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Two discourses of citizenship in Germany. The difference between public debate and administrative practice

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Abstract

The recent policy changes concerning immigration and citizenship in Germany are interpreted as outcomes of the conflicting interaction between public deliberations and administrative practices. While these changes were viewed by both the public and the state as responses to an emerging crisis of the stability of German nationhood, the public and the state placed the problems of migration and citizenship in a different context. The public debated these issues in the context of moral obligations resulting from a xenophobic past; the administrative system treated them in the context of the constitutional imperative to further the social integration of the residents of Germany. Further conflicts over these issues seem likely in Germany which has yet to adjust to a situation of continuous future immigration. This will put pressure on the public and the state to find new solutions to the problem of membership in the nation‐state.

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... 6 Resumir el estado de la cuestión desborda los límites de este artículo. Para una rápida aproximación a los debates sobre los que ha girado la literatura en estos años, véanse los trabajos de Von Beyme (1988); Stöss (1988); Zimmermann y Saalfeld (1993); Betz e Immerfall (1998); Eatwell y Mudde (2004); Merkl y Weinberg (1997; Norris (2005); Mudde (2000Mudde ( , 2007; Schain, Zolberg y Hossay (2002); Casals (2005); Hainsworth (1992Hainsworth ( , 2000; Carter (2005); Ignazi (2003); Minkenberg (1998 Los discursos sobre ciudadanía e inmigración en Europa sociedad, sino en el interior de la propia comunidad política como consecuencia de la apertura de las políticas de naturalización, la ciudadanía es entendida cada vez más en términos cívicos y no nacionales, lo que nos une son valores políticos más que étnico-culturales. Se ha producido, así, una progresiva disociación en el interior de la ciudadanía nacional, entre la pertenencia a un estado y la identidad nacional, en la medida en que la pertenencia a un estado y los derechos a ella asociados no pasan necesariamente por la pertenencia a una identidad nacional concreta y que los estados ya no pueden seguir exigiendo (o imponiendo) una identidad sustantiva como precondición para adquirir la ciudadanía. ...
... Publicly, they centre strongly on democracy and economic accomplishments. Yet, the investments in these areas oftentimes remain unreflected and ideas of Germanness that find expression in the everyday are more normative and jingoistic (Halfmann 1997) as well as ethnocentric (Joppke et al. 2002). Yet, despite public emphasis on democracy and openness, German self-definition rests upon ethnic privilege, often at the expenses of other groups (Joppke et al. 2002, 7-14). ...
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Introduction. 1. State, Society and Modern History. 2. The Traditional State: Domination and Military Power. 3. The Traditional State: Bureaucracy, Class, Ideology. 4. The Absolutist State and the Nation--State. 5. Capitalism, Industrialism and Social Transformation. 6. Capitalism and the State: From Absolutism to the Nation--State. 7. Administrative Power, Internal Pacification. 8. Class, Sovereignty and Citizenship. 9. Capitalist Development and the Industrialization of War. 10. Nation--States in the Global State System. 11. Modernity, Totalitarianism and Critical Theory. Notes. Bibliography. Index.
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Zusammenfassung Der Beitrag argumentiert, daß Fremdenfeindlichkeit sowie Renationalisierungsprozesse in der jüngeren politischen Auseinandersetzung in der BRD nur mittels eines historischen Zugangs zur Ethnizitätsproblematik und ihrer Wandlung im Verlauf der Entwicklung des modernen Nationalstaates zum Sozialstaat angemessen verstanden werden kann. Nationalität und Ethnizität werden gefaßt als Einheitssemantiken, die mit der Entstehung moderner Staaten einhergehen, und es wird argumentiert, daß diese Semantiken im Verlauf der schwierigen Geschichte der Staatsbildung in Deutschland sowie der Etablierung des Sozialstaates Prozesse der Valorisierung und Devalorisierung durchlaufen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird darauf verwiesen, daß die jüngste Revalorisierung dieser Semantiken im Kontext verstärkter Zuwanderung, der sozialen Brüche und Friktionen des schwierigen Vereinigungsprozesses sowie der ökonomischen Umbruchsprozesse erst verständlich werden kann, wenn sie auf diese Geschichte der Staatsbildung in Deutschland, auf die Entwertung der Ethnizitätssemantik im Sozialstaat BRD sowie auf die Geschichte des Umgangs mit Migration und ihren Folgen bezogen wird.
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"An analysis of the effects of the last wave of migration into West Germany on labor markets, public finances and economic growth, this study points at the often ignored fact that the migrants were rather successful in finding jobs and thus helped in eliminating labor shortages in certain industries. Simulations with a macroeconometric model for the FRG indicate that in 1992 the GDP was almost 6 percent higher than without migration, that 90,000 jobs were created and that migration created a surplus of DM14 billion in the public sector, compared to the baseline. This study also makes clear, however, that these effects mainly depend on a quick absorption of migrants by FRG labor markets, and as to the social system, the relief may be only transitory."
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PIP: The author examines the changes to French immigration law adopted in 1993 in the light of current trends and pressures affecting migration to France. The focus is on the changes in the rules concerning the acquisition of French nationality, and the assimilation of existing immigrants from developing countries. The difficulties of resolving such problems at the national level while migration regulations are being developed at the European Community level are noted. Problems involving the control of the nation's borders, illegal immigration, and the growing demand for political asylum are also discussed. The author raises the possibility that immigration could be better managed in light of current labor market conditions in France.
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Migration flows are shaped by a complex combination of self-selection and out-selection mechanisms. In this paper, the authors analyze how existing diasporas (the stock of people born in a country and living in another one) affect the size and human-capital structure of current migration flows. The analysis exploits a bilateral data set on international migration by educational attainment from 195 countries to 30 developed countries in 1990 and 2000. Based on simple micro-foundations and controlling for various determinants of migration, the analysis finds that diasporas increase migration flows, lower the average educational level and lead to higher concentration of low-skill migrants. Interestingly, diasporas explain the majority of the variability of migration flows and selection. This suggests that, without changing the generosity of family reunion programs, education-based selection rules are likely to have a moderate impact. The results are highly robust to the econometric techniques, accounting for the large proportion of zeros and endogeneity problems.
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