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Villains, fools or heroes? Sports stars as role models for young people

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Abstract

Sporting texts are designed to prioritize, personalize and sensationalize characters in an attempt to capture audience attention. The sporting hero has traditionally been perceived of as epitomizing social ideals and masculine virtues, and as embodying values that learnt on the playing fields will readily transfer into everyday life. However, growing media intrusion signifies the contemporary sports star as a ‘damaged hero’ – the male sports celebrity exemplifying contemporary laddishness, drunken exploits, wife and girlfriend beatings and gay relationships, all of which influence the image of the modern day sports hero. In contrast, female sport stars are well documented as marginalized, trivialized and objectified, to the extent which sports heroines are both invisible and questionable as role models for young girls.This article discusses ways in which sport stars are constructed as role models for young people. It cites instancing examples from the sports calendar of the ‘summer of sport’ 1996, in its discussion of the media construction of sports stars as villains, fools or heroes. It identifies the gender differentiated readings of sports stars as heroes and heroines and concludes that the ways in which media critics accord hero and role model status does not necessarily reflect the opinions of young people.

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... This literature offers ideas about which role models young people choose, why they choose them, whether these models influence Young people's behavior and, if so, how. As a consequence, parents, siblings, teachers, coaches, pop stars and sport heroes have been studied as models in various contexts: social learning theories (Bandura 1977;Jung, 1986, Lockwood andKunda, 1997), behavior studies inside and outside sport (Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Carr and Weigand, 2001;Vescio et al., 2005;Guiliano et al., 2007;Lines 2011), sociology (Fleming et al., 2005;Buford 2009), pedagogy (Bromnick and Swallow, 1999) and education (Nauta and Kokaly, 2001). An interesting discovery by Lockwood and Kunda (1997) is that superstars, as models to follow, cause inspiration and self-evaluation when their success seems achievable to the observer, but provoke self-deflation when it seems unreachable. ...
... An interesting discovery by Lockwood and Kunda (1997) is that superstars, as models to follow, cause inspiration and self-evaluation when their success seems achievable to the observer, but provoke self-deflation when it seems unreachable. Furthermore, several authors have found that men are more likely to choose an athlete as a model to follow, than girls (for instance, Ewens and Lashuk, 1989;Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Bromnick and Swallow, 1999;Jones and Schumann, 2000;Guiliano et al., 2007;Lines 2011). Some authors also stress the possible negative effects of heroes as models (for example, Hindson et al., 1994;Globus, 1998;Payne et al., 2003;Lines 2011) and how media broadcast and enlarge the impact of role models on young people (French and Pena, 1991;Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Fleming et al., 2005;Lines 2011). ...
... Furthermore, several authors have found that men are more likely to choose an athlete as a model to follow, than girls (for instance, Ewens and Lashuk, 1989;Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Bromnick and Swallow, 1999;Jones and Schumann, 2000;Guiliano et al., 2007;Lines 2011). Some authors also stress the possible negative effects of heroes as models (for example, Hindson et al., 1994;Globus, 1998;Payne et al., 2003;Lines 2011) and how media broadcast and enlarge the impact of role models on young people (French and Pena, 1991;Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Fleming et al., 2005;Lines 2011). ...
... A role model is anyone who can potentially influence a person's behavior, lifestyle patterns and attitudes either through direct association, or through indirect inspiration (Dix et al., 2010;Lines, 2001). A sport celebrity role model is someone who usually has an indirect influence on individuals and in addition to their athletic prowess, their role model ability also includes perception of their contribution to society, exhibition of virtuous behavior and compliance with social norms (Dix et al., 2010;Lines, 2001). ...
... A role model is anyone who can potentially influence a person's behavior, lifestyle patterns and attitudes either through direct association, or through indirect inspiration (Dix et al., 2010;Lines, 2001). A sport celebrity role model is someone who usually has an indirect influence on individuals and in addition to their athletic prowess, their role model ability also includes perception of their contribution to society, exhibition of virtuous behavior and compliance with social norms (Dix et al., 2010;Lines, 2001). ...
... When a sport celebrity transgresses, particularly if they engage in morally corrupt behavior, it is likely to have a substantial impact on their perceived role model ability (Wenner, 2013). The journey from hero to villain is a common one for many sports celebrities which further supports our focus on role model ability as a key component of a sport celebrity's brand image when exploring the impact of a transgression (Lines, 2001;Yoo & Jin, 2015). ...
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Whilst the use of sport celebrities in marketing strategies is growing in popularity it is not without risk. The increasing reliance on scandal by the news media to capture audience attention, has accelerated the interest in sport-celebrity transgressions. This research adopts an netnographic method to analyze over seven thousand comments from online forums about sport celebrity transgressions. We found that consumers were more likely to express negative comments in relation to transgressions that violated moral, ethical and/or legal norms and that this in turn was most likely to effect the perceived role model ability of a sport celebrity. We provide evidence that the communication behavior of sport fans in a digital communication medium extends the life of a transgression in the public domain. Finally, we noted sport fans exhibited higher levels of engagement and willingness to participate in debate in these mediums than observed in other types of online communities.
... This literature offers ideas about which role models young people choose, why they choose them, whether these models influence Young people's behavior and, if so, how. As a consequence, parents, siblings, teachers, coaches, pop stars and sport heroes have been studied as models in various contexts: social learning theories (Bandura 1977;Jung, 1986, Lockwood andKunda, 1997), behavior studies inside and outside sport (Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Carr and Weigand, 2001;Vescio et al., 2005;Guiliano et al., 2007;Lines 2011), sociology (Fleming et al., 2005;Buford 2009), pedagogy (Bromnick and Swallow, 1999) and education (Nauta and Kokaly, 2001). An interesting discovery by Lockwood and Kunda (1997) is that superstars, as models to follow, cause inspiration and self-evaluation when their success seems achievable to the observer, but provoke self-deflation when it seems unreachable. ...
... An interesting discovery by Lockwood and Kunda (1997) is that superstars, as models to follow, cause inspiration and self-evaluation when their success seems achievable to the observer, but provoke self-deflation when it seems unreachable. Furthermore, several authors have found that men are more likely to choose an athlete as a model to follow, than girls (for instance, Ewens and Lashuk, 1989;Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Bromnick and Swallow, 1999;Jones and Schumann, 2000;Guiliano et al., 2007;Lines 2011). Some authors also stress the possible negative effects of heroes as models (for example, Hindson et al., 1994;Globus, 1998;Payne et al., 2003;Lines 2011) and how media broadcast and enlarge the impact of role models on young people (French and Pena, 1991;Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Fleming et al., 2005;Lines 2011). ...
... Furthermore, several authors have found that men are more likely to choose an athlete as a model to follow, than girls (for instance, Ewens and Lashuk, 1989;Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Bromnick and Swallow, 1999;Jones and Schumann, 2000;Guiliano et al., 2007;Lines 2011). Some authors also stress the possible negative effects of heroes as models (for example, Hindson et al., 1994;Globus, 1998;Payne et al., 2003;Lines 2011) and how media broadcast and enlarge the impact of role models on young people (French and Pena, 1991;Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Fleming et al., 2005;Lines 2011). ...
... The sports hero phenomenon encompasses various components that touch upon the notion of hero-making and sports in general. A sports hero is defined by heroic qualities shared by heroes in other fields of human endeavors as well as by outstanding and exceptional athletic abilities (Lines, 2001). Sports fans expect their heroes to embody characteristics valued by society, such as leadership and determination, and at the same time exhibit proficiency and expertise in their sport (Parry, 2009). ...
... Furthermore, sports heroes appear more frequently in the media (Whannel, 2005). As a result of this increase in the popularity of sports in modern society and the expansion of media coverage, high-level athletes have gained worldwide recognition among both men and women, and even among those who are not interested in sports (Lines, 2001). This rise in the number of familiar sports figures is accompanied by a growing number of people seeking role models and heroes in the world of sports (Parry, 2009). ...
... Another Arsenal fan referred to this when describing his soccer hero, Thierry Henry, as being both "a star and loyal and [thus] not only in pursuit of money or success." This preference for loyalty over the pursuit of fame or success is popular in modern society in general and therefore also applies to the world of sports heroes (Lines, 2001). ...
Article
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Background: Hero-making and hero-worship are common in human society. Yet despite the universal appeal of heroes, the features attributed to these figures and the attitudes toward them change depending upon the circumstances. Heroes have been the topic of extensive discussion in the academic literature. Nevertheless, little research attention has been directed at sports heroes. Examining soccer heroes is of special importance, particularly in view of soccer’s popularity across the globe and the celebrity status of top soccer stars. Purpose: The objective of this paper is to examine and map the defining features of soccer heroes as subjectively perceived by their fans. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study that entailed semi-structured interviews with 18 young Israeli soccer fans as well as content analysis of fan chants. Results: The research findings indicate that fans attribute special importance to three main characteristics that are not perceived as dominant among heroes in other contexts: loyalty to team and family, modesty and morality, and the ability to influence their surroundings. Based on the findings, the paper discusses the unique nature of soccer heroes in contrast to other elite players and the role played by these heroes for their fans.
... Some literature proves that sports facilities and their availability have a constant effect on sport participation [59,60]. Public knowledge and attention to sport are influenced by the information provided by the mass media [60][61][62][63]. External factors such as the level of economic development, sports facilities and media communication vary considerably across cities, so the size of the demonstration effect varies across cities, as does the number of people regularly participating in sport. ...
... The champions of major sporting events, as role models, have a demonstration effect on the public, which increases the number of regular physical activity participants, strengthens immune alertness and improves immune competence, and then in turn exerts a suppressive effect on the outbreak of COVID-19 infection. It has been well documented that physical activity reduces the possibility of COCID-19 infection [10,[12][13][14]16,17], and there is already some literature on the demonstration effects of sport [26][27][28]75], especially the influence of sports stars on young people [61,62,[76][77][78]. However, in the existing literature discussing the impact of physical activity on COVID-19 epidemics, there is no focus on the demonstration effect of sporting event champions [25][26][27][28]75] on the epidemic. ...
... Some literature proves that sports facilities and their availability have a significant impact on sport participation [59,60]. Moreover, public knowledge and attention to sport is influenced by the information provided by the mass media [61][62][63]. External factors such as the level of economic development, sports facilities and media communication vary widely in different cities, so there is regional heterogeneity of the effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
What kind of role do sports champions play in the COVID-19 epidemic? Do they contribute to the mitigation of the epidemic by some pathway? In this paper, we empirically explore the influence and mechanism of the demonstration effect of sports champions upon the COVID-19 epidemic using COVID-19-related dataset of prefecture-level cities in China from 1 January 2020 to 17 March 2020. The two-way fixed effect model of econometrics is applied to estimate the result, the instrumental variable approach is adopted to address potential endogeneity issues, and socio-economic factors including public health measures, residents’ self-protection awareness, effective distance from Wuhan are also taken into consideration. The results show that the demonstration effect of champions in major sporting events increases the participation in physical exercise, which in turn reduces the possibility of being infected with the epidemic. An increase of one gold medal results in a 0.93% increase in the sports population, then leads to a 3.58% decrease in the cumulative case growth rate (p < 0.01). Further, we find that the effect is greater in regions with developed economies and abundant sports resources. Interestingly, it is greater in regions with less attention to sports, which again confirms the role of the demonstration effect.
... Sports journalism functions within the sports star system (the symbiosis of the media industry and the elite sports industry for attention and revenue), and sets up a range of characters, such as the "hero", "fool", "scapegoat" and "villain", in order to play out narratives (Whannel, 1992;Boyle & Haynes, 2009), with some more consistent than others. These characteristics are connected to the athlete's achievements both on and off the field (Lines, 2001). The sports star system reflects that actions and character are inseparable, and Dahlén (2008) describes how this system is marked by an instability that can quickly change the narrative characterizations of a sport star. ...
... Sometimes there is a duality in the narratives, where sports stars can be represented with more than one character at the same time. At the height of his career, the English footballer Paul "Gazza" Gascoigne was both the "hero" on the field and the "fool" in private life (Lines, 2001). ...
... Therefore, she is also a victim of medication that was out of her control, since she was too ill to question what medicines she was administered when hospitalized in Uganda. Here we see how sporting narratives can construct dual roles (Lines, 2001). ...
... This approach fits within a conventional definition of a hero as an individual whose behaviour can 'enhance and uplift others' thereby providing a basis for 'modelling morals, values and ethics' (Franco et al. 2018, p. 389). On the other hand, research into British media coverage shows a continuous erosion of this normative and morally desirable vision of heroism and its discursive convergence with celebrity culture, resulting in hero-icons, hero-stars, hero-celebrities and hero-villains (Lines 2001;Parry 2009; see discussion of celebrity culture in Turner 2010;Street 2012). Remarkably, as research attests, both elite-and media-driven discourses of national heroification in Britain construct the male-centric conceptualisation of a hero and systematically marginalise heroines (Lines 2001;Parry 2009). ...
... On the other hand, research into British media coverage shows a continuous erosion of this normative and morally desirable vision of heroism and its discursive convergence with celebrity culture, resulting in hero-icons, hero-stars, hero-celebrities and hero-villains (Lines 2001;Parry 2009; see discussion of celebrity culture in Turner 2010;Street 2012). Remarkably, as research attests, both elite-and media-driven discourses of national heroification in Britain construct the male-centric conceptualisation of a hero and systematically marginalise heroines (Lines 2001;Parry 2009). For example, our preliminary assessment of the modern political discourse gauged from the UK Government portal (www.gov.uk) also suggests that heroism continues to function as a masculine discursive devise with an Internet search for 'a hero' generating over 1038 links to uploaded documents with the marginal number of references to women as 'heroes' along with only 18 mentions of 'heroines' during the same time period, with references to 'heroines' mostly incorporated in the documents concerning traditionally feminine occupations such as education and welfare (UK Government 2018). ...
... Scholarship on the facets of modern heroism utilises two methodological approaches. In the first instance, there is a substantial group of scholars who commonly use the terms 'hero', 'role model' or 'admired/inspirational adults' interchangeably, without elaborating on contextual differences between these categories (Lines 2001;Parry 2009;Anderson and Cavallaro 2002;Estrada et al. 2015;Power and Smith 2017). Secondly, there is a growing body of literature within heroism science which focuses on different functions fulfilled by heroes and role models (Allison and Goethals 2011;Franco et al. 2011Franco et al. , 2018Allison et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
In modern day Britain, the discourse of national heroification is routinely utilised by politicians, educationalists and cultural industry professionals, whilst also being a popular concept to describe deserving ‘do-gooders’ who contribute to British society in a myriad of ways. We argue that although this heroification discourse is enacted as a discursive device of encouraging politically and morally desirable behaviour, it is dissociated from the largely under-explored facets of contemporary popular heroism. To compensate for this gap, this paper explores public preferences for heroes using survey data representative of British adults. This analysis demonstrates a conceptual stretching in the understanding of heroism, and allows identifying age- and gender-linked dynamics which effect public choices of heroes. In particular, we demonstrate that age above all determines the preference for having a hero, but does not explain preferences for specific hero-types. The focus on gender illustrates that the landscape of popular heroism reproduces a male-dominated bias which exists in the wider political and cultural heroification discourse. Simultaneously, our study shows that if national heroification discourse in Britain remains male-centric, the landscape of popular heroism is characterised by a gendered trend towards privatisation of heroes being particularly prominent amongst women. In the conclusion, this paper argues for a conceptual revision and re-gendering of the national heroification discourse as a step towards both empirically grounded, and age- and gender-sensitive politics of heroes and heroines.
... Sports journalism functions within the sports star system (the symbiosis of the media industry and the elite sports industry for attention and revenue), and sets up a range of characters, such as the "hero", "fool", "scapegoat" and "villain", in order to play out narratives (Whannel, 1992;Boyle & Haynes, 2009), with some more consistent than others. These characteristics are connected to the athlete's achievements both on and off the field (Lines, 2001). The sports star system reflects that actions and character are inseparable, and Dahlén (2008) describes how this system is marked by an instability that can quickly change the narrative characterizations of a sport star. ...
... Sometimes there is a duality in the narratives, where sports stars can be represented with more than one character at the same time. At the height of his career, the English footballer Paul "Gazza" Gascoigne was both the "hero" on the field and the "fool" in private life (Lines, 2001). ...
... Therefore, she is also a victim of medication that was out of her control, since she was too ill to question what medicines she was administered when hospitalized in Uganda. Here we see how sporting narratives can construct dual roles (Lines, 2001). ...
... Players used the future as a realm of potential and possibility that could be filled with new dreams, desires and plans post-pandemic (Adam, 2008). Footballers also shared their personal lives publicly, presenting their everyday experiences and struggles with COVID-19, and thus challenged sporting discourses as players being strong, brave, and tough (Lines, 2001). Players also shared their private domain, such as their daily routines, their diets, how they were spending spare time and how they supported their children, as a means of helping fans through the routines of everyday isolating pandemic life (Rojek, 2006). ...
... These insights were a key part of demonstrating players' existence in a welfare state outside of their lives as footballers, thereby being responsible and active citizens as part of the community during COVID-19 (Brown and Baker, 2012). Whilst elite football players are often presented as privileged members of society given their stardom and accrued benefits (Lines, 2001), this image has been challenged herein as players became more normalised members of society who faced the same struggles as fans. Players' posts illustrated their pride in fulfilling national qualities and supporting the government's key safety mottos such as 'stay home, save lives'. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper demonstrates the community support of Premier League football players during the first COVID-19 national lockdown in the United Kingdom (March to May 2020). Given the global popularity and influence of footballers’ behaviour, it shows that they play an important role as citizens in supporting wider communities during circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic. A content analysis of 376 Premier League football players (80% of those registered) comprising 3877 posts on Instagram and Twitter is presented. The findings show 12 athlete citizenship roles during the pandemic which collectively illustrates players fostering support for fans and citizen's public health compliance, wellbeing and lives. Players also conveyed how they coped with the pandemic with their athlete mindset and were hopeful for a better future. The discussion and conclusion suggest that COVID-19 has presented an opportune time to renegotiate the complex social systems of which athletes are a part, identifying how they can engage in citizenship and future community support embracing the fullest range of their sporting profession.
... Athletes are perceived to possess positive character traits including perseverance and discipline (Teigen et al., 2000). Through constant appearances in the media, they have also become familiar public figures (Lines, 2001;Smart, 2005;Woolridge, 2002). Consequently, many young adults regard athletes as potential role models (Teigen et al., 2000;Wicker & Frick, 2016). ...
... Young adults can be discerning when it comes to athletes as role models. They can simultaneously want to play like their favourite athletes and yet disapprove of their misbehaviour (Lines, 2001;Strudler, 2006). Consequently, young adults may aspire to be like their favourite athletes, training and emulating their moves on the court. ...
Article
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Athletes are considered potential role models for young adults even though some of them exhibit inappropriate behaviours. In this commentary, the paper begins with a description of inappropriate behaviours of some athletes during the current COVID-19 pandemic. In this age of social media, news of such inappropriate behaviour can spread very quickly, particularly when the behaviour evokes an emotive response. However, social media can also be leveraged to spread positive messages. During this pandemic, athletes like other celebrities can be role models. They can encourage appropriate behaviours including social distancing to stem the spread of the virus through social media. The paper ends with a short discussion on the future of athletes as role models during a pandemic.
... Research in the extant literature has demonstrated the influence and magnitude of athletes as role models, especially on teenagers (e.g. Biskup and Pfister, 1999;Lines, 2001;Stevens, Lathrop and Bradish, becoming increasingly important to professional sport organizations. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze fans’ perceptions of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of a professional football club, specifically whether or not perceived CSR performances are then likely to influence patronage intentions of the fans in relation to the football club. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses the example of a professional football club in China as a case study for data analysis. Based on a sample of 451 home team fans, analysis was conducted through calculation of descriptive statistics, and exploratory factor analysis. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the impact of perceived CSR performance on fans’ patronage intentions. Findings The results revealed that factor 3 (“CSR to customer and employee”) and factor 4 (“Community development and youth education”) were significantly predictive of all the three patronage intention variables, i.e. repeat purchase, word-of-mouth and merchandise consumption. In addition, factor 2 (“charity”) would also affect merchandise consumption intention, but have no effect on any other dimensions. Originality/value A scale measuring perceived CSR performance in professional football clubs by the fans in the Chinese context has been developed. In addition, the authors have identified that the two main CSR factors that would influence fans’ patronage intentions are: “CSR to the customer and employee” and “community development and youth education.” Thus, if football clubs are to use CSR strategically to leverage spend, then it is these two areas that they should focus on, explicitly in relation to CSR activities. This paper adds value to an area that is currently under-researched in respect of CSR activities in Chinese professional football.
... As a narrative type, Sparkes (2004) suggests, this autobiography can be classed as a 'romance' in which the hero faces a series of challenges en route to his goal ('beating' cancer) and an eventual victory (making a comeback and winning a major event). The essence of the story is the struggle itself in which, as Lines (2001) notes, the necessary characteristics of strength, toughness, bravery, courage, determination, integrity and competitiveness required of the male sporting hero are displayed. This romance narrative is further embellished in a follow-up autobiography entitled Every second counts: from recovery to victory. ...
Article
This article examines how stories as actors can cause trouble in lives by focusing on the reactions of a competitive cyclist, named David, to the public confession by Lance Armstrong of being a drug cheat and a bully. We begin by providing a context for this trouble by considering the affective dynamics of fandom and the part this plays in the social construction of sporting heroes by self and others as part of an interactive process. Next, we examine the ways in which David’s narrative habitus draws him towards Armstrong’s heroic story as a gift that leads him to develop a strong athletic identity as a competitive cyclist and also become a committed fan that continually denies evidence regarding the behaviours of his hero. Following this, we focus on David’s emotional reactions to Armstrong’s betrayal and the identity management strategies he uses to disassociate himself from his disgraced hero. The role that material biographical objects perform in this process and the affective dilemmas they pose for David over time are highlighted. Attention is then given to issues of tellability and narrative silence regarding Armstrong’s story and their impact on David’s family and the wider cycling community. In closing, we offer some reflections on the ways that David’s story is shaped by the performative demands of specific kinds of masculinities prior to considering the narrative consequences of demonising Armstrong and making him the finalised villain of the piece.
... While encouragement to play sport is seen as important for all children (Kremer-Sadlik and Kim 2007), this is viewed as particularly important for boys because of the perceived link between sport and the development of masculine characteristics evidenced by numerous studies (Connell 1995;Drummond 2011;Hickey 2008;Messner 1990;Prain 1998). There tends to be a social and cultural expectation for young boys in Western society to participate in high contact sports irrespective of enjoyment (Lines 2001) in order to develop highly regarded so-called male virtues such as bravery, courage, aggression, discipline, teamwork, determination, and commitment. Christopher Hickey and Lindsay Fitzclarence suggest that these characteristics are deeply entrenched in "masculine epistemologies of self-worth and success " (1999: 53). ...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative project explores the meanings young boys ascribe to sport experiences and how understandings and perspectives of sport differ between parent(s) and child. Thirteen five year old boys and their parent(s) (n=17) took part in semi-structured interviews focusing on meanings associated with their sport and physical activity experiences. The boys undertook a drawing exercise as part of the interview to elicit their experiences as distinct from those of their parent(s). The 17 parents were interviewed about their motivation for encouraging their sons to be active. The results indicated that the parents’ and boys’ constructions and understandings of the boys’ sport experienced differed in two important ways; the gendering of the sport experience, and the way in which the sport experience is conceptualized. Findings suggest that while parents highlighted the gendered aspect of sport, the boys’ experiences of sport did not ascribe gendered understandings or language to their sport experiences. Also in contrast to their parents, boys’ understandings of sport encompassed a wide range of physical activity beyond what their parent’s classified as sport or sport participation. This research poses questions about how young boys conceptualize their understandings of play and sport, and when and how their experiences become increasingly gendered and sport specific. Keywords: boys, gender, masculinities, sport, visual methods
... Sporting success has been known to increase national pride (Denham, 2010), promote national identity (Hong, 2011), lead to higher reputation abroad (Wicker et al., 2012), raise the demand for amateur sport participation (Mutter & Pawlowski, 2014) and provide role models for young people (Lines, 2001). Being one of the most widely watched sporting events in the world, success at Olympic Games can potentially deliver many more positive externalities. ...
Article
The paper uses Heckman model to examine the statistical importance Tof over 140 independent variables on the Olympic performance of all countries participating in the Summer Olympic Games from Sydney 2000 to Rio 2016. We find that countries which export more products have a higher likelihood of winning an Olympic medal than their counterparts exporting fewer products, and explain why this is the case. Statistical importance of gross domestic product per capita, labor force, average temperature and three host effects (previous host, current host, future host) is also confirmed while the role of political variables in Olympic success remains inconclusive.
... For her, the link between effort and persistence comes from a determined work In the present study, participants expressed a hope that messages conveyed through their photos (and in some instances associated captions) regarding hard work, were transferable to young people who may consume the image. Athletes wished to convey a widely held perception that through sport, one can gain skills and values necessary to be successful in other avenues of life (Lines 2001). The wearing of trophy clothes, such as national kit, or sponsored kit was considered by some to be a signifier of hard work, and a reward for the training and effort invested in sport. ...
Article
This study, adopting a feminist perspective explored two research questions: (1) how do male and female athletes perform an athletic identity through photographic self-representation, and (2) what are the messages they look to convey, as role models, through these images? Eighteen culturally diverse high-performance athletes (12 female, 6 male; mean age = 20.56 years, SD = 2.83) representing a range of sports took part. Following an individual photo session with autonomy over image capture, participants selected their favoured image and provided a caption symbolising the message they wished to convey to others. Participants were then interviewed to obtain their thoughts, feelings and stories with regards image capture and selection. Analysis of photographic data revealed a tendency for participants to select full body action shots, located in the field of play and wearing sports clothing. Captions emphasised hard work, psychological assets, technical precision and encouraged sports participation. Interview data were organised under two broad themes aligned with the research questions; ‘performing an athletic identity’ and ‘intended messages’. Participants typically wanted to appear in action shots, emphasising good technique, displaying a sporting physique and in relevant uniforms. Intended messages reflected how to be a good role model and comprised of ideals of hard work and giving sport a go. Findings suggest that whilst athletes sought to champion their sport and the physical and psychological qualities that participation produces, gendered performances were also evident in production and interpretation of many images, thus highlighting the pervasive nature of gendered sporting participation.
... In the current study athletic identity was associated with depressive symptomology among retired football players. The high profile status of footballers and media constructions of them as sporting heroes can lead to strongly defined athletic identities (Lines, 2001). This was illustrated in a study of youth footballers in professional academies, where even at the age of 16 years, players had developed high levels of athletic identity (Mitchell et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background: Retirement from professional sport has been recognised as a major psychological stressor, and there is a need to identify factors that increase the risk of mental health problems after career termination. The current study examined associations between career-ending injury, chronic pain, athletic identity, and depressive symptomology in retired professional footballers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 307 retired male footballers who had played within a professional United Kingdom league. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms (Short Depression-Happiness Scale), chronic pain (Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale), and athletic identity (Athletic Identity Measurement Scale), and reported their reasons for retirement. Results: A total of 48 participants (16%) met the cut-off score for possible cases of clinically relevant depression. These participants were more recently retired, and had higher athletic identity than those without depressive symptoms. Former players with depressive symptoms were more likely to cite injury as a retirement reason, and report higher levels of ongoing injury-related pain. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with retirement through injury (OR = 3.44; 95% CI = 1.39, 8.51), higher pain levels (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.86), and increased athletic identity (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.14, 1.44). Conclusions: Career-ending injury is strongly associated with higher odds of depressive symptomology during retirement, while experiencing chronic pain, and maintaining a high sense of athletic identity, are additional potential contributors.
... öğretmenler ve arkadaşlar çocuğun saldırgan davranışları için güçlü bir model işlevi görmektedirler. Ergenlik dönemi ile birlikte çocuğun yaşamında daha önemli bir etki gücüne erişen akran grupları, toplumsallaşma açısından önemli bir işlevi yerine getirmektedir. Bu dönemde televizyonda izlenen spor ve müzik starları da çocuk için model olmaktadır.Lines (2001), spor starlarının, oyun sahasında ve dışında sergiledikleri davranışlarının gündelik yaşama aktarılmasında televizyonun çok önemli bir rolü olduğunu belirtmektedir. Ayrıca ergen, akran gruplarında toplumsal yaşama ilişkin bir takım kuralları yaşayarak öğrenmektedir (Kulaksızoğlu, 1998). Bazı ergenler bu gruplara uyum sağlamak için saldı ...
... The mass media influence and select the type of news that is transported to the public. In this context, Lines (2001) stressed that the knowledge of spectators is heavily affected by the information about sport stars provided by the media. Jones (2011) criticised the behaviour of the media arguing that they should focus on lauding role models in sport who exhibit good character and virtue, while athletes showcasing recklessness and other types of bad behaviour (including excessive alcohol consumption) should not appear in the headlines. ...
Article
This study examines the trickle-down effect of potential role models and sporting achievements, respectively. Specifically, we look at the inspirational effect of same-sex and opposite-sex role models on male and female participation in German amateur football. Longitudinal data on club memberships and amateur teams were collected for 21 regional football associations over a 15-year-period. The results of panel regression models show that the achievements of the 2006–2010 male national teams have a significant positive effect on the number of female club memberships and teams, supporting the notion of gendered heroism. Yet, male achievements in 2002 have a negative effect. Thus, sporting success does not automatically lead to the development of positive role models and inspirational effects, indicating that other factors (e.g. age, personality, and style of play) may play a role as well. Sporting achievements of female teams have no measurable inspirational effect on both male and female participation.
... Individually, Th ugwane was still presented either in a neutral or positive tone, which indicates the signifi cance of his crowning achievement. For example, the Sunday Times in London ranked Th ugwane's 1996 victory 8th in its top 10 marathon moments of all time, not just the Olympics (Lewis, 2004). His fi nal media mentions before his near disappearance came in November 2004 aft er South African Hendrik Ramaala won the New York City Marathon. ...
Article
On August 4, 1996 at the Atlanta Olympics, Josia Thugwane won the marathon and became the first black South African to earn a gold medal. Just two years after Nelson Mandela’s historic presidential election in a nation torn by more than 40 years of apartheid, Thugwane offered a story the media craved for his symbolic rise from uneducated coal miner to global marketed icon. Then the South African basically vanished following the 2000 Sydney Games as another forgotten Olympic hero because of the limited four-year media cycle. The identity markers of a hero include athletic excellence, elicitation of emotion, conveying symbolic meaning, and overcoming elements beyond the individual’s control to become iconic. Guided by framing theory, this mixed methods content analysis examined 179 news stories across five countries and two decades to identify how the South African marathoner’s identity was constructed and shaped from heralded to abandoned hero and why he resurfaced. This approach offered a socially derived view of Thugwane produced through the ideological process of journalism that shaped ideas and views while excluding or marginalizing others. Over time, media appreciated his athletic success for what it was against the backdrop of apartheid, which is why Thugwane is still discussed in heroic terms for overcoming odds to reach his sport’s pinnacle.
... Há no contexto da iniciação esportiva a influência exercida pelo esporte profissional como modelo a ser alcançado pelos aprendizes 5 , ou por vezes pelo envolvimento precoce em apenas uma modalidade visando o rendimento esportivo, configurando um processo de especialização esportiva precoce 6,7 . Neste sentido, o treinador apresenta papel central na formação das equipes (em questões técnicas e técnico-táticas), sendo que as investigações com treinadores de diferentes esportes tem apresentado um panorama de crescimento 8 . ...
Article
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The aim of this work was to identify the individual and collective offensive variables most important in adult handball teams from experienced coaches' speeches, and to identify possible relationships with the teaching-learning-training process. Four experienced coaches were interviewed, and the speeches were tabulated and analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse method. The coaches reported that to achieve high performance, players must have good command of individual technical-tactical elements (to junk and change of direction of the trajectories), collective technical-tactical elements (crosses, blocking, exchange of specific posts, give and go and successive penetrations) and the execution of offensive actions without stereotyping. It is suggested that the evidence adduced by the coaches must be presented gradually to the players, especially through games and game situations.
... One is to consider celebrities as emergent politicians, advocates, and activists. This line of inquiry focuses on sport and celebrity diplomacy, for instance, and considers the role -or folly-of celebrity ascendance across domains (Brockington and Henson 2015;Hoberman 1977;Huliaras and Tzifakis 2010;Lines 2001;Majic 2018;Nygård and Gates 2013;Strenk 1979). The second approach, which we take, is to examine the effects of celebrity on public attitudes and mass behavior. ...
Article
The convergence of sports and celebrity can have a powerful influence on everyday politics, especially for groups underrepresented in mainstream American society. This article examines the relationship between race, celebrity, and social movements, specifically Colin Kaepernick’s protest of police violence and whether his activism mobilizes black Americans to political action. Using the 2017 Black Voter Project (BVP) Pilot Study, we explore African American political engagement in the 2016 election, a time devoid of President Obama as a mobilizing figure. We find African Americans who strongly approve of Kaepernick’s protest engage in politics at elevated rates, even after accounting for alternative explanations. Moreover, approval for Kaepernick also moderates other forces rooted in group identity, such as identification with the Black Lives Matter movement. In the end, Kaepernick and the protest movement he leads offers a powerful mobilizing force for African Americans.
... Bu dönemde televizyonda izlenen spor ve müzik starları da çocuk için model olmaktadır. Lines (2001), spor starlarının, oyun sahasında ve dışında sergiledikleri davranışlarının gündelik yaşama aktarılmasında televizyonun çok önemli bir rolü olduğunu belirtmektedir. Ayrıca ergen, akran gruplarında toplumsal yaşama ilişkin bir takım kuralları yaşayarak öğrenmektedir (Kulaksızoğlu, 1998). ...
Chapter
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... 2). The creation of sport 'heroes' is one example (Lines, 2001), notably with the use of social media in recent years. Equally important is popular culture's structural influence on society and its reflection of certain societal aspects. ...
Chapter
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Like most sport organizations, Formula E allows countries with a poor human rights record to host events in return for the latter's assurances that societal progress is underway. This chapter addresses how this trade-off related to community-based issues is utilized through the logic of popular culture and open innovation tactics. Instead of criticizing the rulers of for example Saudi Arabia Formula E, apparently, use pop cultural stunts related to democratic reforms as channels for communicating 'sub-versive' statements on politically sensitive issues.
... Words and phrases like 'worthy of imitation', 'inspirational', 'exemplary', and 'heroic' appear frequently in descriptors of SRMs. As already mentioned, professional and amateur athletes-whether they like it or not-rapidly become SRMs for others (Lines 2001). However, visibility and absence of female SRMs is frequently discussed in reports and scholarship aimed at developing female sport and/or women's and girls' empowerment through sport (Midgley et al. 2021). ...
Chapter
Sporting role models (SRM) can inspire and influence attitude and behavior. This chapter examines the influence of six Indigenous Australian sportswomen: cricketers Faith Thomas and Ashleigh Gardner, netballers Marcia Ella-Duncan and Jemma MiMi, and tennis players Evonne Goolagong-Cawley and Ashleigh Barty. By applying and extending Marianne Meier’s (2015) theoretical lens, it unearths and examines their role as SRMs for women and girls. Meier (2015) recognizes and describes nine functions of SRMs: participation, leadership, advocacy, challenging gender stereotypes, inspiration, ethics, safeguarding and prevention, media and corporates, and giving back. Correspondingly, Meier also identifies three categories on a ‘continuum of interaction’ between an observer and a successful SRM. Metaphorically the women start in silence; however, the evidence suggests that they gain—and sometimes regain—voice, often beyond their sport careers. Understanding Indigenous sportswomen’s SRM status enables a layered and deep understanding of the unique platform provided by sport, which serves to strengthen their influence. The research recognizes a tenth function of female Indigenous SRMs—that of cultural maintenance. Findings illuminate how Indigenous Australian sportswomen are constructed in complex and sometimes contradictory ways, at times portrayed as advocates, deviants, sporting ambassadors, and political activists. Further research is needed to untangle the complexities and fluidity of female Indigenous Australian SRMs in the evolving worlds of both professional and community sport.
... [40][41][42] Soccer athletes who are depicted by the media as "sporting heroes" likewise have high athletic identities that have been associated with early sports retirement depression. 43 A similar phenomenon has been observed in youth soccer players who trained at professional academies, where even at 16 years of age, players with high athletic identity levels had difficulty making lifestyle adjustments after athletic retirement. 40,44 Rehabilitation and the Developing Athlete Future developmental research may help explain psychological and behavioral changes within individuals across the life span. ...
Article
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Psychological recovery following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, surgery, and rehabilitation may be influenced by concerns related to self-identity, self-esteem, self-efficacy, health locus of control, fear/avoidance, kinesiophobia, depression, and other emotional or behavioral factors. Through clinical practice guidelines and consensus position articles, knee surgeons, physical therapists, and athletic trainers have greatly improved the process by which physiological musculoskeletal impairment and functional limitation achievement goals translate into evidence-based return to unrestricted sports participation decisions. However, the key psychological indicators or milestones that represent safe return to sports readiness remains poorly understood. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model (ICF) provides a helpful framework for generating a more comprehensive decision-making evaluation. The ICF considers patient function as the dynamic interaction between health conditions, environmental factors, and personal factors. Through the use of its common language, the ICF encourages interdisciplinary health care provider communication to more effectively implement team-based, patient-centered care, to better integrate physiological and psychological evaluation and treatment expertise into comprehensive care plans. This article describes the influence of high athletic self-identity on return to sports decision-making among adolescent athletes following ACL injury, surgery, and rehabilitation. Information about adolescence, sports, sports specialization, athletic identity, and more comprehensive return to play decision-making are synthesized into recommendations designed to reduce knee reinjury or new injury risk, and to improve performance among this patient population.
... In sports, socialisation and competition encourage the enactment of behaviours and actions that transgress the elementary rules of the game Kavussanu et al., 2012;Lines, 2001). In current sporting literature, these behaviours may be judged as either prosocial or antisocial (Boardley and Kavussanu, 2008;Kavussanu et al., 2013;Kavussanu et al., 2012;Rutten et al., 2011;Traclet et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Trash talking is a contentious and prevalent practice in traditional sports but few studies have examined its practice in esports – a computer-mediated form of sports competition in videogaming. This study used practice theory to identify different forms and dialectical relationships of trash talking in Counter-Strike: Global Offensive . Fifty hours of structured observations of professional tournaments were conducted followed by semi-structured interviews with fifteen spectators/casual gamers. Inductive analysis of data based on practice theory-related constructs identified varying perspectives on trash talk, and six distinct forms. Trash talk was directed towards players from opposing players, coaches, fans, casters and analysts. ‘Teabagging’ was the most controversial, but a predominantly positive ethos for trash talk was found, such that it was a distinct part of this esports scene. Theoretical and practice-oriented implications are discussed and a conceptualization of the practice of trash talk is given to encourage further debate and discussion in the field.
... Also, fans appreciated the values of sportsmanship and conformity to rules (Summers & Morgan, 2008). Furthermore, fans expected that athletes should show good manners and sportsmanship, to win without cheating through the use of drugs or deviousness and follow the sport's heritage (Lines, 2001). Off the field, heritage means preserving the heritage of team and sport. ...
Article
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The management of an athlete brand is challenging due to the complex nature of athlete career and life. Striving to maintain brand authenticity will promote long-term sustainability of the brand. The purpose of the study is to determine possible factors that contribute to athlete brand authenticity and help athletes to develop their brand more authentically. To understand the concept of athlete brand authenticity, a systematic literature review was conducted on various electronic databases. The study opted the five-step stages of the framework for this systematic review. A total of 76 attributes were identified from past studies that analyzed the attributes of brand authenticity for various brands. After merging interrelated attributes, the final number of unique attributes was 23. These attributes were distributed among three major themes: on-field activities, off-field activities and marketing activities of an athlete. The study finds brand authenticity to be a multi-dimensional and complex process that endures for longer extensive periods of an athlete’s career. The current study also highlights the complications related to an athlete brand that occur when establishing athlete brand authenticity. Therefore, this study provides an opportunity to refine athlete brand authenticity further within the discussed domains.
... Athletes are perceived to possess positive character traits including perseverance and discipline [15]. Through constant appearances in the media, they have also become familiar public figures [16]. As a result, many young adults regard athletes as role models [15]. ...
Article
As major sport events have been cancelled and postponed in response to COVID-19, the necessity to protect and provide a holistic approach to the professional athlete has never been greater. To do so one must understand the negative consequences for athletes in relation to the cancellation and postponement of such events caused by a communicable pandemic. The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of how athletes were affected during the current COVID-19 pandemic. It will also discuss the role of athletes during a pandemic. Athletes like other celebrities can be role models. They can encourage appropriate behaviours including social distancing to help stall the spread of the virus through social media. The paper ends with a short discussion on the resumption of sports after lockdown. In such a context of uncertainty, maximum caution is needed for resumption of sports to ensure a smooth return to previous high levels of training and fitness.
... A typical hero shot in sports photography might depict a player when they decide to make a momentum changing shot for the game. Since its conception, football photography still follows gendered patterns of heroism by depicting testosterone-based behaviours that define the hero figure (Lines, 2001). Laura Mulvey (1975) argues that a male viewer can feel a kind of narcissistic pleasure from the identification with a human figure on the screen, usually that of the male characters, by imagining himself as the hero. ...
Thesis
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This thesis argues that as photography’s technological basis has become more complex and increasingly detached from human vision, a thicker account of photographic practice that moves away from humanist discourse and single authorship can assist in demonstrating a continuity between film and new technological photographic practices. It revisits key concepts in documentary photography such as the ‘decisive moment’ through the filter of particular historical, technological and philosophical ideas that have informed the critical engagement with photography as a media of representation. It reconsiders some orthodox assumptions about photography including the idea that photography is fundamentally a human-centred practice and that photographic technology has a singular determining agency that is most often subordinated to the image. From this, the thesis attempts to factor in the material, cognitive and technical aspects that shape the photographic decision-making process as they can be observed in the relational network of elements that contribute to the final image. It then introduces new materialist theories that address non-human agencies and that have begun to force an awareness of the distribution of cognition and human action to the fore. Through a series of case studies and diffractive readings of contact sheets from professional photographic practice and production plans from a television broadcast, the collaborative relationship between the photographer, apparatus and world that co-produces the final image is made clear. This constructs a framework to understand photographic practice as a relational ecology that reveals the varying play of agencies in the collaborative meshwork between the photographer, the photographic apparatus and world during the photographic event. By emphasizing the mobility of the decision-making process in a way that helps towards an understanding of the dynamics of a collaboration it opens the way for a continuity between digital and analogue practices that do not bracket the cognitive processes of the photographer in favour of the non-human agents.
... Internationale Studien postulieren nach Lines (2007, S. 351) vor allen Dingen die negativen Einflüsse medialer Sportpräsentationen im Fernsehen. Demnach werden Auswirkungen auf Körperselbstbild und Ernährungsprobleme (Oliver, 1994) vor allen Dingen populärwissenschaftlich auf die Inaktivität und auf die sozialisatorische und moralische Rolle der Sportstars als Vorbilder thematisiert (Lines, 2001(Lines, , 2002Whannel, 1995;Harris, 1994). Lines (2007, S. 355 ff.) dagegen untersuchte auch denkbare positive Effekte auf die Sportaktivität und konnte diese in qualitativen Tagebuchstudien bei englischen Jugendlichen nachweisen, die insbesondere nach großen Sportevents (Fußball-Großereignis, Wimbledon, Olympische Spiele) verstärkt Lust ...
Article
Zusammenfassung Als ein bisher eher bescheiden beackertes Feld kann die Medienwirkungsforschung im Bereich des Sportes bezeichnet werden. Es mangelt gleichermaßen an theoretischen Konzepten wie an empirischen Uberprüfungen. Ziel des Beitrags ist es erstens, mit Hilfe einer Übertragung des dynamisch-transaktionalen Ansatzes (Früh & Schönbach, 1982) auf das System des Mediensports einen theoretischen Zugang zum Themenfeld „Sport und Medien“ zu ermöglichen. Dazu wird das „Magische Viereck“ des Mediensports auf der Mikro-, Meso- und Makroebene vorgestellt, um zweitens eine empirische Untersuchung des Wechselspiels zwischen medialer TV-Sportrezeption und Sportaktivität exemplarisch auf der Mikroebene verorten und untersuchen zu können. Dabei lassen sich über die Konstrukte Sport-Informationssuche und parainteraktive Emotionssuche indirekte Einflüsse zwischen den beiden Aktivitäten messen.
... Athletes are perceived to possess positive character traits including perseverance and discipline (Teigen, Normann, Björkheim, & Helland, 2020). Through constant appearances in the media, they have also become familiar public figures (Lines, 2002). As a result, many young adults regard athletes as potential role models (Teigen et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
As major sport events have been cancelled and postponed in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the necessity to protect and provide a holistic approach to the professional athlete has never been greater. To do so one must understand the negative consequences for athletes in relation to the cancellation and postponement of such events caused by a communicable pandemic. The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of how athletes were affected during the current COVID-19 pandemic. It will also discuss the role of athletes during a pandemic. Athletes like other celebrities can be role models. They can encourage appropriate behaviours including social distancing to help stall the spread of the virus through social media. The article ends with a short discussion on the resumption of sports after lockdown. In such a context of uncertainty, maximum caution is needed for resumption of sports to ensure a smooth return to previous high levels of training and fitness.
... One final factor of significance for the elite child athlete is the way in which the media coverage of sports frequently promotes injurious risk-taking behaviours, including playing through pain and self-sacrifice in the interests of the team and competitive results, as normal, desirable and even heroic behaviour for young people aspiring to achieve the standard of the media role models (Coakley and Pike, 2009;Lines, 2001;Nixon, 1993). For example, when Wilmots, a Belgium footballer received a facial injury during the men's 2002 World Cup, the commentators stated that "it adds to your bravery barometer having a blood-stained shirt" (in Coakley and Pike, 2009). ...
Chapter
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Some of the most attractive competitions in the entire history of the Olympic Games were competitions in the aesthetic sports. Aesthetic sports are sports which are evaluated by judges – people - and not with independent measurement instrument. For success in these sports it is not enough to have good developed athletics skills and abilities: aesthetic components also play a major role, such as a sense for music, rhythm and arts. It is obvious that each aesthetic sport is not simply sport, it is in many ways an art performance. Typical aesthetic sports are artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics and figure skating. In all these sports it is interesting that competitors are the youngest participants at the Olympic Games over the last 30 years, especially in women’s competitions. The Olympic champions have averaged 16 years of age, enduring serious training at a very early age. This poses a question: how does serious work influence on the child’s physical, motor, cognitive, emotional and social development? What is the price behind the beauty of the aesthetic sports for a child, who is, at 15 years old, a full time employee in a senior national team? The question of human rights in youth sport therefore arises (David, 2005). This chapter presents data from a study of women’s Olympic champions in the aesthetic Olympic sports; specifically, medalists in the Olympic Games between 1972 and 2008.
... 2). The creation of sport 'heroes' is one example (Lines, 2001), notably with the use of social media in recent years. Equally important is popular culture's structural influence on society and its reflection of certain societal aspects. ...
Book
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“There’s probably no better sport than Formula E to present and study the science and practice of innovation within (motor)sport, and this book is a must read for those active within this fascinating area”. - Dr. Kristof de Mey, Sports Technology, Innovation & Business Developer at Ghent University, Belgium This open access book provides novel insights on management innovation and sustainability in motorsport. Utilizing the all-electric racing championship called Formula E as case, it draws upon data from multiple sources such as sustainability reports of Formula and its stakeholders, media data, podcasts and newspaper articles, partner publications, and social media outputs. It aims to generate a theoretical model that describes and explains the optimal conditions for innovation when it comes to enhancing a sport organisation's commercial product. Apart from its general transferability to sports research, this model enables further study of a motorsport phenomenon that has been hailed by media as the championship, which affirms money in sustainability. It has also been emphasized by sport researchers as a highly relevant case to study management innovation. This book will be interesting to academics working in sports management, knowledge management, innovation and sustainability. Hans Erik Næss (b. 1978) is an Associate Professor in Sport Management at Kristiania University College, Norway. He holds a PhD in sociology from the University of Oslo and is the author of several peer-reviewed articles and books on motorsports, including A History of Organizational Change: The case of Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA) 1945-2020. Anne Tjønndal (b. 1988) is an Associate Professor in Sociology of Sport at Nord University, Norway. She holds a PhD in sociology from Nord University and has published articles in high-quality international journals on topics like social innovation, gender and inclusion/exclusion in sport. Tjønndal is the Celia Brackenridge International Research Award winner for 2019.
... While encouragement to play sport is seen as important for all children (Kremer-Sadlik and Kim 2007), this is viewed as particularly important for boys because of the perceived link between sport and the development of masculine characteristics evidenced by numerous studies (Connell 1995;Drummond 2011;Hickey 2008;Messner 1990;Prain 1998). There tends to be a social and cultural expectation for young boys in Western society to participate in high contact sports irrespective of enjoyment (Lines 2001) in order to develop highly regarded so-called male virtues such as bravery, courage, aggression, discipline, teamwork, determination, and commitment. Christopher Hickey and Lindsay Fitzclarence suggest that these characteristics are deeply entrenched in "masculine epistemologies of self-worth and success " (1999: 53). ...
Article
This qualitative project explores the meanings young boys ascribe to sport experiences and how understandings and perspectives of sport differ between parent(s) and child. Thirteen five-year-old boys and their parent(s) (n = 17) took part in semi-structured interviews focusing on meanings associated with their sport and physical activity experiences. The boys undertook a drawing exercise as part of the interview to elicit their experiences as distinct from those of their parent(s). The seventeen parents were interviewed about their motivation for encouraging their sons to be active. The results indicated that the parents' and boys' constructions and understandings of the boys' sport experienced differed in two important ways; the gendering of the sport experience, and the way in which the sport experience is conceptualized.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to extend the literature on wicked problems in consumer research by exploring athlete and consumer vulnerability in sport and the potential role that social marketing can play in addressing this problem. Design/methodology/approach This paper conceptualises the wicked problem of athlete and consumer vulnerability in sport, proposing a multi-theoretical approach to social marketing, incorporating insights from stakeholder theory, systems theory and cocreation to tackle this complex problem. Findings Sport provides a rich context for exploring a social marketing approach to a wicked problem, as it operates in a complex ecosystem with multiple stakeholders with differing, and sometimes conflicting, objectives. It is proposed that consumers, particularly those that are highly identified fans, are key stakeholders that have both facilitated the problematic nature of the sport system and been rendered vulnerable as a result. Further, a form of consumer vulnerability also extends to athletes as the evolution of the sport system has led them to engage in harmful consumption behaviours. Social marketing, with its strategic and multi-faceted focus on facilitating social good, is an apt approach to tackle behavioural change at multiple levels within the sport system. Practical implications Sport managers, public health practitioners and policymakers are given insight into the key drivers of a growing wicked problem as well as the potential for social marketing to mitigate harm. Originality/value This paper is the first to identify and explicate a wicked problem in sport. More generally it extends insight into wicked problems in consumer research by examining a case whereby the consumer is both complicit in, and made vulnerable by, the creation of a wicked problem. This paper is the first to explore the use of social marketing in managing wicked problems in sport.
Article
The athlete role model has emerged as the new pastor invested with the task of leading young people classed “at-risk” from entering into self-destructive pathways. The logic invested in the athlete role model is that young people identify with their sporting heroes and in the process try to emulate them. This holds for the major sporting codes in Australia including the Australian Football League (AFL), which supports the formation of role model programmes based on the input of Indigenous athletes to target Indigenous youth living in rural outposts. Armstrong (1996) sees the push to emulate the deeds of elite athletes in terms of a mythic function, the creation of desire to be like the hero. This article explores the theoretical implications for Indigenous learning grounded in the athlete/hero as role model. It is proposed that the athlete role model in the contemporary context of capitalism can work to obscure the realities of competition in sport and in the process promulgate false opportunity through sport at the expense of education.
Chapter
Elite athletes can reach a level of notoriety where media and fans are interested in various aspects of their lives beyond that of their on-field success or failure. By receiving this level of attention, these sporting celebrities attract sponsorships from commercial, fee-paying corporations. With considered alignment, manufacturers can enhance the visibility of their product with target audiences that consume every aspect of the lives of celebrity endorsers. While this form of commodification has been explored from the perspective of the private sector, there is limited research that reflects on the ambassador relationship between sport celebrities and charitable organisations. While a charity ambassador role omits financial support, a win-win outcome can be achieved. Enhanced visibility can benefit both parties: the sports celebrity adds another dimension to their personal brand portfolio, and the charitable organisation broadens awareness of their social issue. Retired athletes continue to harbour desirable brand equity; they have ongoing potential to reach to multiple stakeholders and act as important catalysts for social change. Whilst heightened visibility of an issue is desired, the immense stakeholder interest in the life of a successful athlete has a downside if the celebrity transgresses. Minor transgressions may pass with little impact, yet what constitutes a minor transgression for one set of stakeholders may result in reputational damage for both athlete and brand. Adopting a case study approach, this chapter investigates the construction of the sports celebrity persona at various stages of their career and the response by all actors to transgressions. Findings reveal that media framing of successful sports personalities can exacerbate future failings and heighten the impact on stakeholders, thus lessening their viability and longevity as positive social catalysts. Replicating actions adopted by the private sector, charitiable organisations may respond to scandals by immediately severing the relationship, or at the other extreme, provide visible support as the celebrity seeks to repair and restore their image. The cases lead to a cohesive set of risk assessment considerations.
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The sociology of mass media examines the institutions, products, and audiences of broadcast, print, and, more recently, online media. Its origins can be traced back to traditions governing early American and European sociological thinking, which recognised the growth and influence of the media (the press, specifically) as important to the transforming or modernising of society (see Hardt 2001). Since then, however, media sociology has developed primarily outside of mainstream sociology, in departments of media, communication, and journalism (Pooley and Katz 2008). The displacement of media sociology from mainstream sociology has influenced the direction of its research. It has been able to engage creatively with media institutions, media culture, and media audiences. Nonetheless, its interdisciplinary home has encouraged media sociologists to often reappraise the contribution of their work and reassert its importance (e.g. Waisbord 2014; Schudson 2004; Manza and Brooks 2012). This chapter builds on this effort by describing the development of the subfield and introducing the themes explored in this subdiscipline, including the study of (1) media institutions, professions and practices; (2) content, representations, and social power in media; and (3) media influences, audiences and technology. It concludes with a reflection on some present developments in, and the general influence of, the sociology of mass media
Article
The article discusses four dominant perspectives in the sociology of heroism: the study of great men; hero stories; heroic actions; and hero institutions. The discussion ties together heroism and fundamental sociological debates about the relationship between the individual and the social order; it elucidates the socio-psychological, cultural/ideational and socio-political structuring of heroism, which challenges the tendency to understand people, actions and events as naturally, or intrinsically, heroic; and it points to a theoretical trajectory within the literature, which has moved from very exclusive to more inclusive conceptualisations of a hero. After this discussion, the article examines three problematic areas in the sociology of heroism: the underlying masculine character of heroism; the presumed disappearance of the hero with modernisation; and the principal idea of heroism as a pro-social phenomenon. The article calls for a more self-conscious engagement with this legacy, which could stimulate dialogue across different areas of sociological research.
Chapter
Purpose To outline the paradoxes and contradictions inherent in debates about sport, alcohol, and addiction. It appears that a growing number of sportspeople suffer from addiction to alcohol and other drugs while at the same time alcohol use is widely sanctioned and celebrated in sport. The high-profile falls from grace are a public display of a more insidious, problematic relationship to drugs and alcohol in sport, yet cultural change is often difficult given long standing associations between sport and alcohol. Design/Method/Approach In the first part of the chapter, the key themes in the drugs, alcohol, and sport debate (notably health and ethics) are discussed. In the second part, some of the relationships between sport and alcohol, such as sponsorship and the cultural sanctioning of particular forms of drinking and masculine identities are examined. In the third, the issues of drug and alcohol addiction and recovery, and the implications for sport and sporting identities are discussed. Findings The chapter reveals the tensions that underpin the social contexts of drug and alcohol use and misuse in sport. The chapter suggests that a recalibration of popular understandings of masculinity in sport may provide a safe space through which to share battles with alcohol and addiction. Research Limitations/Implications Discussion of the paradoxes and contradictions inherent in the relationships between sport and alcohol have important implications for a discussion and analysis of addiction and alcohol in sport, and for sport and social policy, health promotion, and social care more broadly.
Article
The summer of 2017 heralded an interesting layering of English elite women’s sports events as major competitions were held in cricket, football, rugby and hockey. Uniquely this was the first occasion when these competitions were held during the same summer period and England was the only team to participate in all four events. This presents an opportunity to examine British print media coverage of elite English women, across a range of sports tournaments during a confined season. A qualitative analysis of British print media was undertaken for each of the four tournaments. Eighty nine articles from four national newspapers were analysed and results demonstrate emergent themes of International success, Performance and Role Models. These themes are discussed in the context of an accumulation of successful coverage, third wave feminism and the framing of the achievements resulted in the portrayal of the sports women as authentic athletes.
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For youth, biography exerts an enormous influence on information about current society and how youth can live productive lives. Biography offers a means of graining knowledge, but it also is an avenue that helps youth monitor theirown lives and values. Biographical resources are abundant, and this vast resource assures that biography will always play a paramount role in how youth learn about themselves and how they gain new knowledge and insights about the world. Teacher-librarians and teachers play important, collaborative roles in making good biographical materials available and helping youth learn how to use biography for learning and enjoyment.
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Partisipasi perempuan dan anak perempuan di bidang olahraga baru dimulai sejak tahun 1970, padahal payung hukum yang terkait dengan kesetaraan gender pada dasarnya telah ada. Konsep diskriminasi (discrimination) gender dalam konvensi CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women) menyuarakan kesetaraan antara laki-laki dan perempuan. Demikian pula UU SKN 2005 yang memaparkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan diantara gender dalam melakoni olahraga. Setelah sekian lama peluang diberikan bagi kaum perempuan untuk bergerak di bidang olahraga, masih terkendala pada pemilahan cabang olahraga yang ‘cocok’ untuk digeluti, artinya struktur sosial budaya menjadi indikator dalam memutuskan kelayakan olahraga bagi perempuan. Kelayakan di sini akan bergantung pada olahraga maskulin layak bagi laki-laki dan olahraga feminim dianggap layak bagi perempuan. Perkembangan kesetaraan ini terlihat dari pengintegrasian gender di berbagai bidang pembangunan melalui pengarusutamaan gender, ini belum menunjukkan hasil optimal dan merata di seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Permendagri No. 67 Tahun 2011 mengenai Perubahan Atas Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri No. 15 Tahun 2008 tentang Pedoman Umum Pelaksanaan Pengarusutamaan Gender di Daerah telah mengatur tentang PUG, di mana keseluruhan program pembangunan yang repsonsif gender, yang dikenal dengan metode alur kerja analisis gender (Gender Analysis Pathway) di mana hasilnya digunakan untuk menyusun Gender Budget Statement (GBS). GBS merupakan dokumen resmi perencanaan dan penganggaran yang menjadi bagian tak terpisahkan dengan dokumen RKA/DPA SKPD. Upaya percepatan pengarusutamaan gender telah dicanangkan tahun 2012, dengan diterbitkannya Surat Edaran No.270/M.PPN/11/2012; No.SE-33/MK.02/2012; No.050/4379A/SJ dan SE 46/MPP-PA/11/2012 tentang Strategi Nasional Percepatan Pengarusutamaan Gender (PUG) melalui Perencanaan dan Penganggaran Responsif Gender (PPRG). Ini merupakan lanjutan Inpres Nomer 9 Tahun 2000 tentang Pengarusutamaan Gender dalam Pembangunan Nasional. Dalam konteks desentralisasi, pemerintah telah mengeluarkan Permendagri No. 67 Tahun 2011, tentang Pedoman Umum Pelaksanaan Pengarusutamaan Gender di daerah. Buku ini disusun sebagai bahan pelengkap dari beberapa buku yang berkaitan dengan gender dan globalisasi dalam menghadapi resolusi industry 4.0. Dengan harapan para penggiat olahraga, pelatih bersamasama dengan atlet dapat memanfaatkan peluang teknologi yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan pasar dalam perkembangan prestasi. Buku ini dapat juga dijadikan sebagai pegangan dalam mata kuliah sosiologi gender dalam olahraga dan diharapkan dapat menjadi bahan diskusi terutama dalam menangkap peluang resolusi industry 4.0 yang bermuarakan pada pengembangan olahraga. Di lain pihak buku ini berusaha menguraikan dan menjawab beberapa kesulitan stakeholder, pembina olahraga, dan kementrian olahraga dalam melakukan perencanaan dan penganggaran yang responsif gender, diantaranya dengan cara menyajikan contoh-contoh Gender Analysis Pathway (GAP) dan Gender Budget Statement (GBS) dari beberapa organisasi olahraga hingga ke klub-klub, merespon kebutuhan yang berbeda untuk tiap gender. Akhirnya, penulis berharap buku ini dapat dipakai dan digunakan sebagaimana mestinya. Penulis juga berharap buku ini dapat menjadi sumbangsih pengetahuan bagi seluruh penggiat olahraga dalam memotret olahraga yang setara gender, dari tataran paling atas, aparatur pemerintah dan daerah lainnya, para pemangku kepentingan di pusat dan daerah, khususnya pemerhati gender dalam bidang olahraga. Buku ini juga berusaha untuk menjawab keterbatasan-keterbatasan yang ada dalam menangani olahraga perempuan, terutama para atlet perempuan yang menekuni bidang olahraga maskulin.
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1. Theories of Sport - The Neglect of Gender 2. Sports Feminism - The Importance of Gender 3. Nature and Culture - Introducing Victorian and Edwardian Sport 4. The Legitimation of Female Exercise - The Case of Physical Education 5. Recreative and Competitive Sports - Expansion and Containment 6. The Interwar Years - Limitations and Possibilities 7. Femininity of Musculinity? - Images of Women's Sport 8. Relations of Power - Institutionalized Discrimination 9. Olympic Women - A Struggle for Recognition 10. Sport for All Women - Problems and Progress 11. Towards 2000 AD - Diversity and Empowerment.
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