Article

Cost and Benefits: The Impact of Cathedral Tourism in England

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

England has 42 Anglican cathedrals, many of which are major visitor attractions and which together welcome around 10 million visitors per year. Cathedrals generate substantial local economic benefits of some £150 million per annum within their urban economies and employ 1885 people on a full-time basis. Cathedral visitors spend approximately £30 a day on a visit to a cathedral city, but unfortunately very little of this revenue is received by the cathedral as donations. This short paper, which forms part of a larger research project examining different aspects of religious tourism, looks at the economic significance of English cathedrals within their urban contexts, arguing that the rising cost of conserving and maintaining the fabric of cathedrals is likely to result in increased need to raise revenue from visitors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Charging admission to religious sites is a controversial issue. On the one hand, it is argued that the entrance ticket can help with site maintenance and crowd control (Shackley, 2006a;Wong et al., 2016). On the other hand, charging admission fees is considered as unacceptable for theological and ethical reasons by some religious sites governing bodies (Shackley, 2006a). ...
... On the one hand, it is argued that the entrance ticket can help with site maintenance and crowd control (Shackley, 2006a;Wong et al., 2016). On the other hand, charging admission fees is considered as unacceptable for theological and ethical reasons by some religious sites governing bodies (Shackley, 2006a). However, many religious heritage sites charge entrance fees to profit from tourist receipts with ticket income far exceeding the maintenance cost (Fisher, 2011;Yue et al., 2019). ...
... For example, the admission charge opposers, with the largest percentage of Buddhists, may consider entrance fees as a barrier to practice their religion and against the philosophy of Buddhism in universal redemption (Hung et al., 2017). For common followers of the religion, it is not fair to 'pay to pray' (Shackley, 2006a). ...
Article
This study aims to understand visitors’ attitudes towards different forms of commercialization at religious sites. With a mixed-method design, the study was carried out at two sacred sites of Hinduism and Buddhism, respectively, located in Nepal. 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted first, followed by a questionnaire survey. Four types of visitors were identified regarding their attitudes towards commercialization. The differences in attitudes can be explained by the social exchange theory with consideration of visit motivation, income and religious background. Findings of this study contribute to understanding of commercialization at religious sites from visitors’ perspective, and have practical implications on service design and management of religious sites.
... In examining the research related to each case study I specifically looked to see if there were differences regarding the characteristics, motivations, and expected outcomes of those who travel to points, lines, or areas. I also focused specifically on cases of Jackson and Hudman, 1995;Winter and Gasson, 1996;Shackley, 2002Shackley, , 2006Voase, 2007;Williams et al., 2007;Francis et al., 2008;Francis et al., 2010aFrancis et al., , 2010bGutic et al., 2010;Hughes et al., 2013 Line Camino de Santiago de Compostela Murray and Graham ,1997;Frey, 2004;Rojo, 2007;Vilaça, 2010;Cazaux, 2011;Doi, 2011;Fernandes, 2012 Area Christian travel for ease of comparison between the case studies. ...
... Cathedrals are an important part of the historical, economic and architectural fabric of many urban areas in the United Kingdom, and act as the geographic and spiritual center of a diocese where the bishop literally sits (cathedra = throne) (Shackley, 2006). Shackley (2006) notes that there are 42 Anglican cathedrals in England which can be divided into five broad categories, ranging from internationally significant buildings which attract over one million visitors a year to parish church cathedrals which attract primarily local visitors (see Table 3). ...
... Cathedrals are an important part of the historical, economic and architectural fabric of many urban areas in the United Kingdom, and act as the geographic and spiritual center of a diocese where the bishop literally sits (cathedra = throne) (Shackley, 2006). Shackley (2006) notes that there are 42 Anglican cathedrals in England which can be divided into five broad categories, ranging from internationally significant buildings which attract over one million visitors a year to parish church cathedrals which attract primarily local visitors (see Table 3). While the core function of these buildings is the conservation and preservation of religious tradition and the provision of a space for adherents to worship, pray, and meditate (Shackley, 2001(Shackley, , 2002, cathedrals are increasingly being treated by government officials and tourism stakeholders as tourism attractions because of the important role the heritage tourism industry has in England"s overall tourism strategy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Academic studies on tourism market segmentation have decreased in scale over time, with the focus on tourist segmentation changing from segmenting the market as a whole to segmenting specific tourism niche markets. This change in scale can also be seen in how academics have attempted to segment the religious tourism market moving from discussions related to the pilgrim-tourist dichotomy to segmenting visitors based on religious affiliation to world regions and countries to specific religious activities such as religious festivals and infrastructural amenities such as hotels. In this paper the author, following Wall’s (1997) discussion of the spatial characteristics of tourist attractions (i.e., points, lines, and areas), raises the question as to whether there is a scalar difference in the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of: people who travel to specific religious sites (points); those who travel along religiously - themed routes (lines) and; those who travel to the Holy Land (area). To answer this question the author looks at and compares three case studies - Cathedrals in the United Kingdom (point), the Camino de Santiago de Compostela (line), and the Holy Land (area) - and summarizes the academic literature pertaining to the characteristics, motivations and expectations of experience of visitors to these locations. Cursory findings show that there are differences regarding the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of people who travel to religious points versus religious lines and religious areas.
... Pilgrimage sites and the communities located en route to the pilgrimage sites have provided a market for religious tourism for a long time (Shackley, 2006b;Vukonic, 2002). These religious sites have become tourist attractions, serving from devoted worshippers to general tourists (Cohen, 1998). ...
... Together, the market complexities and inadequate management structures along with site-specific challenges further increase the difficulty of optimizing the worshippers' and tourists' experience. However, with limited funds and the continual challenge of collecting donations, the growing tourist appeal managed appropriately also provides a marketing opportunity for possible application at these religious sites (Shackley, 2006b). ...
... The boundaries between contrived and sacred religious sites are increasingly blurred. This blurring emanates from the offerings of many of the religious sites, including the provision of worship facilities, a bookshop, a coffee shop, a museum, and a venue for concerts, events, and exhibitions (Shackley, 2006b). This blend emanates from the unique combination of visitors. ...
Article
Full-text available
A growing number of commercial corporations have chosen to open visitor centers or company museums. This trend has not bypassed the religious not-for-profit sector. This study uses past literature, input from management, and importance–performance analysis (IPA) to investigate the visitor experience for a religious theme site in Orlando, Florida. A total of 176 visitor surveys collected in two phases were used to conduct the IPA for the 18 attributes identified. The data analysis revealed three attributes for management concentration, including spiritual activities, something for everyone, and inspirational experience. The remaining attributes were placed into areas of low priority, areas indicating a good job, and areas indicating possible overkill. The results of IPA considered along with the current challenges of management can provide useful insight into the decision-making of management. For the research stream related to the unique context of contrived themed religious visitor sites, this research provides additional support for the behavior of the traveler by identifying and measuring attributes of importance and the associated satisfaction with those attributes. By combining these results with future work, additional support for the testing of sound models of mixed visitor behavior applied to religious theme sites can be offered.
... In response to these concerns, many heritage sites have implemented strategies to manage visitor numbers and ameliorate potential negative impacts of tourism. Measures include creating barriers, paths and restricted zones (Garrod, 2008;Mason, 2005;Shackley, 2006a); implementing booking systems and entry fees (Fyall & Garrod, 1998;Mason, 2005;Milman, 2020); setting curfews and rest periods/days (Hess, 2019); regulating access and activities (Garrod, 2008;Shackley, 2006b); implementing traffic control measures such as park-and-ride schemes and non-polluting transport options to help control visitor movements and behaviour (Mason, 2005;Robbins & Dickinson, 2008;Shackley, 2006a); setting limitations on the numbers and/or types of visitors allowed access (Milman, 2020); and providing interpretation that encourages visitors to behave in a respectful and responsible manner (Jin & Pearce, 2011;Milman, 2020;Reif, 2020). Installing security measures such as guides, alarms and cameras to reduce souveniring, erosion and other potentially damaging tourist behaviours is also common (Manning et al., 2011;Reif, 2020;Shackley, 2006b). ...
... Measures include creating barriers, paths and restricted zones (Garrod, 2008;Mason, 2005;Shackley, 2006a); implementing booking systems and entry fees (Fyall & Garrod, 1998;Mason, 2005;Milman, 2020); setting curfews and rest periods/days (Hess, 2019); regulating access and activities (Garrod, 2008;Shackley, 2006b); implementing traffic control measures such as park-and-ride schemes and non-polluting transport options to help control visitor movements and behaviour (Mason, 2005;Robbins & Dickinson, 2008;Shackley, 2006a); setting limitations on the numbers and/or types of visitors allowed access (Milman, 2020); and providing interpretation that encourages visitors to behave in a respectful and responsible manner (Jin & Pearce, 2011;Milman, 2020;Reif, 2020). Installing security measures such as guides, alarms and cameras to reduce souveniring, erosion and other potentially damaging tourist behaviours is also common (Manning et al., 2011;Reif, 2020;Shackley, 2006b). ...
Article
Creating authentic, non-invasive visitor experiences at fragile heritage sites is challenging. This paper explores the potential of replicas to address the negative impacts associated with over-tourism by examining tourists' reactions to four replica cave sites in Europe. Data were compiled from 1369 TripAdvisor reviews, and revealed that tourists were generally receptive to the notion of replication. Responses ranged from deep appreciation of the effort taken to create immersive replica experiences to a reluctant acceptance that replicas are necessary to protect fragile sites. Not all reviews were positive, however, with some tourists being quite dismissive of the replica experience. Thematic coding was used to create five tourist typologies – the pragmatists, the converts, the believers, the purists and the conservationists. Characteristics of each group are described. Managerial implications for designing experiences at replica sites are outlined, and the contribution replica sites could play in addressing the challenges posed by over-tourism discussed.
... Tourism could contribute to the preservation of religious buildings and could solve many of the social and economic problems of the community (Olsen, 2003;Sharpley, 1994). Many tourists support religious sites directly by making donations (Joseph & Kavoori, 2001) or in the form of admission fees (Olsen, 2003;Shackley, 2006). Sacred sites are often surrounded by businesses (hotels, restaurants, souvenir shops, etc.) which tourists visiting the sites patronize, thus, indirectly, providing economic opportunities and jobs for many people in the local community (Shackley, 2006;Vukonic, 1998). ...
... Many tourists support religious sites directly by making donations (Joseph & Kavoori, 2001) or in the form of admission fees (Olsen, 2003;Shackley, 2006). Sacred sites are often surrounded by businesses (hotels, restaurants, souvenir shops, etc.) which tourists visiting the sites patronize, thus, indirectly, providing economic opportunities and jobs for many people in the local community (Shackley, 2006;Vukonic, 1998). There are also reports that the visitation of sacred sites could lead to improving the infrastructure in the region (Jackowski & Smith, 1992). ...
Article
Resident perception of tourism impacts has been one of the most studied areas of tourism. However, there is an extremely limited literature on resident perceptions of religious tourism development, especially in non-Western countries. This study investigated the attitudes of local residents toward tourists visiting four important mosques in Istanbul, Turkey and their perception of religious tourism development. All residents surveyed were practicing Muslims who prayed in a mosque at least once a year. We found that, in general, local residents are supportive of tourists visiting their mosque, but the level of support may differ based on the demographic and cultural background of the residents as well as on the number of tourists visiting the mosque.
... Tourism could contribute to the preservation of religious buildings and could solve many of the social and economic problems of the community (Olsen, 2003;Sharpley, 1994). Many tourists support religious sites directly by making donations (Joseph & Kavoori, 2001) or in the form of admission fees (Olsen, 2003;Shackley, 2006). Sacred sites are often surrounded by businesses (hotels, restaurants, souvenir shops, etc.) which tourists visiting the sites patronize, thus, indirectly, providing economic opportunities and jobs for many people in the local community (Shackley, 2006;Vukonic, 1998). ...
... Many tourists support religious sites directly by making donations (Joseph & Kavoori, 2001) or in the form of admission fees (Olsen, 2003;Shackley, 2006). Sacred sites are often surrounded by businesses (hotels, restaurants, souvenir shops, etc.) which tourists visiting the sites patronize, thus, indirectly, providing economic opportunities and jobs for many people in the local community (Shackley, 2006;Vukonic, 1998). There are also reports that the visitation of sacred sites could lead to improving the infrastructure in the region (Jackowski & Smith, 1992). ...
Article
A U.S.-based geographer presents the results of a survey of car and parts manufacturers in Romania with a focus on the role of foreign direct investment in the restructuring of the sector. Using a questionnaire and personal interviews, the author investigates and identifies the main factors attracting foreign automakers to Romania, which experienced a difficult transition after the collapse of the country's command economy and the ensuing loss of automotive exports to the neighboring states of CMEA. The paper covers the development of foreign ownership of vehicle assembly and car parts manufacturing plants, as well as the effects of foreign investment on Romania's national and local economies. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: D20, F21, L62. 1 figure, 2 tables, 68 references.
... Most of the sites charge entrance fees and they are often located next to shops and markets where tourists can buy food and souvenirs. Shackley (2006) Cathedral and Ripon Cathedral, reported strong growth in visitor numbers (Rudgard, 2017 ...
... Religious tourism and cultural value have long tied to history, where religious sites host more tourists who have a keen interest in the cultural values of such sites (Petrillo, 2003;Collins-Kreiner and Kliot, 2000). Tourism helps in the protection of the religious structures and offers a wide horizon of employment and job opportunities to neighborhood communities either in the type of organizations like lodgings, eateries, or gift shops, etc (Olsen, 2003;Shackley, 2006;Vukonic, 1998). Regular visitation of the sacred sites also develops the infrastructure of the region (Jackowski and Smith, 1992) and continually modified and altered by the market forces of demand and supply. ...
... In almost every corner of the world, religious architecture, sacred spaces, and celebrations of faith lie at the heart of heritage tourism (Henderson, 2011;Kessler, 2015;Shackley, 2006). Nearly every package tour of Europe, Asia, and Latin America includes visits to religious heritage sites and extols the virtues of spiritual landscapes (Ron & Timothy, 2019). ...
... As noted above, pilgrimage destinations can also become ethno-religious sites of conflict, such as in the case of Medjugorje, a Roman Catholic pilgrimage site in Herzegovina, where, as a grassroots religious site and a symbol of Croatian identity and nationalism, has seen the Marian apparitions at the site appropriated by Bosnian national discourses (Skrbiš, 2005(Skrbiš, , 2007Després, 2008;Wiinikka-Lydon, 2010; see also Bax, 1995;Belaj, Martić, 2014). As well, pilgrimage has recently become conflated with tourism, with tourists and tourism metaphorically being described as pilgrims undertaking "sacred journeys" to places that are meaningful to them (MacCannell, 1976;Graburn, 1989), which blurs the traditional views of pilgrimage as a sacred journey, who constitutes a pilgrims or a tourist (Kaelber, 2006;Olsen, 2010), and can also cause conflict between religious site managers, pilgrims, tourists, government officials, and tourism promoters and marketers (Shackley, 2001(Shackley, , 2003(Shackley, , 2006Digance, 2003;Olsen, 2003Olsen, , 2006Woodward, 2004). ...
... Indeed, St. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Abbey were the 9 th and 10 th most-visited paid attractions in Britain in 2013, receiving over 4 million visits between them, with Canterbury Cathedral also appearing among the top 25 most-visited paid attractions, with more than 1 million visits (ALVA, 2014). The popularity of churches as visitor attractions clearly shows that there is a need for churches and cathedrals to generate sufficient income to maintain the fabric of the site (Shackley, 2006) and to manage all its users in a manner that is sustainable and reconciles the commercial needs of the tourism industry with the religious needs of worshippers (ICORET, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cathedrals have become important visitor attractions, but sacred buildings are typically ancient structures with high conservation and maintenance running costs that their managers struggle to fund. Cathedrals remain underfunded visitor attractions due to the limited opportunities for revenue generation they present. Visitor donations can be an appropriate way to raise much-needed funding, but any commercial activity in a sacred setting must allow the site to maintain its spiritual character. This paper explored visitor attitudes towards donations in Chichester Cathedral through the use of a self-administered questionnaire. It found that 94% of respondents were aware of the donation appeals and that 71% of them went on to make a donation, with the visitors aged 50 to 69 and living within 25 miles of the Cathedral being the most frequent and generous donors. When asked to suggest what they would consider an appropriate donation, 44% of respondents gave a figure between £1 and £2. This paper suggest measures that Chichester Cathedral managers can implement to increase visitor donations and makes recommendations on how other similar heritage attractions and sacred sites can increase visitor donations. Among these recommendations, the most significant is the identification and targeting of donors’ personal meanings to give a donation and in the case of Chichester Cathedral, to specifically target these on their local, middle-aged visitors.
... Regardless of its manifestation, community support is sometimes critical to an attraction's sustainability because of the severe fiscal constraints facing attraction managers (Malcolm, 2011). Although numerous studies conducted over many years have estimated the economic impact of attractions (e.g., Bergstrom, Cordell, Watson, & Ashely, 1990; Bowker, Bergstrom, & Gill, 2007; Canadian Outdoor Recreation Research Committee, 1975; Cela, Lankford, & Knowles-Lankford, 2009; Choi, Ritchie, Papandrea, & Bennett, 2010; Dean, Getz, Nelson, & Siegfried, 1978; Kim, Wong, & Cho, 2007; Mayer, Muller, Woltering, Arnegger, & Job, 2010; Montenegro, Huaquin, & Herrero, 2009; Mules, 2005; Shackley, 2006; van Beukering, Cesar, & Janssen, 2003; Var, Cheng, & Oh, 2004; Viu, Fernandez, & Caralt, 2008), no studies to date have specifically focused on the economic value of community support of attractions, based on thorough searches of the SCOPUS and EBS- COhost Hospitality & Tourism Index literature databases. Thus, from an economic perspective, these labors of love are worked in darkness. ...
Article
Although tourist attractions are the drivers of tourism to many communities, and local citizens’ support of these attractions is vital to their viability, the economic outcomes of such support have never been assessed. To help fill this information void, the authors examined the unusual case of a historical attraction that was closed in 1983 by the federal government agency operating it but resurrected the following year by local citizens who considered it indispensable to their town’s identity, cultural heritage, and tourist appeal. Since the attraction would not exist but for this intervention, the current value of the community’s resuscitation of it in 1984 was inferred from the economic impacts it currently generated. In 2007 these were estimated to be about US$1.6 million in direct attraction-related expenditures in the town, US$2.1 million in business revenues, US$629,000 in personal income, US$141,000 in local and state taxes and fees, and 27 new jobs.
Book
The past remains essential - and inescapable. A quarter-century after the publication of his classic account of man's attitudes to his past, David Lowenthal revisits how we celebrate, expunge, contest and domesticate the past to serve present needs. He shows how nostalgia and heritage now pervade every facet of public and popular culture. History embraces nature and the cosmos as well as humanity. The past is seen and touched and tasted and smelt as well as heard and read about. Empathy, re-enactment, memory and commemoration overwhelm traditional history. A unified past once certified by experts and reliant on written texts has become a fragmented, contested history forged by us all. New insights into history and memory, bias and objectivity, artefacts and monuments, identity and authenticity, and remorse and contrition, make this book once again the essential guide to the past that we inherit, reshape and bequeath to the future.
Chapter
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a large, complex, and diverse region and is viewed as a huge center of cultural and travel influence. Nevertheless, the region is plagued by geopolitical tensions, political turmoil, instability and conflict over the decades. The conflict-ridden and controversial image of the region in many tourism generating markets has negatively affected the flow of tourists to the region and hindered the development of tourism despite its wealth of cultural heritage endowments, a climate conducive to tourism and leisure resources. More recently, in the aftermath of the ‘Arab Spring ‘and the advent of Islamic extremism and fundamentalism, cultural heritage in parts of the region have been placed at risk and have witnessed large-scale devastation, destruction and looting. The latter has stressed the urgency for post-conflict reconstruction in the Middle East context. The introductory chapter provides an introduction and background to the MENA region from a geographical and historical perspective in general and the cultural and heritage tourism in the region in particular and the challenges it faces. It will also outline the development of tourism in the MENA region and identify key issues in the region with links to the chapters in the book.
Chapter
The Middle East and Sorth Africa (MENA) is a large, complex, and diverse region and is viewed as a huge centre of cultural and travel influence. Nevertheless, the region has been plagued by geopolitical tensions, political turmoil, instability, and conflict over the decades. The conflict-ridden and controversial image of the region in many tourism-generating markets has negatively affected the flow of tourists to the region and hindered the development of tourism despite its wealth of cultural heritage endowments, a climate conducive to tourism, and leisure resources. More recently, in the aftermath of the ‘Arab Spring’ and the advent of Islamic extremism and fundamentalism, cultural heritage in parts of the region has been placed at risk and has witnessed large-scale devastation, destruction, and looting. The latter has stressed the urgency for post-conflict reconstruction in the Middle East context. The introductory chapter provides an introduction and background to the MENA region from a geographical and historical perspective in general and the cultural and heritage tourism in the region in particular and the challenges it faces. It will also outline the development of tourism in the MENA region and identify key issues in the region with links to the chapters in the book. © 2021 selection and editorial matter, C. Michael Hall and Siamak Seyfi.
Book
Full-text available
While technology is developing at a fast pace, urban planners and cities are still behind in finding effective ways to use technology to address citizen’s needs. Multiple aspects of sustainable urbanism are brought together in this book along with advanced technologies and their connections to urban planning and management. It integrates urban studies, smart cities, AI, IoT, remote sensing and GIS. Highlights also land use planning, spatial planning, and ecosystem-based information to improve economic opportunities. Urban planners and engineers will understand the use of AI in disaster management and the use of GIS in finding suitable landfill sites for sustainable waste management.
Article
People often visit churches for touristic reasons. Studies indicate that these tourists share both secular motives and religious ones. An instrument to assess these motives, however, still is not available. This paper addresses that desideratum by amending the Phelan-Bauer-Lewalter-Scale for Visit Motivation (PBLS-VM) by (a) engaging with religious practice inside the church, (b) feeling the presence of God, and (c) experiencing subjective-life spirituality. Tourists in nine major cathedrals across Germany completed the amended PBLS-VM (N = 771; age: M = 46, SD = 18.04; 58% females). Leaving out the sub-scale social enjoyment, the amended PBLS-VMR shows a very moderate model-fit (RMSEA = .067, CFI = .93, SRME = .052). The observed mean differences in the sub-scales are plausible. In consequence, the amended PBLS-VMR represents a step further in the assessment of tourists’ motivation in visiting church buildings. Research using this measurement tool contributes to a better understanding of the cultural relevance of Christian heritage in modern societies.
Article
Full-text available
Fo Guang Shan Buddha Memorial Center, founded by Venerable Master Hsing Yun, is a newly opened Buddhist site in Taiwan, which not only serves as a combined museum, art gallery and religious landmark, but also a diverse cultural, education and art center whose total number of visitors in the first year of its opening exceeded ten million, higher than that of the Louvre in 2012, and has continued to rise in successive years. The Center also became the youngest museum to be recognized as a member of ICOM, receive ISO50001 certification, and listed on Tripadvisor as one of the top three tourist destinations in Taiwan within the first four years of its opening. Owing to more than just the stunning architectural complex and open space layout, a rich collection of permanent and temporary art exhibitions, live Buddhist and Chinese cultural performances, interfaith festivities, as well as social welfare events are among the contributing factors of the Center's success. This paper aims to study the relationship between the modern approaches of Dharma propagation in Humanistic Buddhism and religious tourism in attempt to discuss the success of Buddha Memorial Center's development as well as its future prospective in the dissemination of Buddhism.
Article
This article explores the double identities of English Cathedrals as places of religious engagement but also as locations of heritage. Rather than seeing such functions as only or inherently opposed to each other, with liturgy compromised by tourism, or religious seriousness by crass commerciality, it explores the ways in which religious practice, tourism and heritage display exist in adjacent, often mutually productive forms. Such adjacencies may lead to particular contexts and activities of modified mimesis and replication between religious and heritage behaviours, which I label ‘merging,’ ‘modes of address,’ and ‘enactment.’ Overall, my analysis assesses the influence not only of the market, but also of management culture, on cathedral governance in the contemporary era.
Article
This paper will examine whether the commodification of the Renaissance through international heritage tourism is impacting Catholic Church sites in Tuscany, Italy holding Renaissance heritage materials and resulting in the introduction of museological practices. It will propose that the tension between the Church and heritage tourism is leading to the emergence of the 'reluctant' museum through the apparent transformation of particular churches into quasi museums with dual functions: both sacred and secular. This paper is part of a broader study which will explore the new role of the Catholic Church in managing the sacred space and the 'museum' space of three sites in Tuscany. The paper is a preliminary investigation of the museological implications of management interventions at one of these sites.
Article
The cultural heritage of regions and communities is presently being rediscovered and valorized as a driving force in building cultural identity and as a ubiquitous resource for dynamizing cultural activities. This process can lead to the development of cultural capital with clear territorial links and, as such, a favorable incubation condition for creating sustainable and competitive forms of cultural tourism. Research on cultural resources for tourism implies both a multidisciplinary approach and methodological innovations to deal with such a complex phenomenon. The challenge to identify and map cultural heritage elements - tangible and intangible - in a pan European context has recently been dealt with in the ESPON project 1.3.3 (2004-2006). Lack of adequate definitions, poor databases, and a showcase of national and sector differences in approaching culture as "resource" for development was the final balance of that explorative project. These findings have prompted further case study research into the study of cultural heritage, which is encapsulated in this book. This new publication differs from others on cultural tourism through its emphasis on spatial dynamics, by analyzing location and behavior patterns in different tourism destinations, by identifying the parameters of change induced by tourism and, not in the least, trial and error examples in policy making. The book includes a rich variety of case studies mainly from all over Europe (but also including cases set in Israel, Cairo and India), representing the views and findings of 21 international researchers and scholars in cultural tourism, scanning unique situations in order to detect the common dynamics and impacts of tourismification. The final objective is to propose consistent directions for policy, based on empirical insights. This book contributes significantly to the understanding of cultural diversity and territorial identity, on the one hand, and to the dynamics of tourism, on the other, all of which are key issues in local and regional planning and management. As such, they should be a source of inspiration for policy-makers and an eye-opener for students, researchers and consultants in the field of cultural heritage and tourism and, hopefully, an interesting virtual trip - from Savonlinna to Cairo, from Santiago de Compostela to Sibiu - crossing and discovering a kaleidoscope of colorful and unique cultural landscapes and tourismscapes.
Article
While there has been increasing academic interest in the intersections between religion and tourism and the management of religious heritage sites, there has been little written on how these sites are interpreted to visitors and the religious doctrines or worldviews that frame the interpretational content and methods at these sites. Using the case study of Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah, this paper examines the ways in which religious heritage sites are used by ‘religions of salvation’ (Riesebrodt 2010: 66), specifically The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, to further their salvation-oriented goals. Not only is the ‘core business’ of religious sites more than just the creation of a ‘sense of place’ (Shackley 2001a, 2001b, 2002), but also involves an emphasis on both the maintenance and shifting of religious identities depending on the religious background of the visitor, making religious heritage sites a type of Third Space (Bhabha 1994; Soja 1996).
Article
Full-text available
It is clear that tourism is an important industry. It is equally true that it is being pursued in many areas as an alternative to more traditional economies that have failed. Often tourism is based on local heritage resources such as older buildings and customs that attract visitors. The concepts of heritage, tourism, and local economic development are therefore linked in many places but researchers have not necessarily explored all the possible links. This paper first selects articles and books that deal with all three of these subjects, draws out the themes contained in them, and finally analyzes the relationships among them. The works identified were classified according to their focus, what they are about; their locus, where they refer to; and intent, what the authors set out to do. Each one of those categories was then subdivided further. The extent to which papers in these different categories relate to each other or overlap was described. The purpose is to expose the places where more work is needed and where research opportunities lie. While the strongest link is between papers that are analytical in intent and deal with rural tourism, there are also connections between papers analytical in intent and focussed on society or economic development. Weaker connections are noted between studies that are theoretical in intent while focussing on and tourism or society.
Article
Difficult economic conditions, competition, or the decline of once thriving industries have inflicted serious damage to rural areas in many parts of the world. The USA has not been immune to these events, and the current economic climate has only exacerbated the existing problems. Apart from the industries and businesses that were forced to close their operations, former employees, their families, and even their communities are left behind with little hope of recovery. Some affected communities turn to other means to alleviate economic distress. In fact, while not a panacea to solve existing problems, some communities are considering or have even implemented tourism-related projects in an attempt to revive themselves and their surroundings. The present study explores the current development of one such project, the Langdale Mill in Valley, Alabama. To collect information about this proposed industrial heritage site, face-to-face interviews with the mill's project management were conducted. The interviews identified funding as the most critical challenge. Despite this serious problem, the mill's management is implementing alternative strategies in search for opportunities to revive a former industrial site and create tangible benefits for the local community. These findings may have important implications for other communities that also face decline.
Article
Purpose As there has been no research about specific Indian temples, the aim of this paper is to explore the role of technology and commercial factors at ISKCON temple in the National Capital Region, in enhancing the tourists' experience. ISKCON temple, New Delhi, has been the pioneer in implementing technology as a tool for augmenting spirituality and Krishna consciousness amongst visitors but it has been unable to excel in the same. Along with technology, various commercial aspects are also exclusively operative at the temple. This paper highlights the confluence of technology and commercial elements at the temple and their role in creating a satisfying visitor experience. The paper recommends changes that will help the temple's policy makers/management in developing superlative tourist experiences. Design/methodology/approach The paper explores a strategic question by interacting with the key stakeholders. More specifically, interviews with policy makers, temple committee members and devotees, have been conducted along with a questionnaire which has led to data collection from the customers. Findings Identified gaps in the technology and commercial factors that are currently in place at the ISKCON temple. A customer survey highlights key expectations of visitors, bringing out the satisfaction level of the visitors with their integrated experience at the ISKCON temple, New Delhi. Practical implications ISKCON temple attracts global tourists giving it a cosmopolitan nature. This research paper creates awareness amongst all the policy makers and temple management about ways to craft an outstanding as well as magnetizing experience for the visitors. Originality/value India has a legacy of spiritual destinations that have been attracting international and domestic tourists. In the light of this fact, it becomes critical to identify the factors and elements that enhance the cultural, spiritual as well as overall customer experience at these religious destinations.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the background issues that influence the level of central government funding of the care and maintenance of the provincial Anglican medieval cathedrals in England. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents a detailed review of the evolving government policy and funding agency practice. The paper critically examines the levels of financial support provided to specific cathedrals since the introduction of the Cathedral Repairs Grant and the Funding to Cathedrals schemes. Findings – Since 1990, central government, via English Heritage and the Heritage Lottery Fund, has offered a comparatively modest level of financial support for the care and maintenance of provincial medieval cathedrals. Yet this funding is balanced by an increased bureaucratic process that ironically increases the cost of care. The budget for grant aid is being reduced annually, ceiling levels to grants are imposed regardless of the cost of the work and previously successful applicants are being excluded from future bidding rounds. More public funds should be available for the care programmes and the support should be more real than rhetorical. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the broader appreciation of the funding system for the care and maintenance of the cultural built heritage under an evolving financial regime based on efficiency reviews. The paper highlights the longer‐term implications of the increased bureaucratic system.
Article
While religious travel to religious sites has existed for millennia, only recently has this phenomenon been examined by tourism scholars. Within the research on religious site management, the empirical nature of the organizational and operational management of sacred sites has been understudied in the tourism management literature.The purpose of this paper is to correct this deficiency by examining the management structure and practices at Temple Square, the spiritual center of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‐day Saints in Salt Lake City, Utah. This is done through briefly examining both the historical development tourism at Temple Square and the theological reasoning behind its current tourism‐oriented organization and lack of commodification.
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarises a contingent valuation study of willingness to pay forcleaning Lincoln Cathedral. A randomsample of the inhabitants of the city of Lincoln and the surrounding area wasquestioned as to their willingness topay for a change in the frequency of a hypothetical cleaning cycle from 40years to 10 years. This change wasillustrated by photographs which showed the same aspects of the Cathedralhalf-way through the two cleaning cycles.Individuals were also asked questions regarding their attitudes towards airpollution in general and its impact on theCathedral in particular. It was found that household willingness to pay isbest predicted by disposable income anda variable indicating distance from the site. Estimates of mean willingnessto pay range from £ 15 to £ 23 perhousehold per annum for those living Lincolnshire. Aggregating these valuesover the number of households inLincolnshire suggests that the annual damage inflicted by air pollution on theappearance of the building so far assoiling is concerned is valued between £ 0.4 m and £ 0.6 m.Different solutions to the problem of starting point biaswere explored and are shown to yield similar estimates of willingness to pay. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001
Article
Europe's religious tourism system is described with emphasis on the fulfillment of the expectations of visitors ranging from devout pilgrims to secular tourists at three types of attractions. These are pilgrimage shrines with strong emphasis on religious devotions, but with few characteristics to attract secular tourists; shrines that function as devotional centers and religious tourism attractions because of various combinations of historical, artistic, and scenic site characteristics; and places where religious festivals are the principal attractions. Problems related to conflicting interests of pilgrims and tourists are discussed along with some examples of management strategies designed to minimize these conflicts.RésuméLes sites religieux comme attractions touristiques en Europe. L'article deécrit le système européen du tourisme religieux en examinant surtout la satisfaction des visiteurs, qu'ils soient pèlerins dévots ou touristes profanes, à troist types d'attractions. Ce sont: lieux de pèlerinage où les dévotions religieuses sont très importantes et où il y a peu pour intéresser les touristes profanes; lieux de pèlerinage qui ont la double fonction de centre de dévotion et d'attraction de3 tourisme religieux grâce à un mélange de facteurs historiques, artistiques et scéniques; et lieux où l'attraction principale est un festival religieux. On discute des problèmes des intérêts incompatibles des pèlerins et des touristes, et on présente des exemples de stratégies de gestion pour réduire ces conflits au minimum.
Article
Visiting cathedrals is one form of cultural tourism. The motivations of these visits are of worldly nature. Cultural heritage and architecture are the main points of attraction. However, on the spot visitors are usually touched by religious feelings.
Article
Cultural tourism represents an area of significant economic benefit to museums and heritage sites. Challenging economic times in particular require cultural and heritage facilities to explore ways and means to increase attendance and self-generated revenues and to control operating expenses. Doing so requires them to look carefully at their operating policies and practices to focus on issues such as customer service, partnerships and packaging opportunities and to be open to entrepreneurial approaches while continuing to meet their heritage preservation and education mandates.
Shrine retailing: A spatial model of souvenir retailing and consumer service provision at pilgrimage destinations. Paper presented at the European Institute of Retailing and Services Studies Conference
  • M Shackley
  • Navrud S.