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Direct or indirect instruction?: An evaluation of three types of intervention programme for assisting students with specific reading difficulties
Three intervention programmes (psycho‐motor, self‐esteem enhancement and Direct Instruction) were conducted over a 12‐week period with 40 children who had experienced difficulty with reading (x = 10.11 years). Ten children were randomly allocated to each treatment group and the remainder served as waiting‐list controls.The Direct Instruction programme resulted in gains in reading performance significantly greater than the other two programmes and the control group. None of the programmes succeeded in significantly raising performance levels on measures of psycho‐motor performance or self‐esteem.Post‐intervention questionnaires completed by the subjects, their parents and their classroom teachers indicated that perceived success differed significantly from measured success and that parents and children were predisposed towards the success of any programme to which they had committed themselves. An explanation was offered for the continued acceptance and use of intervention approaches which have failed to find significant support in the literature.