Article

'Voice' is not enough: Conceptualising Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

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Abstract

This article provides a children's rights critique of the concept of ‘pupil voice’. The analysis is founded on Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which gives children the right to have their views given due weight in all matters affecting them. Drawing on research conducted on behalf of the Northern Ireland Commissioner for Children and Young People, the article assesses some of the barriers to the meaningful and effective implementation of the right within education. It is argued that the phrases which are commonly used as abbreviations for Article 12, such as ‘pupil voice’, have the potential to diminish its impact as they provide an imperfect summary of the full extent of the obligation. The article proposes a new model, which has four key elements, for conceptualising Article 12—Space, Voice, Audience and Influence.

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... As Lundy (2007) states, the main problem is the incomprehensibility and misapprehension of Article 12. The Convention holds adults, who are the essential authorities in families and the participating states, accountable for practicing children's rights. ...
... In other words, child-focused and voice-oriented research rarely makes a difference to the lives of children (Bucknall, 2014) and many of them continue to be silenced, marginalized and face challenges for participation (see Cooper et al., 2019). As Lundy (2007) asserts in her model of Child Participation, 'voice is not enough', and we need a whole new understanding to make children's participation count (p. 927). ...
... We conducted our research following three sequential interconnected stages that resembled and were informed by the steps of the participation model of Lundy (2007). To start communicating with children for the project, we consulted three different child civil society institutions to collaborate. ...
Article
This study focuses on an adult‐initiated and child‐led research journey that aimed to explore the path to empower children towards exercising their participation rights in different environments of their lives. To this end, a series of multi‐stage participation empowerment activities were carried out with 60 children in Istanbul, as guided by the child participation model and ecological systems theory. Findings are narrated through children's voices and illustrate their multifaceted opinions, challenges and demands with respect to how they participate in life. Children's experiences in this research journey suggest that grassroots of a child‐to‐child participation network is possible via empowerment and capacity building activities.
... The complex and multi-layered issue of children's rights and its meaningful implementation in early education practices is a widely discussed topic worldwide (Herczog, 2012;Lundy, 2007;Visnjić-Jevtić et al., 2021;Yoon & Templeton, 2019). The central concern to give voice to children and to listen attentively to their views in matters that concern them has become increasingly urgent (de Sousa, 2019;Facca et al., 2020), particularly in light of the rights of the child being fundamental in achieving sustainable development with targets to be achieved by 2030 (specifically Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) (Zamfir, 2019). ...
... Consequently, the reality of practice reflects the rights of adults more than the rights of children. The findings of the research show how children are expressing their voice through the play decisions they make and the way they communicate them, however pedagogues are at the initial stages of moving away from tokenistic opportunities to a listening approach that actively seeks, recognises and acts on children's views (Lundy, 2007). ...
... Preand in-service training could provide a way to support pedagogues' engagement in rights-respecting pedagogic practice and raise the awareness of the need to listen to children's voices. The UNCRC articles are legally binding and in particular, Article 12 requires children's rights to be realised in their everyday lives (Lundy, 2007). Consequently it is urgent that the way in which children's rights are viewed and implemented into practice are recognised, celebrated and drive a change in approaches to acknowledging what is important and transformative for children. ...
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Hungarian pedagogues agree that children should be listened to, have their rights recognised, and their voices heard. The UNCRC recommends that children’s rights should be part of early childhood education, but this is not typical in Hungarian kindergartens and there is little pedagogical material to support the education of children about their rights. This paper focuses on 5 kindergartens each typically accommodating over 150 children between the ages of 3-6 years old across Hungary. Six pedagogues worked with multi-age groups (4 kindergartens) and same-age groups (2 kindergartens). The research adopted participatory methods to gather children’s views recognising them as valuable collaborators. Children provided insight into their own lives through play based creative activities that focused on eliciting children’s thoughts and feelings. Pedagogues collected video data using a ‘toolkit’ of children’s play activities during a 6-week period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Pedagogues reflected on children’s play through a series of online focus groups with emphasis on how children expressed their views and preferences through play. Participants were encouraged to examine the power relationships between children and adults and analyse their role in knowledge production rather than knowledge extraction. Six themes emerged through thematic analysis, mapped to the 4 guiding principles of children’s rights: participation, survival, development and protection. The findings highlight the juxtaposition between children’s life-as-experienced and life-as-told by adults; the skill of pedagogues to hear and sensitively interpret children’s voices based on their play and the challenge to slow down and reflect on practice.
... Under framtagandet av barnkonventionen väckte de deltagande rättigheterna debatt då denna typ av rättigheter ofta framstår som radikala och manar till förändringar, exempelvis i relation till synsätt på barn och deras möjlighet och kapacitet att delta i beslutsfattande (Lundy, 2007). McMellons och Tisdalls (2020) analys av forskning som publicerats de senaste 30 åren kring barns delaktighet visar att en betydande mängd studier har genomförts. ...
... Samtidigt visar Horgan et al. (2017) att barns möjlighet till delaktighet ofta begränsas av normer om och vuxnas syn på exempelvis ålder, kompetens och röst. Det handlar då om frågor som att yngre barn anses mindre kompetenta att utöva delaktighet (jfr Lundy, 2007) eller att vuxna tenderar att strukturera möjlighet till delaktighet utifrån talat språk/röst. Av den anledningen behöver sådana antaganden problematiseras för att möjliggöra delaktighet. ...
... Röst handlar om att barn ska stödjas och stöttas i att uttrycka sina åsikter. Lundy (2007) problematiserar exempelvis artikel 12:s formulering om att barn som "är i stånd" att bilda egna åsikter ska få uttrycka dessa då detta kan tolkas som att bara vissa grupper barn -de som av vuxna anses vara i stånd att ha åsikter -också ges möjlighet att göra sin röst hörd. Istället handlar röst om att barn behöver stöttas att uttrycka sina åsikter på olika sätt i relation till sina specifika behov och förmågor. ...
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Article
I drygt trettio år har FN:s barnkonvention manat till att barns rättigheter ska efterlevas i alla arenor som berör barn. En av huvudprinciperna i konventionen är barns rätt till delaktighet och i denna text undersöks möjliggörande av detta i forskning. Det empiriska underlaget utgörs av metodologiska reflektioner från projekt där vi arbetat med att tillvarata yngre skolbarns perspektiv i utvecklingsforskning i skolan. Laura Lundys (2007) delaktighetsmodell används för att problematisera och diskutera hur barn kan ges delaktighet i två fallexempel. Modellen inrymmer begreppen utrymme, röst, åhörare och inflytande. Utifrån dessa begrepp framkommer att det finns spänningar mellan forskningens långsamhet och betydelsen av snabb och direkt förändring samt att om forskningen ska resultera i reell delaktighet för de deltagande barnen behöver det finnas utrymme för handlingsmöjlighet i projektet. Trots dessa spänningar visar fallexemplen att med reflekterade metodologiska val kan utrymme skapas så att barns röster blir hörda under hela forskningsprocessen.
... 5 Without such guarantees, children in the US are routinely limited in their inclusion and participation in the decisions that most affect them. 6 They are subject to piecemeal and inadequate policiesalongwithadhocprotectionaryregulationsthatlackcoherentgoals and fail to provide appropriate social scaffolding to assure their optimal development. 5,7 Decision makers then implement policy changes into a patchwork of private and public systems that often prioritize, by default, the systems' survival rather than child and family needs. ...
... Meaningful child engagement and youth leadership is central to any effective, enduring movement to advance children's rights. 6 There are already large groups of young people activated by social challenges, inequity, and discrimination. The formidable challenges facing youth have been accentuated by the COVID-19 pandemic as well as persistent violations of the rights of people from racial and ethnic minority groups in the US and the destruction of the environment in which young people live. ...
... Any strategy for advancing children's rights in the US should be inclusive and encouraging of youth leadership. 6,23 Critical to achieving success is ensuring that children know that (1) they have rights and (2) organizing tools are available that have been used globally (and, to some extent, in the US) with implementation carried out in settings such as rights-respecting schools, cities, and legislative bodies. As we discovered through our own design process, genuinely engaging young people as changemakers in this bourgeoning movement is not only a key to success but an essential way of advancing this effort. ...
Article
Importance The US faces a pivotal moment of opportunity and risk regarding issues affecting children (aged 0-17 years). Although the US remains the only United Nations member state to not have ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), a child rights framework is essential for child health professionals seeking to advance many issues affecting children in the US. The Reimagining Children’s Rights project (2020-2021) conducted an in-depth environmental scan of relevant literature and policy analysis using the Three Horizons design process to assess strategies that could advance the rights and well-being of children in the US. The project was overseen by a steering committee and informed by an advisory committee composed of youth leaders and experts in children’s rights, advocacy, health, law, and a range of child-specific issues (eg, youth justice, early childhood development), who provided expert input on strategic considerations for advancing children’s rights. Observations Seven findings about advancing children’s rights in the US are notable, all reflecting current gaps and opportunities for using a whole-child rights framework in the US, even without formal adoption of the CRC. Actionable strategies, tactics, and tools to leverage sustainable change in the multitude of issue areas can advance the current state of children’s rights. High-potential strategies for catalyzing advancement of children’s rights include youth activism, innovations in governance and accountability, legislative action, impact litigation, place-based initiatives, education and public awareness, alignment with other children’s movements, and research. The child rights framework is unifying and adaptive to future unforeseen challenges. Conclusions and Relevance Children’s rights provide a powerful, synergistic framework for child health professionals—in partnership with youth and other leaders—to increase equity and protect the rights and well-being of all children in the US.
... Youth 2022, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 4 four interrelated, sequential domains: space, voice, audience and influence [45] (p. 927). ...
... Further, Brewer suggests that ethnographic interviews ask people's views and meanings, in their own words, with specific attention drawn to in-depth exploration of complex, taken for granted, and problematic meanings which are socially contextualized [60]. Online consultations were held via ZOOM™, underpinned by youth-centered and rights-based approaches [33][34][35]45]. A presentation and Q&A sought to ensure shared meanings, clarify understandings of questions and encourage participants to contribute to the iterative development of topic schedule. ...
... However, the prioritization of YAG involvement, as central to strategic development, appears to have problematized such discursive assumptions [46]. Rather, participation sought to ensure that the strengths of LGBT+ youth were acknowledged [6,[42][43][44][45]. This may have disrupted the potential for unintended negative consequences from top-down policy initiation [56,89]. ...
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Article
Hearing young voices is of paramount importance, particularly as some voices are seldom-heard, including those of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT+) youth. Recent research high-lighting mental health disparities for these populations led to the formation of the Irish LGBTI+ National Youth Strategy , which prioritized youth participation through a Youth Advisory Group (YAG). A policy analysis of the initiation of the Strategy outlines the convergence of prob-lems, policies and politics using a Multiple Streams Approach (MSA), with quantitative literature suggesting substantial vulnerabilities. This is enhanced through qualitative exploration of the views of six youth co-authors, with experiential expertise, and as YAG members. A university ethics committee granted approval for online recorded consultations via group, pair and individual in-terviews. The theme of ‘seen and heard’ highlighted unprompted discussions on discursive as-sumptions representing young LGBT+ identities almost solely in relation to mental health risk. These rich narratives problematize the (in)visibility and silence in representations of the diversity of LGBT+ youth identities, which may inadvertently reinforce stigma. This underscores the need for comprehensive and inclusive school curricula. While MSA may explain prioritization for policy initiation, participation potentially disrupts unintended negative consequences. This article con-cludes by emphasizing how ‘learning with’ LGBT+ young people can ensure research, policy and practice speaks directly to youth interests and concerns. Keywords: LGBT+; sexual minority youth (SMY); gender minority youth (GMY); multiple streams approach; Recognition Theory; participation; policy; curricula; Youth Advisory Group (YAG)
... The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) serves as an international benchmark for the protection of children's rights, including their participatory rights to contribute towards society in age-appropriate ways (Lundy, 2007;Wyness, Harrison, & Buchanan, 2004). A positive consequence of the UNCRC is that children and young people's voices have become an increasingly important component of research that explores their lives from their perspectives. ...
... Kelleher et al.'s (2014) review notes that impediments to children and young people's participation remain. Likewise, the UNCRC illustrates tensions between competing values and practices in relation to upholding children's interests and needs (Lundy, 2007;Wyness et al., 2004). For example, Wyness et al. (2004) point out that discourses which locate children as purely vulnerable beings firmly place the responsibility on adults to protect and provide for them. ...
... This social dynamic can make it challenging for adults to take children's forms of participation in decision-making processes seriously. Several authors also highlight that children's opportunities to participate in decision-making and consultative processes are dictated by the context of the social situation and, that children and young people "have varying levels of space, voice, audience and influence from one sphere of their lives to another" (Horgan et al., 2015, p. 3; see also Bjerke, 2011;de Róiste, Kelly, Molcho, Gavin, & Nic Gabhainn, 2012;Horgan, 2017;Lundy, 2007;Quinn & Owen, 2014). Horgan et al.'s (2015) Irish-based research, for example, finds that the school is a place which is "least conducive to listening to children and young people" (p. ...
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Book
This report is the fourth in a series of publications arising from a project which aims to develop a framework for the evaluation of Teachers’ Professional Learning (TPL) in Ireland. The project arose from a commitment made in the Action Plan for Education 2018 (DES, 2018a). The current report represents one of two strands of the third phase of this research. Previous reports from this project outline the findings from detailed desk-based research, including a literature review (Rawdon, Sampson, Gilleece, & Cosgrove, 2020); a survey of teachers and principals in primary, post-primary, and special schools (Rawdon, Gilleece, Denner, Sampson, & Cosgrove, 2021); and a consultation with TPL providers (Rawdon & Gilleece, 2022). The final phase of the project (Phase 4) comprises an in-depth case-study focusing on an evaluation of a specific TPL opportunity in the area of student wellbeing. The aim of the third strand of this research was to consult with key groups, namely TPL providers (Phase 3a) and children and young people (Phase 3b). The current report presents the findings from the consultation with children and young people. The consultation described in the current report, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Children, Equality, Disability, Integration and Youth (DCEDIY) and Hub na nÓg, is informed by Lundy’s rights-based model of child participation (Lundy, 2007) and recent policy developments in Ireland in relation to participation, e.g., DCEDIY’s National Framework for Children and Young People’s Participation in Decision-making (2021).
... Youth 2022, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 4 four interrelated, sequential domains: space, voice, audience and influence [45] (p. 927). ...
... Further, Brewer suggests that ethnographic interviews ask people's views and meanings, in their own words, with specific attention drawn to in-depth exploration of complex, taken for granted, and problematic meanings which are socially contextualized [60]. Online consultations were held via ZOOM™, underpinned by youth-centered and rights-based approaches [33][34][35]45]. A presentation and Q&A sought to ensure shared meanings, clarify understandings of questions and encourage participants to contribute to the iterative development of topic schedule. ...
... However, the prioritization of YAG involvement, as central to strategic development, appears to have problematized such discursive assumptions [46]. Rather, participation sought to ensure that the strengths of LGBT+ youth were acknowledged [6,[42][43][44][45]. This may have disrupted the potential for unintended negative consequences from top-down policy initiation [56,89]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Hearing young voices is of paramount importance, particularly as some voices are seldom-heard, including those of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT+) youth. Recent research highlighting mental health disparities for these populations led to the formation of the Irish LGBTI+ National Youth Strategy, which prioritized youth participation through a Youth Advisory Group (YAG). A policy analysis of the initiation of the Strategy outlines the convergence of problems, policies and politics using a Multiple Streams Approach (MSA), with quantitative literature suggesting substantial vulnerabilities. This is enhanced through qualitative exploration of the views of six youth co-authors, with experiential expertise, and as YAG members. A university ethics committee granted approval for online recorded consultations via group, pair and individual interviews. The theme of ‘seen and heard’ highlighted unprompted discussions on discursive assumptions representing young LGBT+ identities almost solely in relation to mental health risk. These rich narratives problematize the (in)visibility and silence in representations of the diversity of LGBT+ youth identities, which may inadvertently reinforce stigma. This underscores the need for comprehensive and inclusive school curricula. While MSA may explain prioritization for policy initiation, participation potentially disrupts unintended negative consequences. This article concludes by emphasizing how ‘learning with’ LGBT+ young people can ensure research, policy and practice speaks directly to youth interests and concerns.
... Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) establishes children's right to participate in matters that affect them, including schooling (Lundy 2007). Although there is growing scholarship in India documenting children's lives (Bowen and Hinchy 2015), very few consider children as participants in school-based education research. ...
... Elsewhere, Lundy (2007) refers to the denial of children's participation rights at school by citing the absence of supportive processes that can be implied in the Indian context. Drawing on research with over 1000 children from Irish schools, Lundy (2007) cites children's dissatisfaction with their views being undervalued at school. ...
... Drawing on research with over 1000 children from Irish schools, Lundy (2007) cites children's dissatisfaction with their views being undervalued at school. Indeed, children's participation greatly depends on adults who question their capacity to participate in decision-making (Lundy 2007). Additionally, very few adults at school are aware of children's right to participate as stipulated under the UN CRC (Lundy 2007). ...
Article
Schools are one of the most important social-geographic sites where children's lives play out. Although researchers have sought to understand children's school experiences in India, very few have considered marginalised children's opinions regarding what they value and the alternatives to their current school experiences. Consequently, this article draws on the voices of 10 marginalised children (11-13 years) as co-researchers from a remote public school in Uttarakhand, India. The co-researchers generated qualitative data with the help of participatory tools based on the Mosaic Approach to identify ways in which their experiences at school could be improved. Children expressed three critical aspects where their school experiences can be enriched: 1) better school and classroom conditions to enhance learning spaces, 2) enhancing school accessibility, classroom pedagogy, and curriculum, and 3) space to act and effect change by learning and becoming. Last, we provide implications for policymakers, educators, and researchers with a call to reimagine schooling and children's agency within the rural and remote school context.
... Aqui se sugere que este estudo, levado a cabo num momento de crise pandémica (e motivado por esse período), em circunstâncias difíceis, quer para as crianças, quer para as investigadoras, possibilitou também ir um pouco mais longe na experiência metodológica de promoção de uma efetiva participação das crianças na investigação. Ou seja, e tal como sugere Laura Lundy (2007) no seu modelo de conceptualização do direito de participação da criança (artigo 12 da CDC-ONU, 1989), entendemos que pretender escutar a "voz" das crianças não seria suficiente. Foi necessário que, tal como o experienciado neste estudo, as crianças o fizessem num "espaço" seguro para elas, bem como que as suas ideias tivessem uma efetiva "audiência" e que, finalmente, a expressão dessas ideias e opiniões pudesse de facto ter alguma "influência" nas medidas que se iam (e vão) tomando relativamente às suas vidas e ao seu bem-estar (LUNDY, 2007) no contexto da pandemia da Covid-19. ...
... Ou seja, e tal como sugere Laura Lundy (2007) no seu modelo de conceptualização do direito de participação da criança (artigo 12 da CDC-ONU, 1989), entendemos que pretender escutar a "voz" das crianças não seria suficiente. Foi necessário que, tal como o experienciado neste estudo, as crianças o fizessem num "espaço" seguro para elas, bem como que as suas ideias tivessem uma efetiva "audiência" e que, finalmente, a expressão dessas ideias e opiniões pudesse de facto ter alguma "influência" nas medidas que se iam (e vão) tomando relativamente às suas vidas e ao seu bem-estar (LUNDY, 2007) no contexto da pandemia da Covid-19. ...
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Article
The Covid-19 pandemic is a powerful example of how our rights and, in particular, children’s rights are reconfigured. In order to ensure that, in a pandemic context, children’s voices were not kept invisible, we developed some research strategies, which assumed an innovative character, given the contingencies resulting from the lockdown situation. This text aimed to reflect on the ethical and methodological challenges in research with children, taking into account the pandemic and confinement, rethinking strategies and the process of building knowledge with them and about their lives. Keywords Childhood; Subjective well-being; Crisis; Rights; Research
... Guidance here is supportive of elements of HRE, and there is an important emphasis on participation in decision-making processes. There is no doubt that in this connection, and in the context of the wider commitment in Scotland 12 to increasing the participation of children and young people, that the further adoption of, for example, the Lundy model of participation in educational decision-making would be a valuable step forward (Lundy, 2007). Further, teachers are required to promote and engender 'a rights respecting culture and the ethical use of authority associated with one's professional roles' (GTCS, 2021, p. 5). ...
... While the commitments to 'voice' and empowerment are generally familiar features of discussion around children's rights in Scotland, it is worth commenting on the explicit reference to knowing, understanding, and asserting one's rights; that is, human rights education of the sort outlined in UNDHRET. It is clear, however, that we must think carefully about what participation is envisaged as and how we determine its meaningfulness to learners (Lundy, 2007;Mannion et al., 2022). Against this backdrop, and the highly significant recommendations of the Muir report, we can see important opportunities for the further development of HRE within Scotland alongside and in addition to the incorporation of the UNCRC. ...
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Article
The incorporation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) into Scots law offers an unprecedented opportunity to improve the realisation of the right to education for all children and young people living in Scotland. One feature of such a commitment ought to be clear and comprehensive policies on Human Rights Education (HRE) within Scottish educational policy. This article explores what incorporation of the UNCRC means in the Scottish context and reflects on the current status of HRE in Scottish education. It also asks what role HRE might play alongside incorporation and as part of wider proposed reforms in Scottish education following the Muir Report. I argue that such an examination provides significant opportunities to ask and seek to answer key questions about how HRE may be developed in Scottish education, both conceptually and in classroom practice.
... Yet, children still can face impediments in exercising their right to participation. Due to their non-voting status and as a result of biases of adults working with children, children are mostly excluded from participating in decision-making (Cockburn, 2005;Lundy, 2007;Perry-Hazan, 2016). In other words, as Karsten (2016) states, children are impoverished in 'bridging [their] social capital' (p. ...
... Second, children's right to participation is restricted by adults' lack of experience, which generates biases. Lundy (2007) defines adults' biases and concerns under three groups: The first group of adults is skeptical about children's capacity in presenting meaningful input into decision-making. The second group worries about providing children with more control over the decision-making process. ...
Thesis
the findings of this Ph.D. research contribute to understanding children’s unique capabilities, the equalizing role of policies in enabling children’s participation, and the informative role of caregivers in the representation of very young children in participatory urban planning processes, and also enhance methodologies in urban planning research with children. Supporting children and caregivers in creating child-focused urban environments in Istanbul through participatory planning first and foremost requires legislative change that liberates children from preconditions towards their citizenship. Also, a specialized child-centered approach that supports inclusivity, encouraging caregivers’ participation when needed for the representation of all children, and equity between all stakeholders by supporting children’s capabilities with methods relevant to children and approaches leading to shared leadership are critical. Research on children’s participation in urban planning in Turkey has yet to reach sufficient knowledge creation to inform urban planning approach and practice. More research with different age groups and caregiver profiles is needed first to introduce participation as a right and pave the way towards creating cities for children through enhancing the participatory urban planning approach and practice.
... Plusieurs dispositifs permettent d'entendre les élèves. À travers les conseils à différents niveaux, lorsqu'ils se réunissent à une fréquence suffisamment élevée, que le temps nécessaire est accordé pour une réelle discussion amenant à une décision ou un positionnement du groupe, et que les élèves sont réellement pris en considération par les forces décisionnelles de l'école (Lundy, 2007), qu'ils sont formés et sensibilisés à leur rôle dans le processus décisionnel et que les thématiques abordées sont choisies par eux et concernent directement leurs réalités et leurs nécessités : les élèves peuvent alors donner, soit directement, soit par le biais d'un·e délégué·e leur avis sur différents points concernant les relations interindividuelles ou l'organisation générale de leur école et proposer des solutions aux problèmes qu'ils rencontrent (Le Gal, 2008). Avec la médiation par les pairs, c'est également les élèves qui sont amenés à solutionner une situation conflictuelle à travers le dialogue plutôt que par l'intermédiaire d'un adulte (Diaz et Liatar-Dulac, 1998). ...
... Comme le dit Dewey (1916Dewey ( , 1938Dewey ( /2011, c'est en pratiquant la démocratie et ses principes que l'on s'y forme. Une participation, lorsqu'elle favorise une réelle implication des élèves (Lundy, 2007 ;Louviot, 2019) conduit à une redistribution du pouvoir, concédant aux enfants un réel poids décisionnel et la possibilité d'agir activement sur leur environnement scolaire contrairement au système traditionnel favorisant principalement une posture passive des élèves. ...
Book
L’innovation est aujourd’hui une notion centrale qui touche à de nombreux domaines. L’école et la formation jouent un rôle crucial dans cet enjeu sociétal. Le défi actuel est de questionner des propositions en matière d’innovation pédagogique au sein des systèmes éducatifs afin de préparer des élèves à entrer et à s’épanouir au coeur de la société actuelle et à venir qui requiert cette capacité à innover. Si la formation des futur·e·s enseignant·e·s est désormais amenée à les préparer à cette complexité sociétale, elle se doit elle-même d’innover. Ainsi, comment outiller les étudiant·e·s pour devenir eux-mêmes moteurs d’innovation, voire d’être créateurs et créatrices du changement de paradigme en pédagogie ? Comment peuvent-elles et ils préparer leurs élèves à se confronter à un monde en changement permanent ? Comment la recherche peut-elle aussi soutenir l’évaluation de l’impact des innovations pédagogiques sur l’ensemble du système éducatif et de formation ? L’originalité de cet ouvrage est de croiser plusieurs apports théoriques de l’innovation pédagogique avec une approche plus pragmatique avec l’illustration d’artefacts d’innovation pédagogique dans le domaine des arts, du droit ou de l’éducation à la citoyenneté. L’ouvrage s’ouvre et se clôt sur une réflexion et un questionnement novateur autour de la place de l’innovation au sein de la formation et de l’école.
... Youth participation is actively involving young people in decision-making. Children's involvement in decision-making has been defined as a permanent and non-negotiable human right, but children need to be facilitated to express their views (Lundy, 2007). Involving the young person in decision-making offers a range of benefits for children and young people, such as ensuring that decisions taken are responsive to their needs (Heimer et al., 2018), positive psychosocial development and increased self-esteem (Thomas and Percy-Smith, 2012), and a greater sense of agency in their lives (Pölkki et al., 2012). ...
... That is, and as Laura Lundy (2007) suggests in her model of conceptualization of the child's right to participation (article 12 of the UNCRC, 1989), we understood that pretending to listen to the children's "voice" was not enough. It was necessary, as experienced in this study, for children to do so in a safe 'space' for them, for their ideas to have an effective 'hearing, ' and for the expression of their ideas and opinions to actually have some 'influence' on the actions that were (and are) being taken regarding their lives and well-being (LUNDY, 2007) in the context of the pandemic of Covid-19. ...
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Article
The Covid-19 pandemic is a powerful example of how our rights and, in particular, children’s rights are reconfigured. In order to ensure that, in a pandemic context, children’s voices were not kept invisible, we developed some research strategies, which assumed an innovative character, given the contingencies resulting from the lockdown situation. This text aimed to reflect on the ethical and methodological challenges in research with children, taking into account the pandemic and confinement, rethinking strategies and the process of building knowledge with them and about their lives. Keywords Childhood; Subjective well-being; Crisis; Rights; Research
... I found that most young researchers in the early stages had difficulty getting research ideas, what they were interested in, and how they got research ideas through teacher assistance. The 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) recognizes that children have the right to express their views on their rights in everyday life including through research and consultation [1,2]. In the context of research, the involvement of children as a researcher or partners in the research includes the process of defining research questions [3], collecting data [4], analyzing and reporting [5] as well as disseminating the results of the research [6]. ...
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This article aims to explain young researchers' learning activities at age of 13 to15 years old in formulating original ideas as well as self-determined collaboration and exploration associated with environmental learning activities. This study employs qualitative descriptive research approaches to examine the research learning activities of young researchers in finding self-determined original ideas. This study was carried out in Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri (MTsN) Kota Batu, East Java Province, Indonesia. The participants of this study consisted of 22 madrasah students (aged 13-15) who are divided randomly into 12 groups and two research teachers were also involved. The data collection techniques used are observations, interviews, and other documentations. The results of this study indicate that: (1) Students accompanied by teachers are able to think critically about environmental problems in formulating original ideas through teacher's stimulation and habituation to carry out observations both at school and in residence environments that can improve the sensitivity of students in responding to surrounding environmental problems. (2) Students can deliver research ideas to teachers and friends, collaborate, and participate in groups in analyzing, interpreting, designing, implementing as well as reporting activities involved in research projects from the student's point of view. (3) The teacher's habit of stimulating students to obtain original ideas from their surroundings can indirectly lead to an enjoyable research culture for students. The project report is presented as part of this article.
... However, the child's voice in research can often be 'tokenistic' in nature (Lundy, 2018) leading to the possibility that children do not feel that their voice contributes to meaningful change (Cairns et al., 2018), and adults not following up on children's wishes (Thomson, 2007). Lundy (2007) argues the need for various considerations when engaging with child voice in research, such as: opportunities for children to express their views; facilitation in expressing their views; their views must be listened to; and their views must be acted upon. ...
... Research on participation in child welfare mainly focuses statutory child protection and overall shows that children have difficulties influencing decisions that affect their care (Biljeveld et al., 2015;Heimer et al., 2018;Vis et al., 2011). Often, the studies depart from models measuring children's participation and agencies work to enable participation, such as the "Ladder of participation" (Hart, 1992), "Pathways to Participation" (Shier, 2001), and the "Lundy Model" (Lundy, 2007). Research investigating participation in out-of-home care specifically has distinguished between informal (everyday issues such as relations, choice of meals, and leisure activities) and formal (placement issues such as care plans, choice of social workers, and case conferences) participation (Bessel, 2011;Cashmore, 2002;McPherson et al., 2021). ...
... By listening to their children's voices in the spaces and places of common daily functioning, the parents become sensitive recipients of the information about their needs and implementors of activities that decolonise the schematic "dry-run education" (Markowska-Manista, 2016) and education "about Others" (Januszewska & Markowska-Manista, 2017) without their active participation. The bottom-up activities fit into Lundy's model of four steps leading to children's participation (Lundy, 2007). These steps in the right to participation involve space, voice, recipients, and impact. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, developing a pluriformity of knowledge is addressed through three connecting perspectives, and three less recognised needs. These perspectives are: (1) Learning from each other; (2) Assisting development of the other; (3) Connecting virtues of ethical leadership. Whereas the less recognised needs are: (1) ‘Ledig Gemüete’, (2) ‘Syncritic method’ and (3) ‘Comprehensive analogies’. These perspectives and needs come together in a practical and to be applied approach—a how. Tenanalogical narrative reflections in this chapter for storying an understanding of experiences of cross-cultural teaching and learning with students and teachers are provided. Ultimately leading to ‘Something good’.
... Given the exacerbation of existing inequalities during the pandemic, qualitative research conducted online must adopt a child rights-based approach to ensure the voices of children and young people are heard and incorporated into decision-making, policies, and practices that will impact their lives. The Lundy Model for Child Participation provides further guidance for the implementation of rights-based participation across four areas: space, voice, audience, and influence (Lundy, 2007). Special effort must be made in online, remote qualitative research to include children from marginalized backgrounds and groups and to overcome the digital access barrier (UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, 2009). ...
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Over thirty years ago, children’s participation rights were recognized internationally with the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). Increased involvement of children and young people in lead, collaborative, and advisory roles in interdisciplinary research has challenged ‘traditional’ adult research practices in numerous ways. Co-production recognizes participants as experts and creators of knowledge, engages children and young people in decision-making, and addresses traditional adult-child hierarchies. #CovidUnder19 is a movement that aims to foster intergenerational partnerships between children, young people and adult members of the child rights community to develop evidence-based advocacy to uphold children’s rights throughout the pandemic, as well as in response and recovery. The COVID 4P Log smartphone app was designed to better understand ways practitioners and policymakers protect, provide, enable participation, and prevent harm in their practice. Children and young people aged 14 to 19 from countries around the world are involved as co-researchers and advisors in research design, data analysis, and knowledge exchange. This paper explores the experiences of #CovidUnder19 young people as researchers focusing on the data analysis and knowledge exchange phase and includes their reflections on meaningful intergenerational partnership in research. This includes the importance of relationships, embracing the ‘inner child’, and fostering meaningful participation in the research process. The paper concludes with recommendations for other researchers on how to work in partnership with children and young people meaningfully to strengthen the process and impact for researchers and children’s human rights.
... The Equality Act (2010) Lundy, 2007). Therefore, it is the responsibility of researchers to enable children and young people to have a voice within the research which intends to have an impact on them. ...
Thesis
Emotion regulation describes an individual’s ability to understand what emotions they are feeling, and then to moderate how and when they express them (Gross, 1998). Developing emotion regulation skills is increasingly recognised as important for supporting positive engagement in learning (Boekaerts, 2011), however, research has indicated that some autistic people are more likely to have difficulties developing these skills (Mazefsky et al., 2012). In England, emotional development forms part of the National Curriculum from the Department for Education (2019), meaning there is an expectation that schools will be able to support all children to develop their emotion regulation skills. Yet very little is known about what approaches or interventions schools are using in practice to support emotion regulation development, in particular, for autistic children and young people. A systematic literature review (Chapter 2) was conducted to explore what approaches schools have used to support autistic children and young people to develop their emotion regulation skills. The findings highlighted a lack of school-led research in this area, as only one out of eight included studies explored an intervention actively embedded into the school’s curriculum. The research was discussed through a critical lens which supports the neurodiversity movement, and critiques considered the inclusiveness of the interventions being developed alongside the extent to which autistic voices were represented within the literature. To address the lack of school-led research on this topic, a nested case study (Chapter 3) aimed to explain how Hill House School, a residential special school, supports autistic young people to develop their emotion regulation skills. Staff reflections (n = 50), observations (n = 8), and semi-structured interviews with staff members (n = 9), centred around four young people, were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: (1) evolutionary ethos, (2) reciprocal relationships, (3) communication: attuning, asking and adapting, and (4) everyone expresses emotions every day. Overall, interpersonal factors were considered by Hill House School staff to be foundational to supporting the development of autistic young people’s emotion regulation skills.
... The inclusion of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) and participative practices was due to scoping the literature on adolescent CBT and Mindfulness sleep interventions and identifying areas for optimisation (see Blake et al., 2019). Incorporating a youth participation methodology (Lundy, 2007) was a strength of this intervention and ensured that the young people had a safe space to voice their thoughts and that their views would be heard and have an influence on the development, delivery, and evaluation of this group adolescent sleep intervention. The co-formulation and cooperative design of the sessions worked well as it was novel to the young people. ...
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This report of the development of an intervention in practice outlines the design, delivery, and evaluation of a tailored, school‐based, group adolescent sleep intervention utilising youth participation methodology and an intervention mapping protocol as a framework. The intervention also included supplementary video support. The intervention was delivered to 5‐year 11 students attending a pupil referral unit. This alternative education provision is organised to provide education for young people who cannot participate in school and may not otherwise receive suitable education in Britain. Through co‐formulation and cooperative design, the voice of the young people was sought throughout the design, implementation, and evaluation process. The behavioural objectives of the intervention were to increase stress management techniques and reduce technology usage. These were chosen to align with the overall outcomes: improving sleep behaviours and reducing negative sleep hygiene practices. Improvements in sleep behaviour and decreases in negative sleep hygiene practices were achieved post‐intervention and at 4‐month follow‐up. Strengths of the intervention, future intervention optimisation, and implications for practice are considered. Utilising youth participation methodology empowered the young people, increased their buy‐in of the sleep intervention, and led to the identification of relevant behavioural objectives: improving stress management techniques and reducing technology usage Improvements in sleep behaviour and decreases in negative sleep hygiene practices were achieved postintervention and at 4‐month follow‐up. Utilising youth participation methodology empowered the young people, increased their buy‐in of the sleep intervention, and led to the identification of relevant behavioural objectives: improving stress management techniques and reducing technology usage Improvements in sleep behaviour and decreases in negative sleep hygiene practices were achieved postintervention and at 4‐month follow‐up.
... Firstly, and fundamentally, a children's rights-based approach to research involves the deployment of key provisions of the CRC (as discussed below), an international human rights treaty which has been described as "a landmark in the history of childhood" (Freeman, 1996: 1) and the construction of a methodological framework around them. And while the CRC contains the right of children and young people to participate in all matters which affect them pursuant to Article 12 thereof (Lundy, 2007), a right which has been characterized as one which "broke new ground" (Freeman, 2020, p. 117), a children's rights-based approach to research involves much more than the external adherence to children's participatory rights alone. Indeed, to fully grasp the legal (and methodological) implications of what a children's rightsbased approach to research entails, it is necessary to understand the legal and sociological evolution which children and young people themselves have experienced since the enactment of the CRC in 1989 and its near universal endorsement since. 2 Undoubtedly, the position of children and young people within society and within the academy has irreversibly shifted. ...
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It is well-established that sport mega-events remain highly relevant sites of enquiry for sociologists of leisure. Whereas sport mega-events are associated with a range of diverse and (un-)intended socio-spatial impacts, they can also have transformative impacts on children and young people. Against this backdrop, this article discusses the inter-relationship between sport mega-events and young people. By focusing predominantly on Olympic planning, participation and profits – which we call the ‘3Ps’ – we argue that researchers may turn towards research methodologies that are underpinned by children’s rights principles and which increasingly voice the perceptions of children and young people on the social impacts of sport mega-events. At the same time, we also reflect on exactly how children’s rights-based methodologies in this context can push the boundaries of the sociology of leisure, events and sport. In this sense, we contend that this article makes an important contribution to the academic work on the nexus between sport mega-events and young people and to our understanding of mega-events’ social costs.
... Näiteks Franklin ja Sloper (2005) arutlevad laste osaluse üle LÕK-iga seoses kolmest osalemistasemest, mis toetavad last kui "peamist otsustajat": informeeritus, vaadete väljendamine ja otsuste mõjutamine. Lundy (2007) töötas LÕK-i artiklile 12 tuginedes välja mudeli, mis koosneb neljast omavahel seotud osast: ruum (võimalus vaadete väljendamiseks), hääl (vaadete väljaütlemise võimaldamine), publik (kuulamine) ja mõju (lapse häälel põhinevad otsused). Need kolm mudelit on omavahel sarnased: osaluseks on vaja lapsega suhelda ja dialoogi. ...
Book
Kuigi viimasel aastakümnel on laste osalusele pööratud rahvusvaheliselt palju tähelepanu, on laste osalus lastekaitsetöös endiselt suur väljakutse. Lastekaitsetöötajal on aga juhtiv roll lapse osaluse julgustamisel lastekaitsesüsteemis, sh osalus lapse igapäevaelu ja tulevikuga seotud otsustes. Seega keskendub raamat lapse osalusele, tuginedes lapse õiguste konventsiooni artiklile 12. Loodame, et raamat annab tulevastele ja praegustele lastekaitsetöötajatele ning teistele lastega töötavatele spetsialistidele mõningaid suuniseid keerulise protsessi kohta, kuidas edendada ja juurutada lapse aktiivset ning mõtestatud osalust. Raamat ilmus esmalt ingliskeelse väljaandena Professional Practice in Child Protection and the Child’s Right to Participate kirjastuselt Routledge.
... The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child clearly states that in all actions concerning children, the best interest of the child should be a primary consideration, with the education of the child being directed to the development of their personality, mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential (United Nations 1990). Aligned with these rights are the four elements of the Lundy model of child participation (Lundy 2007): 1) Space-Children must receive inclusive, safe opportunities to form and express their view. 2) Voice-the expression of a child's view must be facilitated. ...
... En aquesta tasca és fonamental que, a banda de «l'escolta», hi hagi també una «mirada» determinada de les persones adultes facilitadores (Lancaster i Broadbent, 2003). Un cop les visions i percepcions dels infants i adolescents s'hagin manifestat i s'analitzin per garantir l'audiència, caldrà fer un el retorn justificat de la idoneïtat de les accions a emprendre (accountability) de forma comprensible (Lundy, 2007). No obstant, tot sovint aquestes premisses es desenvolupen sota d'acord al mandat institucional. ...
... In this sense, this study joins former work on student voice and student agency, aimed at enabling students to exert influence in their own learning context. Listening to student voices is not enough (Lundy 2007); student participation can only be taken as influential and agentic when teachers share power with their students, and when students 'speak and act alongside credentialed educators as critics and creators of educational practice' (Cook-Sather 2018, 17). ...
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This study focuses on pre-service teachers’ views of the conditions that foster their participatory action research practices in secondary schools and on how these conditions can inform the development of a teacher education program for a participatory approach. By using the Theory of Practice Architectures as an analytical lens, eight cases of participatory action research projects were studied at two interrelated sites of pre-service teachers’ learning: the teacher education institute and the internship school. Findings shed light on the conditions for fostering participatory action research practices in a teacher education context in terms of three kinds of arrangements, i.e. cultural-discursive, material-economic, and social-political. Based on the findings, a set of 17 principles for supporting participatory research practices is presented that can be used to assess the viability of preservice teachers’ participatory action research within a teacher education program, and that also supports a well-aligned institute-school collaboration.
... The right to education has been a global agenda (Nowak, 2016). With free basic education, it is considered that the child becomes an active participant in the education process and is able to rebuild it according to the needs of his individual self-interests (Lundy, 2007). Free education is viewed as a chance to create two equal units out of a parent and child, a teacher and a student. ...
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This paper sought to highlight teachers’ attitudes on implementing the Free Basic Education Policy in Kiteto District Council, Tanzania. Data were collected from 169 respondents by using questionnaires and interviews. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics and content analysis. The findings showed that the teachers generally had positive attitudes towards the implementation of the free basic education policy. In their efforts to implement the policy, the teachers treated the students with passion, listening to students’ problems, encouraging students to participate in implementing the policy and motivating students to study hard to attain their goals. Teachers’ practices included their participation in school decision-making, communicating with parents to encourage them to side school in implementing the free education policy, preparing the learning environment for the implementation of the policy, monitoring, supervising, and distributing teaching/learning materials to students equitably, and supervising students’ academic progress. It was concluded that teachers’ attitude is very important in the implementation of any program or policy in the school. It is recommended to the government that all plans, programs, and policies that are related to education need consultation from the teachers so that they can be sustainable and effective.
... The involvement of the CAs and the child informants followed the principles of the Lundy model of participation [44] from initial rapport-building through to final evaluations of children's experiences of participating in a remote research project [45]. The Lundy model guidelines helped create conditions under which it was unacceptable for the researcher to solicit children's views and then fail to take those views into account. ...
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Critical health literacy enables individuals to use cognitive and social resources for informed action on the wider determinants of health. Promoting critical health literacy early in the life-course may contribute to improved health outcomes in the long term, but children’s opportunities to develop critical health literacy are limited and tend to be school-based. This study applies a settings-based approach to analyse the potential of public libraries in England to be supportive environments for children’s development of critical health literacy. The study adopted institutional ethnography as a framework to explore the public library as an everyday setting for children. A children’s advisory group informed the study design. Thirteen children and 19 public library staff and community stakeholders were interviewed. The study results indicated that the public library was not seen by children, staff, or community stakeholders as a setting for health. Its policies and structure purport to develop health literacy, but the political nature of critical health literacy was seen as outside its remit. A supersetting approach in which children’s everyday settings work together is proposed and a conceptual model of the public library role is presented.
Article
Embedded within family law proceedings and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) there is ambiguity surrounding the terms rights, participation, best interests, and capacity. Research furthering the rights of children is necessitated across academic literature and practice. Across research, literature and practice there is an evident reliance upon age in relation to the participation of children in family law settings. There is considerably limited research regarding strong characterisations of such concepts, and significantly less literature involving the voices of children and their perspectives regarding the topic. This qualitative action research aimed to gather the perspectives of children aged 6–12 regarding concepts relating to their capacity to participate using child-friendly methods of assessment, specifically the use of play, art, and narrative activities. This research aim to explore the research questions, how do children aged 6–12 demonstrate, understand and describe participation capacities, what does capacity, rights and participation mean to them? How can children demonstrate and increase their understanding of complex concepts through the use of child-friendly methods such as narrative, play, and drawing? This research allowed children to meaningfully share their unique perspectives, educated the participants, and provided one further step in actualizing the rights of children. Further, this research has offered recommended various methodologies for future endeavours involving children’s participation.
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Problem Rare diseases are any disease affecting fewer than five people in 10,000. More than 8000 rare diseases and 50–75% of all rare diseases affect children. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise and synthesize existing literature relating to the impact of rare diseases on children's day-to-day lives. Eligibility criteria An integrative literature review was conducted using the CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Studies were included if they were a primary source was published between the years 2005 and 2019 and written in the English language. Sample Eight primary sources met the inclusion criteria. Results Seven main themes emerged from the review as follows: (i) the experience of stigmatisations, (ii) self-consciousness, (iii) restrictions in independent living, (iv) developing resilience/coping strategies, (v) psychological and emotional impact, (vi) social impact vs social connectedness and (vii) transition challenges. Conclusions The experience of having a rare illness differed across different age groups. Children (typically aged 3–10) with rare diseases generally view themselves and their lives the same way like their healthy peers. They were more likely to report being adaptive and resilient than those aged 12 or older. Young people reported being different compared to young children, and they faced numerous challenges related to their illness. Implications for practice To provide the best possible level of care for children and families with rare disorders, health services must be informed and equipped to provide the necessary supports specific to the unique needs of children and young people living with rare diseases.
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Thesis
Bu tezde, çocukların ve yetişkinlerin aynı şehri paylaşması yaklaşımını karar alma mekanizmaları içine yerleştirme hedefinden yola çıkılmış, bir hak olarak katılımı çocuklarla birlikte etkinleştirme ve çocuğun şehirle olan ilişkisini anlama amaçlanmıştır.
Chapter
The period from birth to 12 years is crucial in a child's development and can significantly impact future educational success, resilience and participation in society. Health and Wellbeing in Childhood provides readers with a comprehensive introduction to a wide range of topics and issues in health and wellbeing education, including child safety, bullying and social emotional wellbeing, resilience, physical education, communication development and friendships. It explores relevant policies, standards and frameworks, including the Early Years Learning Framework and the Australian Curriculum. The third edition provides a cohesive and accessible reading experience and includes updated and expanded coverage of nutrition, body image and community partnerships. Each chapter has been revised to include the latest research and developments in childhood health and wellbeing, and features definitions of key terms, case studies, pause and reflect activities and end-of-chapter questions. Supplementary materials, including video and audio links, are available on the companion website.
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Although youth participation is oft-acknowledged as underpinning mental health policy and service reform, little robust evidence exists about the participation of children and youth in mental health policymaking. A scoping review based on Arksey and O’Malley’s framework was conducted to identify and synthesize available information on children and youth’s participation in mental health policymaking. Published studies up to November 30, 2020 were searched in Medline (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID), Scopus, and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (PROQUEST). Further studies were identified through Google Scholar and a grey literature search was conducted using Google and targeted web searches from October to December, 2020. Three reviewers performed screening and data extraction relevant to the review objective, followed by an online consultation. From 2,981 records, 25 publications were included. A lack of diversity among the youth involved was found. Youth were often involved in situational analysis and policy design, but seldom in policy implementation and evaluation. Both the facilitators of and barriers to participation were multifaceted and interconnected. Despite a range of expected outcomes of participation for youth, adults, organizations, and communities, perceived and actual effects were neither substantially explored nor reported. Our recommendations for mental health policymaking highlight the inclusion of children and youth from diverse groups, and the creation of relational spaces that ensure safety, inclusiveness, and diversity. Identified future research directions are: the outcomes of youth participation in mental health policymaking, the role of adults, and more generally, how the mental health of children and youth shapes and is shaped by the policymaking process.
Article
Early childhood has become a priority in national and international political agendas. In the last decade, states have elaborated social policies and launched a variety of programmes for young children. Using Critical Discourse Analysis, this research explores the most prominent conceptualisations of children and childhood underpinning official Early Childhood policies in Peru, drawing on theoretical frameworks from childhood studies. The study identified the existence of a convergence of discourses about children and childhood in the policy documents which are based on different perspectives: developmental psychology, human capital theory and a children’s rights-based approach. From this analysis, I argue that early childhood policies in Peru evidence a developmentalist predominance that has problematic implications in the context of the country’s bicentennial anniversary of independence. I analyse how this developmental focus leads to a lack of sensitivity about the impact of cultural factors on children’s experiences and on the exercise of their rights, particularly on children’s right to participation. Finally, I argue for a rethinking of Peruvian early childhood policies and future policymaking processes using a sociological lens, in order to accomplish the State’s objective of building a post-bicentennial nation that is able to secure improvements on children’s lives and advance social justice.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to focus on the changes needed to empower children’s agency and to and to make them capable agents and able to exercise active citizenship via education and via participation in research processes (i.e. production of knowledge) and through their involvement in activism and social mobilization. The chapter is structured into seven sections. In the second section, we explore these issues from a child-centred capability approach. The capability approach is used to think about our children’s lives in our societies and how we can engage them as human beings in a process for justice and dignity for all. Child individual agency and children’s collective actions constitute the starting point of this new process of emancipation (Ballet et al., 2011). The third section presents a framework linking children’s agency and active citizenship. The fourth section explores the role of the education system and its transformative impact on children’s agency. The fifth section presents the methods and the potentiality of involving children in knowledge production presenting action research and emancipatory research as potential elements of change and discontinuity in the production of knowledge for decision-making. The sixth section describes meaningful case studies where children are involved in decision making, activism and social movements. In the last section the main conclusions and policy recommendations are given.KeywordsChildrenYouthCapabilitiesAgencyCitizenshipEmpowermentKnowledge productionEmancipatory research
Article
By June 2021, children and young people had experienced two periods of lockdown and home learning in Northern Ireland. The detrimental impact of these periods of indefinite confinement is wider reaching than reported educational stagnation, with the fundamental rights of childhood: play; rest; and leisure; all adversely implicated. Autistic children's experiences of Covid‐19 have been largely absent from current crisis and recovery discourse. This is the first published study to directly and specifically involve autistic children both as research advisors and as research participants in a rights‐based participatory study relating to the pandemic. Drawing on concepts of ableist childism and epistemic injustice, this article presents, through Photovoice, the emotional, social and educational experiences of post‐ primary aged autistic young people in Northern Ireland during the first 2020 lockdown of the Covid‐19 pandemic. The project was grounded in a child rights‐based approach and was guided by a group of four autistic young advisors aged 11–15. The paper concludes by arguing that government responses to the pandemic, as experienced by autistic young people, act as forms of oppression that prioritises and further embeds normative non‐autistic structures and responses under the guise of public health necessity.
Chapter
The words of learning given by Tutu and Tutu (Made for goodness and why this makes all the difference. HarperOne, San Franscico, CA, 2011) are used to frame the issues of discussion in this chapter which lead to considering new possibilities of inclusive curriculum teaching and learning in PolishPolish schools.
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Children’s participation in decisions about their lives is a crucial point of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which is the basis of child welfare and protection worldwide. Despite these clear guidelines, there is evidence that children’s voices may be heard but often with little impact on the decisions made by professionals in the childcare system. This study seeks to ascertain whether the voice of children living in foster care is considered and respected when making decisions that concern them, whether the children effectively exercise it, and what factors impact their participation. A systematic scoping review was performed to clarify concepts and unveil research gaps, using eleven scientific databases and publishers that allowed us to identify twelve recent studies in critical journals. In the light of the Bouma et al., (2018) model, the findings showed that there is, in general, a lack of effective children’s participation, namely in terms of information, listening, and involvement. Children’s voices still have a minimum impact on the decisions made in the childcare system. It will be necessary to avoid the bureaucratic assumption that there is an age cut-off point to promote participation. More, it is stressed the importance of a trusting, sincere and confidential relationship between the child and the social worker and the need to ensure training for professionals who intervene in review/statutory meetings or judicial proceedings, namely in the court of law.
Article
This article deploys the language, narratives and proposed solutions of research participants to conceptualise peace research as a representational and relational process of recognition. To do so, it draws from a multi-year research project on the economic livelihood and social integration strategies of conflict-affected youth in Liberia’s commercial motorcycling sector. Its starting point is reflexive engagement with participants’ own frequent question: ‘What is the benefit of this project?’ It advocates for participatory approaches to the time-spaces that ex-combatant and conflict-affected youth actually inhabit (rather than those scripted or desired for them by more traditional forms of peace research). It applies critical peace-building insights about time to contribute to conceptualisations of post-conflict ‘reintegration trajectories’ that question ideas about who builds peace, and how. It argues that participatory research brings issues of social stigma, objectification and marginalisation to the fore. And, it explores the methodological implications of participatory research, identifying the ways in which sited ethnography, relational interviewing and narrative approaches can centre research-as-recognition. Participatory approaches make peace researchable not just to collect lived experiences (treating research as transactional data collection) but to implement participants’ own ideas about peace-building strategies and solutions (treating peace research as relational recognition and something that is mutually beneficial).
Chapter
This is a commentary on chapter by Salamon and Palaiologou (Chap. 5) and by Cheeseman, Press and Sumsion (Chap. 6). Both chapters explore the question of infants’ and toddlers’ rights and participation by complementing each other. The chapters pinpoint the main challenges and offer alternative vocabularies for addressing, both theoretically and in practice, infants’ and toddlers’ rights to participation. The commentary concurs with the authors about the importance of supporting the ways of understanding “listening to children” beyond verbal communication and proposing ways of building educational practice as a space where infants and toddlers can take the lead. Thus, we found that the chapters convincingly argue for an ethical stance in education, as well as in research, that embraces uncertainties, unpredictability and responsiveness (ethical praxis in Salamon and Palaiologou; Levinasian encounter in Cheeseman, Press and Sumsion)—and provide powerful insights into what these require from adults.
Chapter
Children’s rights education is an approach that takes the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) as its starting point for guiding educators’ decision-making processes, pedagogies and practices. Celebrating its 30-year anniversary in 2019, this international human rights treaty can and should be understood by governments, policymakers, activists, educators and children alike. Since it was adopted in 1989, there have been consistent calls for training and education on children’s rights for all professionals who work with and for children. This chapter draws upon empirical findings from the author’s doctoral study (Long, Children’s rights education in the early years: an exploration of the perspectives of undergraduate students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, 2017) and a selective review of the literature on children’s rights education (CRE) to position the early childhood education and care (ECEC) student as a future duty-bearer under Article 29 of the UNCRC. To consider the implications of this crucial relationship for the rights of infants and young children in ECEC settings, the author also draws upon relevant commentary by the monitoring body of the UNCRC – the Committee on the Rights of the Child, contemporary legal scholarship and, finally, the literature on CRE and human rights education. This commentary is used to examine the meanings a group of undergraduate students – in a BA (Hons) Early Childhood Education and Care program in one higher education institute (HEI) in the Republic of Ireland – ascribe to children’s rights and the ECEC practices they choose to illuminate their views. The findings reveal gaps in knowledge and understanding of the children’s rights framework which suggests the need for CRE that is deeply contextualised to ECEC. More intentional teaching can enable students to understand and apply a child-rights based approach to the care and education of babies and young children.
Chapter
Globally, early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings are increasingly influenced by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) (United Nations, Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations, Geneva, 1989). The Convention emphasises that the best interests of the child is a central focus for actions and decisions concerning children. This includes the best interests of infants and toddlers. Enacting rights that emphasise children as participants in research and practices that involve them (Articles 3.3, 12, 13 and 36), has led to an exploration of methods and practices that support this aim. However, this chapter problematises the notion of participation in relation to infants and toddlers. Coming from UK and Australian perspectives (and experiences that have shaped the authors’ epistemological standpoints), the authors argue that participation with infants and toddlers might be an illusion. They also address some of the asymmetries of the rights of children under the age of three in ECEC. In this chapter, the authors discuss how participation can be conceptualised in practice and research with infants and toddlers at two levels. Firstly, axiologically, the discussion evolves around the core principles of participation and questions how these axioms can be understood in practice and research with infants and toddlers. Secondly, ontologically, the authors discuss the asymmetries of children’s rights in practice and research, and the role of participation. Finally, the chapter concludes by suggesting a changing in discourse, and makes the case that instead of focusing on how participation can be achieved with children under three in practice and research, the focus should be to achieve ethical praxis by acknowledging ethical permeability, relatability, Otherness and emotional capital.
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Demokratiebildung ist ein zentraler Auftrag an die Schulen und wird lerntheoretisch als Vermittlung von zentralen demokrtischen Prinzipien durch Partizipation verstanden. Durch die eigene Erfahrung - so der theoretische Ansatz - erwerben Jugendliche Demokratiekompetenzen. In der Präsentatin werden Ergebnisse einer Studie vorgestellt, die das Zusammenwirken beider Aspekte untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Schulen den Auftrag der Demokratiebildung als Demokratie-Lernen großteils wahrnehmen, Partizipation an Entscheidungsprozessen aber in geringerem Ausmaß umgesetzt wird. Auch bedingt Demokratie-Lernen nicht automatisch Partizipation und vice versa.
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Background/Context This article is drawn from a doctoral research study that involved co-research between as adult trans academic and their child, a nonbinary 11-year-old. It mounts an epistemic challenge to education that assumes children to be cis, and either boys or girls. GIaNT children (Gender Independent, and Nonbinary, Trans) are often talked about but seldom directly engaged about their wants and desires in education, but my study addresses this problem and centers their agency. Purpose/Research Question/Focus of Study The purpose of the study was to generate knowledge and insight into how 2SLGBTQ children, and children from 2SLGBTQ families, envision education spaces and programs that meet their needs. It also investigates the potentiality and significance of a parent-and-child researcher team to engage caregivers and children in co-imagining liberatory education spaces as 2SLGBTQ cultural spaces. Participants Participants were 17 children (ages 4–12 years) and 12 adults from 11 households; the focus in this article is on the 12 children who identified their gender as other than cis. Research Design A qualitative, arts-based participatory research methodology was employed. While the parent-child research team of a trans adult and a nonbinary 11-year-old conducted semi-structured interviews with both children and parents, the focus in this article is on the former. Participants were also invited to draw their ideal learning space. Interviews were video recorded, transcribed, and coded. Findings/Results GIaNT children in this study desired learning spaces that are ready for them, that affirm their self-assigned genders, and that understand that people define their own genders. They wanted to be believed as who they said they were. They wanted safe access to bathrooms and schools to be communities, not just places of learning, and they recognized that learning happens outside of school. They desired an end to gender policing in schools, and in online learning, participants wanted schools that were safe and celebratory of all their identities and of all their peers. They wanted schools that are antiracist and decolonizing, that practice universal access, that teach queer and trans history and culture, and that provide meals and transportation. Conclusions/Recommendations The study highlighted the creative potentialities of GIaNT children to provide generative insights into gender-affirming school spaces. It advocates for children to be engaged in processes of creating their own learning experiences. GIaNT children called for schools to be more equitable, antiracist, and decolonizing, committed to practicing universal access, teaching queer and trans history and culture, and providing meals and transportation.
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This article analyses the experience of school in terms of children's citizenship, exploring the level of participation experienced by a sample of Irish primary school children over decisions related to the control of their time, space and interaction in school. Locating such experience within the context of the structuration of adult-child relations, education for and into citizenship, it is argued, must take account of the dynamics of power and control between adults and children, teachers and pupils and the impact on children's construction of themselves as citizens with a voice to be both heard and expressed in school.
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This paper reviews the relevance of the UN, 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), and particularly the so-called participation rights, to premature babies and their care. The review is illustrated with examples drawn from a study of four neonatal intensive care units, NICU. The paper begins with the background on human and children’s rights, on research about childhood, babies and participation, and on the neonatal research study. Participation rights include rights to: life and survival; a name, identity and nationality; contact with the baby’s family; respect for the child’s cultural background, and inherent human dignity; the child’s right to express views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views to be given due weight according to the age and ability of the child; the opportunity to be heard during proceedings that affect the child; freedom of expression and information, of thought, conscience and religion, of association and peaceful assembly, rest and leisure, play, and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts; disabled children should enjoy a full and decent life and active participation in the community with the fullest possible social inclusion. The paper concludes that respect for babies’ participation rights is feasible, immediate, integral and indispensable to adequate neonatal care, and that babies’ rights justify and validate high standards of neonatal care.
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This paper discusses contradictions within concepts of children's competence or capacity to consent, with examples drawn from research on children's consent to surgery. Competence entails understanding and wisdom. Yet definitions of understanding as esoteric abstract professional expertise conflict with the kinds of profound understanding some sick children have, drawn from their experience, thought and feeling. `Wisdom' combines Kantian reason which discerns the correct decision with Millean maturity which accepts responsibility for freely made decisions, even if these are mistaken; concepts of a correct choice conflict with those of a best guess. Beliefs about children's inevitable immaturity are contradicted by the demonstrated maturity of certain young children. Children's rights to resources and to protection can contradict yet complement their autonomy rights. When children are assumed to be incompetent, `children's autonomy rights', which depend on demonstrable competence, is a contradiction in terms. Adults' interests and their notions of children's welfare and interests can conflict with children's views of their own interests. There is a tragic tension between informing and respecting sick children but also protecting them from avoidable stress. Yet protection can involve violence, as when treatment is enforced during efforts to protect children from disease. Rights entail responsibilities which can compromise yet enrich the child's autonomy.
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The United Nation Convention on the Rights of the Child has created practical challenges for nation states and institutions particularly in relation to children's rights to participation. The limited research that is available has tended to use survey methodology; qualitative accounts of children's daily lives are rare. The present study investigated the nature of children's participation in their education in two primary and two secondary schools; in particular the right to express views freely in all matters affecting the child. The study found that children's opportunities to express their views were extremely limited even when school councils were in place. It is concluded that the goal of active citizenship espoused by recent national curriculum developments will remain illusive unless educational practice changes to a focus on school processes rather than products. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This article reports a survey conducted in schools in Great Britain and Northern Ireland during 1997–8 with 2,272 students aged seven to 17 years. The 24-page booklet questionnaire included six groups of questions about school councils. The question of whether pupils who have a council see it as effective was cross-tabulated with a range of other questions, in order to examine associations between students' views about their school councils with their views on other aspects of school. About half the students reported that they had a school council. Of these, the ones who thought their council was effective generally had positive views about their school's social and academic activities, whereas the ones who said their council was ineffective generally had more negative attitudes. Some schools find that creating an effective school council can considerably improve standards of behaviour, but this process has to involve further changes in systems and relationships in the school. Simply introducing a token council can increase students' scepticism. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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A nation is democratic to the extent that its citizens are involved, particularly at the community level. The confidence and competence to be involved must be gradually acquired through practice. It is for this reason that there should be gradually increasing opportunities for children to participate in any aspiring democracy, and particularly in those nations already convinced that they are democratic. With the growth of children’s rights we are beginning to see an increasing recognition of children’s abilities to speak for themselves. Regrettably, while children’s and youths’ participation does occur in different degrees around the world, it is often exploitative or frivolous. This Essay is designed to stimulate a dialogue on this important topic. This Essay is written for people who know that young people have something to say but who would like to reflect further on the process. It is also written for those people who have it in their power to assist children in having a voice, but who, unwittingly or not, trivialize their involvement.
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Every state in the world has undertaken human rights obligations on the basis of UN treaties. Today's challenge is to enhance the effectiveness of procedures and institutions established to promote the accountability of governments. The six treaty bodies that monitor and evaluate state policies and practices play a vital role, but the whole system has been stretched almost to breaking point. It is under-funded, many governments fail to report or do so very late or superficially, there is a growing backlog of individual complaints, broad reservations have been lodged by many states, and the expertise of committee members has been questioned. This volume contains detailed analyses of the strengths and weaknesses of the system, written by leading participants in the work of the treaty bodies. Their recommendations provide a blueprint for far-reaching reform of a system of major importance for the future of international efforts to protect human rights.
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Children's participation in decision-making is complex: it is undertaken for different purposes and is reflected in different levels of involvement, different contexts and different activities. This paper reviews the current state of participation and, drawing on practice and research literature, highlights several aspects of practice where further consideration is needed if participation is to develop positively. This suggests that, if participation is to be more meaningful to children and effective in influencing change, it is necessary to move beyond one-off or isolated participation and consider how participation becomes embedded as an integral part of our relationship with children. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This volume is in part intended to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. We are now a generation on from its formulation, and, as this varied collection of articles by leading thinkers in the field reflects, children's rights have come a long way. Yet the aim of this volume is not to look back, but to take stock and look forward. It explores subjects as diverse as socio-economic rights, corporal punishment, language and scientific progress as they relate to children and their rights, and offers new insights and new ideas. Edited by one of the most respected and leading scholars in the field, The Future of Children's Rights constitutes a stimulating and useful resource for academics and practitioners alike. © 2014 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. All rights reserved.
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This article considers the possibility of rethinking citizenship so as to include children. Much current discussion of children and society is marked by a series of interlocking discourses which serve to problematize and marginalize children. This dominant `negative agenda' thrives untouched by recognition of the many complex and demanding responsibilities accepted by children or of the many degrading social forces that bear down equally on children and adults such as poverty and racism. To think anew about citizenship and children can prompt us to consider the similarity of concerns confronting child and adult, and to recognize the interdependence of our lives and how such interdependency is best fostered. What might such a rethinking of citizenship entail? The article argues that, in addition to reconsidering what we think it is to be a child (for instance ideas about incompetence and irrationality associated with childhood), we need to rethink the value of the language of rights and the social significance of this language. Rights are not just about state-citizen relations but about how civil society should imagine itself; in this context the imagery of social conversation and participation is central to the rethinking of citizenship. The language of citizenship, rights and participation is fragmentary and yet the contestation around these ideas is intensifying and opening up new possibilities of social organization and dialogue. By way of conclusion, the requirements of such a vision of citizenship are considered - what will be needed to make it a social possibility.
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This article provides a commentary on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989. It examines the substantive rights in the Convention, and its implementation system, in the context of international human rights law and practice. An assessment is made of the importance of the Convention from a series of perspectives and its potential effect. It is submitted that the Convention could, in time, be seen to represent an important milestone in the development of civilization in its recognition of the fundamental importance as a universal concept of the rights of the child.
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