplanmıştır. Görüşme formu ile elde edilen verilerin analizinde "içerik analizi tekniği" kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, öğretmenlerin çoğunluğu, seviye sınıfları uygulamasının alt seviye grubundaki öğrenciler için olumsuz, diğer öğrenciler için olumlu olduğunu düşünmektedirler. Öğretmenler ağırlıklı olarak, seviye sınıfı uygulamasının öğrenci ve öğretmenler arasında ayrımcılığa sebep olduğunu; öğretmenlerin öğrencilere karşı tutum ve davranışlarında farklılaşmalara sebep olduğunu; yönetim ile öğretmenler arasındaki ilişkiyi ve öğrencilerin arkadaşlık ilişkilerini olumsuz etkilediğini; öğrencilerde kişilik ve benlik saygısına zarar verdiğini ifade etmişlerdir.
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attempt to integrate transactional stress theory with social cognitive theory / regard generalized self-efficacy as one of the personal resource factors that counterbalance taxing environmental demands in the stress appraisal process / stress can be cognitively appraised as either a challenge, threat, or harm/loss / subjects who were confronted with difficult tasks under time pressure received fictitious performance feedback / conclude that dispositional self-efficacy not only facilitates coping with stress but is already operating at an earlier phase of the stress process, namely at the cognitive appraisal stage (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This investigation explored differences in motivational beliefs of 154 Asian American and 372 non-Asian 9th graders. Students completed surveys indicating their academic beliefs and later responded to a novel task to assess their achievement behavior. The difference in type of beliefs between the two groups explained, in part, their achievement behavior. Asian American students' fear of the consequence of academic failure best explained their performance. However, this variable least explained the results for non-Asian students. Asian American students reported lower levels of self-efficacy beliefs, yet significantly outperformed their non-Asian counterparts on the task. The fear of academic failure better explained achievement motivation for Asian Americans than did self-efficacy beliefs. A major implication of this investigation is that motivational beliefs elicit different responses in different cultural–ethnic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article reviews theory and research on double standards, namely, the use of different requirements for the inference of possession of an attribute, de-pending on the individuals being assessed. The article focuses on double standards for competence in task groups and begins by examining how status characteristics (e.g. gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic class) become a basis for stricter standards for the lower status person. I also discuss other bases for this practice (e.g. personality charac-teristics, allocated rewards, sentiments of either like or dislike). Next, I describe double standards in the inference of other types of valued attributes (e.g. beauty, morality, men-tal health) and examine the relationship between these practices and competence double standards. The article concludes with a discussion of "reverse" double standards for competence, namely, the practice of applying more lenient ability standards to lower status individuals.
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This study examined the motivation and mathematics achievement of Asian-American, Caucasian-American, and East Asian students. Subjects were 304 Asian-American, 1,958 Caucasian-American, 1,475 Chinese (Taiwan), and 1,120 Japanese eleventh graders (mean age = 17.6 years). Students were given a curriculum-based mathematics test and a questionnaire. Mathematics scores of the Asian-American students were higher than those of Caucasian-American students but lower than those of Chinese and Japanese students. Factors associated with the achievement of Asian-American and East Asian students included having parents and peers who hold high standards, believing that the road to success is through effort, having positive attitudes about achievement, studying diligently, and facing less interference with their schoolwork from jobs and informal peer interactions. Contrary to the popular belief that Asian-American students' high achievement necessarily takes a psychological toll, they were found not to report a greater frequency of maladjustive symptoms than Caucasian-American students.