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The article discusses the recent transformation of the Russian system of urban planning from the socialist system to a market one. The focus is on new problems of the Russian planning system, the relationship between the new and old systems, and the role of the bureaucracy and participation. A case study of the city of Moscow develops the subject at a metropolitan level. It is argued that Russian planning in transition has been planning in crisis and it is only now becoming an effective and pluralistic social institution. The recent revival of planning has been much dependent on Russia's regions; a diversification of planning systems throughout the country is expected.
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... The 'no planning period on the background of fast economic growth provoked many urban issues existing in the contemporary Russian cities, such as unplanned urban sprawl, chaotic land use, insufficient or ineffective transport, and engineering infrastructure. Urban planning legislation in new Russian history was created from zero (Golubchikov, 2004); it is still in the process of transition and is characterized by many shortcomings. At the same time, several new state initiatives influencing urban development are presented, among which a new housing strategy and two national priority projects -on the comfortable urban environment and smart cities. ...
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This paper aims to synthesize the results of the two-year experience in the implementation of the decision support system for urban development. CRISALIDE project (City Replicable and Integrated Smart Actions Leading Innovation to Develop Urban Economies) started in October 2018 and was one of the very few projects financed between E.U. and Russian Federation through the ERA-NET RUS PLUS (ENRP) program. It was also the only financed project in ENRP dealing with urban planning topics in this current E.U. programming period (2013-2020). The project became possible due to the rising requests for innovations in urban life resulted in a noticeable shift in a political discourse towards the innovative ICT-led economy, the new digital technologies, and the smart city policy in Russia. Though new initiatives seem too focused on technological solutions and lack a comprehensive understanding of smart development, they provoke the appearance of public discussions of the mentioned issues in cities, which themselves are the ecosystems for developing innovation. The missing components might be provided from the bottom level by using the place-based approach and implementing smart planning tools responding to the wicked local problems. This assumption lies in the basis of the CRISALIDE project aiming at bringing together technological, social, and organizational innovations. CRISALIDE was experimenting in the Russian city Rostov-on-Don through a collaborative approach involving E.U. and Russian researchers, creating an innovative digital platform to facilitate the renewal and regeneration of brownfields. The first selected experimental field was the area of the old airport relocated outside of the city. Attracting notable attention from different local and regional actors due to its size, location, marketing potential, and regional significance, the selected brownfield helped involve local experts, activists, and policy-makers to develop an innovation tool and raise a public discussion on urban development. A series of consortium events, new collaborations, and discussions became essential for designing future development scenarios. CRISALIDE system has an open, flexible structure based on urban ontology. It is a variant of artificial intelligence and will serve diverse issues in different cities. Oriented towards support in three main activities in urban development-new construction, reconstruction, and services provision-the system functions in three different modes. Three modes allow implementing required levels of public participation: from the internal communication within city administration to the public discussion involving all citizens.
... The system of spatial planning after the transition period of the 1990s is a mixture of traditional socialist institutions and imported Western ones that "coexist and conflict with each other" 5 . Contemporary spatial planning system in Russia has developed in the mid-2000s as a part of a wider process of reforms and resulted in a new urban planning code adoption in 2004. ...
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This paper discusses the recent introduction of master planning tool in the Russian system of urban planning. Public authorities claim that under obsolescence and rigidity of the existing system of spatial planning master plans should become an effective solution for urban growth and development. Despite all the attention, published master plans have an unclear legal status and their introduction often results in some degree of overlap and blurring with existing spatial development institutions. The research critically examines i) how master plans are (not?) being incorporated in existing urban planning institutes ii) the reasons of master planning practice emergence. Going beyond transitional frameworks, the study discusses institutional change in urban planning in a post-socialist city.
... It had not achieved the same public status as it has today. Masterplans and strategies for urban development, created by state-employed public planners, were not widely discussed in public (Golubchikov, 2004). Over the last two decades, however, private individual actors and companies entered the scene of urban consultancy in cities across Russia, including Moscow. ...
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Over the past decade, a tide of financial analyses has washed over the African continent. These reports by international consultancy firms predict fundamental economic transformation, or “Africa Rising,” a slogan that signifies an emergent middle class and investment-ready domestic consumer markets. However, in promoting the Africa Rising narrative, the consultancy firms also have directed attention to the role of the private sector for public financing. This chapter illustrates that process through a specific example: the securitization of remittances. By recasting remittances as future flow receivables, African states claim increased foreign exchange reserves and thus improve sovereign credit ratings. This financial technique allows governments to access foreign capital markets by issuing sovereign bonds based on asset-backed securities, thus bypassing channels of public credit, such as multilateral foreign aid. The international consultancies serve as intermediaries in this network of migrants, local development banks, and international institutional investors, leading to new forms of debt-financing.
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This paper aims to portray how different art movements influenced the building of a Soviet “Socialist” City. State Socialism paved and unique way for City planning whilst promoting the rational and utilitarian use of any resources available. The evolution can be characterised based on the Central power cycle of the Soviet Union. However, the “functional” form remained the primary goal over the start and demise of the Soviet Union. In an overall context. Each design principle revolved around the housing units which could be modular and be replicated with need. Based on that with time different concepts like micro districts and self-sufficient neighbourhoods came into being
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explain the impact of spatial planning regulations in the development of hotels in Bali, particularly as regards environmental damage. It then analyzes the factors that cause spatial planning to fail to prevent environmental damage. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on both fieldwork and library research, and a broadly socio-legal approach is adopted, involving a combination of doctrinal research and empirical legal method. Findings This paper finds that interrelated legal, political and economic factors contribute to this failure, including conflicting regulations on the review and amendment of spatial plans, the pursuance of economic enrichment and an unsustainable approach to economic development. Although some or even all of these factors may have seemed obvious from the start, because they are common causes of regulatory failure, this paper demonstrates empirically that they are exacerbated and made more challenging because of the interrelationship between legal, political and economic factors. Research limitations/implications Given the existence of intertwined legal, political and economic factors behind the regulatory failure of spatial planning, more studies need to be undertaken to restore spatial planning objectives as a means of preventing tourism projects in Bali from damaging the environment. Originality/value The author proposes a reform to make spatial planning regulations more effective, particularly in preventing environmental damage by tourism projects.
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Москва, будучи одним из крупнейших мегаполисов Европы и мира, в последние 30 лет прошла длинный путь трансформации от столицы коммунистического государства до глобального капиталистического города, одной из крупнейших городских экономик европейского континента. Постсоциалистический транзит городского пространства, очевидно, еще не закончился, а наследие градостроительной политики советского прошлого еще долгое время будет определять облик города. В фокусе внимания авторов — проблема того, что неравенство в городе влияет на качество городской среды и жизненные шансы горожан, особенно тех, кто проживает на сегрегированных или периферийных территориях. Они исходят из гипотезы, что современная Москва наследует и закрепляет сложившиеся в социалистическом прошлом паттерны пространственного неравенства. Для проверки выдвинутой гипотезы был поставлен исследовательский вопрос: «Как структурированы пространства неравенства в Москве?». Методология исследования основана на пространственном анализе данных (демографической статистики жилых домов Москвы и сведений об объектах коммерческой застройки, размещении объектов обслуживания, стоимости жилой недвижимости, а также исторической статистики). В результате исследования выделены кластеры пространственного неравенства Москвы, проведена оценка качества городской среды в этих кластерах, дана их сравнительная оценка. Анализ демографической статистики позволил выявить паттерны расселения профессиональных групп: учителей, врачей, деятелей культуры, работников ЖКХ и транспорта. Сопоставление современных данных с исторической статистикой показало наличие еще с советского периода устойчивых паттернов разделения города на центр-периферию, обусловленных пространственной организацией города. Авторы также выявили существование значимой срединной зоны города, которая по качеству среды хоть и уступает центру, но превосходит периферию, представленную позднесоветской микрорайонной застройкой. При этом пятиэтажный жилой фонд, который расположен как в периферийной части Москвы, так и в срединной части города, отличается от более поздних микрорайонов более качественной городской средой.
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The research question of this paper is what mechanisms, what governance models and in what ratio new urban policy is realizing. There are two hypotheses: 1) balanced implementation of various governance models – hierarchical or command, market and network; 2) Improving the physical condition of cities, and not solving social problems. The main method is the reconstruction of the national urban policy in Russia based on the analysis of planning documents. Such methods as institutional analysis, network analysis are auxiliary in this work. Research results include some statements. The predominance of a market model aimed at competition between performers for limited resources: cities, regions, ministries, state corporations. All models (types) of metagovernance are presented in national urban policy. Urban policy in Russia is characterized by the widespread introduction of indicative indicators and an indicative approach in general. The opportunities that the new stage of state policy opens lie in the field of problematization, coordination, and interaction of different actors. Public investments and elements of public entrepreneurship bear the risks of the "investment for investment's sake" practice. The main principal conclusion is that reforms in the field of urban development do not affect the foundations of urban governance, stakeholder interactions, local democracy, social justice, and equality. Reforms change technologies, improve the environment, but not the established status quo. The key difference between the current stage of the national urban policy and the previous one is the active involvement of state development corporations in the policy implementation. The project approach in governance of urban development has become dominant. Agglomeration turn is an attempt to solve multilevel governance challenge in Russian cities. Modern Russian urban policy can be characterized as an amazing mixture of state capitalism and neoliberal practices.
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The article presents the necessity to perform reliability evaluation of railway traction system with respect to the current status and plans for further development of high-speed railways in Russia. Basing on the statistical data provided on failures for various units of electric trains, the traction system was selected. A complex analysis of the traction system was carried out, and a model for the interconnection of system components was compiled. The reliability chart of traction system of the high-speed train was constructed based on the FMEA modelling approach using TARAS software. The calculation has resulted in a total failure rate of the system equal to 4,46% or 580 hours of suspended operation of the train. Also, the most vulnerable element of the traction system was identified-a traction system motor. Based on these outcomes a set of recommendations has been made in order to increase the performance efficiency of the high-speed trains.
Chapter
In Russia, urban development has gained importance as aspect of urban policy in the last decade. This change has been facilitated by Moscow-based consultancies on urban development and planning. These firms get increasingly influential. The chapter focuses on the restricted access to advising on cities and urban development and how particularly an approved class of specialists, mostly working as small-size consultancies, achieve this access. Tracing the process of creating such “boutique consultancy” firms and gaining advisory power, my analysis shows the prevalence of personal trust over the importance of professional organizations or public reputations.
Book
The book examines spatial planning in the USSR in relation to settlement, urban spaces, industry, agriculture, the environment and regions.
Article
Soviet planning is strongly normative and each of the republics and regional, city and district Soviets lay down a series of guidelines and norms to which urban plans and development decisions are expected to conform. Development is then left in the hands of socialist organisations, cooperatives and individuals who may apply for the right to use land but not to own it. However, this national pattern is often contradicted by powerful directives from the centre. -A.Gilg
Article
The following papers were contributed by the Urban and Regional Planning Working Group: urban planning experiences of the city of Edmonton; climatic considerations in urban and regional planning; regional planning and climatological impacts and climate and planning; the need for practical techniques. The Rapporteur's summary concludes the section.- David G. Tout
Chapter
The Nature of the Transition and the Significance of Cities in itSocialist Urbanization and the Transition in ContextState Socialist Cities and RegionsCities in the Transition: Housing and Land PrivatizationThe Emergent Capitalist City: A German Case StudyThe New Politics: Urban Social Movements and NationalismCities After SocialismNotes