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The development of girls' and boys' attitudes to science: A longitudinal study

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Attitude‐to‐science tests were completed by 1300 pupils, at ten schools, when they were 11 years old and again two and a half years later. During that time their interest in most branches of science decreased, but both girls and boys became more interested in learning about human biology. Their opinions about science and scientists also became generally less favourable, but pupils grew more willing to see science as suitable for girls. The attitude changes varied considerably from school to school, and were slightly better in schools which had implemented a programme of interventions to improve children's attitudes than in other schools. There was considerable stability in the attitudes of individual children over the period of the study.‡ An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Conference on Interests in Science and Technology Education, IPN, Kiel, Germany, April 1984 and appears in the proceedings: Lehrke, M., Hoffman, L. and Gardner, P. L. (eds) (1985) Interests in Science and Technology Education (IPN, Kiel).

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... Most of the students' attitudes towards science start to decrease at the age of 11 during elementary schooling. A sharp decline is usually observed between the ages of 11 and 14 (Bennett & Hogarth, 2009;Kelly, 1986;Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). Quite a number of studies have documented the possible factors affecting students' attitudes towards science. ...
... Jarvis and Pell (2005) Students' grade levels are inversely proportional to their attitudes towards science. Barmby et al. (2008); Bennett and Hogarth (2009);Coughlan (2000); Francis and Greer (1999), George (2000George ( , 2006; Kelly (1986); Koballa (1995); Muphy and Beggs (2003); Osborne et al. (2003); Reid and Skryabina (2003); Simpson and Oliver (1990) but opposite to the findings of Breakwell and Beardsell (1992) and Hassan (2008) Students' SALs are directly proportional to their attitudes towards science. Mattern and Schau (2002) 4 E. Ş entürk and Ö . ...
... Considering students' attitudes towards science with regard to grade levels, it can be seen that students' grade levels were inversely proportional with their attitudes towards science. This finding is consistent with the findings reported by Barmby et al. (2008), Bennett andHogarth (2009), Ç akır et al. (2007), Coughlan (2000), Francis and Greer (1999), George (2000George ( , 2006, Greenfield (1997), Kelly (1986), Osborne et al. (2003), and Reid and Skryabina (2003), but opposite to the findings Breakwell and Beardsell (1992), and Hassan (2008). However, METU SC had a significant and equal impact on the attitudes of students in different grade levels. ...
Article
The study, carried out in Ankara, Turkey, examined the effect of Middle East Technical University’s Science Centre (METU SC) on students’ attitudes towards science. The sample consisted of 251 students. The age range of the students varied from 11 to 14. The attitude scale was administered before, immediately after, and one week after a visit to METU SC. Because of the limitations on sampling procedure, two different research designs were used. Design 1 was a quasi-experimental design and arranged to determine the impact of METU SC on sixth graders’ attitudes towards science with respect to the six constructs of the attitude scale, namely ‘Learning science in school’, ‘Self-concept in school science’, ‘Practical work in school science’, ‘Science outside of school’, ‘Future participation in science’, and ‘Importance of science’. Design 2 was a weak experimental design and arranged to determine the impact of METU SC on students’ overall attitudes towards science with respect to their gender, grade levels, and science achievement levels. The results of this study suggest that science centres might have high potential on increasing students’ attitudes towards science in all dimensions of the attitude scale, except for ‘Practical work in school science’. Furthermore, this increase is independent of gender, science achievement, and grade levels. Also, considering that this achievement was accomplished in quite a short time, science centres can be used by educators as an effective way of increasing students’ attitudes towards science.
... Skutečnost, že postoje dívek k přírodovědnému předmětu klesají více u dívek naznačuje i výzkum Barmbyho, Kinda a Jonesové (2008). Podobně snížení postoje zaznamenal ve svém výzkumu Kelly (1986), který poukázal na to, že zájem je zejména o oblast živé přírody, konkrétně lidské tělo, a že chlapci více uznávají hodnotu přírodních věd. Při interpretaci těchto výsledků však nesmíme opomenout přirozený fylogenetický vývoj chlapců a dívek (z tohoto pohledu pak jsou tyto odlišnosti očekávané), viz také výsledky níže. ...
... Jednotlivé představy dětí o světě, které jsou pro ně významné prochází za působení podnětů z vnějšího prostředí vývojem, při kterém je dítě aktivní a pracuje se svým dosavadním kognitivním schématem. Kelly (1955) předpokládá, že každý jedinec si individuálně vytváří hypotézy, potom je odmítá či upravuje na základě své zkušenosti, čímž dochází ke konceptuální změně kognitivního schématu, kdy poznávací proces je chápán jako personální a individuální zkušenost. Z pohledu personálního konstruktivismu se konceptuální změna děje tak, že žáci začnou vnímat a přijmou vědecké koncepce, když zjistí, že jsou přijatelnější, srozumitelnější a užitečnější (pragmatické hledisko) než jejich koncepce předcházející. ...
Book
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English: The publication deals with research of scientific experiments primarily from the pupil´s perspective. Science experiment is introduced in a broader theoretical framework in connection with the Czech education transformational tendencies in the European context. The book is focused on the pupil´s personality as the subject of education and we research the use of science experiment by pupil in education. We try for a comprehensive view of the cognitive, affective, psychomotor, will, social and spiritual level. It also includes research probe between among teachers and their perspective on the use of experiments in science lessons. In the last chapter there are implied selected didactic aspects of teaching with the use of science experiment based on the empirical data. Czech: Publikace se zabývá výzkumem přírodovědných pokusů především z pohledu žáka. Přírodovědný pokus je představen v širším teoretickém rámci v souvislosti s transformačními tendencemi českého školství v evropském kontextu. Kniha je zaměřena na osobnost žáka jako subjekt edukace a výzkumně mapuje používání přírodovědného pokusu ve výuce. Snažíme se o komplexní pohled jak po stránce kognitivní, afektivní, psychomotorické, tak volní, sociální, duchovní. Součástí je i výzkumná sonda mezi učiteli a reflexe jejich pohledu na využívání pokusů v hodinách přírodovědy. Na základě empiricky zjištěných dat jsou v poslední kapitole naznačeny vybrané didaktické aspekty výuky s využitím přírodovědného pokusu.
... Students' attitude towards science at elementary and secondary schools were extensively studied by Gardner (1975), Frazer andWalberg (1981); Hadden and Johnstone, (1983); Banu (1986); Kelly (1986); Myers and Fouts (1992); Ramsden (1998) ; Nisimov, (n.d.); Morrell and Lederman (1998);and George (2000) either by quantitative or qualitative method. The most of researches on attitude towards science (and science learning) have reported positive attitude of students towards science (Osborne et al, 2003). ...
... There is need of in-depth study of female students' attitude towards science learning in Pakistani scenario. The results of that study can be used to explore different techniques for developing male students' attitude towards science learning and ultimately enhancing their achievement in the science subject like the intervention in attitude towards science by Kelly (1986). ...
Article
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Attitude towards science has been a focus of study for many educational researchers and it ultimately helps to explore the aspects that can be intervened to enhance the students' attitude towards science because a relationship has been reported between students' attitude and science achievement. The variation in results reported by studies regarding attitude towards science and science learning reflect that the demographic variables might have influential effect on attitudes towards science and science learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the Pakistani students' attitude towards science learning. A scale regarding attitude towards science learning (AtSL) with Cronbach's alpha 0.86 was administered to 1233 students of 37 government schools of three districts. The results of this study reflect that attitude towards science learning increases with increase in grade of the students; and female students had higher attitude towards science learning than male students. Paternal education, occupation and students' locality seems to causes no significant difference in attitudes towards science learning of students whereas maternal education and occupation cause significant difference in attitudes towards learning of science.
... Lantagne (1952) emphasized that geographic differences are not distinctive factors in health interest. Kelly (1985) investigated, what is called, the long -lived interest in science. Smail and Kelly (1984) searched about the interest in physics, nature and human physiology and concluded that, ...
... In figure 1, fifth to tenth grade students' interests toward human biology are shown. Fifth to tenth grade students' interests toward human biology did not show much variation, a similar result obtained in other such as Arbinger et al, (1976), Kelly, (1985, and Finke, (1999). From fifth grade to tenth grade a general decrease in students' interest toward various subjects of biology was observed except a slight increase from ninth grade to tenth grade. ...
... In the academic field, it has been shown that students' attitude to learning science declines as they grow and consequently progress in the different educational stages (Barmby, Kind and Jones 2008;George 2000;Kelly 1986;Osborne, et al. Pell and Jarvis 2001;Vedder-Weis and Fortus 2011). ...
... As a result, it has been observed that few are carried out in Primary Education and none in Early Childhood Education, a situation similar to that described by Pro and Rodríguez (2010), where they affirm that the volume of studies destined to the stage of Early Childhood Education is lower than for the other educational stages. In this way, it is surprising that there are not enough didactic actions in the early stages of education, since many studies affirm that attitudes towards Science are affected during the advance towards higher educational stages (Barmby et al. 2008;George 2000;Kelly 1986;Osborne et al. 2003;Pell and Jarvis 2001;Vedder-Weis and Fortus 2011). In addition, according to educational research, scientific education should begin in the early years of schooling (Eshach and Fried 2005) and should be oriented towards the creation of positive habits and attitudes (Worth 2010) towards the sciences in this case. ...
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Improving the attitudes of students towards science is one of the main challenges facing the teaching of the subject. The main objective of this study is to analyze the effect of students’ attitudes towards science through different didactic interventions. The bibliographic search was carried out via the Web of Science database, specifically in the Education and Educational Research category, obtaining a population of 374 articles published between 2006 and 2016. We included studies with pre-experimental or quasi-experimental design that used pretest and posttest phases. Following the application of the inclusion criteria, 24 articles were selected with which a random effects meta-analysis was adopted, obtaining an average effect size of 0.54. Three moderating variables were analyzed, with a significant correlation between the type of teaching strategy and the effect of the attitude towards Science (Q = 23.17; df = 8; p < .01; R² = 0.05). The educational implications are mainly due to the importance of the teaching/learning strategy used in science education in the development of positive attitudes towards the subject, and the need to increase the number of Didactic Interventions that contemplate students’ attitudes towards science as a study variable is also advocated.
... When bracketed down to scientific disciplines, research results generally indicate that boys are more interested in physical studies whereas girls generally prefer topics in the biological and social sciences (e.g. Clarke, 1972; Colley et al., 1994; Kelly, 1986; Kelly, White & Smail, 1987; Lamanauskas, 2004; Osborne & Collins, 2001). Salta and Tzougraki (2004), in an examination of the gender differences in Greek secondary pupils' attitudes towards chemistry, found that there were no significant gender differences except in the perceived difficulty of the subject, where girls gave higher estimations. ...
... The students having positive attitudes towards learning science are more expected to have planning to engage in future learning behaviours in science subjects (Norwich & Duncan, 1990). *IER, University of the Punjab, Lahore Students' attitude towards science at secondary and elementary schools were extensively studied by Gardner (1975), Frazer and Walberg (1981); Banu (1986); Ramsden (1998) ;Kelly, (1986) ; Nisimov, (n.d.); Morrell and Lederman (1998); Hadden and Johnstone, (1983) ;George, (2000); Myers and Fouts (1992) either/both by quantitative or qualitative method. These researchers provided revealing insight regarding attitude towards science and most of them have reported positive attitude of students towards science (Osborn et al, 2003). ...
Article
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Attitude towards science has attracted lot of attentions from researchers in the past and is still widely researched. Consequently, a large number of tools are available for measuring attitude towards science covering different dimensions of attitude. The reported variation is usually attributed to uniqueness of socio-economic and cultural aspects of society. This argument provided basis for developing attitude towards science learning (AtSL) which should be contextually relevant. Moreover it seems that majority of the scales available are used by the researcher once in their research and not probably meant to be developed as standards scale. Therefore their psychometric properties are not reported. A questionnaire of 54 items was developed and data was collected from 464 students of five government schools, varying in district, gender and class. Exploratory Factor Analysis clustered items into four sub-factors. The positive, strong and significant correlation of each sub-factor with total AtSL showed that sub-factors contribute towards measurement of main construct while relatively weaker inter-factor correlation indicated mutual independence of each sub-factor. The scale reliability was α= 0.86, whereas range of α for sub-factors ranged between 0.75-0.61.
... Esto implica que los alumnos centren su atención en resolver lo que se les solicita y se olviden de buscar explicaciones a los fenómenos naturales; o bien que pierdan la oportunidad para formular los problemas que les inquietan y les interesa resolver, y si los alumnos deciden modificar la propuesta del profesor, éste último interpre-ta esta modificación como distracción o juego por parte de los alumnos (León y Solé, 1982). Este tipo de situaciones a largo plazo traen consecuencias graves, tales como que las actitudes de los alumnos sean cada vez menos favorables hacia la ciencia a lo largo de la escolarización (Kelly, 1986; Shrigley, 1990). En términos generales, este instrumento mostró actitudes poco favorables hacia las AE, pues al parecer la enseñanza en el laboratorio les disgusta por diversas razones, entre las que podemos mencionar la tensión que les produce el realizar experimentos, la inseguridad en el manejo de los contenidos, el temor de no poder responder las preguntas de sus alumnos, el trabajo extra que implica, etc. Este tipo de hallazgos se comprenden cuando se analiza la concepción errónea que tienen los profesores sobre la ciencia y los cien-tíficos (Ruggieri et al., 1993) y que por consiguiente se tiene en las escuelas (Gil et al., 1993). ...
... Este tipo de hallazgos se comprenden cuando se analiza la concepción errónea que de la ciencia y los científicos se poseen en las escuelas (Gil-Pérez y col., 1993; y por tanto tienen los profesores Ruggieri y col., 1993), lo que trae como consecuencia que las actitudes de los alumnos vayan siendo menos favorables hacia las ciencias a lo largo de la escolarización (Kelly, 1986;Shrigley, 1990), inclusive desde la escuela primaria (Pell y Jarvis, 2001). ...
... Hence, it is commonly accepted that students exhibit a high interest in science when starting school (Agranovich & Ben-Zvi Assaraf, 2013;Tytler, Osborne, Williams, Tytler, & Cripps Clark, 2008), but their interest already starts to decline later in primary school. Furthermore, it substantially drops when students transition to secondary school (Tytler, Osborne, Williams, Tytler, & Cripps Clark, 2008), before declining even further during secondary school (Frenzel, Goetz, Pekrun, & Watt, 2010;Lore Hoffmann & Lehrke, 1986;Kelly, 1986;Köller, Baumert, & Schnabel, 2001). Likewise, a general decrease of students' interests in different school science activities according to the RIASEC+N model was found in all seven dimensions throughout grades 5-11, albeit at a different pace (Höft, Bernholt, Blankenburg, & Winberg, 2019). ...
Article
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The development of and interplay between secondary school students' individual interests and achievement were investigated using the example of chemistry education. In a two-cohort study with yearly measurement occasions (Grade 6-8, N = 580, M age = 11.6 years in Grade 6; Grade 9-11; N = 473, M age = 14.7 years in Grade 9), we assessed both students' domain-specific and activity-related interests. While measurement invariance could not be established for students' domain-specific interest, results based on multi-group latent change score modeling indicate a rather stable pattern of cross-lagged effects between activity-related interests and achievement within and across cohorts. Significant cross-effects were only found for interests in activities that imply a closer association to cognitive activation and communication of knowledge. These findings extend research pertaining to the longitudinal interplay between interest and achievement and indicate the opportunity to counteract the often reported decline of interest, especially in STEM subjects.
... A survey of students at 11 years old and later at ages 13-14 years old, found that attitude towards physical science, along with opinions about science careers declined with age. This was especially true for females (Kelly, 1986). Patricia MacCorquodale (1984) found that females and Mexican Americans were the most likely to say that they would not be interested in taking science courses. ...
Article
Latinas/os form the largest minority group in the U.S. and they are growing more rapidly than any other ethnic group in this country. However, the number of Latinas/os in chemistry is not proportional to their population; they are noticeably absent from the physical science fields. Little research has explored the circumstances that Latino students encounter in high school chemistry. In this exploratory study, four Mexican American students and one Native American student were interviewed and observed in a physical science class at an alternative school that enrolled predominantly Latino students. Five underlying themes were found: negative perceptions of science, benefits and disadvantages of alternative school science, traditional teaching methods versus student-centered teaching, outreach possibilities, and changes in stereotypes of scientists. A further investigation and more in-depth contextual knowledge is needed in order to determine more precisely what caused the students to have their opinions on physical science. Key Words: Secondary Students, Mexican American, Chemistry Attitudes, and Alternative Schools [Learning science is important for students] because I think people need to understand the world and how we live and what we're doing to the Earth and stuff. I think they need to understand what's going on.
... Sin duda se trata de un tema bastante complejo y controvertido que entronca con el de las actitudes hacia el aprendizaje de las ciencias. En este sentido cabe señalar que algunas de las opiniones manifestadas no aparentan encajar con resultados de un estudio sobre actitudes hecho con la misma muestra de sujetos (Acevedo 1993 a, b), en el cual las alumnas presentaban globalmente una actitud más negativa que la de los alumnos ante la física, mientras que era más positiva hacia la biología; resultados que, por otra parte, son consistentes con los de otras muchas investigaciones realizadas con estudiantes de otros sistemas educativos (véase, p.ej., Erickson y Erickson 1984, Harlen 1989, Kelly 1986). Tal y como apunta Escudero (1990) el necesario aumento de estudiantes en determinadas áreas científicas, como la física, y tecnológicas, no parece viable si no se rompe definitivamente con los estereotipos discriminatorios para las alumnas, los cuales resultan también muy perjudiciales para el desarrollo social en general. ...
Article
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In this paper we analyze the High School (2nd BUP & COU, 15-16 and 17-18 years old) students' beliefs about sociological and epistemological topics of science. The results obtained show several stereotypes concerning science, scientists, and the nature of scientific knowledge. At the same time the students' view of science is favourable and they would like learning more science and its relationships with the technology and the society. Again we haven't found any outstanding differences between the two grades and there are few between both sexes. Finally, after a large discussion from a Science/Technology/Society perspective, some remarks on attitudinal and instructional implications of STS approaches in Science Education are summarized. Resumen: En este trabajo se analizan las creencias de estudiantes de 2º BUP (15-16 años) y COU (17-18 años) sobre cuestiones relacionadas con la sociología y la epistemología de la ciencia. Los resultados obtenidos muestran diversos estereotipos acerca de la ciencia, los científicos y la naturaleza del conocimiento científico. Al mismo tiempo la opinión sobre la ciencia es favorable y se manifiesta interés por saber más sobre ella y sus relaciones con la tecnología y la sociedad. Por otra parte, no hemos encontrado diferencias relevantes entre ambos cursos y son escasas las que hay entre las alumnas y los alumnos. Finalmente, después de una amplia discusión desde una perspectiva Ciencia/Tecnología/ Sociedad, se hacen algunas observaciones breves en torno a las implicaciones actitudinales y formativas de la utilización de los enfoques CTS en la didáctica de las ciencias.
... The statistics also demonstrate that younger pupils record a more positive attitude towards science than older pupils. This is consistent with the findings of many previous studies, including Choppin (1974), Ayers and Price (1975), Sullivan (1979), Johnson (1981), Hadden and Johnstone (1983), Yager (1983), Ato and Wilkinson (1983), Simpson and Oliver (1985), Kelly (1986), Hofstein et al. (1990) and Greenfield (1996). On the other hand, no relationship with age was found in the studies reported by Maddock (1978Maddock ( , 1982, Krajkovich (1978), Aiken (1979) and Hobbs and Erickson (1980). ...
Article
A total of 1549 pupils between the ages of 13 and 16 years attending 12 Protestant and 12 Catholic grammar schools in Northern Ireland completed the Menis scales of attitude toward science. The data demonstrate that although the importance attributed to science is unrelated to sex, age or denominational group, girls, fifth formers and pupils in Catholic schools hold less positive attitudes toward science in the school curriculum and to science as a career than is the case among boys, third formers and pupils in Protestant schools.
... A third area where much research has been undertaken, though in a less co-ordinated way than in the areas of constructivism and practical work, is that of attitudes to science. There are some examples of large-scale studies such as the as those undertaken as part of the Girls into Science and Technology (GIST) study in the UK (Kelly, 1986) and the Views on Science, Technology and Society (VOSTS) study in Canada (Aikenhead, 1992). However, the majority of work in the area is characterised by small-scale studies undertaken by practitioners. ...
Book
Chemical Education is quite a young scientific discipline. It is conducted in an academic field between educational sciences and chemistry. Its primary location between these very different disciplines is controversial. The aims and methods range from empirical research on learning processes using the classical methods of social sciences to the opening of new aspects of chemistry for education with experimental methods from natural sciences. Thus Chemical Education is repeatedly driven to legitimise itself as an independent scientific discipline. This includes a debate on its understanding of 'research'. The 16th Symposium on Chemical Education in Dortmund therefor focused on the question: "Research in Chemical Education - What does it mean?" from different perspectives.
... Where there was a single-subject focus, 13 related to chemistry, 10 to physics, and 3 to biology. The focus on chemistry and physics in the individual science disciplines is a reflection of the motives for developing context-based materials in the first instance: attitudinal surveys spanning three decades have shown that attitudes to the physical sciences are much more negative than the biological sciences (see, for example, Gardner, 1975;Kelly, 1986;Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). ...
... Since the1970s, a lot of research has taken place using these variables. Studies have confirmed strong gender differences with girls being more negative towards school science (Greenfield, 1997;Kelly, 1986;Mattern & Schau, 2002;Murphy & Beggs, 2003;Reid & Skryabina, 2003). Jones, Howe and Rua (2000) showed that gender variation depends however on the school science content. ...
Article
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This article presents Swedish results from 'the Relevance of Science Education' (ROSE) study, which is a large world wide comparative research project based at the University of Oslo. The Swedish sample consisted of 751 students, most of whom were 15 years old, from 29 schools and data were collected in spring 2003. Student opinions about science lessons are presented in relation to enrolment intentions for upper secondary school together with what they want to learn about in science and technology. The findings indicate that secondary science instruction seems to address only a minority of the stu- dents, those that have chosen science or technology in their further education. At the same time, all students have interest in science and technology and many seem most interested in some important issues in societal development. The results are discussed from the perspective of learners and contri- bute to the debate about establishing a scientific literacy approach in compulsory education.
... The results from this study also concur with Stables (1990) in that younger pupils demonstrate a more positive attitude towards school science than older pupils. This is also consistent with findings from Choppin (1974), Hadden and Johnstone (1983) and Kelly (1986). Murphy and Beggs (2003, 113) also echoed this finding "… most of the older children (10/11 yrs) had significantly less positive attitudes than younger ones (8/9 yrs) towards science enjoyment, even though the older children were more confident about their ability to do science". ...
Article
The decline in secondary school pupils’ attitudes towards science is well documented. However, recent research has shown that pupils’ attitudes to science appear to become fixed during their primary school years. This study investigated end of Key Stage 1 (Yr 2 (ages six to seven years)) and end of Key Stage 2 (Yr 6 (ages 10–11 years)) pupils’ attitudes to science, using Klopfer’s themes (197117. Klopfer , L.E. 1971 . “ Evaluation of learning in science ” . In Handbook on summative and formative evaluation of student learning , Edited by: Bloom , B.S. , Hastings , J.T. and Madaus , G.F. 559 – 641 . New York : McGraw‐Hill . View all references), through a paired activity and interview for Yr 2 pupils and a pre‐ and post‐Test of Science‐Related Attitudes questionnaire (adapted) for Yr 6 pupils. The questionnaire was analysed using the mean and chi square values and Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to test reliability. The results revealed that while Yr 2 pupils exhibit a thirst for knowledge and enthusiasm for science, Yr 6 pupils’ attitudes over the period of one academic year did not change: their attitude towards science was fixed. This insight raises some implications and responsibilities for primary school teachers.
... Ante situaciones que tienen que resolver, los estudiantes no se creen capaces de hacerlo y su actitud es de abandono, intentando buscar las respuestas en los libros de texto. Kelly (1986) realiza un estudio longitudinal sobre el interés de los estudiantes hacia las ciencias. Esta autora comprueba que, en general, hasta el fi n de la educación primaria (11 años), el interés es mayor en los chicos que en las chicas y que para ambos sexos disminuye con los años, algo que también se ha constatado en nuestro contexto (Serrano 1987(Serrano , 1988Ortega et al., 1992). ...
... El resultado encontrado, al comparar las actitudes de las alumnas con las de los alumnos en esta dimensión, permite afirmar que la percepción de la dificultad de la física, sola en COU o junta con la química en 2º BUP, es mayor para las alumnas. Este hecho se repite en la bibliografía sobre el tema constantemente, tanto desde el punto de vista motivacional (Johnson 1987, Kelly 1986, Steinkamp y Maehr 1983 como del rendimiento (Acevedo 1989, Erickson y Erickson 1984, Johnson 1987, Vázquez 1992, donde las diferencias son mayores aún (Steinkamp y Maehr 1984), lo que ha originado que autoras como Harlen (1989) y Kelly (1988) lleguen a asegurar que "el problema de las alumnas con las ciencias es el de las alumnas y la física". ...
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This paper describes the attitudes toward learning physics and chemistry in comparison with biology, geology and mathematics, from a sample of Secondary Higher Education students (2nd BUP & COU, 15-16 and 17-18 years old). Likewise, we analyse gender related differences among some attitudinal scales. All students think physics is difficult, but girls find more problems than boys. Finally, several reflections concerning attitudinal question and science education are summarized. Este estudio describe las actitudes hacia el aprendizaje de la física y la química de una muestra de estudiantes de 2º BUP (15-16 años) y COU (17-18 años). Se comparan estas actitudes con las de biología, geología y matemáticas. Abstract This paper describes the attitudes toward learning physics and chemistry in comparison with biology, geology and mathematics, from a sample of Secondary Higher Education students (2nd BUP & COU, 15-16 and 17-18 years old). Likewise, we analyse gender-related differences among some attitudinal scales. All students think physics is difficult, but girls find more problems than boys. Finally, several reflections concerning attitudinal question and science education are summarized.
... Otros estudios son de carácter correlacional, pues en ellos se ha tratado de determinar la asociación entre las actitudes hacia la ciencia y diferentes variables, tales como el proceso instruccional escolar, el estilo de enseñanza del profesor, la experiencia del estudiante en la ciencia, el nivel de escolaridad de los padres, el género, las estrategias de enseñanza etc. (Kelly, 1986;Zoller et al., 1990, entre otros). ...
Article
En este artículo se reportan los resultados de una investigación experimental para promover en los futuros profesores de primaria actitudes adecuadas hacia la ciencia, la tecnología y su relación con la problemática socioambiental. Para ello, se diseñaron y aplicaron secuencias de enseñanza-aprendizaje, y para valorar su efecto se evaluaron las actitudes de los estudiantes antes y después de su aplicación. Los resultados mostraron cambios positivos de actitud y la construcción de una visión holística de la interacción ciencia-tecnología-sociedad-ambiente (CTSA). También confirmaron que el género influye significativamente en las actitudes hacia la ciencia, la tecnología y el ambiente. En conclusión esta propuesta logró fomentar una reflexión crítica sobre los aspectos positivos y negativos de la ciencia y la tecnología y una responsabilidad ambiental. Este trabajo contribuye al mejoramiento de la docencia, dado que proporciona algunos elementos relevantes para el diseño de programas de formación y actualización de profesores referentes a la educación científica, tecnológica y ambiental. Title: Science, technology and socio-environmental problems: Teaching sequences to promote appropriate attitudes in prospective primary teacher education. Abstract: This paper reports the results of an experimental research to promote appropriate attitude towards science, technology, and their relationship with the environmental problems. Some teaching sequences were designed and applied to prospective primary teachers, and in order to assess their impact the students' attitudes before and after their application were evaluated. The results showed positive attitude changes, and a holistic vision of the Science-Technology-Society-Environment interaction. Findings confirmed also that gender is a significant variable in the attitudes towards science, technology and the environment. In conclusion, this proposal achieved fostering critic thinking about science and technology, and an environmental responsibility. This study contributes to improve science teaching, as it provides some relevant elements for the design of scientific, technological, and environmental programs included in teacher education. 267
... Here, the students gained insight into professional CS, and reinforcing their beliefs about their capabilities regarding their academic careers, even if they actually lost interest in studying CS. However, Cleaves [11, p. 481] claimed that in science, in general, a discourse of increasing antipathy toward science in secondary school is because of the lack of practical work in science classes [22,38,75]. These claims are in line with the existing literature about the experiences of students with science, which speaks of personal irrelevance or perceived difficulty [48,57]. ...
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Short-term outreach interventions are conducted to raise young students’ awareness of the computer science (CS) field. Typically, these interventions are targeted at K–12 students, attempting to encourage them to study CS in higher education. This study is based on a series of extra-curricular outreach events that introduced students to the discipline of computing, nurturing creative computational thinking through problem solving and game programming. To assess the long-term impact of this campaign, the participants were contacted and interviewed two to five years after they had attended an outreach event. We studied how participating in the outreach program affected the students’ perceptions of CS as a field and, more importantly, how it affected their educational choices. We found that the outreach program generally had a positive effect on the students’ educational choices. The most prominent finding was that students who already possessed a “maintained situational interest” in CS found that the event strengthened their confidence in studying CS. However, many students were not affected by attending the program, but their perceptions of CS did change. Our results emphasize the need to provide continuing possibilities for interested students to experiment with computing-related activities and hence maintain their emerging individual interests.
... Since the behavioural-learning theorists suggest that attitudes can be "learned", it means that attitudes have varying degrees of cognitive content, and this content may be accessible through various learning situations. Many studies have examined the development of attitudes in a school context (Goodwin et al. 1981;Kelly 1986;Morrell & Lederman 1998). The paper by Goodwin and others examined pupils' attitudes to school, science and science lessons and their performance in science within the age group from ten to thirteen years in Manchester. ...
... Attitude is an important factor for the academic success and it also has been found to be crucial component which affects the way in which students deal with the challenges that face with their future life (Kelly, 1986). An attitude may be defined as a predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given attitude object (Oskamp & Schultz, 2005, p.8). ...
... Several of these are typically assumed male activities. Many researchers in science education have claimed for years that females are somewhat excluded in science and technology (Kelly, 1986;Dawson, 2000). This paper shows that there are as many science components connected with female experiences and interests as there are male ones, which becomes more obvious when broad categories are broken up and topics are analysed on a content level. ...
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Students’ problems with learning science in school are well documented. Earlier studies report on differences in students’ interest in and attitudes towards science due to gender and age. However, fewer studies have focused on relations with experience and recruitment on a detailed content level. Present paper presents a statistical analysis of student interest in specific content areas and combines this with student experience of science and science-related activities outside school. The result shows that patterns of interest and experience can be identified. These patterns showed differences in gender and also relate to student preferences of upper secondary education. The results are presented on both a detailed content and an experience level. The results are discussed in relation to the purpose of compulsory science education. The study contributes to the discussion about a more relevant science education by presenting concrete content and experience dimensions from a student perspective.
... Already Gardner (1975) argued that boys are more interested in physical sciences while girls are more oriented to Biology and Health. Many studies confirm this picture and in general girls seem to be more negative to school science (Greenfield, 1997;Kelly, 1986;Mattern & Schau, 2002;Murphy & Beggs, 2003;Reid & Skryabina, 2003). Some studies also point to gender variations as being content dependent. ...
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This paper presents Swedish results from the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE) study, which is part of a large world-wide comparative research study based at the University of Oslo. The national sample was collected in spring 2003 and originates from 751 students from 29 schools, most of whom were 15 years old. In an additional study data from primary students were collected in spring 2005, with a smaller sample of 112. Significant differences in content orientation between the primary and secondary boys and girls were found and are discussed in the context of young people’s interest in science and technology and the public function of those knowledge fields as a part of education. Earlier studies suggest the benefit of more applicative contexts as the children move through compulsory school. This statement is challenged to some degree in this paper and a stronger need to understand how the transition from primary to secondary level and specific contents are related is discussed. This is due to indications that students’ content orientations are partially dependant on age and there are significant differences due to gender to consider. A deeper examination of those elements can assist in the understanding of the relevance of science from the learners’ perspectives.
... These choices are based on their school experience of STEAM [2]. Kelly [3] and George [4] reported a decline in attitude toward science as pupils progress through secondary school. According to the US National Science Board [5], only 19% of ninth grade students enrolled in calculus, 38% enrolled in biology and 42% enrolled in physics, because traditional teaching methods in STEAM are often seen as dull and obsolete [6]. ...
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Contribution: The NEWTON fabrication laboratory (Fab Lab) Education Initiative assesses the effectiveness of Fab Lab-based learning on K-12 students' attitude toward learning science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics (STEAM). It considers two aspects: 1) students' motivation and affective state and 2) students' observations and perception of Fab Lab-based learning. Background: Fab Labs are described as small workshops equipped with a set of computer-controlled tools (e.g., 3-D printers) that offer personalized digital fabrication. They have been shown to have a positive impact on learners' academic and personal growth when used in extracurricular activities, but little research examines whether integrating Fab Labs into school curricula can help raise student interest in STEAM education. Research Question: Can Fab Lab-based learning foster students' interest in STEM in primary and secondary schools? Would students be keen to use Fab Labs in their science classes? Methodology: Two case studies were carried out in two different schools as part of the European Horizon 2020 NEWTON project. The study had 39 participants; three different surveys were used to assess different constructs. Findings: Results show that after using the Fab Lab-based learning: 1) students felt more interested in science classes as well as more engaged and less bored and 2) while some students struggled at first when manipulating Fab Lab tools, they adapted quickly and reported that they would like to use Fab Labs as part of their science classes.
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In this paper I examine the formation of post‐16 choices over 3 years among higher achieving students with respect to enrolment in post‐compulsory science courses. Transcripts from four interviews carried out over 3 years with 72 secondary school students were qualitatively analysed. Students were found to shape their choices for science in a variety of ways across time. The situation regarding science choices hinges on far more dynamic considerations than the stereotypical image of the potential advanced science student, committed to becoming a scientist from an early age. There is an interplay of self‐perception with respect to science, occupational images of working scientists, relationship with significant adults and perceptions of school science The findings are informative for science educators and for career guidance professionals who may need to take into account the complexity of young people’s choices.
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The attitudes of pupils in South Wales to mathematics, English, science and technology were tested using a Likert‐type attitude scale. Pupils were selected from National Curriculum Key Stage 3, specifically Year 9 (age 13‐14 years). Schools were selected by their position in the 1992 National League tables produced by the Welsh Office, the schools being placed into one of four bands. The number of schools involved was 34 and the number of pupils 4263. This represents 15.3% of the total population of school children of age 13‐14 years in the region (Welsh Office, 1993). The results show gender differences in attitudes to English, mathematics, science and technology and some between school differences. The results are subjected to a factor analysis and are discussed in relation to groups of statements reflecting key aspects of each subject scale.
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Prior research has indicated that decisions made by students about their learning are influenced by perceptions of various factors related to the task and classroom context. This influence seems to be mediated by the extent to which the learner perceives personal challenge in what is done. This concept of personal challenge comprises both cognitive (demand) and affective (motivation) components. In the current paper, response trends of almost 4000 secondary science students to a questionnaire structured according to factors associated with challenge are considered by school, year level and gender. These trends indicate that challenge in science diminishes as students move from Years 7 to 10, due to increasingly negative perceptions of many of these factors. Results also indicate however that, through purposeful change in teaching perspectives and practices, teachers can establish and sustain students’ sense of challenge in classroom learning.
Article
Sex stereotyping inventories were administered to pupils entering ten co‐educational comprehensive schools. The tests were repeated two and a half years later. Children's scores on the two occasions were positively correlated. Girls who saw themselves as masculine were slightly more likely than other girls to chose physical science, while girls who saw themselves as feminine were slightly more likely to chose biology. Boys’ self‐images were not linked to option choices. However, boys with a masculine self‐image achieved slightly worse in science than other boys of similar general ability, whereas girls with a masculine self‐image achieved slightly better than other girls. Sex‐typed children were less interested in science, and had a less positive image of science and scientists than other children. In general sex stereotypes were only weakly related to children's achievements in, choice of, and attitudes towards science, but they were more salient to girls than to boys.
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Se presenta un análisis de los estereotipos de género observados en el lenguaje de los libros de texto de ciencias y tecnología de secundaria obligatoria, para evaluar el grado en que los nuevos libros asumen los principios de equidad referidos al género proclamados en la LOGSE. Para ello se ha examinado una muestra amplia de libros de texto publicados por las editoriales para esta nueva etapa educativa. Los resultados globales respecto a los estereotipos de género muestran una situación insatisfactoria por no ser respetuosa con la igualdad, pues no resulta muy diferente de los resultados deficientes obtenidos en estudios precedentes. También cabe anotar algunos indicadores esperanzadores de rotura de los estereotipos de género en los roles de hombres y mujeres, aunque desde una perspectiva cuantitativa esta tendencia positiva es anecdótica. Esta evaluación global negativa debe servir como acicate para intentar profundizar y extender la incipiente tendencia positiva, que puedan favorecer una educación científica realmente inclusiva, que promueva la alfabetización científica y tecnológica de la sociedad. An analysis of gender stereotypes in the language used in secondary school science and technology textbooks is presented. The goal is to evaluate the degree of gender equity in the new textbooks as stated in the Spanish educational law (LOGSE). For this purpose, we have examined a wide sample of textbooks published for this new stage in education. The overall results regarding gender stereotypes reveal an unsatisfactory situation as the language in the examined textbooks does not respect gender equity tenets. This is in line with the results of previous research. We also found some hopeful indicators of a change in the gender stereotypes of male and female roles, though from a quantitative point of view, this positive trend is anecdotal. This overall negative evaluation must act as an incentive to deepen and extend this small positive tendency, in order to favour an inclusive scientific education for all, and promote the scientific and technological literacy of society.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate students" attitude towards science and technology in relation to learning interests and life experiences. Attitude towards science and technology scale, learning interest scale and life experience scale has been developed by the researchers following standard procedure and administered on the tenth standard students randomly selected from the Govt. sponsored schools affiliated to WBBSE in Purulia district, WB, India. ANOVA, coefficient of correlation and "t" test has been applied for the interpretation of the findings. The results revealed that different levels of learning interest and life experience viz. high. average and low level on attitudes towards science & technology are significant whereas gender doesn"t affect the attitude towards science and technology. Significant correlation exists between learning interest and attitudes towards science & technology as well as between life experience and attitudes towards science & technology separately.
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The science choices, attitudes and achievement of Asian and black children were compared with those of white children. When allowance was made for background and school factors there was very little difference between the ethnic groups in the extent to which they enroled in science courses in fourth and fifth year. Asian boys were slightly more likely than other boys to choose physics; they also expressed greater liking for science and greater interest in learning about physical science than other boys. White girls were less interested in physical science than other girls and white boys were less interested in biology. Black and Asian pupils scored lower than comparable white children on science tests on entry to secondary school. However by fifth year Asian boys were out‐performing white boys, while black pupils achieved as well as white children from similar backgrounds and schools.
Article
The research reported in this paper looks at the relationship between perception of school subjects as masculine or feminine and other attitudes towards sex roles and sex traits, motivation and subject choices at A‐level of boys and girls in coeducational comprehensive schools in England and Wales. The pupils’ perceptions of subjects confirmed earlier findings, in that the sciences were seen as masculine and arts and languages as feminine, although a majority of pupils believed that both sexes were equally good at most subjects. A sex‐stereotyped view of subjects was associated with sex‐stereotyped attitudes towards occupations and roles. It was hypothesized that pupils whose attitudes were stereotyped and who saw themselves conforming to traditional notions of masculinity and femininity would be more likely to choose sex‐appropriate subjects. This hypothesis was confirmed in the case of boys but not for girls. Boys showed much more bias in their subject choices and those choosing exclusively masculine subjects were much more likely to support traditional sex roles and to conform to traditional notions of masculinity. No such pattern was found for girls. Girls doing feminine subjects were more likely to have non‐stereotyped views than those doing masculine subjects and were equally unlikely to conform to traditional notions of femininity.
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This paper describes a study of the Attitudes of 13‐14 year old pupils towards science. It was carried out 4 years after the introduction of the science National Curriculum, into schools in England and Wales. The research involved the analysis of a 34 item questionnaire completed by 1038 pupils in eight comprehensive schools. This was followed by conducting structured interviews with a representative sample of the pupils. It was shown that overall both boys and girls have positive attitudes towards science and confirmed previous research showing that boys have a greater preference for science. The involvement of practical work in lessons was seen as the most significant factor in promoting positive attitudes. The majority of pupils were aware of the importance of science and would have continued to study it until 16 years of age if it had been an optional subject. Relatively few pupils saw it as an area of study that they would wish to pursue beyond the age of compulsory schooling.
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The purpose of this paper is to consider a number of issues relating to research in the area of high school pupils’ attitudes to science. Teachers appear to consider that pupils’ attitudes to science, and to what is being studied in science lessons, exert a profound influence on levels of engagement with the subject. Yet, perhaps because of the difficulties which appear to be associated with such work, studies of attitudes to science appear far less frequently in the literature than was the case 10 or 15 years ago. This paper attempts to map out the area of interest more clearly by considering issues to do with the meanings of key terms, methodology and the purpose of research into pupils’ attitudes to science. A number of key questions emerge from the discussion, and possible answers are used to argue a case for looking again at attitudes to science and to sketch an agenda for future work.
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This study explores the impact of a cryogenics-based enrichment programme, which involves demonstrations that use liquid nitrogen, on attitudes towards science and the learning of science concepts. The findings presented in this paper are based on a sample of 214 fifth-grade students from two schools in Singapore who had their enrichment lesson in a subzero-temperature science centre. Overall, the students viewed science as more enjoyable and acquired more interest in wanting to pursue science careers after experiencing the cryogenics-based enrichment programme, but no remarkable and conclusive change was detected in their perceptions of the social implications of science. Significant knowledge gains were also detected among the participants. The programme did not have any differential impact on students of either gender and from two learning streams, both cognitively and affectively.
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Currently there is a need for measures to examine the issue of sustaining students’ enrolment intentions over an extended period of study in physics, a subject which is generally perceived as hard and demanding by students. This paper addresses this gap in research by describing the development and the assessment of psychometric properties of the Physics Motivation Questionnaire, which examines the predictive relations among senior secondary physics students’ achievement motivation, sustained engagement and sustained enrolment intentions. The theoretical framework of the instrument largely draws on the Expectancy-Value theory of achievement motivation and the latent variables are assessed through six measures. Data shows that the Physics Motivation Questionnaire is a theoretically sound and psychometrically valid instrument which has utility in examining physics at a topic-specific level. The questionnaire makes a unique contribution to the physics enrolment literature and has significant implications for educational practitioners. These implications are discussed in the context of the findings.
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This paper describes the development of a new measure of attitude towards science for use among secondary school pupils which operationalises the affective attitudinal domain. Item selection, the internal structure and reliability of the scale, content validity and construct validity were established on a sample of 2129 pupils in the third, fourth, fifth and lower sixth years of Protestant and Catholic grammar schools in Northern Ireland. Scale norms demonstrate that males record a more positive attitude towards science than females, and that younger pupils record a more positive attitude towards science than older pupils.
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The purpose of this study was to find out: (a) pupils' attitudes towards open-ended science investigations, and (b) the problems that pupils encounter when carrying out such investigations in groups. The study was conducted in a class of 39 primary 6 pupils of mixed ability who carried out four investigations. Data were based on pupils' responses on an attitude survey questionnaire, interviews, video tapes of pupils performing the investigations and field notes. The majority of the pupils liked conducting such investigations. Reasons for positive responses were that the pupils had the freedom to explore and devise their own procedures to find out things that they wanted to know about, they could work together and discuss with friends, the investigations were interesting and it was a valuable learning experience. Reasons for negative responses included the difficulty of coming up with good ideas to design the investigations, and group conflicts. The findings also indicate that group dynamics played an important role in influencing pupils' attitudes towards the investigations.
Article
This paper explores the extent to which variance in science attitudes and involvement in science activities may be attributable to gender, parental and peer influences upon 11-14 year olds in the UK. The data presented are derived from a sample of 391 pupils drawn at random, but stratified by age and gender, from Local Education Authority schools (i.e. schools within the state sector where parents make no direct payments for education). A self-completion questionnaire was administered to the pupils in school. Attitudes toward scientific change, involvement in scientific extra-curricular activity, liking and performance in school science subjects, and participation in peer youth culture were indexed, in addition to estimates of the amount of positive regard for science expressed by peers and parents. Boys had more positive attitudes to science and greater levels of participation in scientific extra-curricular activities. They also reported performing better at school science than girls. A positive attitude to science was strongly positively related to having a father and mother who support science, coming from a lower socio-economic family background, being male, and having scientific peers. Greater involvement in scientific extra-curricular activities was predicted by having a father who supports science, having parents who engage in activities jointly with their children, and having scientific peers. In terms of predicting participation in science, liking of it and success at it, these data lead to the conclusion that both parental and peer support are influential. Though it does seem that they are relatively more important in predicting variance in attitudes to science in society than as indicators of liking of or performance at school science. The problems involved in estimating whether commonly reported gender effects are mediated through peer or parental support are discussed.
Article
In this paper we analyze the High School (2nd BUP & COU, 15-16 and 17-18 years old) students' beliefs about sociological and epistemological topics of science. The results obtained show several stereotypes concerning science, scientists, and the nature of scientific knowledge. At the same time the students' view of science is favourable and they would like learning more science and its relationships with the technology and the society. Again we haven't found any outstanding differences between the two grades and there are few between both sexes. Finally, after a large discussion from a Science/Technology/Society perspective, some remarks on attitudinal and instructional implications of STS approaches in Science Education are summarized. En este trabajo se analizan las creencias de estudiantes de 2º BUP (15-16 años) y COU (17-18 años) sobre cuestiones relacionadas con la sociología y la epistemología de la ciencia. Los resultados obtenidos muestran diversos estereotipos acerca de la ciencia, los científicos y la naturaleza del conocimiento científico. Al mismo tiempo la opinión sobre la ciencia es favorable y se manifiesta interés por saber más sobre ella y sus relaciones con la tecnología y la sociedad. Por otra parte, no hemos encontrado diferencias relevantes entre ambos cursos y son escasas las que hay entre las alumnas y los alumnos. Finalmente, después de una amplia discusión desde una perspectiva Ciencia/Tecnología/ Sociedad, se hacen algunas observaciones breves en torno a las implicaciones actitudinales y formativas de la utilización de los enfoques CTS en la didáctica de las ciencias.
Article
The objective of this research was to identify the elementary school teachers' attitudes related to science, and their repercussion on science teaching. The attitudes were evaluated through interviews, observations and surveys applied to a sample of 100 teachers. The results showed that elementary school teachers have non favorable attitudes related to science and that these attitudes have negative effects on their science teaching. These findings could be due to: a) Their lack of grasp for the scientific knowledge, b) their preferences are aimed to Spanish and math, c) they don't have enough knowledge about experiments, and d) they have a lot of administrative work. However, most of them manifested their desire to make a change in attitude to improve their educative practice. These results emphasize that initial and continuous training of teachers should include attitudinal elements in addition to disciplinary and pedagogic elements.
Chapter
‘[S]ociologists have made virtually no contribution to our understanding of the teaching and learning of science.’ So wrote M. F. D. Young in 1974. Much has changed in science education in the intervening fourteen years, but his remark is as true today as it was then. Young’s own attempt to develop a sociology of the science curriculum in schools petered out in two early articles (1976; 1977). Since then, sociologists have been conspicuous by their silence. And yet the academic study of science education is a flourishing sub-discipline with at least three specialist research journals in Great Britain — the International (formerly European) Journal of Science Education, the Journal for Research in Science and Technological Education and Studies in Science Education — as well as the highly influential American Journal of Research in Science Teaching and Science Education. Nevertheless, with the partial exception of Studies in Science Education, which regularly publishes articles with a historical or philosophical emphasis, the academic field is dominated by psychologists and curriculum and methods specialists.
Article
The use of multimedia in education has proven its importance due to its positive impact on the teaching and learning process. The present study investigates comparative effectiveness of multimedia-aided teaching (MAT) on students’ academic achievement and attitude at elementary level in teaching of science. A sample of 60 students was randomly divided into two groups. Pretest-posttest control group design was selected for this study. The experimental group was taught with the help of multimedia presentations whereas the control group was treated traditionally. The treatment was given for a period of 20 weeks. The valid and reliable questionnaires were used as data collection tools. An Attitude Towards Science Scale (ATSS) was used to measure the attitude of both groups before and after treatment. The independent sample t-test was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that MAT is more effective than the traditional one. Students’ attitude towards science improves more if MAT method is used as compared to the traditional method of teaching.
Article
The ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science headquartered in the School of Physics at the University of Melbourne, in collaboration with Santa Maria College, Northcote, a Catholic girls school in suburban Melbourne, has developed a partnership aimed at empowering girls to continue with their study of physics to Year 12. The program is called Crowing Tall Popples In Science: An authentic science experience for secondary students. The program has succeeded in doubling the number of girls studying physics at Santa Maria College. A longitudinal study identified the program's impact on students' subject selection, particularly physics in years 11 and 12. The results show a statistically significant increase in both students choosing year 11 physics and the retention of those students into year 12 physics.
Article
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Este estudio analiza los efectos de la educación diferenciada o la educación mixta sobre la vocación científica y tecnológica de las chicas de secundaria a través de un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple basado en factores actitudinales relacionados con la ciencia, que comprenden un amplio conjunto de variables sobre imagen de la ciencia, la preservación del medio ambiente, las actitudes hacia la ciencia escolar, las experiencias extraescolares y las expectativas sobre el trabajo futuro. Los resultados demuestran la alta capacidad predictiva de las variables actitudinales y se identifican los predictores más significativos y determinantes de la vocación; ambos parámetros discriminan dos patrones voca-cionales de los dos grupos de chicas, según los dos modelos de educación contrastados. Se discuten las implicaciones didácticas de los resultados para la innovación de una educación científica que contribu-ya adecuadamente al desarrollo de las vocaciones científicas en las mujeres. Palabras clave: Vocaciones científicas, Carrera académica, Expectativas laborales, Mujeres y educación científica, Educación diferenciada, Educación mixta. La elección vocacional o de carrera está deter-minada por múltiples y complejas influencias, desde las cualidades personales hasta el contex-to social, como indica el reparto sistemática-mente desigual de las estadísticas de carreras y profesiones entre grupos según sexo, etnia o clase social (Fouad, 2007). En el caso del sexo, los estereotipos sociales actúan mayoritaria-mente empujando a las mujeres hacia estudios y profesiones catalogados como femeninos (enfermería, magisterio, pedagogía, psicología, filología, etc.), mientras son excluidas de otros, estereotipados socialmente como masculinos (Zamora, 2004), entre los cuales destacan los relacionados con la ciencia y la tecnología (en adelante, CyT). Aún hoy, las mujeres tienen una probabilidad de ingresar en una carrera femenina tradicional mucho mayor que la de culminar una carrera no tradicional de muje-res, como es el caso de CyT; en estas últimas, además, las tasas de abandono de mujeres son más altas (Mau, 2003).
Article
The masculinity of science can be studied as a topic in the cultural reproduction of gender. In this paper four distinct, but not necessarily contradictory, accounts of the way in which science comes to be seen as a masculine subject are examined. It is argued that schools could play a transformative, rather than a reproductive, role in the formation of gender identities.
Article
Two thousand and sixty‐five 11‐year‐olds in their first term at secondary school were given a variety of attitude and achievement tests. Overall both girls and boys had positive attitudes to science but there were substantial sex differences‐‐boys were much keener than girls to learn about physical science, and girls were keener than boys to learn about nature study and human biology. Boys had much greater experience than girls of tinkering activities, but girls had more experience of biological science activities. Boys were much more likely than girls to see science as a masculine preserve. At this age attitudes to science were virtually unrelated to achievement in science‐ and technology‐related areas. One important exception to this is that girls who saw science as masculine tended to perform worse on the cognitive tests.
Article
Groups of 11‐year‐olds in their first term at secondary school were given three cognitive tests. Girls and boys were found to be approximately equal in science knowledge. Boys did slightly better on tests of physical science, especially when these were in multiple choice form, but otherwise there were few sex differences. Neither the style of the question (multiple choice or structured) nor the content (feminine or masculine) had any great effect on sex differences in performance. However, boys performed markedly better than girls on tests of spatial ability and mechanical reasoning. These skills may be important for later success in technical studies at school.
Article
Girls into Science and Technology (GIST) is an action research project both researching and seeking to reduce female under achievement in science and technology. Techniques of classroom observation were used as a device to increase teachers’ awareness of the variable participation of girls and boys in science and craft lessons. With observer feedback, teachers managed to shift the balance of teacher‐pupil interaction towards greater equality. However, some teachers feel their efforts may be disadvantaging boys in the class. Observations also revealed that boys’ confident assumption of the lion's share of both teacher's attention and the available resources pre‐empted girls’ ability to establish a firm foothold in these ‘masculine’ subject areas. The work indicates that, while classroom patterns of sex differentiation are not unchangeable, considerable efforts may be required to achieve the balanced participation of girls, particularly in respect of those patterns of interaction initiated by pupils.
Article
Describes current efforts of a project designed to improve girls' attitudes toward physical science and craft subjects and to elect more science classes, including raising teachers' awareness of girls' underachievement, testing attitudes/knowledge for later comparison, and arranging school visits by working women to act as role models. (JN)
Article
The evidence suggests that children in their first year of comprehensive school education in physics and biology did not display any increase in their interest in these subjects during the academic year. This is seen as particularly problematic for girls since they have, in any case, a low expectation in physics at the beginning of the year which was not affected by a year's experience in science.
Article
A range of attitude, achievement and sex stereotyping tests were administered to 11-year-old children in their first term at comprehensive school. The boys were found to be markedly more sex-stereotyped than the girls. Able girls and those from middle class homes were slightly less sex-stereotyped than others. For both sexes a feminine self-image was weakly linked to low academic achievement, and a masculine self-image to high achievement. Children who endorsed sex stereotypes showed less interest than other children in learning about the areas of science traditionally associated with the opposite sex.
Article
An analysis of the 1976-1977 NAEP survey of science attitudes showed that, by age nine, females, although expressing similar or greater desires to participate in science activities, had consistently fewer experiences in science than boys of the same age. Science activities surveyed included use of common experimental materials and instruments, observation of scientific phenomena, and field trips. At ages 13 and 17, girls again reported fewer classroom and extracurricular science activities than boys. Their responses indicated narrow perceptions of science and of the usefulness of scientific research. In addition, they displayed generally negative attitudes toward science classes and careers. Suggestions to eliminate the inequalities found are offered.
An Investigation of the Attitudes to School, Science and Science Lessons of 10-13 Year Old Children
  • A J Goodwin
  • B Hardiman
GOODWIN, A. J., HARDIMAN, B. and REES, V. 1981, An Investigation of the Attitudes to School, Science and Science Lessons of 10-13 Year Old Children. Mimeo (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester).
Consequences for science education based on the results of girls' learning interest. Paper presented at 1st GASAT Conference The disadvantaged majority: Science education for women and minorities
  • L Hoffmann
  • Holland
  • J B Kahle
HOFFMANN, L. 1981, Consequences for science education based on the results of girls' learning interest. Paper presented at 1st GASAT Conference, Eindhoven, Holland. KAHLE, J. B. 1982, The disadvantaged majority: Science education for women and minorities. In J. Head (ed.), Science Education for the Citizen (Chelsea College, London).
GIST or PIST: Teacher Perceptions of the Project Girls Into Science and Technology
  • G Payne
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